Military Review

Combat aircraft. Flying IS-1


Preface required. We are talking about the 30s of the last century, when two ideologies clashed in the design bureaus of the whole world: a fast and maneuverable fighter. It simply did not work out right away at once, and it turned out that I had to work in two directions.

The maneuverable combat fighter was a biplane, high-speed - a monoplane.

Everything is fine here, physics, or rather, aerodynamics. Ball rules specific load on the wing, that is, the ratio of the weight of the aircraft to the wing area. And at these times, it was this parameter that determined in many respects the flight qualities of any aircraft.

Biplanes with a large wing area had a low separation speed and a short take-off, and in the sky they were very maneuverable. But you had to pay for it with a low speed of horizontal flight.

Monoplans, on the contrary, were faster in speed, but they needed longer runways and means of wing mechanization: slats, flaps, flaps, aerodynamic brakes.

Something average was clearly drawn, an airplane that could combine both a short take-off, and good maneuverability, and high speed.

Such an attempt was made by the former Soviet inventor Ivan Ivanovich Makhonin.

Combat aircraft. Flying IS-1

Until 1921, he lived and worked in Russia, but then was forced to leave for France, as he did not show interest in his projects, of which there were many.

In September 1929, Makhonin presented a draft monoplane with a variable wingspan. Just so, the length of the wing varied from 13 to 21 m, and the area from 19 to 33 square meters. m

The outer parts of the consoles could be telescopically retracted into the root parts of the wing when there was no need for excessive lifting force. Due to this, when flying at high speed, air resistance was significantly reduced. The first flight of the Mak.10 aircraft, equipped with a Lorraine 12Eb engine with a capacity of 480 hp, took place on August 11, 1931. After 4 years of testing, it was significantly upgraded and received a new Gnome K.14 engine (800 hp) and the designation Mak.101. The aircraft managed to reach a speed of 378 km / h.

This is the first aircraft in the world with variable wing geometry.

The Germans became interested in the plane. As soon as the occupation of France began, representatives of the Luftwaffe came to the Mahonin. Ivan Ivanovich flatly refused to cooperate, and the plane was confiscated. The car with the test pilot was taken to Rechlin for testing, where on the very first flight the French pilot, who shared "love" with the Germans with the Germans, crashed the plane to smithereens.

In this история The world's first aircraft with variable geometry of the wing is over, and we begin the history of the first successful aircraft of this family.

In general, the author of the aircraft project Vladimir Vasilyevich Shevchenko in the direct sense of the word was not a designer. Yes, he graduated from Moscow Higher Technical School, and even in the same group as Sergei Korolev, but the craving for heaven won in every sense. After graduating from VVTU in 1929, Shevchenko ended up in Odessa, and then served in the Air Force of the Red Army, flew on fighter R-1 and I-4.

Shevchenko proved to be a very good pilot, as evidenced by his participation in the air parades over Red Square as part of the links Stepanchonka on I-5 and Kokkinaki on I-16.

And since 1933 Shevchenko worked as a test pilot at the Air Force Research Institute of the Red Army, where he took part in the tests of many aircraft: I-16, I-153, R-5, Pe-8, Il-2, I-180, La-5 , Me-108, Me-110. And in 1939 he visited Germany, where he flew on the Ju-88 and FW-189.

Based on his very extensive experience, Shevchenko tried his hand at developing a new aircraft for those times, combining the properties of both a monoplane and a biplane.

Shevchenko’s idea was to fold the lower wing of the biplane after take-off, thereby turning it into a monoplane. In this case, the wheels were retracted into the side niches of the fuselage, the root part of the wing was also removed with a special lifting mechanism, and the end part fit into the recess of the lower part of the upper plane.

And Shevchenko submitted the outline calculations and drawings for consideration to the Air Force research collegium. The project was found to be very interesting and original, it was only embarrassing that this did not happen earlier in world practice. It had no analogues in the world, so to speak.

The project was given a go. Major Shevchenko, who immediately became a designer, was allocated a room in the old building of the Moscow Aviation Institute, organized financing (very modest at the time) and a team for building the layout.

Upon learning of the recognition of the Shevchenko project, the colleague was supported by outstanding pilots - Heroes of the Soviet Union Grigory Kravchenko, Stepan Suprun and Anatoly Serov.

And in April 1938, a group of pilots and engineers of the Air Force Research Institute was presented with a working model of a new aircraft, to which Shevchenko and the team working on the aircraft were given the name IS-1.

In the 60s, a version appeared that the IS-1 stands for “Foldable Fighter.” In fact, no, the confirmed evidence of Shakhurin and Poskrebyshev (Stalin’s secretary, if anyone doesn’t know) has been preserved that, in a report to Stalin, Shevchenko himself spoke about the initiative of the work collective to name the plane that way.

Stalin, by the way, did not particularly mind, but hinted that with this name the plane was simply obliged to fly and fly well.

But in 1938, the plane caused a stunning reaction from pilots who better than others understood the essence of the design.

There were also downsides. It required the highest precision in the manufacture of components and assemblies of the aircraft, especially hydraulics, which removes the wings. After all, the smallest backlash in the system could lead to an under-cleaning of the wing, and, consequently, to possible structural failures due to the incoming air flow.

In general, cleaning and releasing the lower wing was fraught with many surprises, often unpleasant. Folding on hinges and pulling up to the upper wing, the lower one moves for the entire seven seconds of the flight across the stream flowing around the aircraft. A complex drawing of takeoff and landing was drawn in terms of speed.

The current layout was examined by the People’s Commissar of Defense Voroshilov, Air Force Chief Loktionov, People’s Commissar of the Air Force Kaganovich. In principle, everyone was satisfied. But the decision was left to Stalin, by which developments in the field did not pass then aviation.

And Shevchenko got into a personal conversation with the leader, which took place after an extended meeting of workers in the aviation industry, where he received Stalin's formal permission to name the aircraft.

The aircraft IS-1 was an experimental one, built primarily to study and verify the mechanism for cleaning the wing and landing gear in flight. Although in the future weapons were planned for him. In the center wing of the upper wing, four ShKAS were located quite normally.

The lower wing consisted of a center section and folding consoles. The hydraulic mechanism in the fuselage turned the center section on the hinges of the fuselage fastening and folded the lower wing. The lifting mechanism consisted of a hydraulic cylinder and two rocker struts. A working pressure of 60 atmospheres was created by a pump mounted on the motor. Chassis and tail crutch were removed simultaneously with the wing cleaning. The crutch was removed by a cable mechanism.

I’ll draw your attention to the year 1938. The landing gear is retractable on several models, and on fighters this is done by rotating the handle of the cable mechanism. Here, except for the crutch, everything was done by hydraulics.

The chassis and crutch were equipped with shock absorbers, the wheels had brakes.

A separate masterpiece was the dashboard, consisting of three panels. The central panel had rubber anti-vibration dampers and a backlight, it housed all aerobatic and navigation devices.

On the right panel placed control of oxygen equipment and motor control. On the left are hydraulic warning lights, brakes, pressure gauges and magneto switches.

The plane caused a stir among test pilots. Not every day a car that a fellow pilot created has flown into the air. Lined up for those who want to fly on an airplane.

The first flight was carried out on May 29, 1940 by test pilot Vasily Kuleshov. Kuleshov made five flights, however, without removing the wing. They did not expect much from the car, since the M-25 engine was 635 hp. and could not give the car any outstanding performance characteristics. It was important to generally check the ability of the IS-1 to fly.

The wing was removed in flight on June 21, 1940, test pilot George Shiyanov. The plane behaved flawlessly, which simply struck Shiyanov, who wrote the following in his final report:

“The equipment of the IS-1 cabin is similar to the I-153, I-16 aircraft. Instruments are conveniently located. The controls for the engine, aircraft and weapons are located expediently. The landing in the cockpit is comfortable, but the steering view has too narrow a sector.
On take-off, the plane easily comes off and is not afraid of a side-view (side wind. - Approx. Author). Possible take-off with a blast (at the maximum angle of attack. - Approx. Aut.). At large angles of attack, there is no tendency to stall. The best set speed is 200-210 km / h. At a set speed of 240 km / h, a slight vibration of the tail feathering of the buffeting type is observed.
The plane is easy to fly and sits tight in the air. There is a slight shaking of the tail at low speeds. It turns steadily, but lack of engine power is felt. The forward view in the air is also insufficient. The device brought the speed to 300 km / h at an altitude of 2000 m. Plans IS-1 steadily, allows planning with abandoned rudders. Landing at landing at a speed of 190 km / h. But the review for landing is not enough.
Mileage is very stable. He made a landing with a crosswind of up to 45 m / s and a force of 10 m / s. The plane does not cause any doubts. ”

The famous pilot Stepan Suprun took part in the IS-1 flyby. IS-1 under the control of Suprun demonstrated both speed and high maneuverability. The pilot removed the wing and chassis immediately after takeoff. In his test report on IS-1, Suprun wrote:

“At taxiing, forward vision is not enough. Takeoff is simple. Chassis depreciation is normal. When you go to the corner of the set, the plane shakes slightly, which is not dangerous. The mechanism for cleaning the wings and landing gear is very convenient and simple. The wing and landing gear are easy to clean, the behavior of the aircraft at this moment is normal, there is no drawdown. The plane is obedient in piloting. The turn and combat turn performs very well. You can do a turn with a roll of 70 degrees at a speed of 300 km / h. Conclusion from a combat turn at a speed of 220 km / h. A balanced plane flies well with a thrown handle. The lateral and longitudinal stability of the aircraft is very good. With the release of the wing and landing gear, the behavior of the aircraft is normal. Landing is simple. ”

In January 1941, a second aircraft, called the IS-2, was ready. This car was similar to the IS-1, but the engine installed the M-88 with a capacity of 950 hp.

A miracle did not happen, but it turned out just a wonderful car. Since the M-88 was a cut above the M-25, the IS-2 didn’t just fly. The horizontal speed reached 600 km / h, the smaller motor size made it possible to install two BSs instead of two ShKAS. That is, weapons have become very sane: two 12,7 mm machine guns and two 7,62 mm machine guns.

The mass of a second salvo is comparable to the Yak-1 or Me-109. LaGG-3 and MiG-3 (in the five-point version) were cooler, but these planes for other tasks were originally conceived.

In addition to a more powerful engine, the IS-2 has significantly reduced the midship of the fuselage, increased its elongation and made a more streamlined engine hood. The wing area is slightly reduced.

The IS-2 went through a test flight cycle, and that’s all. The war has begun.

Of course, with the outbreak of war, all work was stopped. IP turned out to be an expensive and technologically sophisticated fighter, which in wartime was not a virtue.

In addition, it turned out that, unfortunately, it is impossible to take advantage of the biplane in maneuver combat, since the wing and landing gear were removed synchronously. The advantages of the biplane were realized only on takeoff and landing.

Shevchenko did not give up and continued the struggle for the idea of ​​his plane. There was a project of the IS-4 fighter with an M-71F engine with a capacity of 2000 hp.

Its estimated maximum speed near the ground was assumed at 660 km / h, and at an altitude of 6000 m - 720 km / h. The maximum calculated ceiling is 13 m. Armament was supposed to be made of 300 ShVAK guns, two at the root of the upper wing, two synchronous in the engine compartment.

The vessels were estimated by experts who had familiarized themselves with the project in 1944, and these were Joseph Lazarev and Nikolai Polikarpov, the aircraft could indeed show such parameters.

Compared to the first cars, the IS-4 had a more elaborate fuselage shape with a nose wheel instead of a tail crutch.

The niches in the sides of the fuselage for cleaning the wing and landing gear had to be closed with special automatically retractable walls, the landing gear was retracted into the center section regardless of the lower wing landing. Germocabin with a teardrop-shaped lantern.

Alas, the IS-4 was not interested in the Air Force either. The war was coming to an end, with it the era of propeller-driven aircraft was practically passing. All eyes were already directed toward jet aircraft. The last work of Shevchenko’s designer was the IS-14 aircraft, already jet, and also a new concept. But this is a completely different story.

Our story ends here. Shevchenko was not lucky. In 1938, our industry was not very ready to produce such a technically complex machine. And during the war, and even more so. Those LTH, which showed a plane assembled and licked at the Design Bureau, are not like the machine that the hands of women and adolescents would do in cold shops. And the results could only harm the designer.

This is not to say that Shevchenko worked in vain. This is generally a person who has lived a life with great benefit. 6000 hours of flight by a test pilot and a fighter pilot. In the war, designer Shevchenko again became a fighter, commander of a separate special squadron. 122 sorties.

Plus four flying sample aircraft, albeit not gone into the series. The idea did not sink into oblivion. The principle that Vladimir Shevchenko and his team of engineers worked on as part of Vasily Nikitin, Peter Nosikov, Vladimir Teplyakov, Nikolai Stolbovoy, Vsevolod Smirny, Anatoly Frolov, Viktor Abramov, Nikolai Tsigir, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Anatoly Andreyev, Tamara Reinvald, went further!

You can change the wing area in different ways. And today, looking at the photo of this funny Stalin-era aircraft, it is difficult to imagine the fact that the descendants of this aircraft are the MiG-23, MiG-31, Su-24, Tu-160.

And this is a fact.


Wingspan, m: 8,60.
Length, m: 7,36.
Height, m: 2,68.
Wing Area (full), sq. m: 20,83.

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 1 400;
- maximum take-off: 2 180.

Engine: 1 x M-88 x 950 hp

Maximum speed, km / h: 588.
Cruising speed, km / h: 453.
Practical range, km: 600.
Practical ceiling, m: 10 800.

Crew, person: 1.
- four 7,62 mm ShKAS machine guns or
- two 12,7 mm BS machine guns and two 7,62 mm ShKAS machine guns.
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  1. Theodore
    Theodore 3 June 2020 18: 18
    Aircraft IS1-2, no luck! But the IS 2 tank thundered! Literally.
    1. Borik
      Borik 3 June 2020 18: 36
      Aircraft IS1-2, no luck! But the IS 2 tank thundered! Literally.

      Planes IP abbreviation "Fighter Fighter" and not "Joseph Stalin"
      1. dumkopff
        dumkopff 4 June 2020 13: 43
        I quote an article: “In the 60s, a version appeared that the IS-1 stands for“ Folding Fighter. ”In fact, no, confirmed evidence of Shakhurin and Poskrebyshev (Stalin's secretary, if anyone does not know), that the report to Stalin Shevchenko himself spoke about the initiative of the working collective to name the plane that way. "
    2. svp67
      svp67 3 June 2020 19: 17
      Quote: Theodore
      But the IS 2 tank thundered! Literally

      And what about the IS series locomotives? The most powerful passenger cars in the USSR
    3. The comment was deleted.
      1. Dr. Frankenstucker
        Dr. Frankenstucker 5 June 2020 12: 21
        For what, sorry, we gobbled up these lengthy sheets about tanks, if the article is about aviation? Is the abbreviation "IS" inspired?
    4. The comment was deleted.
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    6. The comment was deleted.
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    8. The comment was deleted.
  2. polpot
    polpot 3 June 2020 18: 21
    The design in war is not a viable, obvious ending.
  3. Pavel57
    Pavel57 3 June 2020 18: 26
    MiG-31 is a descendant of the IS-2, somehow drawn, except that to the version of the MiG-31 with variable wing geometry, which remained in the projects.
  4. svp67
    svp67 3 June 2020 18: 29
    The article is interesting and good. But the question is why on this list
    MiG-23, MiG-31, Su-24, Tu-160.
    MiG-31 hit and did not understand. It would be better to add the Su-17, Tu-22M ..
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 June 2020 21: 42
      Then it’s worth adding the Tu-160 to the list!
  5. knn54
    knn54 3 June 2020 18: 44
    -the chassis was retracted into the center section, regardless of the cleaning of the lower wing.
    In the IS-1 and IS-2, the lower wings were produced TOGETHER with the chassis, which is why sharply:
    - the air resistance increased and the speed dropped;
    - maneuverability decreased.
    If IS-4 appeared before the war, they could have gone into the series.
    The ancestor of the flying transformer, however.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 4 June 2020 17: 47
      Sorry, of course, but the ancestor of the flying transformers is the rebel X-wing fighter from Star Wars!

      Because he is a long time ago, and in one distant galaxy :) (sarcasm, yes)
  6. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 3 June 2020 18: 47
    Thank. I read about IP, but I didn’t even hear about Makhonin.
    1. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 19: 39
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      but I didn’t even hear about Makhonin.

      on the VO article was:
  7. Dr. Frankenstucker
    Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 19: 44
    In addition, it turned out that, unfortunately, it is impossible to take advantage of the biplane in maneuver combat, since the wing and landing gear were removed synchronously. The advantages of the biplane were realized only on takeoff and landing.

    in fact, that’s it. And why is such functionality needed?
    To turn a high-speed car into an I-15 type iron in seven seconds? And it would greatly help in the battle with Bf.109?
    1. Cetron
      Cetron 3 June 2020 20: 11
      A good idea for an aircraft on an aircraft carrier, but we didn’t have and never will!
      1. Alf
        Alf 3 June 2020 20: 26
        Quote: Cetron
        A good idea for an aircraft on an aircraft carrier, but we didn’t have and never will!

        Here is just one question, but how to fold the wings? Without such a function, an aircraft on deck has nothing to do.
      2. fa2998
        fa2998 3 June 2020 20: 32
        The report of the test pilot TRIZZA mentioned poor visibility from the cockpit - just on an aircraft carrier! recourse hi
        1. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 3 June 2020 21: 08
          It was just a prototype that showed the efficiency of the idea itself. This unit is simply handsome compared to what was done in the west. The elegance of the solution and its technical implementation are respected.
          1. Dr. Frankenstucker
            Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 22: 21
            Quote: mr.ZinGer
            showed the efficiency of the idea itself.

            what idea exactly? At the end of the biplane age, trying to create a useless symbiosis? What for? What exactly is efficiency? Are the hinges and hydraulics working? Excellent. This is, of course, better than 44 turns of the handle to take the chassis away from the donkey.
            Conceptually, if we take it simplistically - it’s a wheeled-tracked tank, which was abandoned for complete futility. Versatility and manufacturability can be carried away with a high production culture. This was not the case in the USSR. Yes, and this car RKVVS was not necessary.
            1. mr.ZinGer
              mr.ZinGer 3 June 2020 22: 33
              It is now possible to speculate which way was right. Then different options were moving over, you look at what kind of freaks the British did (a Hurricane with a shot upper wing).
              I repeat, the car was experienced,
              in the series it was not planned to build.
              1. Dr. Frankenstucker
                Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 22: 51
                Quote: mr.ZinGer
                It is now possible to argue which path was true

                the practical way was true. As always. Workable know-how that could be applied in mass production was singled out from the experimentation of the 30s. And so - yes, the design idea was seething, not to take away)
                In 1938-39, it was already foolish to count on the eventual enemy in a future war to massively use a mixed fleet of biplanes and low-wing aircraft.
        2. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 4 June 2020 17: 49
          Well, after the war, the Americans, with the same success and under the same tasks, experimented with a ring wing, although the review there is obviously worse.
      3. Dr. Frankenstucker
        Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 22: 08
        Quote: Cetron
        Good idea for an airplane on an aircraft carrier

        nonsense. The deck bed is a completely different "geometry". The pull-up of the lower wing towards the upper does not make the apparatus more compact. The idea of ​​the IS-1/2 is unpromising. A curious airplane, but a dead end even for the 38th year. Completely impractical.
  8. irontom
    irontom 3 June 2020 21: 49
    Dead end design, turned out to be too complicated takeoff and landing mechanization.
  9. Vlad Malkin
    Vlad Malkin 3 June 2020 22: 53
    Interesting plane! Have not read about it before!
  10. Dr. Frankenstucker
    Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 23: 04
    It would be more logical to mention Makhonin, talking about RK-I Bakshaev. Here the concept is completely different.
  11. wlkw
    wlkw 4 June 2020 09: 30
    Well, well, at least they didn’t shoot ...
    1. Alf
      Alf 4 June 2020 19: 08
      Quote: wlkw
      Well, well, at least they didn’t shoot ...

      Listen to you, so the NKVD machine guns were red-hot, shooting everyone.
  12. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 4 June 2020 09: 30
    Quote: fa2998
    The report of the test pilot TRIZZA mentioned poor visibility from the cockpit - just on an aircraft carrier!

    Listen up Why are you saying - some kind of review-shmabzor! Gogi still closes the galaza!
  13. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 4 June 2020 09: 32
    Why is Shevchenko pictured in lieutenant epaulettes when, according to the text, in the 38th year he was a major?
    1. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 4 June 2020 11: 23
      Yes, this is not that Shevchenko. In the photo in the article - test pilot Vladimir Andreevich Shevchenko, b. 1926
  14. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 4 June 2020 11: 25
    Quote: Dr. Frankenshtuzer
    Yes, this is not that Shevchenko. In the photo in the article - test pilot Vladimir Andreevich Shevchenko, b. 1926

    Relieved ... I already thought that they were "repressed".
    1. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 4 June 2020 12: 35
      it's just that this photo is screwed to a wikipedia article.
      In fact, on the back of this photo is the date of 1949. I doubt that he is a forty-two-year-old man (V.V. Shevchenko, born in 1907)
  15. zwlad
    zwlad 4 June 2020 19: 27
    Thank! Very informative.
  16. viaksyutin
    viaksyutin 4 June 2020 20: 06
    Overly complex aircraft, practically not suitable for mass production of wartime.