Military Review

Vindolanda: Roman soldiers lived here

70
Vindolanda: Roman soldiers lived here

Here are the shoes worn by the Romans at the beginning of a new era. Vindoland Museum


We live in fortification
We eat bread and drink water;
And how fierce enemies
They will come to us for pies,
Let's ask the guests a revel:
We load the buckshot gun.
A.S. Pushkin. Captain's daughter


Museums of the world. Vindolanda is an ancient Roman military camp in the north-east of England, near Val Hadrian. " It was built around 85 AD e. and lasted until 370 AD The camp garrison guarded the Roman Steyngate road from the Tyne River to Solway Firth, which connected the Roman settlement of Luguvalium (modern Carlisle) and the Coria military camp (modern Corbridge). Many similar military camps along the wall have been discovered, many of them also turned into museums. But Vindolanda is known primarily for the fact that unique wooden tablets were found here, which turned out to be the oldest written documents found at that time in the UK (only in 2013 more ancient Roman tablets were found in London). And today our story will go about this interesting place.


This is what the ruins of a Roman camp look like

But it was so that when the Romans, moving farther north, reached the border with Scotland, they realized that there was no point in going further. There were only completely wild picts, to win which there was no point. Therefore, it was decided to fence off them with a wall. And such a wall, named in honor of the emperor, the wall of Hadrian, was built. Somewhere from a stone with towers and buttresses, somewhere in the form of an earthen rampart lined with turf, it crossed the northern part of Britain at its narrowest point, from Carlisle to Newcastle, and had a total length of 117,5 km. Over its entire length 150 towers, 80 watch posts and 17 large forts were erected, in which the Roman legions or parts of the allies were quartered.


Here they are, picts, maliciously attacking the Roman military post. Fig. Angus McBride

One of these forts (in fact, it was a camp, a typical camp of the Roman legion) was Vindolanda, built, by the way, long before the wall, namely around 85 CE, while the wall began to be built only in 122 year.

A moat and a shaft, fortified with turf, in the shape of a rectangle, where there were leather tents - one for 10 people. But later the camp was rebuilt and expanded, and the tents were first replaced with wooden barracks, then with stone barracks (from the second half of the II century). They built camps and lived in it auxiliaries - auxiliary units of the Roman army, which the Romans recruited from the inhabitants of the conquered peoples, promising them Roman citizenship for this.


Vindolanda Plan

The earliest Roman forts in Vindoland were built of wood and turf, and their remains today are buried at a depth of four meters in anoxic swampy soil. There are five wooden forts built (and destroyed) one after another. The first, small fort was probably built by the 1st Tungrian cohort around 85 A.D. Around 95 AD it was replaced by a larger, already wooden fort built by the 9th Batavian cohort - a mixed infantry-cavalry unit numbering about 1000 people. This fort was renovated around 100 AD by the Roman prefect Flavius ​​Cerialis. When the 9th cohort of the Batavians in 105 AD e. left the fort, it was destroyed. But then the 1st Tungrian cohort returned to Vindolanda, built a large wooden fortress there and remained in it until about 122 AD Adrian’s wall was not built, after which it was most likely moved to Verkovicium (Fort Housteds). Since 213 A.D. Here was the fourth equestrian cohort of Gauls. The total number of the camp garrison at that time also reached about 1000 people.


Life in the barracks of the auxiliaries. OK. 90 AD Fig. Angus McBride

View of the settlement from above. The camp itself (and this is very clearly visible) is surrounded by a wall with rounded corners. On both sides of the gate are towers. Down in the center are therms.

When in 122–128 AD one and a half kilometers north of Vindolanda, the wall of Hadrian was erected, and a civilian settlement appeared next to the camp walls - Vicus, most likely consisting of merchants and artisans, supplying the garrison with the necessary products and various products. Also, two whole bath complexes were built with the camp, which is not surprising if we recall the love of the Romans for cleanliness.


Excavation aerial view

The later stone fort and the surrounding village remained in operation until around 285, when they were abandoned for an unknown reason. True, the fort was rebuilt around 300, but people didn’t return to the settlement next to it. Around the year 370, the fortress was last renovated, but even after the Romans left Britain in 410, the camp was still inhabited. They finally abandoned it only around 900 years - that's how long this place served people as a place of residence. It was even mentioned in Notitia Dignitatum (late IV or early V century), as well as in the "Ravenna Cosmography" (c. 700). But then they completely forgot about him, so the first post-Roman mention of the ruins there was made only in 1586 by the antiquarian William Camden in his composition "Britain".


Granary. At that time it was a real paradise for mice!


Remnants of the principle

When someone named Christopher Hunter visited this place in 1702, the baths still retained the roof. Then in 1715 an excise officer named John Warburton found an altar in the camp, but decided to liquidate it. Finally, in 1814, the first real archaeological excavations were begun by the Rev. Anthony Headley in Vindoland. Hadley died in 1835, after which they again stopped digging until 1914, when another altar was found, confirming that the Roman name of this place was Vindolanda, which had previously been the subject of controversy.


Wooden plate number 291


Wooden plate number 309

In the III century, the camp had the shape of a rectangle measuring 155 × 100 meters, which was surrounded by a stone wall with rounded corners. There were four gates to each side of the world. In the center of the camp was a square house in plan - principles (headquarters building), and to the left and right of it stood a horreum (granary) and praetorium (the house of the military leader). The rest of the territory was occupied by barracks. But in the camp there was still enough space for the temple of Jupiter Dolichen, and in the corner opposite from it - for the water tank.


Not a museum, but just a shoe store!

And there would be nothing particularly interesting in all of this - well, think of it, another fort of seventeen, if not for the unique properties of the local moist clay soil. We have similar soil found in Veliky Novgorod, and there it has preserved birch bark letters for us. But in Vindoland, thanks to the same soil, organic materials such as wood, leather and fabric were preserved, which in other conditions would have simply decayed. And here, too, ancient letters were found, not on birch bark, but on wooden tablets!


Equipment of the horseman (left) and infantryman (right)

The first such tablets were found here in 1973, and they were written in coal ink. Most tablets belong to the end of I - beginning of II century. AD, that is, the reign of the emperors Nerva and Trajan. The importance of this discovery can hardly be overestimated, because they describe the everyday life of the whole Roman camp, which cannot be read about in any philosophical treatises. Moreover, these tablets turned out to be a lot. By 2010, 752 tablets were deciphered and published, and even more were found. Today it can be said the oldest writings in the UK, which are now not even stored in the local museum, but in the British Museum in London.


Comb on the helmet. Mounted across the dome

As for the contingent of the Roman army located in the camp, its garrison consisted of both infantry and the cavalry of the auxiriaries, and not actually of the Roman legionnaires. Since the beginning of the third century, Equitata Cohors IV Gallorum (Fourth Gauls Cohort) has been based here. It was believed that this name by this time was already purely nominal, and who they just couldn’t recruit in the auxiliary troops, but not so long ago during the excavations they found an inscription proving that the Gauls were present and that they even liked to be different from the Romans:

CIVES GALLI
De galliae
QUE BRITANNI

Which can be translated as follows: "The troops from Gaul dedicate this statue to the goddess of Gaul with the full support of the British troops."


Centurion of the auxiliary legion (it is clear that reconstruction)

An important role in the excavation of this place was played by the archaeologist Eric Birlie, who bought a house in Chesterholm in the 30s of the XNUMXth century, where the museum is now located, and began to dig up these places, after which this work was continued by his sons and grandson Dr. Andrew Birli.

Excavations are carried out here every summer, with some of the excavations reaching a depth of six meters. In oxygen-free conditions, thousands of artifacts have survived at this depth, starting with the unique wooden tablets we have already named and more than 160 boxwood ridges, which usually break up in the ground, and here they are beautifully preserved. All these "little things in life", however, give specialists the opportunity to get a complete picture of Roman life - both military and civilian, here, on the northern border of the empire. Studying spindles, for example. In the III and IV centuries BC. e. In the vicinity of the fort, spinning was very developed. Well, the findings of the shoes show that there were enough artisans who produced it.


Auxilliary Horseman

They even found here such a unique thing as Roman boxing gloves. They were discovered by a group led by Dr. Andrew Birlie in 2017. According to the Guardian newspaper, these gloves found on Vindoland are similar to modern boxing gloves in almost all respects, although they date back to 120 CE. That is, the Romans, it turns out, were fond of not only gladiatorial battles, but ... also boxing!


Legionnaire (left) and Auxiliaries (right)


Roman chain mail. Found during excavations at Fort Arbeya (located in his museum). The diameter of the rings is 7 mm, the thickness of the rivets is 1 mm. It is known that the early chain mail of the Romans were from flattened rings and therefore were very heavy. In the battle of Lake Trasimen, this led to the mass death of the legionnaires. But later the Romans learned to make chain mail riveted and achieved considerable skill in their production

Here, in the barracks, a large number of artifacts were found, including swords, plaques, textiles, arrowheads and other military supplies. The relative dating of the barracks determined that they were built around 105 AD In the 2014 excavation season, a unique wooden toilet seat was discovered.


But the cuirasses of the commanders of legions, legates, have always been a real work of art. Museum of the Roman Army in Greenhead. You can read more about this in the material. "PR of the ancient shell" on "IN"

In 2011, a museum appeared here - the Chesterholm Museum. A lot of the finds made here are stored and displayed here, although the most valuable and interesting ones fell into the treasury of the British Museum in London. But here you can see a wonderful reconstruction of the ancient Roman temple, as well as a Roman shop, a residential building and even the camp itself, and all these reconstructions are equipped with audio presentations. There are Roman shoes, military equipment, some jewelry and coins found here, photographs of wooden plates and several of these plates themselves, transferred here from the British Museum. The Museum of the Roman Army was also opened in the camp Magnae Carvetiorum (modern Carvoran), and was renovated and equipped with a grant from the Heritage Foundation.


Leather mouse toy and tanning waste

In 1970, the charity Vindolanda Trust was founded to manage the museum and the adjacent territory of the reserve. Since 1997, the trust also runs the Museum of the Roman Army in Carvoran, as well as one fort of the wall of Adrian, which he bought back in 1972.

Thanks to the soil in Vindoland, not only wooden plaques with letters were preserved, but also a mass of leather products. So it is not surprising that her museum includes the largest collection of leather shoes in Roman Britain. We found leather patches, tent covers, horse harness, lots of leather trimmings and wastes. In total, more than 7000 leather items were found, among which one of the latest finds is a completely unusual leather mouse-toy.

Due to the coronavirus epidemic, the museum has recently closed. But his employees continued their work and, above all, decided to make out everything that they simply did not reach their hands before. They took an old bag full of scraps of leather, in which there seemed to be nothing valuable, and when all its contents were shaken up, they found ... a mouse cut out of leather with paws, a tail and marks depicting wool and eyes. What it was, a children's toy or a funny souvenir, we will never know now. But the mouse, here it is, and they did it ... God, how long ago they did it!


Mouse close up

By the way, there really were a lot of mice in the camp. The fact is that under the floor of the granary they found, well, just a lot of their skeletons. The floor was made of stone slabs, but, of course, grains fell into the gap between them, and these mice fed on them. And besides, if there was an equestrian cohort in the camp, then this clearly speaks of feeding horses with oats, and where there is oats for horses, there is a dining room for mice!

Hippos sandals became another completely unique discovery - a metal “shoe” for horse hooves of a rather strange device. These are not horseshoes, the horseshoes the Romans knew, like spurs, but something that could be put on a horse’s hoof and fixed on it. They can be easily carried around and are just as easy to replace. But why they were needed, alas, none of the scientists really knows.


Horse sandals

If horses were put on their horses so that they could ride in them, then there is a danger of damaging their legs when the horse trots or gallops and can touch one foot on the other. Therefore, there is a point of view that this shoe was intended for animals such as oxen, mules and donkeys, that is, slower.

This could be an adaptation in order to hinder horses on grazing: it is enough to put them on, to tie them with a belt, and the horse will not be able to walk widely in them. Perhaps these were some kind of temporary “winter” horseshoes, to put them on ungraced horses, so that they would not slip on the ice. But then what prevented them from merely shoeing? Why did you need to communicate with these "devices"? There is also such a point of view that with their help healing compresses were attached to the hooves. But whether this is so or not, we will most likely never know.


"Join the Roman army!" Vindoland also has its own "circle of interests" of the ancient Roman military orientation!

And in 2018, they found a beautifully made bronze palm resembling a children's one in size. Dr. Andrew Birlie, general manager and excavation director at Vindoland, considered this beautifully preserved artifact to be of cult significance and may belong to the statue of Jupiter Dolichen, whose temple was excavated very close in 2009.


This is what the Roman warriors of the last years of the empire looked like when the Roman legions left Britain. Pay attention to the warrior on the left with the feathered dart in his hand. This is a plumbath - a feathered dart with a lead weighting agent, very dangerous when throwing. Fig. Angus McBride

In general, interesting findings follow one after another, it would be interesting to visit there, and the museum there will not leave indifferent any lovers stories Ancient Rome!

R. S. The VO administration and the author personally thank the Vindoland Museum Directorate and public relations specialist Sonia Gallway for the information and permission to use the museum’s photo materials.
Author:
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Cuirassiers in museums
Enemies of the Cuirassiers
With whom the latniks of the emperor Maximilian fought?
“A small discovery in the butt of an arquebus ...”
Horsemen of the Eighty Years War
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“By people and by horses, not by aer”
Ordonance companies
“It's a miracle if someone is killed with a spear”
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  1. fuxila
    fuxila 14 June 2020 06: 36 New
    +8
    Very interesting! I am fond of ancient history, but did not know anything about this museum. Still surprised by the name of the camp - Vindolanda. At first I thought that it was English, because the translation turns out to be the land of the Vendians, as the Germans called the Baltic Slavs: Vendians or Windows, and their country from Schleswig to the Vistula - Wendland. The Wends participated in the conquest of Britain along with the Angles and Saxons and left their mark on toponymy ... I wonder where did such a strange Roman name come from?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 June 2020 06: 56 New
      +7
      I am joining! Vyacheslav Olegovich, Thanks for the next highlight!
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 14 June 2020 08: 19 New
      -8
      it’s funny how OI keeps his nose in the wind, as soon as they began to criticize the lack of trousers of the cavella on modern images of Roman soldiers, so now they decided to draw Roman horsemen in their pants.
      I remember how heated discussions were about this, traditions fought in the blood claiming that a bare ass on a soared horse is comfortable and in general is such a Roman riding style.
      Soon they will make pictures with stirrups, as without them.

      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 12: 58 New
        11
        Something is nothing this time about Tartaria and falsification, even strange.
        But how, say, from your point of view, the finds from Vindolanda are fakes of the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries. or are the genuine things of the great Russian Tartarians who owned Britain even with mammoths?
        Let me remind you that among household items there were found wooden tablets with legible text in Latin.
        The opinion of a specialist in your face is interesting. smile
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 14 June 2020 14: 21 New
          -6
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Something is nothing this time about Tartaria and falsification, even strange.
          But how, say, from your point of view, the finds from Vindolanda are fakes of the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries. or are the genuine things of the great Russian Tartarians who owned Britain even with mammoths?
          Let me remind you that among household items there were found wooden tablets with legible text in Latin.
          The opinion of a specialist in your face is interesting. smile

          I believe that OI i.e. Carthage must be destroyed.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 14: 29 New
            +9
            The whole world of violence we will destroy
            To the bottom and then ...

            laughing
            Is this your "last and decisive battle"? smile
            And destroying history as a science you will present it to us as a fairy tale ...
            Answer the question? What about the tablets? smile
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 14 June 2020 17: 02 New
              +5
              Dummy tables! Burn it all !!! Together with the Vatican Library! wassat
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 19: 05 New
                +9
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Burn it all !!!

                How can you, Anton!
                The easiest way to burn. But this is not our method. Our method is thorough research.

                Fig. 10. Vindoland plate number 291 and my reading of the top line
                As before, I increase the contrast, but do not increase the size of the plank. However, you can read the implicit text. Academic epigraphy conveys the explicit text as "Claudius of the North invites Sulpice Lepidin to his birthday." And these ink letters are printed on top of the colorful letters of an older text.
                I myself read the older text on the top line like this: on the left fragment: IN YARA TEMPLE OF ARKONA RURIK 30, and on the right fragment - FROM 33 YARA ARKONA. In other words, an older tablet, written in Russian, dates back to Rurik, that is, to the XNUMXth century A.D., and a newer tablet of the Roman stay in Britain - to a later time, probably the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries.
                So, my conclusion is confirmed: not only ancient birch bark letters, but also ancient wooden planks in different countries of the world had an implicit colorful layer, written in Russian by the soldiers of Rurik.

                (c) V.A. Chudinov
                http://chudinov.ru/gramotanovgoroda/3/
                So that. Burn everything to you. Have you tried to think?
                wassat laughing
                But seriously, sometimes it seems to me that these clowns are simply mocking their followers. laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 14 June 2020 19: 21 New
                  +3
                  But seriously, sometimes it seems to me that these clowns are simply mocking their followers.
                  Then what kind of clowns are they? Fallen angels!!! laughing
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 20: 43 New
                    +4
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    what kind of clowns are they?

                    Wicked. By the way, the adherents of these clowns largely repeat their gurus. They are also evil, but plus this is also stupid.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 14 June 2020 20: 52 New
                      +5
                      Adepts and neophytes, in any case, are dumber than the founders, for they would not have become them.
                2. kalibr
                  14 June 2020 20: 21 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  So, my conclusion is confirmed: not only ancient birch bark letters, but also ancient wooden planks in different countries of the world had an implicit colorful layer, written in Russian by the soldiers of Rurik.

                  The diagnosis, however!
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 20: 45 New
                    +5
                    "Chudinov's syndrome". It's time to enter the WHO list of diseases. It is characterized by the fact that even in a pile left on the lawn by his own dog, the patient can see coherent letters. smile
                    1. kalibr
                      14 June 2020 20: 58 New
                      +4
                      There was a case! Comes to my house "interested in history". Bring a lump of skin slightly larger than a peach pit. Tight rolled up ... He says - I read on it that Penza was founded not in 1663, but in 1558 ... I ask, how did you unfold it to read it? And he told me, but I did not unfold it, it's all written on the outside ... As soon as he got rid of him, he sent him to the museum ...
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 13: 21 New
                        +2
                        He says - read on it that Penza was not founded in 1663, but in 1558 ...

                        He analyzed the genotype from the traces of life left on this piece of skin. laughing such a set of genes in Penza was precisely in 1558! wink
      2. kalibr
        14 June 2020 21: 00 New
        +4
        Quote: Bar1
        Soon they will make pictures with stirrups, as without them.

        And what, somewhere found the stirrups of Roman time? Where and when? Somehow I missed ...
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 15 June 2020 08: 44 New
          -1
          Quote: kalibr
          And what, somewhere found the stirrups of Roman time? Where and when? Somehow I missed ...

          Of course, they found the stirrups, because it is impossible to fight on a horse without stirrups, but apparently these stirrups were immediately carried away at another time, as is usual with the OI.
          1. kalibr
            15 June 2020 09: 02 New
            +2
            Quote: Bar1
            Of course, they found the stirrups, because it is impossible to fight on a horse without stirrups, but apparently these stirrups were immediately carried away at another time, as is usual with the OI.

            Quote: Bar1
            Of course, they found the stirrups, because it is impossible to fight on a horse without stirrups, but apparently these stirrups were immediately carried away at another time, as is usual with the OI.

            Well, yes, the spurs of the Roman horsemen were found and carried to the right time, and stirrups ... for some reason to another? And if they are found in one burial, then what's the point? Maybe it’s enough to expose oneself as a laughing stock? And without stirrups, you can ride and ride perfectly ... And there are bas-reliefs depicting such riders even in our Anapa, and in Temryuk, where by the way a gorgeous tombstone with the image of an armored rider without stirrups was found.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 10: 31 New
              0
              Vyacheslav Olegovich, hello! Have a question:
              Equipment of the horseman (left) and infantryman (right)


              Can I understand correctly from the photo that there is a "mask" on the helmet - face protection? It seems that this is not an ordinary man's helmet. what Was he found at the excavation site, or was he in the museum from a private collection? hi
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 15 June 2020 11: 16 New
                +4
                According to experts, these masks have a purely ceremonial significance.
                Where do such conclusions come from? - the mask fits snugly to the face and often there are no openings for breathing
                Riders and centurions had masks. Apparently not all. The Germans dedicated such trophy masks to their gods or drowned in swamps according to their ritual.
                The most famous helmet mask in the best condition now in Damascus
                It is iron, silver plated
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 11: 26 New
                  +2
                  The most famous helmet mask in the best condition now in Damascus
                  It is iron, silver plated

                  whole work of art! Denis, and who was the owner of the helmet? drinks I mean, the warrior of which country, and what kind of troops? hi
                  Riders and centurions had masks. Apparently not all. The Germans dedicated such trophy masks to their gods or drowned in swamps according to their ritual.

                  I just think how she got into this museum (if it's not a remake, of course!). Did anyone lose, and was found ... or did someone donate from his blood-accumulated junk? what the helmet itself also looks more like ceremonial tsatskas of the Renaissance, rather than combat armor. drinks
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 15 June 2020 11: 32 New
                    +2
                    https://balkancelts.wordpress.com/tag/roman-face-helmet/
                    The owner is supposedly an Arabian king or someone from his environment. Found in Homs (Ames)
                    A helmet with a mask is most likely made in the Roman workshops of Antioch.
                    The mask is removed - there is a hinge on the forehead, turning the helmet into a combat
                    The second mask from the link is from the burial of Plovdiv. Lost.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 13: 12 New
                      +2
                      The second mask from the link is from the burial of Plovdiv. Lost.

                      Yes, an interesting sample! drinks now someone keeps it in a private collection, and shows it only to a narrow circle of friends - the same dubious, but rich "collectors" ... request

                      it turns out that only very rich and important people operated on such masks?
                      Then who owns the mask from the fort in Britain? After all, the product is probably a unit ..
                      And the second question: is such a "disguise" a Roman invention, or is it the influence of Greece or the East? drinks
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 15 June 2020 13: 31 New
                        +2
                        only sooo rich and important people operated on such masks?

                        Well, if some centurions could have such masks, then maybe not so rich and important.
                        Let us recall who was sitting in our garrison - a cohort of Batavs and Tungra
                        The garrison commander most likely from the centurions (perhaps primipil) in the status of prefect suitable candidate as for me.
                        The second candidate is the tribunes of angustiklavy, a person from the horseman class who was in charge of various matters, for example, the person responsible for the treasury.
                        Threat exhibits are clearly modern replicas so it is not a fact that they are based on local finds. Perhaps the organizers simply ordered them from the reenactors to show some generalized image of the Roman equipment in which a helmet mask was included to attract attention.
                        Perhaps none of the garrison wore them, and vice versa cursed the posers and majors who flaunted them)
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 13: 42 New
                        0
                        Perhaps the organizers simply ordered them from the reenactors to show some generalized image of the Roman equipment in which a helmet mask was included to attract attention.

                        Well, in our museums such remodels are all the time, so no wonder. hi
                        Let us recall who was sitting in our garrison - a cohort of Batavs and Tungra

                        well ... Well, what a rich and complex history the region has! yes
                        I wish Vyacheslav Olegovich more works on the history of Roman Britain. Maybe he will swing at Adrian's shaft and Val Antonin? Or the early medieval history of Scotland and Ireland. Incl. and fortification. "Round Towers" - why not a topic? drinks
                      3. kalibr
                        15 June 2020 16: 10 New
                        +1
                        Thank you for your wish. There will be a sequel - the Vindovanda Plates "already about the tablets themselves and their texts. As for the" ramparts ", there are many museums along them, but almost everything is the same. Borderlands, outskirts, what to expect?
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 16: 28 New
                        +1
                        Borderland, outskirts, what to expect?

                        as? and battles with the Picts and those who joined them? And the eagle of the Ninth Spanish Legion? And the shaft that "walked back and forth" (I'm talking about the Adrian and Antonin)? And the Roman squadron that circled the north of the future Scotland? Finally, what happened to the Romanized population when the Romans took the legions from there to the continent for their own intra-Roman showdown? request Yes, you write and write! fellow drinks And topics, if that, we will prompt! wink
                      5. kalibr
                        15 June 2020 18: 10 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        as? and battles with the Picts and those who joined them? And the eagle of the Ninth Spanish Legion? And the shaft that "walked back and forth" (I'm talking about the Adrian and Antonin)? And the Roman squadron that circled the north of the future Scotland? Finally, what happened to the Romanized population when the Romans took the legions from there to the continent for their own intra-Roman showdown? Yes, you write and write! And the topics, if anything, we will tell you!

                        I guess, yes. I have already looked at the sites of a number of museums on the wall of Adrian. So the material is also quite interesting.
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 16 June 2020 13: 01 New
                        +1
                        I guess, yes. I have already looked at the sites of a number of museums on the wall of Adrian. So the material is also quite interesting.

                        Vyacheslav Olegovich, I already feel like a kind of Diaghilev. laughing For I play the role of an impressionario. request I can shave my beard, I’ll leave my mustache! stop drinks
                2. Engineer
                  Engineer 15 June 2020 19: 35 New
                  +1
                  I found this helmet
                  In the photo a modern copy of the so-called Ribchester helmet
                  Bronze Ceremonial Helmet 1-2 centuries
                  Stored at the British Museum
                  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribchester_Helmet
                3. kalibr
                  15 June 2020 22: 44 New
                  +2
                  Yes, I had a series of articles here: "The Most Expensive Helmets". There was this helmet and a number of other helmets with masks from the Roman era.
                4. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 16 June 2020 10: 18 New
                  +3
                  Bronze Ceremonial Helmet 1-2 centuries
                  Stored at the British Museum

                  read it and cross it a little with the help of "google" laughing it turns out that in Britain they found three such helmets. Denis, thanks! drinks
            2. kalibr
              15 June 2020 16: 15 New
              +2
              Quote: Engineer
              Perhaps none of the garrison wore them, and vice versa cursed the posers and majors who flaunted them)

              !!!!!!!!!!!!
  2. kalibr
    15 June 2020 15: 54 New
    +1
    This is just the question I cannot answer. The fact that the helmet of the rider could not belong to a simple person, all the more so this is a fact.
    But where is he from? I'll try to find out ...
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 15: 57 New
      +1
      But where is he from? I'll try to find out ...

      As Sherlock Holmes said: "So, start studying other people's genealogies ..." wink
      See, what is the use of the VO forum! drinks
  • Bar1
    Bar1 15 June 2020 19: 36 New
    -1
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: Bar1
    Of course, they found the stirrups, because it is impossible to fight on a horse without stirrups, but apparently these stirrups were immediately carried away at another time, as is usual with the OI.

    Quote: Bar1
    Of course, they found the stirrups, because it is impossible to fight on a horse without stirrups, but apparently these stirrups were immediately carried away at another time, as is usual with the OI.

    Well, yes, the spurs of the Roman horsemen were found and carried to the right time, and stirrups ... for some reason to another? And if they are found in one burial, then what's the point? Maybe it’s enough to expose oneself as a laughing stock? And without stirrups, you can ride and ride perfectly ... And there are bas-reliefs depicting such riders even in our Anapa, and in Temryuk, where by the way a gorgeous tombstone with the image of an armored rider without stirrups was found.

    it’s a laughing stock of you for a long time with your bras, causing unhealthy excitement among the local public.
    As for the stirrups, then you certainly can not prove it.
    1. kalibr
      16 June 2020 15: 18 New
      +2
      Quote: Bar1
      unhealthy excitement in the local public.
      As for the stirrups, then you certainly can not prove it.

      The excitement is never unhealthy, chop on the nose.
      As for the stirrups, show me at least one stirrup of Roman time. But spurs of Roman time exist.
    2. kalibr
      16 June 2020 15: 25 New
      +2
      In 1953 a bronze prick-spur was found without other remains, at a depth of about 2 ft. on Cleave Hill, in the parish of Longstock, Hants (no. 17, fig. 1, pl. XIV). The finder, Mr. J. Chandler, presented it to the Salisbury Museum (ace. 21/54) and it is recorded and illustrated in the Museum's Annual Report (1955), p. 11 pl. 1a.
      It is of extremely delicate manufacture, and the riveted prick appears to be ornamental rather than useful. It is also ornamented with a row of dots in circles round the heel, and these are enclosed in expanding lines all engraved in the bronze. The edges are lightly serrated. The arms are engraved with a spiral line, which seems to imitate the leather binding of some rougher iron prototype. Delicate bronze rings, attached to the loops, have flattened ends which are pressed together and probably once held a light leather strap, though the bronze has broken away leaving only parts of the rivet holes. There are few ornamental features from which to date this spur, but according to Jahn's typology it should fall within the first Century AD
      https://doi.org/10.1017/S000358150008361XPublished online by Cambridge University Press: 29 November 2011
  • Cetron
    Cetron 14 June 2020 09: 36 New
    +4
    Not only before the Vistula: the German name of Wetspils in Latvia is Windau, and Cesis is Wenden. And in Estonian, Russia is Venedi.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 14 June 2020 10: 13 New
    +3
    The toponym is quite a Celtic according to Vicki
    British windo- 'fair, white, blessed', landa 'enclosure / meadow / prairie / grassy plain' (the modern Welsh word would be something like gwynlan, and the modern Gaelic word fionnlann

    But it sounds very German. In my opinion, far from linguistics
  • Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 14 June 2020 06: 39 New
    +7
    Thanks to the author. These articles make VO an interesting site. hi
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 June 2020 07: 10 New
    +5
    Here are the shoes worn by the Romans of the beginning of a new era


    That's what genuine leather means - 2000 years, and everything is like new.

    This is what the ruins of a Roman camp look like


    The strip foundation looks quite modern and does not pull on the ruins, even though now build walls!
    They built for millennia.

    Equipment of the horseman (left) and infantryman (right)

    Is the sculptural head in the middle original or a mannequin?

    "Join the Roman army!" Vindoland also has its own "circle of interests" of the ancient Roman military orientation!

    they would have to remove modern beer bellies first!

    And then the funny legionnaires came to the photo ..

    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you hi We are waiting for the promised articles on topics closer to the present!
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 14 June 2020 08: 11 New
      +3
      Better antiquity bigger and different)
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 12: 45 New
        +5
        Quote: Deniska999
        Better antiquity bigger and different)

        I agree.
        In modern times, politicians immediately attack and arrange fecal throwing at each other, at the author and at all who stick out with their opinion. Antiquity and the Middle Ages are somehow better, dearer. Then some freak will pop up sometimes, maybe two, maximum three, will entertain the audience, and the rest of the time you can calmly and measuredly in a friendly atmosphere discuss the topic or just talk.
        Sometimes I just want to tell the author:
        Dear Vyacheslav Olegovich!
        Return to what you are loved and appreciated here - to calmly and benevolently cover interesting historical issues, to unannounced and unexpected topics - you are very good at finding and expanding them into entire cycles of articles that many here read with pleasure. Are the cliques (in all senses of the word) of local warhamsters so important to you?
        1. kalibr
          14 June 2020 20: 19 New
          +4
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Are the cliques (in all senses of the word) of local warhamsters so important to you?

          Not for me! But for the site, they matter. And views and comments are all, sorry, "goods". A product that can be "exchanged" for advertising. You cannot earn a lot for 20% of readers, even if they are smart, educated, friendly ... 80% - this is the main object of advertising for all salesmen, without exception. And it is necessary to both reckon with this and treat it with understanding.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 14 June 2020 20: 39 New
            +4
            Yes, with understanding, Vyacheslav Olegovich, honestly. smile
            Therefore, I wrote:
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Sometimes I just want to tell the author:

            smile
            The costs of capitalism, nothing can be done.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 14 June 2020 20: 56 New
          +3
          run over politicians
          Our comrade Artem uses a wonderful term: "politota".
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 14 June 2020 08: 37 New
      +4
      We are waiting for the promised articles on topics closer to the present!
      Published in service.
    3. Engineer
      Engineer 14 June 2020 11: 41 New
      +3
      Is the sculptural head in the middle original or a mannequin?

      This is not a sculpture, this is a ceremonial helmet mask
      All exhibits in this photo reconstruction are visible from the state of the same chain mail.
      Original masks could be made of silver
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 June 2020 14: 22 New
        -1
        Quote: Engineer
        This is not a sculpture, this is a ceremonial helmet mask


        Mask with ... ears?
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 14 June 2020 16: 54 New
          +2
          Mask with ears. It happens
  • Liam
    Liam 14 June 2020 07: 29 New
    +2
    Another completely unique discovery was hippo sandals.

    This discovery is not unique. There are quite a lot of hippo sandals in different museums.

    https://www.roma-victrix.com/summa-divisio/armamentarium/instrvmenta-varia/equorum-soleae.html
  • Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 14 June 2020 07: 33 New
    +5
    Very interesting! Thank!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 14 June 2020 08: 18 New
    +4
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    Interested in shoes. Classical caligi are probably a thing of the past. Or it is a tribute to the weather conditions of the region.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 14 June 2020 09: 20 New
      +5
      Caligula compromised?
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 15 June 2020 11: 07 New
        +2
        Caligula compromised

        Heliogabal! laughing joke... drinks
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 14 June 2020 09: 26 New
    +4
    Thank. The art book at one time came across “The Rebellious Daughter of Rome”. And here as an illustration to her.
  • Doctor230281
    Doctor230281 14 June 2020 09: 31 New
    +2
    Thanks to the author!
  • bamu
    bamu 14 June 2020 10: 07 New
    +2
    Thanks, very interesting!!!
  • Engineer
    Engineer 14 June 2020 10: 19 New
    +3
    Good review and educational article
    By the way, during the excavation of one of the Roman forts in Britain in one of the household buildings, a skeleton was found below the floor. Did someone hide the traces of the crime? Unfortunately, the antique detective could not be unraveled
  • Operator
    Operator 14 June 2020 11: 45 New
    -1
    Since the Roman conquest of the British Isles, local residents - the Celts - have developed a persistent Stockholm syndrome: association with the conquerors (Romans, Scandinavians, Normans).

    As a result, the inhabitants of the islands (who have been genetically stable for the last 4000 years) have already changed their language and cultural code three times (from Celtic to Roman, from Roman to Anglo-Saxon, from Anglo-Saxon to Norman).

    What can be compared only with the fact that if the Slavs would have switched to the Turkic language and created fan clubs of the Tatar-Mongol army.

    Judging by the British spring and the fall of monuments, local residents are eager to once again change the cultural code from Norman to West Indian bully
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 14 June 2020 21: 14 New
      -1
      Nothing strange the Romans were where the development of the Celts, of course they took a lot from them
      1. Operator
        Operator 14 June 2020 21: 39 New
        +1
        And the Scandinavians Anga and Saxons were even higher in development than the Romans? bully

        In a civilizational sense, the Byzantines were higher than the Rus at the time of the last adoption of Christianity, but the Rus were not assimilated by the Byzantines in linguistic and cultural terms. Therefore, Russians do not drool over the arming of the Byzantines, Turks and other pretenders to colonize our country (with the exception of some victims of the Stockholm syndrome).

        The Romans broke the back of the British Celts as a cultural-linguistic community, after which the Britons began to fan from each of their next colonizers (masochism, however).
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 14 June 2020 21: 41 New
          +1
          Russia adopted a lot from the Byzantines, including religion
          1. Operator
            Operator 14 June 2020 21: 44 New
            +1
            In addition to its ethnic identity, of course.
        2. hjvtp1966
          hjvtp1966 15 June 2020 21: 51 New
          0
          And they call you "the primordially Slavic name" Andrei, and you write this text in primordial Slavic runes and not based on the Greek alphabet, and baptized you according to a non-Greek rite. It's just that you just as naturally perceived this cultural format from your ancestors in childhood, as the British did theirs, without thinking that the ancestors were mentally completely different. With all due respect ...
          1. Operator
            Operator 15 June 2020 22: 37 New
            0
            Culture is not limited to names, alphabet and religion. Customs, morality and historical memory play a very important role - see, for example, "The Lay of Igor's Host".

            Moreover, the ethnos is defined as a cultural and linguistic community, and the Russians all the way speak in their native language, which was spoken by their ancestors, the Aryans (dialect of Sanskrit). Moreover, the syntax of our language formed the basis of all Indo-European languages, including the language of the Greeks (whose native language was Berber) and the Romans (the former Basque-speaking Latins). In addition to our syntax, the Latin language contains several hundred Sanskrit words such as moon, spin, nova, mare (sea), mi (we), the ending "and" of plural nouns, etc.

            The British changed their language three times over 4000 years: from Basque to a hybrid of Basque and Sanskrit (Celtic), then to a double hybrid of the previous one with Scandinavian (Anglo-Saxon) and polished all this vinaigrette with a triple hybrid of Germanic (Frankish) with Latinized Celtic (Galician) .

            But the most important thing is that Russian culture and language developed according to their internal rules, and each time the conquerors forcibly assimilated the British culturally and linguistically. What is different is love by consent and rape.
  • Crane
    Crane 15 June 2020 15: 46 New
    +1
    The mouse, it seems to me, looks more like a lizard.
    Did the Romans have right / left shoes?
    1. kalibr
      15 June 2020 16: 11 New
      0
      Kaligi sandals - definitely left-right ...
  • Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 15 June 2020 15: 53 New
    +1
    Interesting article. Thank!
    Buttresses as building elements appeared in the Middle Ages, representing vertical supports (supports) from the external walls of buildings as part of a wall or a separate support. An example is Notre Dame Cathedral, arches are based on them.
    As a military engineering structure, buttresses are used as a protective structure on the outside of the walls when using artillery in a siege (assault), and also for quick repair of walls.
    In the photo of the chain mail found, the comment that the early Roman chain mail with collapsed rings is heavier than the chain mail with riveted rings. It is not clear ... For chain mail with an inner diameter of the ring 7
    mm, a ring thickness of slightly less than 2 mm is considered optimal in terms of flexibility and protective properties.
    At Corbridge, in 1964, pieces of the Lorica Segmentata armor were also found. It is believed that in addition to auxiliary troops, legionaries also wore chain mail (lorika hamata).
    Regarding hipposandals, they most likely have not everyday but ritual purposes. The easiest way to limit the horse’s movement (to hitchhiking) is to confuse the front legs with a leather strap (horsehair rope) around your legs with an eight. This method has been used for more than one millennium.