Military Review

Illegal borrowing. Intelligence and Soviet tank building

64

It is possible that intelligence delivered information on foreign tanks in this form. In the photo, one of the options for Renault ZM Source: warspot.ru


Extractive organs


Soviet Russia of the 30s only embarked on the path of industrialization, experienced a shortage of both material and highly qualified labor resources. However, the understanding that everyone was building up military potential around made it necessary to develop their own military equipment in all possible ways and in spite of everything. One of the most important roles in this was played by domestic intelligence.

The planning and controlling body providing the link between military-technical intelligence and the defense industry complex was the Military Technical Bureau under the Defense Committee subordinate to the Soviet government. At different times, the bureau and the department included Voroshilov, Molotov, Tukhachevsky, Ordzhonikidze, Yezhov and, of course, Stalin. Later, in 1939, this body received the long name: Department of Scientific Research and the Use of Foreign Technology at the Defense Committee under the Council of People's Commissars. The department staff included 21 people, each of them was selected by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks. A report by Molotov to Malenkov of June 28, 1938, in which he asks

“Accelerate the selection and secondment to the Secretariat of the Military Technical Bureau of eight qualified engineers from among those admitted to top secret and mobilization work and know foreign languages ​​... a mandatory requirement - the candidate must have a higher military technical education and be a member of the Red Army”
.
One of these was engineer Sergei Vasilievich Petrenko-Lunev, who graduated from the electrical engineering department of the Higher Technical School in Karlsruhe and the Military Academy. Petrenko-Lunev knew Hungarian, Italian, German, Romanian and French, worked at one time as an attaché in the embassies of the Soviet Union in Germany and Italy.

The engineer remained in the post of secretary of the bureau until May 1937, after which he was arrested, charged with espionage, and shot.

Illegal borrowing. Intelligence and Soviet tank building

Combat Car M1 was also in the field of interests of Soviet intelligence. Source: ru.wikipedia.org

Interestingly, in professional slang, military-technical intelligence, even in internal correspondence, was called a “mining authority” and was far from always characterized on a positive side. So, in September 1938, the secretariat “complains” about scouts:

“... there is a decrease in the quality side of the work of our mining bodies: materials continue to flow, but not in the order of implementation of the tasks of the Military Technical Bureau.”

That is, agents abroad worked, but not always according to given programs and with a general decrease in efficiency. In 1937, out of 16 missions, intelligence did not cope with 7, and the following year 23 out of 28 orders did not work. Statistics were kept on the amount of materials transferred from intelligence to industry: 1937 in 518 and only 1938 in 384. The people's commissariats also conducted their own assessment of the value of the data provided: in 1936, 48% of the data were useful, 29% were of no interest (the rest, apparently, was something average in significance), in 1937 this ratio was 38% / 32 %, a year later, everything worsened: 17% and 55%, respectively. Two reasons are clearly visible: firstly, typical Soviet planning without taking into account many factors, and secondly, echoes of the repressions of the late 30s.

As a result, the following tough resolution of the Bureau Secretariat appeared:

“The extractive organs of the NKVD, transferring a large amount of valuable material to the industry, basically do not comply with the decisions of the Military Technical Bureau (VTB), which fixes the most urgent issues for our industry ... From year to year, the amount of valuable materials coming from the extractive organs of the NKVD falls ... Annually about ... percent of materials of no value are received that only clog our design bureaus and laboratories, distracting them from more important work ...
To propose to the NKVD ... To shift their attention to the fulfillment of VTB tasks in the first place ... To pay attention to the quality side of the transmitted material ... To focus the mining authorities on the acquisition of materials, primarily in the following military industries: aviation, navy, artillery, gunpowder. "

Despite such criticism, the effectiveness of the “extractive organs" in some cases was striking.

Here we will allow ourselves to move a little away from the central theme of tank construction and reveal history on the development of the production of domestic plexiglass - artificial glass. May 8, 1936 on the Molotov’s desk from intelligence laid "material on the production of artificial glass" Plexiglass "." Already on May 9, this report was sent to the People’s Commissar of Heavy Industry Ordzhonikidze, and after all the approvals on August 9 of the same year, the Institute of Plastics and Soyuzkhimplastmass Trust received an urgent task to develop an experimental workshop for plexiglass. The term was unprecedented - on February 1, 1937, it was required to launch a workshop. It should be noted that earlier the Soviet Union wanted to buy artificial glass production technology from the Germans, but the price was sky-high - about 2,5 million marks. As a result, the cost of military-technical intelligence and the cost of completely different amounts.

May 14, 1938 at a meeting in the special technical group under the People’s Commissar of the Defense Industry stated:

“The scope of Plexiglass is extremely enormous for the country's defense: 1) the aviation industry; 2) marine equipment (logging, portholes); 3) tank building; 4) flight goggles and gas masks; 5) colored signal signs on airplanes; 6) instrumentation ... It is necessary to immediately begin designing a new plant. "

And on September 21, 1938, the head of the special technical group informed VTB:

“In August 1938, the K-4 plant was commissioned and mastered the design capacity of 100 tons of glass / year.”

About how much information was needed on the latest foreign tanks, the report of the People's Commissariat of Medium Machine Building for 1939 speaks very well. In it, the people's commissar’s leadership insists on obtaining general drawings (with cuts) and tank assemblies, more complete coverage of superheavy tanks, the designs of their inspection devices, underwater walking devices, data on passive and active anti-tank defense equipment, and information on the experience of using tanks during German attacks on Poland and on the western front. All intelligence information, explained in the report, should enter the industry immediately after appearing in the country. The Soviet Union was actively preparing for the war of motors, and any news from abroad were important.

In the interests of secondary engineering


Let us consider in more detail what valuable materials the NKVD "extracting organs" supplied to the homeland for tankers.

Of particular importance were contacts with the United Kingdom, which even managed to quite officially redeem several samples of armored vehicles. But USSR intelligence also delivered a lot of interesting information through illegal channels. Candidate of historical sciences Vladimir Vasiliev in a series of articles in the Military History Journal says that the British managed to get secret information about advanced technologies for the production of armor. Vikkers then worked on cemented chromium-nickel-molybdenum armor, the nuances of which fell on the table as the leadership of the Soviet intelligence and tank engineers. They obtained not only secret documents, but also completely ready-made samples - in 1938 a piece of 5-mm Hadfield armor measuring 820 by 530 mm was transported to the USSR. Chemical analysis provided a fairly complete picture of the composition of the British billet, but the technical capabilities of production did not allow at that time to organize the smelting of such steel. Only in 1941 on the T-50 tank for the first time appeared Hadfield alloy tracks.

The French tank industry, despite the regime of secrecy, reluctantly shared with the Soviet engineers the tactical and technical characteristics and photo illustrations of the light tanks Renault ZM and VM, as well as the floating Laurent. The documents were at the disposal of tank builders in April 1937. This is not to say that there were some direct borrowings from the Soviet side, but non-standard French solutions aroused considerable interest: the transmission on the port side (Renault VM), rubber blocks as cushioning track rollers, as well as the molded case of Renault ZM. The previously obtained data on the medium French tank B1, Renault C2 and VO were also studied. Moreover, there is evidence that at the Mariupol Engineering and Izhora Metallurgical Plants, samples of the armor of the hull and turret of the Renault VM tank were tested. As with Hadfield's steel, intelligence from France provided industry with more than documents and photographs.


One of Walter Christie’s cars. Source: warspot.ru

The Soviet side, as one of the leading tank-building powers in its time, had a lot to do with Soviet military-technical intelligence. First of all, a special interest in Walter Christie's speed cars. This was not always helpful. So, since the end of 1935, news has come from the United States about the development of a tank that is suspended under the fuselage of an aircraft, as well as capable of moving on a combined wheeled-tracked track. The chief of intelligence of the Red Army, Semyon Uritsky, writes on this subject to Clement Voroshilov:

“I received a telegram from our American resident regarding the famous tank designer Christie, with whom negotiations are underway on the construction and acquisition of his tank for suspension on airplanes ... According to reports, Christie does not have ready tanks, but only proceeds to assemble a suspended tank.”

Materials on the M.1933 machine were transferred to the Kharkov Locomotive Plant, but did not find a serious continuation. In the Soviet Union, and without any ideas, Christie conducted experiments on "flying tanks", hanging armored vehicles under the TB-3 fuselage. In addition to data on Christie's vehicles, tank builders received drawings of the M2A1, M2A2 and Combat Car M1 tanks adopted for use in the USA. In particular, rubber-metal tracks were of particular interest, the materials on which were highly recommended to rethink and organize production. In addition, the illegal residency portfolio included information on the parabolic reflectors of tank headlights and the design of the whip antenna of the radio station — these intelligence data formed the basis for similar domestic developments.

As you know, the American heritage is not the best way affected some of the design features of the best tank of the Second World War - T-34. In particular, atavism can be considered a Christie type tank suspension. Here, Soviet intelligence could make a difference. Before the war itself, the drug addict of defense Tymoshenko was informed about the results of the test of the German T-III, following which he proposed replacing the complex and bulky T-34 suspension with a torsion bar. But it did not work out. However, this is a slightly different story.

To be continued ...
Author:
64 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. polpot
    polpot 8 June 2020 18: 07 New
    +6
    Thank you, the topic is very interesting, we look forward to continuing.
  2. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 8 June 2020 18: 07 New
    +6
    When the security of the Homeland is at stake, any means of increasing defense is accepted. The main thing is not to introduce deadlock in development and useless types of weapons
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. Alf
        Alf 8 June 2020 21: 11 New
        10
        Quote: Russo Turisto
        Yes, yes, the most effective way to increase security is to shoot half the people.

        Why half? The great Solzhenitsyn wrote that out of 170 million Soviet citizens sat 100 million. Don't you believe the herald of freedom and democracy, who has innocently suffered from the bloody Stalinist regime?
        1. LeonidL
          LeonidL 8 June 2020 22: 14 New
          +3
          One and a half billion Soviet people were shot !!!! Who is bigger?
          1. Tatyana Pershina
            Tatyana Pershina 9 June 2020 08: 42 New
            +3
            Moreover, only "political"! And there were no criminals in the Gulag at all.
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 8 June 2020 20: 16 New
      -2
      all are dead ends. if you can’t step over them, adapt to your abilities. In 39 g, UNIVERSAL LITERACY was ONLY ELIMINATED, they probably only reported, but there were not enough literate, comprehensively developed technically and in the 70s.
  3. Operator
    Operator 8 June 2020 18: 08 New
    +9
    People's Commissar of Defense Tukhachevsky and even "just before the war" - what is this? laughing
    1. Evgeny Fedorov
      8 June 2020 19: 41 New
      +3
      This is my mistake. Thank. I will correct
      1. Operator
        Operator 8 June 2020 19: 47 New
        -4
        If anything - I plusanul your article even with Tukhachevsky.

        Nevertheless, the article did not reflect the objective reason for the USSR conducting broad scientific and technical intelligence in the West - a sharp shortage of personnel, money and time for the deployment of domestic research and development work.

        Now the decisions of the Soviet leadership need to be looked at from the other end - reciprocal scientific and technical intelligence of the countries of the West and the East on the territory of the Russian Federation in connection with the growing gap in the pace of development of our and their strategic weapons (in our favor, of course).
        1. ccsr
          ccsr 9 June 2020 12: 11 New
          +1
          Quote: Operator
          Nevertheless, the article did not reflect the objective reason for the USSR conducting broad scientific and technical intelligence in the West - a sharp shortage of personnel, money and time for the deployment of domestic research and development work.

          I think the author of the article dramatizes the situation somewhat, if only because conducting intelligence in the field of armaments began in pre-Petrine times, and the classic example of Lefthander, and his assessment of the British cleaning rifles by the British, says that in Russia they always studied all the best weapons in the world. I do not see anything reprehensible in the fact that our intelligence mined data for our gunsmiths - on the contrary, we can be proud of it. And how our intelligence worked on the eve of the war, even now it is surprising:
          https://c.radikal.ru/c39/2006/85/ad67b1899b6d.jpg
          [/ Center]
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 9 June 2020 04: 50 New
      0
      Quote: Operator
      People's Commissar of Defense Tukhachevsky

      Deputy
  4. Zeev zeev
    Zeev zeev 8 June 2020 18: 19 New
    +2
    Marshal Tukhachevsky was shot on June 12, 1937. The People's Commissar of Defense before the war was Tymoshenko. Pz.III tanks were tested throughout 1940, including in comparison with the latest T-34. One sample was purchased in Germany, one was found abandoned beneath Lviv in a damaged condition.
  5. Dr. Frankenstucker
    Dr. Frankenstucker 8 June 2020 18: 21 New
    11
    Before the war itself, the defense narcotist Tukhachevsky was informed of the results of the test of the German T-III, following which he proposed replacing the complex and bulky T-34 suspension with a torsion bar.


    what nonsense ???

    before what "most" war? The PzKpfW III was tested in 1939-40, when Tukh had been feeding the worms for two years.
    And about the fact that Tukh was offering something there on the T-34 ..... wassat
    1. Zeev zeev
      Zeev zeev 8 June 2020 18: 30 New
      +7
      In 1939, the USSR had one "troika" and a slow one. It was possible to "test" only a sight, survey devices, a walkie-talkie and a cannon (moreover, the cannon was weaker than the Soviet tank 45-mm). A test run was carried out on a tank purchased from the Germans in the 1940th, after which the development of the T-34M with a commander's cupola, normal view, torsion bars, etc. began.
      1. Jager
        Jager 8 June 2020 18: 48 New
        +3
        Well, at least someone in the know))
      2. Tuzik
        Tuzik 8 June 2020 22: 36 New
        0
        Did Christie's suspension have any advantages compared to a torsion? Why should I, if I’m not mistaken, the HF was a torsion bar suspension, they were created with the T-34 at the same time, maybe it was a specialist to make new tanks on different suspensions?
        1. tank-master
          tank-master 8 June 2020 23: 14 New
          +3
          Christie’s suspension had only one advantage over the torsion bar suspension, it was produced and was already mastered at the KhPZ ..... but this was its plus .. and the torsion bar was only developed and tested in the USSR. Indeed, for the production of torsion barriers it was necessary to have equipment ... and high-quality steels ... By the way, for reference at KhZTM (KhPZ) during Ukrainian independence, the production of torsion barriers was ruined, now only KhTZ gives torsion bars for BTT
          1. Tuzik
            Tuzik 8 June 2020 23: 56 New
            -5
            You would have written these for reference as they are - for the mood smile
            Well, how did it happen that the Putilovites could make a torsion bar suspension, but the Kharkovites did not?
            1. tank-master
              tank-master 9 June 2020 00: 07 New
              +2
              For the demented, I answer ... who had the equipment and did ... or rather, who could develop, in Kharkov a torsion bar suspension was produced on 44 T-1944 tanks.
              but it was developed in Nizhny Tagil ... and there was no division into Putilovtsy ... but it would be more correct to say Kirovtsy, and only a weak-minded person who does not know Russian can call Kharkiv residents "Kharkivtsy".
              1. Tuzik
                Tuzik 9 June 2020 00: 15 New
                -1
                I do not see anything offensive and incomprehensible in the word Kharkiv, but of course I apologize if it hurts. And the name Putilovsky Plant for some reason quickly came to mind.
                If possible on the question, why was there equipment in Leningrad, but not in Kharkov?
                1. tank-master
                  tank-master 9 June 2020 00: 21 New
                  +3
                  learn history ... everything was distributed in the USSR ... and Voroshilov’s son-in-law Kotin worked on Kirovsky, as well as his son ... now it’s clear where the necessary equipment went first of all.
                  1. Tuzik
                    Tuzik 9 June 2020 00: 22 New
                    -1
                    Oh, now I see, thanks.
                  2. oldbuddy
                    oldbuddy 29 July 2020 20: 15 New
                    -1
                    "Voroshilov's son-in-law Kotin worked at Kirovskoe?"

                    But why lie?

                    "Love as strong as armor

                    Long before the Great Patriotic War, in the early 1930s, when the armored forces of the Soviet Union were being formed, a female cadet entered the F.E.Dzerzhinsky Military Technical Academy.

                    Nastya Poklonnova was first enrolled in the Faculty of Chemistry, but six months later she achieved her goal - she was transferred to the Faculty of Mechanization and Motorization.
                    The girl was liked by many future officers. But Anastasia herself reciprocated only one of them - Joseph Cotin. Handsome, excellent student of training and combat training, a real gentleman ... Young people fell in love with each other.
                    ..
                    in 1935, the first child, Felix, was born in the Kotin family.

                    Autumn of 37 came, and with it trouble came to the Kotin family. Anastasia Poklonnova-Kotina was dismissed from the army. She was accused in connection with enemies of the people and sabotage.

                    Kotin wrote: “Me and Comrade. We have been with Poklonnova since 1931 and I am fully responsible for her ... Distrust of her is mistrust of me ... The result of some kind of misunderstanding or slander. Please, comrade. Stalin, help in such a difficult and principled issue. " An emotional appeal could bring a thunderstorm to the designer himself. But the risk and effort were not in vain. The charges against Anastasia Poklonnova-Kotina were dropped. The first female armored vehicle in the USSR, a military engineer of the 3rd rank, was restored to the Red Army ...

                    Author of the text - Yuri Bakhurin
                    Sources:

                    Internet project "Documents of the Soviet era". http://sovdoc.rusarchives.ru.
                    Fighting vehicle designer. L., 1988. "
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 9 June 2020 09: 27 New
              +7
              Quote: Tuzik
              Well, how did it happen that the Putilovites could make a torsion bar suspension, but the Kharkovites did not?

              And how did it happen that Kharkov could make the T-64, but Tagil could not? wink
              Of all the pre-war tank factories, the Leningradskys had the best personnel (the legacy of the Putilovsky and Obukhov factories) and the best technical equipment. However, even with them the same LKZ mowed nipadetski.
              KhPZ had big problems with both. In fact, Kharkiv could make either BT clones, or machines based on them. About the same "five-step" checkpoint for the T-34, they write that its design was delayed only because the box had to be made for the existing machine park, purchased for BT.
              1. tank-master
                tank-master 9 June 2020 14: 17 New
                +2
                We will not consider tanks of the 60s, this is a separate conversation about the ambitions of the leaders of the Kharkov Tank and Nizhne Tagil factories and their curators from the Central Committee of the CPSU.
                But about the T-34 box ... the T-34 tank itself was designed by a team of 24 people, of whom only three had higher education, the rest were technical school. And as experience and knowledge accumulated, the tank was improved. At the same time, do not forget ... the end of the 30s ... repressions .. and everything new broke down .. since the design went by trial and error ... and if there were mistakes ... but they happened .. since it is not possible to buy experience, but only to acquire it .... in such circumstances, the T-34 was created. And it is not for us to judge those times ... but I buried two of the 24 creators of the T-34 .... giving them memory and gratitude ... since their experience was passed on to us so that we did not make the mistakes that they learned from. Unfortunately or fortunately, their experience is not used in Kharkov now ... but it is not in demand in Russia either, which is regrettable. An example of this is "Armata".
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 9 June 2020 05: 00 New
          +4
          Quote: Tuzik
          Did Christie's suspension have any advantages compared to a torsion?

          Obviously, there are still some advantages. The Jews made Merkava with Christie’s suspension, and by then they had seen enough of the T-54/55/62 and Patton, all with a torsion suspension. I do not believe that the Jews did not master the technology for the production of torsion bars, and the torsion bar suspension is easier, cheaper and more compact. Maybe she works out better the big moves of the rinks, and in Israel even the flat desert is rocky, and even more so the mountainous areas.
          1. Pushkowed
            Pushkowed 9 June 2020 10: 53 New
            +4
            The "Merkava" suspension elements are located not inside the armored hull (as on BT and T-34), but outside. More precisely - in the niches of the case, open from the outside.
            This is done for one purpose - maintainability in case of a mine explosion. During the 1973 war, many Israeli tanks were blown up by mines, and replacing a broken torsion in the field is extremely difficult. An open spring suspension changes much faster and easier.
            1. Tuzik
              Tuzik 9 June 2020 12: 31 New
              -1
              Quote: Pushkowed
              This is done with one goal - to increase maintainability.

              And the protection of the crew from side impacts is also increasing. So there are two pluses.
          2. tank-master
            tank-master 9 June 2020 14: 21 New
            +2
            There is a candle pendant on Merkava, but not Christie’s design, it was inside the case, but on Merkava outside.
            Like any design, it has its pros and cons.
      3. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya 9 June 2020 05: 05 New
        +2
        Quote: ZeevZeev
        And the mileage tests were carried out on a tank purchased from the Germans in the 1940th, after which the development of the T-34M with the commander’s turret, normal visibility, torsion bars, etc.

        The result of the T-3 tests was the development and appearance of the Soviet T-50, on which there were already a kombenashka, a torsion bar suspension and even two DT machine guns paired with a cannon like the T-3, which also had two machine guns paired with a 37 mm cannon. Unfortunately, the T-50 was put into service in February 1941, and mass production was supposed to be mastered by December 1941. But the war began, there was nowhere to build the T-50 on, and it was especially difficult with the engines for the T-50 , they simply weren’t let out anywhere, and therefore they began to produce T-34s and light T-60s that had already been mastered by the industry, which were a refinement of the T-40 tank mastered by the industry. It’s a pity the T-50 was a very good tank, I think that in the process of modernization it was possible to put a 76-mm F-34 gun on it, for example, on the T-34 during the modernization they put a 85-mm gun. The T-50 with a 76-mm gun would not be inferior to the T-34-76 in anything, even surpassed it due to the three crew members in the tower, the presence of a combaten and a torsion bar suspension. And thanks to the 6-cylinder engine and a weight of 14 tons, it would be much cheaper than the T-34-76, and the T-50 could be produced much more.
        1. Octopus
          Octopus 9 June 2020 08: 44 New
          +4
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          I think that in the process of modernization it was possible to put a 76-mm F-34 gun on it, for example, on the T-34 during the modernization they put a 85-mm gun.

          )))
          1. Yes, the T-50 was a much more thoughtful and high-quality designed tank than the T-34. Leningrad is not Kharkov.
          2. Yes, on the T-50 you can put not just a gun, but the whole tower from the T-34. And they have the same epaulette.
          3. No, of course, with such a development of events, a large gun will squeeze the tower commander out. In the T-50, he was behind the guns, a more powerful gun will roll further. Similarly, 6 pounds and 75 mm on Valentine squeezed a third person out of the tower.

          Three people in the tower + 75mm - this is Chaffee, that is, a wider epaulet + dancing with a tambourine for weapons and counter-rollbacks. The USSR does not have such opportunities.
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          And thanks to the 6-cylinder engine

          And there is no engine.
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          weight 14 tons

          This is paradoxical, but the USSR was very lucky that he did not manage to make a successful T-50 and launched the unsuccessful T-34 into mass production. The Germans in the 41st sharply remembered the French campaign and began to re-equip and book their cars. But the USSR has nothing to put in the T-50 except 45mm, the cannon from Chaffee and the 6ft are overpowered. So the T-50, all so thoughtful, leaves for the troika of the 42nd year, I'm not talking about Stug, and that's all, they won back.
  6. Serwid
    Serwid 8 June 2020 18: 27 New
    +5
    Quote: Operator
    People's Commissar of Defense Tukhachevsky

    Tukhachevsky was never a people's commissar of defense.
  7. svp67
    svp67 8 June 2020 18: 31 New
    +5
    In many ways, what the author writes is NOT SO ...
    Before the war itself, the defense narcotist Tukhachevsky was informed of the results of the test of the German T-III, following which he proposed replacing the complex and bulky T-34 suspension with a torsion bar. But it did not work out. However, this is a slightly different story.
    Before which war, which Tukhachevsky, about which T-34? ///
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 8 June 2020 18: 39 New
      +4
      Quote: svp67
      Before which war, which Tukhachevsky, about which T-34? ///

      In such cases, they say - "Ostap suffered ...."
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 8 June 2020 20: 18 New
        +1
        just not carried ... and also by
    2. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 8 June 2020 19: 14 New
      +6
      Hadfield steel (and not armor) in the USSR began to be smelted in 1936. I think after the British sold us a Vickers six-ton. So here the author is also a little off topic ..
      1. svp67
        svp67 8 June 2020 19: 28 New
        +3
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        So here the author is also a little off topic ..

        As well as Christie's tanks ... a lot of fantasy. It's just that Tukhachevsky is the most prominent "puncture" of the author
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 8 June 2020 19: 59 New
        +7
        I think after the British sold us a Vickers six-ton. So here the author is also a little off topic ..
        Hadfield Steel has been widely used since 1882. And Hadfield, by the way, is a foreign honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1933.
      3. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya 9 June 2020 05: 11 New
        +2
        The composition of Hadfield steel was not a secret for the USSR, the British in the First World War produced their famous helmet helmets made of Hadfield steel.
  8. Jager
    Jager 8 June 2020 18: 48 New
    +1
    Interesting article!
  9. BAI
    BAI 8 June 2020 19: 03 New
    +7
    Before the war, the narcotics of defense Tukhachevsky reported on the results of the test of the German T-III

    Tukhachevsky was shot in 1937. Reported to the other world? I wonder what the answer was.
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 8 June 2020 19: 26 New
    +5
    So, since the end of 1935, news has come from the United States about the development of a tank that is suspended under the fuselage of an aircraft, as well as capable of moving on a combined wheeled-tracked track.
    Materials on the M.1933 machine were transferred to the Kharkov Locomotive Plant, but did not find a serious continuation.
    Somehow, the author does not add up with dates and models.
    M.1933 is the Christie Airborne Combat Car M1933.

    But this is 1933.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 8 June 2020 19: 30 New
      +3
      If we are talking about the end of 1935, then this is Christie M1935 \ M1936
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 10 June 2020 19: 58 New
        0
        Viktor Nikolaevich, the author will say: "Well, this Undecim bore. Others have swallowed, but he will complain
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. demo
    demo 8 June 2020 20: 51 New
    +6
    Any crisis in developed countries provides a unique opportunity for developing countries. It is explained simply: big business is afraid of crisis like fire. At this time, entrepreneurs just stand on their feet. Therefore, the only way out is to look on the planet for those places where their investments can give the maximum return. That is why large companies love developing countries so much. Where the development potential is higher (in other words, where the country is poorer), the return on any invested dollar will be stronger.
    Stalin was lucky. Western countries (the main source of scientific and technological thought at that time) were in a difficult situation. Therefore, they were ready to agree to any work. Joseph Vissarionovich instantly understood this. As a result, Soviet industrialization can be divided into two periods. In the 1920s, the “Red Colossus” exploited Germany’s post-war weakness. And in the 1930s - the Great Depression in the United States ......
    https://www.kuban.kp.ru/daily/25863.3/2829607/

    From myself I will add.
    In the mid-00s, he was engaged in the dismantling of one boiler unit at one of the TPPs.
    So here. This thermal power station was built after the Great Patriotic War by the Americans.
    And even the tool with which the Americans assembled the equipment was an American company, if I am not mistaken, AGI.
    A very curious case is connected with this.
    In the year 75-77 Americans came to see how their brainchild works.
    And by the way, they asked about how their tools behaved (by this time most of the tools had been pulled around the garages).
    After receiving the answer that all the tools were broken and decommissioned, the Americans were horrified.
    It turns out that it was written in the contract that the LIFE locksmith tool is given a LIFETIME guarantee.

    So, it makes no sense to deny the fate of foreigners in our industrialization and even in the rise of certain industries after the war.
    1. Alf
      Alf 8 June 2020 21: 18 New
      +5
      Quote: demo
      So, it makes no sense to deny the fate of foreigners in our industrialization and even in the rise of certain industries after the war.

      So no one denies this. It is enough to recall the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Station and GAZ, the M-87 and M-25 engines.
      1. demo
        demo 8 June 2020 22: 08 New
        +7
        And in the end.
        Today in Russia, as a successor to the USSR, there is a huge backlog in the field of metal science, which allows us to maintain a leading position in this area.
        The very same China, despite huge investments, has not yet been able to reach our level in certain issues.
        This applies to metals and alloys used in aircraft engines.
        Special materials used in nuclear energy.
        And here it is impossible to downplay the role of our scientists, engineers.
        It was not realistic to take somewhere and implement it with us.
        I had a long time talking with a guy. who graduated from MISiS, worked after finishing 15 years at various enterprises, including in the Mailbox in the Urals.
        I was simply fascinated by his stories about various metals, their manufacture.
        What technical solutions were applied in this or that case was especially impressive.
        Although metal is not my passion.
        But I, as an engineer, always want to pay tribute to the creative genius of our people.
        1. Alf
          Alf 8 June 2020 22: 12 New
          +2
          Quote: demo
          But I, as an engineer, always want to pay tribute to the creative genius of our people.

          And it is doubly offensive when you see how the entire Soviet legacy is either destroyed on purpose or given "for thanks" to "partners" ...
          1. demo
            demo 8 June 2020 22: 16 New
            +5
            The opinion of the engineer does not count here.
            Here the opinion of the patriot prevails.
            This guy, Ph.D., last position - shift supervisor at a super secret enterprise, worked as a simple minder.
            Well, not quite simple.
            The main specialization of BMW engines.
            The line to him was scheduled months ahead.
            I once made my car with him and asked about his feelings for what he is doing now.
            The answer was without words - longing in the eyes.
            Although the liability is one hundred times less, and income is many times higher.
            But anyway, longing.
    2. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 9 June 2020 05: 14 New
      -1
      Quote: demo
      And by the way, they asked about how their tools behaved (by this time most of the tools had been pulled around the garages).

      I doubt that the tools were pulled around the garages, the American tools have an inch measurement, not a metric one, so American tools were not suitable for the Soviet garage.
      1. demo
        demo 9 June 2020 09: 14 New
        +3
        Do not doubt.
        They stole it.
        And not only keys, but also screwdrivers, pliers, wire cutters and hundreds of other items.
        All that is included in the concept is a bench tool.
      2. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 9 June 2020 16: 42 New
        0
        And what does the metric or inch measurement have to do with it? For a screwdriver, this is not so important.
  13. LeonidL
    LeonidL 8 June 2020 22: 11 New
    +3
    "Before the war, Tukhachevsky was informed about the results of testing the German T-III, as a result of which he proposed replacing the complex and bulky T-34 suspension with a torsion bar." - Just before the war, Marshal Tukhachevsky had long ago rested in an unknown execution pit and could not accept any reports!
  14. Potter
    Potter 8 June 2020 22: 51 New
    +2
    Before the war, Tukhachevsky was informed about the results of the test of the German T-III, according to the results
    The author in reality of this world? Before the war, the executed Tukhachevsky was reported ....
  15. tank-master
    tank-master 8 June 2020 23: 15 New
    +5
    An interesting topic ... but for connoisseurs ... from which tank of the USSR was the Germans copied the tower of Tiger A.
    So not only in the USSR they copied, but also here.
    1. Tuzik
      Tuzik 10 June 2020 15: 23 New
      -1
      I see, so no one answered, can you reveal the secret?
      1. tank-master
        tank-master 12 June 2020 13: 01 New
        +1
        look at the turret of the T-24 tank ... and compare it with the Tiger
        1. Tuzik
          Tuzik 12 June 2020 13: 27 New
          -1
          Thanks, I looked. At first glance smile , but if you look closely, especially from above, they are really very similar in shape. An interesting moment.
  16. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 9 June 2020 09: 34 New
    0
    A very slippery topic. Very significant sums of money constantly pass through the hands of scouts of this direction. Moreover, working with this money is very difficult. For example, the source is a greedy and dishonest engineer who requires constant "injections", despite the fact that at the moment he has not brought anything interesting. There is no one to replace him, but if you do not give money for the brought nonsense, he will obviously run to look for a buyer and fall asleep. What to do? How to justify costs to the Center? And this is just one of thousands of nuances.
    1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
      Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 9 June 2020 16: 40 New
      +1
      It was always hard to work with people. Do you think it’s easy for us now?
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 9 June 2020 16: 58 New
        +2
        I am not talking about that. Residents themselves, who work to obtain technical secrets, and their subordinates are well versed in working with people. Otherwise, they could not work. An ambush occurs at the resident center link. Because the Center, among other things, is obliged to monitor whether the resident has simply become indifferent? Does he not let accountable funds into his booze-party-deffki? Doesn't write fake reports? It happens, as you know. Or maybe the resident just relaxed - there is coziness, comfort all around, you won’t be bogged down on your head, if you don’t take risks, then you can sit on the sly, years go by, the pay is dripping ...
        A thorough check of these topics is almost impossible, because it is likely to flood both the network and the resident. A quick walk up the top to draw the right conclusions - for such an action you need a testing agent of the highest level. And at this level, all kinds of abuses are also possible, and with terrible consequences.
        Such, you know, in the style of Yezhov. The career of the inspector has faded - and he draws up a pair of verified as enemies, although people on the contrary, tried to bring more benefit. A very, very complicated and slippery matter is technical intelligence.
  17. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
    Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 9 June 2020 16: 38 New
    0
    The article is excellent! The people require continuation !!!
  18. Astra wild
    Astra wild 10 June 2020 19: 32 New
    0
    Dear author, I did not expect your article to interest me. Perhaps because the son is a cadet of a tank school?
  19. Astra wild
    Astra wild 10 June 2020 19: 43 New
    0
    Quote: Yevgeny Fedorov
    This is my mistake. Thank. I will correct

    What to fix: "Before the war, the People's Commissar of Defense Tymoshenko reported on the tests of the German T3 tank." Even I know that in 1940 the NGO was headed by Marshal Timoshenko.
    I heard in the regiment that Tymoshenko was an intelligent commissar, and Voroshilov was not praised.