Military Review

On the composition of the stealth coating of 5th generation fighters: developments and problems

62

The use of stealth technology, providing low visibility, is a hallmark of fifth generation fighters. One of the key components of low visibility is the stealth coating.


What are stealth coatings


Radar absorbing coatings and materials (RPM) - these are the very stealth coatings that give the aircraft a less noticeable effect. One of the most common stealth coatings is iron ball paint. This composition contains microscopic spheres coated with a magnetic composition. The effect of the action is simple: the radar radiation turns into heat, which reduces the visibility of the object. The SR-71 Blackbird reconnaissance aircraft was coated with similar material.

Resonant coatings have a thickness of ¼ wavelength, which allows reflecting radiation from the external and internal surfaces of the coating. As for non-resonant coatings, they scatter radiation or reflect it in different directions.

On the composition of the stealth coating of 5th generation fighters: developments and problems


For obvious reasons, neither in Russia nor in the USA the technologies used to create the latest fighters are especially advertised. And, nevertheless, certain information about them, including the composition of reducing the visibility of coatings, gets into the press. So, a year ago it became known that the cockpit of the 5th generation Su-57 Russian multi-role fighter received a new stealth coating. Rostekh assured that the new composite material used in the coating reduced the visibility of the cabin by 30%. Coverage increases the absorption of radar waves by 2 times.



Stealth coating is applied to the lanterns of aircraft Su-57, Su-30, Su-34, Su-35, MiG-29K. It represents layers of metal oxides with a thickness of 70-90 nm. Thanks to it, the visibility of the aircraft for enemy radar is reduced, and the fighter pilot is protected from the thermal factor, ultraviolet radiation and other negative influences. The latter is also very important. Since the coating reduces the thermal component of solar radiation by three times, and the impact on the pilot of ultraviolet radiation is reduced by almost six times.

Modern radar absorbing coatings differ from those used 10 years ago quite significantly. In particular, they have a thickness varying in profile, a complex structure with varying values ​​of permittivity and permeability both in thickness and along the skin surface. The composition of the coating allows you to modify the electromagnetic wave incident on it so that it could not transmit information to the enemy that could "reveal" the parameters of military equipment.

Most of the surface of the aircraft is processed using paint and varnish technologies. A.N. Lagarkov and M.A. Poghosyan in one of his articles noted the importance of ferromagnetic finely divided fillers with specified values ​​of magnetic permeability. Plasma technology is also widely used. For example, a scattering coating on the light of a fighter’s cockpit is created using plasma-vacuum technology.



As the F-22 and F-35 had problems with the stealth coating


At the same time, sometimes stealth coverage creates additional problems for airplanes. This happened, in particular, with the US Air Force F-22 Raptor, which were involved in the operation of the international coalition in Syria. The difficult Syrian climate with its sandstorms led to the fact that the F-22 radar absorbing coating began to fall off literally in pieces. This was due to the fact that the coating began to lose strength.

In 2019, Bloomberg published a U.S. Department of Defense report that talked about similar issues with the stealth-coating of F-35B aircraft, which also wears out faster than expected when applied. During a flight at supersonic speed, the stealth coating simply burns out, which makes the aircraft an easy target for even fourth-generation fighters.

At the same time, an American pilot, William Flynn, in an interview with Defense News, noted that planes face such problems during long flights at supersonic speeds, and in real combat conditions there is usually no need for such long flights.

It is worth noting that research in the development of new stealth coatings is ongoing. For example, a team of scientists from NUST “MISiS” and the Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy) put forward a project for a new stealth masking that allows the radar signal not to be reflected or absorbed, but simply to pass through. That is, the effect of the "absence of the object" is achieved.
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  1. paul3390
    paul3390 2 June 2020 16: 31 New
    12
    It’s interesting - the Americans kept telling us that one of the most important signs of the 5th generation is a long supersonic without afterburner .. And then it suddenly turns out that somehow it’s not really needed. And they didn’t want him at all ... What made the citadel of democracy revise its own criteria?
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r 2 June 2020 17: 33 New
      +1
      Quote: paul3390
      What made the citadel of democracy revise its own criteria?

      Already enough pieces have been boiled to their vassals and slaves.
    2. avg
      avg 2 June 2020 18: 47 New
      +2
      Quote: paul3390
      What made the citadel of democracy revise its own criteria?

      English scientists suggested. sad
    3. EnGenius
      EnGenius 2 June 2020 19: 53 New
      0
      It is needed in the conditions of military operations for tactical flexibility, and in everyday life it is 100% not needed. Well, except in the exercises for practicing tactical techniques and in training battles.
      1. letinant
        letinant 2 June 2020 21: 03 New
        0
        Quote: engenius
        It is needed in the conditions of military operations for tactical flexibility, and in everyday life it is 100% not needed. Well, except in the exercises for practicing tactical techniques and in training battles.

        Actually, the F-35 was developed as a replacement for the F-16. And should, as you write: "be used every day" and on my own I will add, every second. It is positioned as a lightweight, cheap stealth fighter.
        1. Evgeny Goncharov (smoogg)
          Evgeny Goncharov (smoogg) 6 June 2020 02: 54 New
          0
          F-16 in the hangar, I suppose, is on supersonic.
          You do not add a case on your own, what proportion of the flight hours of the Falcons outside the combat use was using supersonic?
    4. Vicontas
      Vicontas 2 June 2020 21: 06 New
      +2
      Quote: paul3390
      What made the citadel of democracy revise its own criteria?

      Yes, and their own aircraft forced! This is when the tail of the F-35 does not want to stay on the fuselage at supersonic, but wants to follow its own path in the direction opposite to the plane! Because of what, the command recommended the pilots not to hang around in supersonic for more than a few minutes!
    5. Vitaly gusin
      Vitaly gusin 2 June 2020 21: 34 New
      -1
      Quote: paul3390
      Interestingly, the Americans always taldychili that one of the most important signs of the 5th generation is a long supersonic without afterburner ..

      In order to correctly draw a conclusion, one must possess at least minimal information.
      Very briefly.
      There are three modifications to the F-35
      F-35A for the Air Force, version F-35B for vertical take-off and landing for the US Marines and version F-35C for the Navy. Therefore, pilots of the Navy and the Marine Corps will fly with restrictions on the use of supersonic flight, but this does not apply to military operations.
      Air Force version F-35A does not apply.
      During the development, the bias towards supersound of one of the strengths of the F-35 was not made. The F-35 is designed as an ambush predator that uses its hidden and network capabilities to shoot down enemies before they fall into the visual or combat range and not engage in close combat. Although in close combat, he can use supersonic, but everything else depends on the skill of the pilot.
      1. paul3390
        paul3390 3 June 2020 01: 33 New
        +1
        The afterburner supersound is not at all for battle, but in order to arrive at its place of command as soon as possible .. What is the use of your ambushes if your opponent flies faster than you? Well then, how many letaks should be kept in the air to ensure superiority on any enemy approach vector?
        1. Vitaly gusin
          Vitaly gusin 3 June 2020 12: 23 New
          -1
          Quote: paul3390
          What is the use of your ambushes if your opponent flies faster than you?

          This is you writing about the last century.
          Today it is already 20 years of the 21st century and the tasks in the troops and the combat technique are completely different.
          And the F-35 plane is not for fast arrival at the battlefield; it conducts a battle from a distance when it is not detected and the goal is to detect and track enemy forces, block radars and prevent attacks with very high efficiency. Advanced avionics provides the pilot with real-time access to space information, 360-degree coverage and an unprecedented ability to dominate in a tactical setting. Perhaps his main task is the data collected by the sensors on the F-35, as well as satellite information will be transmitted to the commanders at sea, in the air or on the ground, providing an instant, high-precision view of current operations, and who decides to quickly solve it is the prerogative of the leadership of A F -35 will achieve well-defended targets and suppress enemy radars.
          In aerial combat, 4th generation aircraft have relatively equal capabilities to detect and interact with each other, while an F-35 pilot can see an enemy aircraft first and take decisive action from a distance. The ability to see and not be noticed is his task.
          1. Herman 4223
            Herman 4223 3 June 2020 20: 01 New
            0
            This is a theory of application, and how it will work in practice against an adequate adversary is a question.
            1. Vitaly gusin
              Vitaly gusin 3 June 2020 20: 58 New
              +1
              Quote: Herman 4223
              This is a theory of application, and how it will work in practice against an adequate adversary is a question.

              Without theory, practice does not work.
              At the end of May 2018, by decree of the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Brigadier General Farzad Ismaili was removed from the post of commander of the Iranian air defense forces.
              An investigation conducted by Iranians showed that Israeli F-35 aircraft were indeed in March in Iranian airspace and flew over Tehran, Karaj, Arak, Isfahan, Shiraz and Bandar Abbas. After some time, the F-35, having refueled over Iraq again, safely returned to the same airfields on the same route in Israel. but went unnoticed by Iranian air defense systems and Russian radars.
              Ismaily concealed the failure of Iranian air defense from the political leadership of Iran, which was the reason for his resignation.
              1. Herman 4223
                Herman 4223 3 June 2020 21: 10 New
                +1
                I can not say anything about this, I have not heard. A few questions, but did they fly past air defense systems? And were they at that time in working condition? How is it known that their Russian radars were invisible and why did they fly in their direction if they needed to Iran? Our radars in Syria are much to the north and Israel is covered by mountains in relation to them.
                1. Vitaly gusin
                  Vitaly gusin 3 June 2020 22: 06 New
                  -2
                  Quote: Herman 4223
                  A few questions, but did they fly past air defense systems?

                  Israeli fighters flew through the airspace of Syria and Iraq, and then crossed the border with Iran.
                  Quote: Herman 4223
                  And were they at that time in working condition?

                  Who will tell you this. And if not, then why are they needed there.
                  Quote: Herman 4223
                  How is it known that their Russian radars were invisible and why did they fly in their direction if they needed to Iran?

                  The same strikes in Syria are inflicted by "unknown and unidentified aircraft."
                  Quote: Herman 4223
                  Our radars in Syria are much to the north and Israel is covered by mountains in relation to them.

                  Syrian S-300s are also stationed at the T-4 Tayas base in the Palmyra region, the part of which the Ksir base is located, were repeatedly bombed by "unidentified aircraft".
                  There are no mountains.
                  1. Herman 4223
                    Herman 4223 3 June 2020 23: 10 New
                    +1
                    In May 2018, the C300 was not in Syria.
                    In Iraq, in fact, there is no air defense system, attacks on the territory of Syria come from Lebanon, and attacks are carried out from behind a mountain range, airplanes are shown for a short time and this is the difficulty of intercepting them. And Syrian air defense reacts to these attacks. Unidentified planes on Palmyra stopped flying long ago.
                    1. Vitaly gusin
                      Vitaly gusin 4 June 2020 06: 22 New
                      -2
                      Quote: Herman 4223
                      In May 2018, the C300 was not in Syria.

                      I agree.
                      But there were S-400s that could hit targets at ranges up to 400 km and target detection up to 600 km.
                      Quote: Herman 4223
                      attacks on the territory of Syria come from Lebanon, and attacks are carried out from behind a mountain range, airplanes are shown for a short time, and this is the difficulty of intercepting them.


                      On January 10, unidentified aircraft attacked the positions of pro-Iranian militias in the area of ​​Al-Bukamal on Syrian-Iraqi border.
                      The third recent air strike on targets in the Al-Bukamal area controlled by the pro-Iranian Shiite group Al-Hashd al-Shaabi. Two other attacks, which resulted in the death of a significant number of militants, were delivered on September 16 and 18. On September 9 and 22, positions were attacked from the air groupings on Iraqi territory in Anbar province.

                      Oh how far from Lebanon and from the mountains, and from jumping out. Do not repeat propaganda nonsense.
                      Quote: Herman 4223
                      Unidentified planes on Palmyra stopped flying long ago.

                      Fly where necessary and when needed.
                      1. Cyril G ...
                        Cyril G ... 4 June 2020 07: 18 New
                        +2
                        But there were S-400s that could hit targets at ranges up to 400 km and target detection up to 600 km.


                        Remind me, from what date is Russia at war with Israel? And what then is Benya a more private guest in Moscow than anywhere else?

                        Yes, and you know that the Earth is round? I mean, even with a tower, the range of S-400 in the NLC is unlikely to be more than 40-50 km

                        Fly where necessary and when needed.


                        Fly wherever possible, Syrian air defense has a purely focal character. Therefore, you can safely fly over 70 percent of the territory.

                        On January 10, unidentified aircraft attacked the positions of pro-Iranian militias in the area of ​​Al-Bukamal on the Syrian-Iraqi border.


                        You would have inquired about the launch ranges of the Israeli Air Force ... "Unidentified aircraft" do not work as free-fall bombs
                      2. Cyril G ...
                        Cyril G ... 4 June 2020 07: 25 New
                        +1
                        Israeli fighters flew through the airspace of Syria and Iraq, and then crossed the border with Iran.


                        How much and how did LM pay you for such statements? laughing
                      3. Herman 4223
                        Herman 4223 4 June 2020 07: 25 New
                        +2
                        Really do not repeat propaganda tales. First, Israel did not take responsibility for these attacks, that is, it could be anyone like the United States and its allies.
                        Secondly, if it beat the Israeli Air Force, why did you decide that they flew in a straight line? They are not sick people and they need to protect the equipment and the secrets that are associated with it. What if the engine fails in the middle of Syria? All the secrets of a super plane will fall into Russia and China. It is much easier to go around through Jordan and further through Iraq, in these countries air defense conditional.
                      4. Cyril G ...
                        Cyril G ... 4 June 2020 11: 25 New
                        +2
                        Advocacy, she is so ....
                      5. Vitaly gusin
                        Vitaly gusin 4 June 2020 11: 33 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Herman 4223
                        First, Israel did not take responsibility for these attacks, that is, it could be anyone like the United States and its allies.

                        Yes, the former Minister of Defense Lieberman said that he does not know anything and probably this is the Liechtenstein Air Force.
                        Everything else is without comment.
                      6. Herman 4223
                        Herman 4223 4 June 2020 12: 26 New
                        +1
                        Perhaps you are right, he is like that in Liechtenstein, nothing is heard about him and is always beyond suspicion.
                      7. Vitaly gusin
                        Vitaly gusin 4 June 2020 13: 23 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Herman 4223
                        Maybe you're right,

                        It's not me. Here is an excerpt from the interview.
                        Dmitry Dubov: Is there any connection between this statement and the fact that air strikes were fired in the sky over Damascus and on the Syrian-Lebanese border, for which Israel never claimed responsibility?

                        Avigdor Lieberman: According to my guesses, all these air strikes were carried out by the Air Force of Liechtenstein and Monaco.
                      8. Herman 4223
                        Herman 4223 4 June 2020 15: 07 New
                        +2
                        Well then, exactly they.
                      9. Vitaly gusin
                        Vitaly gusin 4 June 2020 16: 46 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Herman 4223
                        Well then, exactly they.

                        Wow what are they lol
  • VO3A
    VO3A 7 June 2020 22: 52 New
    -1
    Advanced avionics provides the pilot with real-time access to space information, 360-degree coverage and an unprecedented ability to dominate in a tactical setting.

    What space information? How can it block radars while remaining invisible?
    In a tactical setting, the F35 never dominated and will never dominate? Did you make it yourself or who helped? All your conclusions and opinions are untrue and too childish ... Also strategist drew ... These are the softest ratings of your verbiage ...
  • Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 4 June 2020 07: 09 New
    +2
    The most optimal maneuver when avoiding issued RVV, contact break at maximum speed. Therefore, an ambush predator is a word.
  • KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 16: 39 New
    +4
    For example, a team of scientists from NUST “MISiS” and the Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy) put forward a project for a new stealth masking that allows the radar signal not to be reflected or absorbed, but simply to pass through.
    Through the metal of a glider? fool Either the difficulties of translation, or something new in physics ..
    1. Volodin
      Volodin 2 June 2020 16: 46 New
      +4
      Quote: KVU-NSVD
      Through the metal of a glider? Either the difficulties of translation, or something new in physics

      And I did not see the word "metal" in the text.
      1. KVU-NSVD
        KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 16: 51 New
        -1
        Airplanes, in general, are still mostly made of metal, and its engines are not basically, but completely. Well, if there is not metal, then what does it change? The airframe material will still reflect radio waves, but if it is radiolucent (like a nose cap over a radar), what for does it stealth cover?
        1. Volodin
          Volodin 2 June 2020 16: 55 New
          +2
          Quote: KVU-NSVD
          Airplanes, in general, are still mostly made of metal, and its engines are not basically, but completely.

          I know.

          But the speech, as I understand it, is about prospective research. Once made of wood wheels ...
          I admit that the author clumsily expressed that this is a "cover".
          1. KVU-NSVD
            KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 17: 07 New
            +2
            Quote: Volodin
            I admit that the author clumsily put it

            I am sure that the author did not really deal with the translation of copied materials from foreign sources and did not reflect on the essence of machine translation.
        2. Avior
          Avior 2 June 2020 17: 01 New
          +1
          If the airframe material is radiolucent, then internal components such as an engine and others will give a large EPR
          1. KVU-NSVD
            KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 17: 04 New
            +3
            Quote: Avior
            If the airframe material is radiolucent, then internal components such as an engine and others will give a large EPR

            I agree, but I had questions for what was written in the article, and not for the obvious things you described.
            1. Avior
              Avior 2 June 2020 18: 47 New
              +1
              What part of the article?
              In the first part, a set of commonplace, also confused, cabs with cab lights are confused in some places.
              In the second part, an already slightly palling and distorted story about the tests of the F-35V in 2011, it has only recently been chewed here in full detail, but this invention has come out again.
              And if the last paragraph, then we are talking about this article
              https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-28-7-10294&origin=search
              here is her full text
              https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe-28-7-10294&id=429461
              this is a pure theory, from which to stealth coverage as to Moscow on all fours, if at all, the direction is taken.
              About no stealth coatings there
              this is the conclusion in that article
              4. Conclusion
              In the present paper, we first theoretically demonstrated the condition of anapole directly from the V Devaney-Wolf theorem on non-emitting currents in the framework of volume and surface equivalent sources. According to the literature, theoretical results were obtained in a simple way regarding polarization
          2. Voyager
            Voyager 2 June 2020 19: 43 New
            -1
            They will not give if the material is radiolucent only in one direction.
    2. ilyaros
      2 June 2020 17: 08 New
      +3
      The stealth disguise used today is far from perfect. Such a coating is expensive, and for more efficient operation it needs the most even surface - as a result, in airplanes, for example, you have to sacrifice the aerodynamic characteristics of the device. In this case, the absorbed signal still creates a “shadow” - a small response that can be detected by more advanced location systems. The task of our team was to “teach” objects not to reflect the signal, but to let it through through the excitation of a special state of electromagnetic fields
      ,
      - says the project manager in an interview. If you are interested in some great details. But this information as a whole was cited as an example of ongoing developments in this area.
      1. KVU-NSVD
        KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 17: 17 New
        0
        Agree, the quote given now and what is written in the article differ slightly in presentation and semantic load. What is given in the article sounds very ambiguous and, accordingly, my interpretation of your words is quite justified. But I apologize for the possibly excessive harshness of my comment. It turns out that materials are being developed that turn the glider into a kind of transponder of radar radiation to "nowhere". Interesting, it is necessary to dig. Throw a link, if not difficult.
        1. ilyaros
          2 June 2020 17: 42 New
          0
          https://misis.ru/university/news/cooperation/2020-03/6592/
        2. Avior
          Avior 2 June 2020 19: 00 New
          0
          oh half a text clipped
          no stealth technologies in a scientific article
          topic funding is clearly not related to the military.
          funding
          Compagnia di San Paolo (project ANASTASIA); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) (projects SFB / TRR183 and CRC / TRR 191); Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (K2-2016-051); Russian Foundation for Basic Research (16-02-00789, 16-32-50139); Russian Science Foundation (17-19-01786).

          but you always want to get more money on the topic, for this you need something loud, but the money will be given by nanotechnology, or stealth, or something else.
          Well, what kind of military will give money for the Devaney-Wolf theorem?
          On stealth - another thing, there is a chance.
          stealth appears in an internal popular publication.
          https://misis.ru/university/news/science/2020-03/6592/
          and the reader is now tormented smile
          hi
    3. viktor_ui
      viktor_ui 8 June 2020 05: 49 New
      0
      It is possible that fibers were invented that serve as conductors for radio waves of different spectral ranges, which will allow them to circumnavigate the surface of the main airframe with the received radio emission with minimal losses ... they also drive the laser beam with prisms at different angles ... It would often be nice to not incur something like that. 21st century overboard however wassat
  • PlotnikoffDD
    PlotnikoffDD 2 June 2020 16: 47 New
    0
    and in real combat conditions, the need for such long flights is usually absent.


    will be knocked down before the coating has time to fall off.
  • gridasov
    gridasov 2 June 2020 17: 03 New
    0
    All these stealth technologies can be called passive. That is, there is a search for absorbing materials having certain necessary properties, but of course others that do not meet the requirements of aerodynamic contact with the external environment. Therefore, it’s obvious that it’s time for developers to at least think about active methods of creating an electronic magnetic potential on the aircraft’s surface, and moreover, be regulated by processes of surface ionization by air flows, which means a self-powered process. And in general, it’s enough to pretend to be ignoramuses
    1. Alexander Mironovsky
      Alexander Mironovsky 2 June 2020 17: 14 New
      0
      Probably these "ignoramuses" not only take this into account, but also research various technologies.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 2 June 2020 17: 52 New
        0
        Pretending is not to be. Nevertheless, active process technologies provide for systemic and complex transformations. In this case, again, they are talking about finding a panacea
  • Operator
    Operator 2 June 2020 17: 28 New
    +1
    There are two types of stealth coverage and one type of stealth filler:
    - metallized film coating of the cockpit lantern, shielding electromagnetic waves of the radio range in order to eliminate their reflection from the internal equipment of the cockpit;
    - finely divided ferromagnetic filler polymer coating of the aircraft;
    - honeycomb filler composite glider aircraft up to 20 cm thick.

    The metallized coating not only reflects the radio waves, but also protects the cabin equipment from electromagnetic radiation.

    In connection with the polymer base of the ferromagnetic stealth coating, it peels off intensively when heated in flight at supersonic speed, in the region of engines, when flying in a dusty atmosphere and in rain.

    Cellular filler scatters not only millimeter and centimeter waves but also decimeter waves, however it takes up too much space in the airframe, therefore it is used only in the construction of stealth bombers.

    A promising solution is the manufacture of a glider entirely from carbon fiber, the carbon fibers of which absorb radio emission.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 2 June 2020 18: 00 New
      +1
      You contradict yourself. Carbon is not a shielding material, at least the range of radio waves referred to. Therefore, at a minimum, it is apparently necessary to add the appropriate filler in such a volume that the distance between the dispersed components corresponds to the density of magnetic fluxes and, accordingly, to the range of passage of the corresponding perturbations. But again, this is passive protection.
      1. Operator
        Operator 2 June 2020 18: 15 New
        +1
        You first wrote an adequate comment - indeed, in addition to continuous carbon fiber, carbon fiber must be used in chopped form in order to disperse radio emission.
  • demo
    demo 2 June 2020 17: 37 New
    0
    Yes.
    And I was hoping that the author would call "by exactly" the materials that are used in the manufacture of stealth coverings.
    OK, the joke.

    Coverage, which the author did not say, is not just a set of physical abilities.
    RLI can be different.
    And if in one range the coverage is "stealth", then in the other, it is not "stealth" at all.
    What to do?
    It is not possible to provide the same invisibility with any coating.
    So you need to look for and (if possible) find other solutions.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 2 June 2020 18: 08 New
      +3
      The solutions are quite simple like on an alien aircraft. There is a range of flight speed when an aircraft becomes invisible not only for radio waves, but also the scale of our human range of electronic magnetic perception. This means that at a certain speed, ionization processes form the potential of a certain invisibility scale on the surface. This means that the totality of decisions is reduced to optimal in key aspects of both the form and speed of flight, and I think the flight direction in relation to the source of observation
      1. demo
        demo 2 June 2020 21: 57 New
        0
        I see everything in a different direction.
        Imagine glass with a size of two by two meters.
        If you look through it, then you simply do not see it.
        And if you expand and look at the end, then you see it clearly.
        Here is the direction of the search.
        Permeability of light (waves) in one direction, and not permeability in another.
        The same goes for the e / m wave.
        Need to look for it.
        And ionization at high speeds is a double-edged sword.
        And you and you do not see anything.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 2 June 2020 22: 37 New
          0
          That's for sure! Therefore, there is a conversation in terms of priority development. In addition, we need to calmly relate to the fact that we, as some device working within the boundary limits of physical capabilities and within the limits of perception and within the limits of intellectual potential, are very, very settled.
          1. demo
            demo 2 June 2020 22: 45 New
            0
            In our ranks (I mean humanity) are individuals who do not care about all the rules and attitudes.
            They make unique breakthrough discoveries.
            Even in my short memory there are several meetings with very talented people.
            True, for most, the fate of both themselves and their inventions is quite tragic.
            Here the law of inexpediency comes into force.
            Those who sit in organizations such as the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation, the Commission on Pseudoscience, etc. instantly make the most draconian decisions.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 2 June 2020 22: 58 New
              0
              I believe that a person with his vanity destroys himself when possessing certain and unique knowledge. Possession and especially fundamental knowledge gives a very deep understanding of the rationality, optimality and some expediency and algorithmic nature of the events in evolution. From here one must very subtly feel the moment of timely submission of information to the masses. I would say there is a certain controllability of the flow of knowledge to the masses.
              1. demo
                demo 2 June 2020 23: 04 New
                0
                A man, even a genius, even an illiterate ignoramus, lives here and now.
                Having come to some kind of discovery, a person instantly forgets who he is and where he is.
                He is overwhelmed by a sense of worth. He is overwhelmed by desires to either make all of humanity happy, or to enrich himself.
                This is where the processes begin.
                Understanding the moment is too subtle a substance.
                Even at rest, not many can soberly and carefully evaluate this. And what about when a person is euphoric?
                It's one thing to create a device that cancels gravity, and another thing to tell about it.
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 2 June 2020 23: 23 New
                  +1
                  In all innovations, the ability to substantiate the most incredible idea is first of all put. Therefore, one must be aware of the vital issues of preserving civilization as such. And this aspect is the ability of a person to work with large or super-intensive data arrays. How much, even I, spoke about the principles of dynamics of non-obvious processes in an array of information flows with which we neglect. So America exploded in a small spark that analysts ignored. So it is in many other global issues. But in the head of the question of analyzing big data are the banal properties of numbers that people simply do not suspect of. And believe me, owning this knowledge does not want to spread too much in the desire to be publicly praised. It is much more interesting to study a person in his attitude to non-associative information.
  • 123456789
    123456789 2 June 2020 17: 52 New
    +2
    Quote: paul3390
    It’s interesting - the Americans kept telling us that one of the most important signs of the 5th generation is a long supersonic without afterburner .. And then it suddenly turns out that somehow it’s not really needed. And they didn’t want him at all ... What made the citadel of democracy revise its own criteria?

    As usual, not having achieved what they wanted, they pretended to want what was achieved
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 2 June 2020 19: 11 New
      +3
      Now everyone is lying! They are shouting about quantum computers, and now they are declaring the impossibility of creating a universal machine. At the same time, they do not even voice the reasons for this impossibility. They talk about hyperspeed aircraft without specifying aspects. In general, elites use the degradation of the intelligence of large masses of people.
  • AlexDetto
    AlexDetto 2 June 2020 19: 23 New
    +5
    Yeah, and again it turns out that the "super innovative" stealth fighter of the United States is seen by ordinary Russian radar, as it was in the past wink
    And goes astray ordinary Soviet RPG wink
  • Vitaly gusin
    Vitaly gusin 2 June 2020 21: 03 New
    -1
    At the same time, an American pilot, William Flynn, in an interview with Defense News, noted that planes face such problems during long flights at supersonic speeds, and in real combat conditions there is usually no need for such long flights.
    But it would not be bad to give a link so that everyone could read for himself what the American pilot William Flynn said.
    https://www.defensenews.com/air/2019/06/12/the-pentagon-is-battling-the-clock-to-fix-serious-unreported-f-35-problems/
  • 123456789
    123456789 3 June 2020 06: 53 New
    +1
    Quote: engenius
    and on a daily basis he (supersonic) 100% is not needed.

    Generation systems:
    There are no single agreements on the properties required for attribution to a particular generation. This generational group is arbitrary, because of which there may be disagreement over individual modifications. Widely accepted is a system that distinguishes five existing generations.
    Several other systems were also proposed (some included non-fighter jets). So, Richard Hallion (English) Russian. In 1990, he identified six generations that did not correspond to those used in the XNUMXst century:
    Subsonic (1943-1950): Messerschmitt 262, Yak-15, MiG-9, F-84 with a direct wing. Mach number: 0,75-0,85.
    Transonic (1947-1955): F-86, MiG-15, MiG-17. Mach number: 0,9-1,05.
    Early supersonic (1953-1960): MiG-19, F-8. Mach number: up to 2 Machs.
    Supersonic limited use (1955-1970): F-104, early MiG-21 and Mirage III. Mach number: from 2,0.
    Supersonic multipurpose (1958-1970): F-105, F-4, late releases of the Mig-21 and Mirage III. Mach Number: ------.
    Highly effective supersonic multi-purpose: F-14, F-15, F-16, F-18, MiG-29, Su-27.
    And to which generation does the subsonic plane belong - first or second?
  • Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 10 June 2020 19: 31 New
    0
    As I understand it, Americans believe that after one or two flights, in real terms, will they have time to change coverage?