Military Review

Gas Qatar: no damn snuffbox at all

79

Natural gas, Qatari interest



Many people learned about the very existence of the state of Qatar only when this tiny country on the edge of the Arabian Peninsula received the right to host the world football championship in 2022. Only a few now know where Qatar is located, and only specialists and especially advanced public know why the country is separated from Saudi Arabia by a canal and how it has existed for many years under conditions of an almost complete blockade by Arab neighbors.

Qatar is believed to be a kind of pro-Iranian enclave on the other side of the Persian Gulf. Deliveries from Iran really support life in Qatar at a very high level, but at the same time, this state has always been considered almost the most reliable and trusted US ally in the region. Interest in Qatar was revived by the events of recent months, when a large gas bargaining unfolded, associated with the prospects of Nord Stream 2 and the supply of liquefied natural gas not only to rich Europe, but also to all continents of the world.


Doha (the capital of the State of Qatar) today is playing more and more actively in the world market, and above all against Russia. As you can see, the prospect of settling in the European market is too tempting, where no one thought to invite Qatar. On May 24, the chief executive officer of QPG State Oil and Gas Company Saad al-Qaabi announced in the Qatari capital:

“Qatar not only does not intend to reduce gas supplies due to the coronavirus pandemic and the economic crisis, but, on the contrary, intends to significantly increase capacity, even if this leads to a further drop in gas prices.”

The businessman substantiated his statement by saying that “we are the most efficient gas producer in the world in terms of costs and therefore we can overcome market shocks.” Mr. al-Qa'abi also added, it seems, to Russia that "many producers will curtail production because of low prices, but for Qatar this scenario is excluded."

It is typical that the very next day Gazprom suspended the export pumping of gas through the Yamal-Europe pipeline (Russia - Belarus - Poland - Germany) for an indefinite period, whose share in Russian gas supplies to the EU is not less than 25%. According to the RF Energy Security Fund of May 26, this is due to the continuing decline in prices and demand in Europe, primarily for pipeline gas.

The issue of growth in LNG supplies, especially Qatari, to Europe was said in a statement only secondarily. However, it is already known that such deliveries in January-April 2020 increased by 15%, with 60% of this growth again occurring in Qatar. And in the context of the statement by the head of QPG, we note that this company shortly before the pandemic managed to conclude contracts in Japan and South Korea for the construction of more than 2020 low- and medium-capacity LNG tankers in 2026-80. And this is in addition to the already existing Qatar 55 ...

For many years to come


Qatar was preparing for a "gas" confrontation with Moscow, as it turns out, half a century ago. On May 29, 1970, the British Commissariat in Qatar, the emirate in the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula, proclaimed the first autonomous government of the emirate. What is called, with a distant "gas" sight.

Since the 1915th century, the country has been led by the dynastic Al-Thani family, which was first under the protectorate of the Ottomans, and then, since XNUMX, already by the British. The first autonomous government of Qatar was established, we repeat, exactly half a century ago, when British firms set a point in the first large-scale studies of the oil and gas resources of the emirate.

Already then huge gas pantries were installed, which can be used in a growing volume for gas supply to the West. Moreover, it was precisely in London that they actively opposed, especially in the 1970s, against long-term gas supplies from the USSR. Six months after the creation of the first autonomous government of Qatar, British business began the development of large reserves of natural gas explored in the 60s off the west and north-east coast of the country.

From the beginning of the 70s, an increasing volume of reserves was explored by British and then American companies. Since the spring of 1974, the oil and gas industry of Qatar and all these works have come under the control of the state company Qatar petroleum-gas (QPG), controlled by the Al-Thani dynasty. This country, with a territory half that of the Moscow Region and a two-million population in the 80s, has become the largest player in the global gas market.

In Qatar, LNG has always been preferred - liquefied gas, because the pipes are pulled too far, and they will pass through not very calm regions. Tankers can sail as long as they like - the main thing is that there is enough capacity for LNG reception. The global demand for LNG has grown many times since the beginning of the 70s, and today it is competing unsuccessfully with demand for pipeline gas.

British, American, and also Italian and Japanese companies have actually created the gas industry in Qatar from scratch. At the same time, they do not even claim high shares in the created capacities. This is done so as not to politically interfere with the Qatari authorities to increase competition with Soviet and then Russian gas. Not surprisingly, since the second half of the 70s, almost all of Qatar’s gas and oil and gas infrastructure as a whole have remained under the jurisdiction of the special forces of the US Air Force and the US Navy. Qatar acts in the modest role of a full-fledged ally there.

One cannot but recall that Great Britain declared the independence of Qatar on September 3, 1971, although under pressure from the United States and Saudi Arabia. The geographic location of the emirate, which literally "wedges" into the center of the Persian Gulf, and even with large reserves of gas and oil, greatly prevented London from "parting" with Qatar.

But since 1956, after the defeat of Britain in the war with Egypt over the Suez Canal, the geopolitical alignment in the region was not in favor of London. This forced the British in 1961 to grant independence to their main oil and gas "box" in the region - Kuwait, in 1967 - to South Yemen. And in the early 70s, along with Qatar, also Bahrain, Oman, the United Arab Emirates (then Treaty of Oman), where there are not much less oil and gas resources than in Qatar. Suren Baliev, deputy minister of gas industry of the USSR, and then director of the academic Center for Oil and Gas Information, noted:

“The discovered reserves of natural gas in Qatar during their operational development can well compete even with growing gas supplies from the USSR to Europe. Already in the early 70's. on the initiative of Great Britain, Western governments and companies discussed with the participation of Qatar and Kuwait the possibility of creating a trans-Arabian gas pipeline from Qatar through Turkey to Greece-Yugoslavia, then to Western Europe. This pipeline could play the role of “collecting” gas from Kuwait and Iraq along its route. ”

In the future, this project was mothballed, as S. Baliyev noted, in favor of the development of the Qatari LNG production, but the same project "remains in the future, in order, along with the Qatari, Kuwaiti and Algerian LNG, to reduce the dependence of Western Europe on Soviet gas supplies."

Gas Qatar: no damn snuffbox at all

Meanwhile, gas production in Qatar grew by leaps and bounds. According to national statistics, Qatar's average annual production increased from 5,5 billion cubic meters on average for 1971-1976. up to 20 billion in 1980-1985 and up to 180 billion cubic meters in 2019. The jerk was successful due to the colossal resource base and low cost of production - one of the lowest in the world in this industry. This is the 4th place in the world (after the USA, Russia and Iran).

Liquid market


According to OPEC and the International Energy Agency for 2019-2020, the volume of gas reserves (natural and gas condensate) in Qatar is about 14% of the world. At the same time, at least 65% of these reserves are developed and processed. The production of LNG in Qatar is a record in terms of capacity and volume: it is produced on 14 lines with a total capacity of 104,7 billion cubic meters. meters per year, created in the mid-80s - early 2010s by companies in the USA, Great Britain, Italy and Japan.

This represents about 25% of global LNG capacity (2019). Almost all of them are state-owned: the shareholding in the national state-owned company (QPG) in them is 70-85%. At the same time, Qatar has long had a huge national fleet tankers: according to 2019, these are 55 technologically advanced medium and high capacity gas carriers. Most of them are South Korean-built Q-max class with a deadweight of 270 thousand tons and Q-flex with a deadweight of 166 thousand tons.


Such vessels fully supply Qatari LNG to almost 30 countries, including China, Japan and 10 EU countries. And in terms of the volume of exports of this product (up to 110 billion cubic meters in 2019), Qatar has an almost 25 percent share in the global export of LNG. And this is what it has been since the early 2000s.

The mentioned project of the trans-Arabian gas pipeline Qatar-Kuwait-Iraq-Saudi Arabia-Turkey-Europe is not forgotten. The National portal from the UAE and the Russian Internet resource Around Gas recently reported that since 2011 this project has been finalized by a Qatari-Turkish expert group with the participation of British and American experts. The group was created in 2009 by a joint decision of Turkish President R. Erdogan and Emir of Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani.

The well-known political scientist and publicist Robert Kennedy Jr., who comes from a well-known family, the son of Senator Robert Kennedy and the nephew of President John F. Kennedy, quite objectively characterizes the economic and geopolitical goals of the project. Back in February 2016, he wrote in the American journal Politico (Arlington):

“In 2000, Qatar proposed the construction of a gas pipeline with a length of over 1500 km worth $ 10 billion through Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. The proposed gas pipeline, supported in the US, should connect Qatar directly with the European market. The pipeline would give the Sunni kingdoms of the Persian Gulf decisive dominance in the global natural gas markets and would strengthen Qatar, the closest US ally in the Arab world. ”

Moreover, "Qatar hosts two huge US military bases and the headquarters of the US Central Command in the Middle East."

Project implementation

“It would bring the EU, where up to a third of gas consumption - imports from the Russian Federation - are relieved by the stifling gas strategy of Vladimir Putin. Turkey, Russia's second largest gas consumer, is particularly concerned about putting an end to this dependence on its long-standing rival and positioning itself as a profitable energy hub. ”

But naturally, that

“Russians, who sell 70% of their gas exports to Europe, consider the Qatar-Turkey pipeline an existential threat. According to V. Putin, this gas pipeline represents a NATO conspiracy aimed at strangling the Russian economy by eliminating its leverage in the European energy market. ”

In a word, Qatari gas is a lever for further, besides multilateral political and economic pressure on Moscow. Moreover, liquefied gas is already a very real lever, which also comes in a duet with the American one, and pipelines are only potential so far. And Qatar, with all its unambiguous dependence on Iran, has been prepared for this role since the 70s of the last century.

However, much could have turned out quite differently if the new leadership of the USSR after Stalin had not rejected all projects for the production of LNG and, accordingly, its export. The choice at that time was unambiguously in favor of the record-breaking creation of raw material pipelines to Europe. Our country could well get ahead not only of Qatar in "liquefying" the world gas market ...
Author:
Photos used:
irtag.info, iran.ru, gastopowerjournal.com
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 3 June 2020 05: 29 New
    +7
    Pipeline gas will always be cheaper at the same “starting” costs, but politics can steer, as always.
    Question about the prospects for tomorrow?
    1. Crowe
      Crowe 3 June 2020 06: 07 New
      12
      But tomorrow, nothing will change, gas and oil will be fundamental components of the global economy, humanity will not switch to solar energy during our lifetime ..
      1. Malyuta
        Malyuta 3 June 2020 06: 30 New
        +4
        Quote: Crowe
        But tomorrow, nothing will change, gas and oil will be fundamental components of the global economy, humanity will not switch to solar energy during our lifetime ..

        I am very sorry hi and without even wangyu say in the next 10 max. For 15 years, the world will abandon hydrocarbons by 90 percent.
        1. rocket757
          rocket757 3 June 2020 06: 57 New
          +7
          Quote: Malyuta
          refuse hydrocarbons by 90 percent.

          From which specifically? from coal, oil and gas too? from all at once? or there will be nuances ....
          1. Malyuta
            Malyuta 3 June 2020 07: 04 New
            +5
            Quote: rocket757
            or there will be nuances ....

            Of course they will, only from this the trend towards renewable energy will not change yes
            1. rocket757
              rocket757 3 June 2020 07: 28 New
              +5
              Quote: Malyuta
              renewable energy trend will not change

              the trend will not change, for objective and subjective reasons, but for the "high-speed" process parameters, they can be corrected, it is still necessary to look.
              By the way, everyone is forced to abandon coal, heavy oil products, and so on, at least in the energy and transport sectors. And these are very large numbers, percentages and volumes of pollution. But nobody is going to reduce anything about gas. TILL!
              So, the level of hydrocarbon use will decrease, this is an objective situation ... but nuances are expected.
              1. Keyser soze
                Keyser soze 3 June 2020 09: 38 New
                +6
                But nobody is going to reduce anything about gas. TILL!


                Mistaken colleague :) The new green deal of the EU (Green deal) excludes gas from the priorities of the union and financial institutions will no longer subsidize anything other than renewable energy.



                So the trend is visible to everyone. Coal, gas, oil - all that is mined under attack.
                1. rocket757
                  rocket757 3 June 2020 09: 47 New
                  -1
                  Quote: Keyser Soze
                  You are mistaken a colleague :) The new green deal of the EU (Green deal) turns off

                  Do you seriously assume that this will somehow affect the volume of gas consumption at this point in time ??? take off your pink glasses, otherwise it can happen from such graphs / projections of heartburn ... directives, even \ especially those so long, can stretch \ shrink like an accordion.
                  However, empty arguments. The reality may turn out to be completely different ... the cold will crash, for example, with winds and clouds, then from ONE eco-green there will then be ONE, i.e. alcohol ... and even if there is where to produce it.
                  1. Keyser soze
                    Keyser soze 3 June 2020 09: 57 New
                    10
                    Do you seriously assume that this will somehow affect gas consumption


                    Nuuu, not today and not tomorrow, but in the future 10 years, yes .... But this is not very far. And ten years ago I did not believe that Bulgaria could produce 20% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, but this is already a fact.

                    cold embed, for example, with winds and clouds, then from ONE eco-green then one OH will remain, i.e. alcohol


                    laughing Since childhood, I have not seen a real winter, as in fairy tales. But the Greek climate stubbornly creeps north to us. This winter, I didn’t even understand that winter is in the yard.
                    1. rocket757
                      rocket757 3 June 2020 10: 42 New
                      +2
                      Quote: Keyser Soze
                      not today and not tomorrow, but in the future 10 years, yes ....

                      He wrote, more than once, that alternative energy can be successfully developed only in combination with energy-saving technologies. There is a lot of production from everything, a person is not ready to refuse, so everything must be done in a complex.
                      Quote: Keyser Soze
                      This winter, I didn’t even understand that winter is in the yard.

                      It's right. There were no classic hurricanes and tornadoes on the Central Russian Upland !!! If he hadn’t seen, suffered, would never have believed request
                      But, weather, climate, the value is not stable, we can’t forecast ... who knows how it will be in a few years ???
                      All the same, as long as technology does not allow you to safely drop the classical energy industry ... the boom is to wait for the balance of our desire and our capabilities to reach an acceptable level. In the meantime, there will be both.
                    2. Brturin
                      Brturin 3 June 2020 15: 05 New
                      +3
                      Quote: Keyser Soze
                      childhood did not see this winter, as in fairy tales. But the Greek climate stubbornly creeps north to us. This winter, I didn’t even understand that winter is in the yard.

                      Winters may disappear, but here the periods of summer abnormal heat are somehow more and more frequent, you can recall the last year, and the heat these peaks are also consumption ... and how it all will turn out in 10 years .... it’s green green but ...
                      “We are all in the same boat. It cannot be that the country is losing, the budget is losing, and we are paying a higher price for green energy, ”the prime minister said ... In April, the Security Service of Ukraine issued a report in which the special services claimed that the uncontrolled growth of renewable energy sources threatens the country's energy security, because due to the growth of “green” generation, the production of cheaper electricity is reduced. https://regnum.ru/news/economy/2950626.html
            2. Oyo Sarkazmi
              Oyo Sarkazmi 3 June 2020 13: 57 New
              +4
              With the disappearance of gas, cement will disappear. And how to build wind turbines without it? With the disappearance of coal, Chinese and American aluminum and steel will disappear. What to make solar panels of?
              By the way, Russia is the most “renewable”, a quarter of the electricity production is hydroelectric power.
              And you won’t do anything with transport, just as you worked on kerosene, it will work that way.
        2. d4rkmesa
          d4rkmesa 3 June 2020 08: 44 New
          +5
          Running too far. For example, a new coal-fired power plant has recently been commissioned in Germany. Mammoths, like Uniper, just won't give up.
          1. Grading
            Grading 3 June 2020 18: 06 New
            +1

            The first energy carrier in Germany for the first time became the wind
            According to preliminary data, the generation of electricity through wind, biogas, the sun and other renewable energy sources increased by 2019% compared to the first quarter of 14,9, thereby continuing the rapid growth of recent years. At the same time, wind power showed the greatest growth. In just a year, it increased production by 21,4%. Destatis experts attribute this to the fact that the first three months of this year in Germany there were especially many windy days. After all, the installation of new wind generators has recently stalled.
            Offshore Wind Farm in Germany
            Recently, marine wind farms have been intensively built in Germany
            As a result, the wind for the first time became the main energy carrier in Germany; it accounted for more than a third of all electricity generation: 34,9%. The share of biogas amounted to 5,5%, in photovoltaics (solar energy) it increased from 4% to 4,8%.
            At the same time, there was a landslide reduction in the share of coal in the German electric power industry. In total, over the year this share decreased by one third and, according to the results of the first quarter, amounted to 22,3%.
            1. bang
              bang 4 June 2020 11: 42 New
              0
              As a result, the wind for the first time became the main energy carrier in Germany; it accounted for more than a third of all electricity generation: 34,9%.
              24,5%
              And the rest of the figures are in doubt.

              1. Grading
                Grading 4 June 2020 16: 04 New
                0
                All questions to the Germans!

        3. antivirus
          antivirus 3 June 2020 08: 45 New
          -3
          and give your teeth to the shelf - just drink kefir? or forget about "15 years"?
          so I say - "fly to the stars in 15 years," instead of building aircraft carriers (ha ha). remember SPKoroleva, he was going before
        4. _Sergei_
          _Sergei_ 3 June 2020 09: 57 New
          -4
          Are you ready to switch to environmental electricity if you have to pay 3-4 times more? I think you will be against it.
        5. ccsr
          ccsr 3 June 2020 12: 11 New
          -2
          Quote: Malyuta
          and without even wangyu say in the next 10 max. For 15 years, the world will abandon hydrocarbons by 90 percent.

          What do you propose as an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels for aviation and marine ships, especially given the fact that economists predict a global increase in traffic by this transport?
          1. Grading
            Grading 3 June 2020 17: 50 New
            -1

            How is methanol not fuel for you?
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 3 June 2020 18: 49 New
              -1
              Quote: Grading
              How is methanol not fuel for you?

              I already heard about the “revolutionary” biofuel, which is a mixture of monoalkyl esters of fatty acids, which was obtained from agricultural products. Where is it?
        6. Nastia makarova
          Nastia makarova 3 June 2020 12: 14 New
          -3
          after 100 years it may refuse
        7. Grading
          Grading 3 June 2020 17: 01 New
          +1
          Gazprom’s management is reckless and short-sighted if earlier Gazprom was practically a monopolist in the European market and could dictate its conditions at the highest possible prices, today the market conditions are completely opposite
          - prices are at the lowest levels and their decline began even before the pandemic
          - LNG came to the market long-term contracts expire more and more gas is sold on the "spot market"
          “As Novatek reported in April, in the first quarter, world trade in liquefied natural gas increased by 13% year-on-year, to about 101 million tons. And, judging by the words of the head of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Alexander Novak, May 25, the growth of LNG supplies and the decrease from the pipes continue. "
          -gas from Azerbaijan will go to Europe by the end of the year
          -the alternative is gaining momentum "in the first quarter of 2020, more than half of all electricity generated in Germany was provided: 51,2%."
          All this did not happen today and Gazprom has repeatedly warned that it is necessary to start gas processing, and gas chemistry should leave gas chemistry methanol, ammonia, urea, formalin, resins, etc. there are a lot of products and there are projects in Ust-Lug and others. but then a drop in the bucket!
          If the leadership of the gas giant still does not give up the “hapka” strategy, then tomorrow we will again hear news like Roscosmos about the trampoline and the search for the guilty!
          1. Artashes
            Artashes 3 June 2020 20: 50 New
            +2
            I completely agree with Grading. The Federal Republic of Germany and others like it were hooked onto the USSR gas pipeline needle back in the early 70s. Where already then they assured that "the Soviet crane is politically in our hands." Where is it about the LNG distribution, when Brezhnev himself (like Putin today) lobbied for these pipelines, being still only the CPSU Secretary General. “Faithful Leninists” did not even understand that IT humiliates the country, the party and speaks of its economic disadvantage ...
            But the West was touched: the Soviet Communist Party itself “asked” him to buy gas, supply pipes, give loans for this, etc. How to refuse ???
            Even Albania in those years (not to mention China) objectively ridiculed such a policy of Moscow - but even the Alb. Radio jammed in the USSR - in 62-86 years. inclusive! For to refute - there was nothing ...
            The USA already created LNG capacities in the late 40s, and, for example, in Algeria this was done by the French in the mid-60s. But in the USSR these things were rejected at the end of the 50s (the CIS-CIS projects near Kuibyshev and Nikolaev at the end of the 40s - beginning of the 50s) - they say, we will deliver through the pipe - they will not go anywhere. This is supposedly cheaper and politically more reliable.
            And so it went, but the "brotherly" countries of stable buyers and transit countries soon died. Together with the West, they began to dictate their "gas" conditions to Moscow. Now, we are bypassing Ukraine - through Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece. Yes, even across the Baltic - just to sell. But the price of domestic gasification for the “Russians” is a record high for decades compared with all the “gas” countries (if we take into account the parity of national purchasing power, that is, at the dollar exchange rate in reference to the real specific income of the suffering ...)
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 4 June 2020 11: 50 New
              -1
              Quote: Artashes
              we’ll supply, they say, through the pipe — they won’t go anywhere. This is supposedly cheaper and politically more reliable.

              Complete garbage - we did not have money for the entire construction, and the Germans offered to supply their pipes to pay for future deliveries, and we had to make this compromise.
              Quote: Artashes
              Together with the West, they began to dictate their "gas" conditions to Moscow.

              Nevertheless, gas export has been giving us huge profits for many years - why give up a cash cow?
              Quote: Artashes
              But the price of domestic gasification for the “Russians” is a record high for decades compared to all the “gas” countries

              You simply never compared the territories of Germany and Russia, that’s why gasification in Germany is for you and we have the same cost, but in reality our costs will be higher, not only because of the distances, but also because of the climate .
      2. rocket757
        rocket757 3 June 2020 06: 34 New
        11
        Welcome soldier
        In general terms, there are no special issues .... it is interesting how events will happen in our country, what will be done?
        Maybe, finally, "our property" will come to the house of each of our inhabitants ???
        The market is not only over the hill, we and the country have reservs! It is necessary to show .... well, what needs to be shown ??? responsibility and state thinking, t.s. .....
        1. Crowe
          Crowe 3 June 2020 06: 47 New
          15
          No, inside the country the market has exhausted itself, because they haven’t gathered gas in the villages and aren’t going to sell it ... It’s not profitable, panimash. Why provide our citizens with blue flame heat, it’s much more profitable to sell abroad .. They and my mother are they would have sold it, there would have been a buyer. By the way, I noticed a couple of years ago that gas is no longer burning with blue light, but with yellow - a sure sign that they’re “body-fed”, so draw conclusions, who are more valuable to millers, their fellow citizens or overseas.
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 3 June 2020 06: 53 New
            +7
            Quote: Crowe
            It’s not profitable, panimash. Why should our citizens provide the heat of the “blue flame”, it’s much more profitable to sell abroad.

            Over the hill, they can be severely plucked ... what foreigners are now stubbornly doing. Reserves must be realized everywhere! For this, you don’t need to spend dollars, everything will go to the treasury of the state ... if, of course, this is "the property of the country" and not someone else!
            1. Malyuta
              Malyuta 3 June 2020 07: 07 New
              +9
              Quote: rocket757
              Over the hill, they can be severely plucked ... what foreigners are now stubbornly doing.

              Yesterday, the video watched the jets of Russian billionaire officials or vice versa billionaire officials being “parked” at a Swiss airport.
              1. rocket757
                rocket757 3 June 2020 07: 35 New
                +5
                This is understandable ... there are some. But, not everyone can turn serious attendants at the place of work ... as a rule, they went upstairs being not so “poor orphans”.
                In general, only a court can pronounce a sentence! but many of us don’t have confidence in our courts, so sho ..... we’ll find out as an option \ we won’t know when not later.
                Anyway, neither "knowledge", nor "confidence", nor ... US, will not bring us closer to a bright, fair future !!! We must deal with the matter ....
          2. antivirus
            antivirus 3 June 2020 08: 47 New
            0
            gas is more expensive than firewood - a job and a modern slave are needed. without them, it makes no sense to pull the tube into the house.
            the circle is closed.
      3. Domovenok
        Domovenok 3 June 2020 09: 45 New
        -2
        Quote: Crowe
        But tomorrow, nothing will change, gas and oil will be fundamental components of the global economy, humanity will not switch to solar energy during our lifetime ..

        Well, oil is gas, it’s not only energy resources .. And the huge chemical industry, here you can list for a long time what they make from oil, well, there’s a lot of gas too ..
      4. NF68
        NF68 3 June 2020 17: 13 New
        +3
        Quote: Crowe
        But tomorrow, nothing will change, gas and oil will be fundamental components of the global economy, humanity will not switch to solar energy during our lifetime ..


        In the first quarter of 2020 in Germany from renewable sources received 52% of all electricity generated in the country. Windmills yielded 2 times more than solar panels.
        1. ccsr
          ccsr 3 June 2020 18: 56 New
          0
          Quote: NF68
          In the first quarter of 2020 in Germany from renewable sources received 52% of all electricity generated in the country.

          Nevertheless, the vast majority of households in Germany use natural gas to heat and produce hot water, so this is not an indicator. Moreover, alarming calls about the disposal of used wind generators have already arrived from Germany - no one really knows at whose expense they will do this expensive dismantling, and there are more and more such facilities.
          1. Grading
            Grading 3 June 2020 19: 32 New
            +1
            Two-thirds of all new residential buildings built in 2018 in Germany were equipped with renewable energy heating systems. At the same time, such systems for the first time became the main source of heat in new buildings, the report of the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Destatis) published on June 6 emphasizes.
            Two-thirds of new homes use renewable sources
            According to him, last year in Germany 107 new residential buildings were built. In most cases, a combination of various technologies was chosen for their heating. 200% of new buildings equipped with equipment for the use of renewable energy sources (RES). In almost half of all new homes (66,6%), renewable energy has become the main source of heat. In 47,2, its share was 2017%, and, for example, in 43,3 - 2015%.

            Heat pump and solar panels on the roof of a residential building in Goeppingen
            Accordingly, the share of new homes in which natural gas is the sole or main source of heat decreased in 2018 to 43,0%. A year earlier, this indicator was 47,4%, and in 2015 - 51,5%. Thus, in German housing construction is increasingly less likely to rely on gas. Only 9,8% of all new buildings constructed last year decided to use district heating, oil products, electricity and other technologies.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 4 June 2020 11: 44 New
              -1
              Quote: Grading
              Two-thirds of all new residential buildings built in Germany in 2018

              If you lived in Germany, then you saw that there are still many private residential buildings built in the 19-20th century, and not every homeowner is wealthy to refuse gas, especially in those regions where it is cold in winter and a lot of snow falls.
              Quote: Grading
              Natural gas is the main source of heat; in 2018, it fell to 43,0%. A year earlier, this indicator was 47,4%, and in 2015 - 51,5%.

              For Germany, this is a huge figure, and given the fact that they have winter weather without the sun at all, I think you are in a hurry to bury gas in home households early. Although I do not deny that they will use alternative sources, no one knows how much they will refuse from gas. But in addition to households, industry consumes gas - their gas needs will increase, and even their analysts say this, because the rejection of nuclear energy will force them to switch to gas.
              1. Grading
                Grading 4 June 2020 16: 24 New
                -1
                The Germans are talking about something else. The share of natural gas in the German power industry remained in the 1st quarter of 2020 at about the level of the first three months of last year and amounted to 12,7%. Thus, the “blue fuel”, which Russia is also the main supplier to Germany, only retains but does not increase its relatively modest share in electricity production.
                So gas goes to the German market mainly for heating and only a small part of it is consumed by the chemical industry as a raw material, while its use as a motor fuel in Germany is actually put an end to. It follows that gas demand is decisively dependent on weather conditions. That is why the current warm winter in Germany and other EU countries has greatly contributed to a significant drop in consumption and prices for Gazprom products.

                The share of nuclear energy in the German electric power industry decreased in the 1st quarter of 2020 by 16,9% and now amounts to 11,6%. So the upcoming final rejection by Germany of nuclear energy, involving the shutdown of the last German nuclear power plants by the end of 2022, does not threaten the stability of energy supply in the country.

                Especially if renewable energy sources will continue to rapidly increase their share in the German electric power industry. The unusually sunny and partially very windy April and May in Germany make this scenario very realistic. At least in the 2nd quarter.
                1. ccsr
                  ccsr 4 June 2020 18: 36 New
                  0
                  Quote: Grading
                  The Germans are talking about something else. The share of natural gas in the German power industry remained in the 1st quarter of 2020 at about the level of the first three months of last year and amounted to 12,7%.

                  Here is what they write at the end of 2019:
                  Gas for Germany is the second most important source of energy (more important than wind and sun)

                  Germany consumes a little less than 90 billion m3 of gas per year. At the same time, gas in Germany is the second most important source of energy after oil (more important than even renewable wind and sun): gas accounts for 23% of the energy consumed in the country (Fig. 2).

                  Fig. 2. Structure of energy consumption in Germany by sources, 2018


                  https://pfladvisors.com/analytics/russian-gas/
                  1. Grading
                    Grading 4 June 2020 19: 23 New
                    -1
                    Here is what they write at the end of 2019:
                    Have you carefully looked whose data is it?
                    1. ccsr
                      ccsr 4 June 2020 19: 53 New
                      0
                      Quote: Grading
                      Have you carefully looked whose data is it?

                      Why are you not satisfied with the data of financial analysts?
          2. NF68
            NF68 4 June 2020 16: 39 New
            +2
            Quote: ccsr
            Quote: NF68
            In the first quarter of 2020 in Germany from renewable sources received 52% of all electricity generated in the country.

            Nevertheless, the vast majority of households in Germany use natural gas to heat and produce hot water, so this is not an indicator. Moreover, alarming calls about the disposal of used wind generators have already arrived from Germany - no one really knows at whose expense they will do this expensive dismantling, and there are more and more such facilities.


            Gas heating is not much cheaper than electric and more practical than heating not using heating oil. And the electricity received from their own solar panels is used by everyone who installed these batteries. The only insoluble problem so far is the accumulation of surplus generated electricity. And it seems that this problem in the next 10-15 years will not be solved, it is too difficult and expensive. So far, they decided to create a single energy supply network within the EU and transfer electricity to the EU as necessary. To remove the used windmills is not a problem. The entrances to them have long been made. Cable failed. The location is in place. We fitted the crane. They removed the upper part of the windmill or completely together with the pipe on which it is mounted. Dismantled and taken away for disposal. It is much simpler, cheaper and faster than installing new windmills. On land, a windmill on average runs 25-30 years. On water, on average, 5-10 years less.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 4 June 2020 18: 46 New
              0
              Quote: NF68
              To remove the used windmills is not a problem. The entrances to them have long been made. Cable failed. The location is in place. We fitted the crane.

              Not everything is as rosy as you describe, even in Germany:
              Renewable energy production in Germany subsidized by the state. There are fixed tariffs for the energy generated by windmills for its purchase - high enough for the windmill to pay off. But the subsidies cease after 20 years of using the windmill, after which its maintenance becomes economically inexpedient.

              At the same time, the decommissioning and disposal of a windmill, costing € 30000 per windmill. Since windmills have to be made gigantic to produce enough energy, To disassemble the windmill, you have to use two 150-ton cranes. If, as some owners do, thoughtlessly toss a huge windmill onto the ground, then after that it will be much more difficult to dispose of or sell it on the secondary market.

              https://habr.com/ru/post/384869/
              This article appeared in 2015, when 7 thousand windmills had a term of 15 years:
              Secondly, the oldest windmills in Germany are already starting to be 20 years old. And according to local laws, a 20-year-old turbine is subject to disassembly and recycling - unless the owner spends money on its repair and modernization and proves the device’s operability to a special commission. And next year, 7 thousand out of 25 thousand working windmills will be 15 years old.

              So not everything is so great with recycling - who will pay for the dismantling, and who will cover the costs. interesting question ..
              1. NF68
                NF68 5 June 2020 16: 17 New
                +1
                Quote: ccsr
                Not everything is as rosy as you describe, even in Germany:


                This work is for several days. I have often watched how new windmills are installed. I saw how windmills are being repaired after a lightning strike. All this is done quickly and without problems.

                If we are talking about previously installed windmills, then this is quite possible. I cited data published this year.

                So not everything is so great with recycling - who will pay for the dismantling, and who will cover the costs. interesting question ..


                Highways and railways repair how they repair bridges on these highways. And there is nothing particularly complicated about this. Is replacing windmills more difficult? All these issues have long been resolved, and who and how much will allocate money was also known from the very beginning.
        2. Grading
          Grading 4 June 2020 19: 46 New
          -1

          this is last year
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 5 June 2020 18: 10 New
            0
            Quote: Grading
            this is last year

            These statistics concern the generation of electricity from various sources. But gas in private households is used for heating and heating water, because it is cheaper than using electric heating elements in homes.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 3 June 2020 07: 27 New
      13
      It would be nice to connect Qatari gas to Siberians in apartments and in houses. Not that their Siberian, the local do not give for domestic use.
      1. Domovenok
        Domovenok 3 June 2020 09: 50 New
        -2
        Quote: siberalt
        It would be nice to connect Qatari gas to Siberians in apartments and in houses. Not that their Siberian, the local do not give for domestic use.

        Forwarded by airplanes? So they are easy, just forgive me .. At first everything will be free, and only then wink
      2. Overlock
        Overlock 3 June 2020 23: 50 New
        +3
        Quote: siberalt
        It would be nice to connect Qatari gas to Siberians in apartments and in houses. Not that their Siberian, the local do not give for domestic use.

        then, instead of Gazprom, the office needs to be called Qatar-gas. I’m sure they will gasify very quickly, but then it will not be Russia
    3. Civil
      Civil 3 June 2020 07: 30 New
      +8
      The battle of the Arabs with the Slavs for the right to deliver gas to the damned gay men is in full swing. And the owner of the western puppets of the USA wants to supply gas. The question is, what will happen if these bastards stop buying gas saturated with a patriotic spirit for their godless vile Jews?
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 3 June 2020 07: 40 New
        -2
        Quote: Civil
        The question is, what will happen if these bastards stop buying gas saturated with a patriotic spirit?

        Options - partially freeze, overheat, remain without light! This is how the situation will turn out.
        They need a lot more than either side can deliver ....
    4. Normal ok
      Normal ok 3 June 2020 12: 19 New
      +4
      Quote: rocket757
      Pipeline gas will always be cheaper, at the same "starting" costs, but politics can steer

      The article says in black in Russian that Qatar has the lowest production costs in the world.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 3 June 2020 13: 02 New
        -3
        Quote: Normal ok
        Quote: rocket757
        Pipeline gas will always be cheaper, at the same "starting" costs, but politics can steer

        The article says in black in Russian that Qatar has the lowest production costs in the world.

        Production + liquefaction + transportation + losses during transportation (not small and the farther \ the hotter the climate, the more) + liquefaction + transportation to consumers and everywhere LOSSES OF VOLUME of gas. There are still limitations, nuances, let us leave them aside.
        Pipeline gas is ALWAYS cheaper, more technologically advanced and so on and so forth.
        You can raise the price above reasonable! But who will chop the chicken that lays the "golden eggs"?
    5. Oleg Zorin
      Oleg Zorin 3 June 2020 12: 59 New
      +1
      "starting" conditions are different everywhere. Here is such a thing.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 3 June 2020 13: 07 New
        +1
        Different, but all parties work on this if they want to work further and prosper ...
  2. codetalker
    codetalker 3 June 2020 06: 25 New
    +5
    Some kind of magic ... The British discovered gas fields, the United States provides defense, the supply of many goods to Iran, and for some reason everyone calls gas Qatari ...
    1. Carnifexx
      Carnifexx 3 June 2020 08: 44 New
      +2
      He brings money to Qatar
    2. Oleg Zorin
      Oleg Zorin 3 June 2020 13: 03 New
      +2
      In fact, it is simple. Look, imported seed potatoes, planted somewhere near Smolensk on the field, are processed with imported equipment. BUT! In the fall, when God is brought into the light, it becomes domestic.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 3 June 2020 06: 48 New
    +1
    I wonder how profitable all our flows will be if Qatar breaks into the European market with its gas.
    1. d4rkmesa
      d4rkmesa 3 June 2020 09: 00 New
      +3
      If Gazprom does not stop its projects, then it’s not very profitable, to say the least. Qatar has long burst into Turkey. Here it is necessary to reduce the excess infrastructure, to refuse the services of some "brothers" from Eastern Europe who want to eat too much.
    2. Brturin
      Brturin 3 June 2020 12: 05 New
      -2
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I wonder how profitable all our flows will be if Qatar breaks into the European market with its gas.

      And how profitable will be the American, Australian and other LNG projects and how much these Messrs. Will be delighted with this, because besides Russia it undermines their economy, are they ready for anything for this or not .... And then in the article enough of the main cost of Qatari LNG. Dumping for a long time - you can look at the Saudis with oil, somehow there ... And you don’t have to discount Russian LNG ... Here, the deputy head of Novatek Denis Khramov said - “Our engineering decisions will lead to the fact that, in addition to very low production and exploration costs, we will be able to achieve the cost of liquefying less than $ 2 per million British thermal units "...
  4. Strashila
    Strashila 3 June 2020 06: 59 New
    +3
    “In 2000, Qatar proposed to build a gas pipeline with a length of over 1500 km worth $ 10 billion through Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Turkey.”, Now it’s clear why there is a lot of trouble in Syria, the interests of this rhinestone are simply not provided for in the implementation of this project.
    1. d4rkmesa
      d4rkmesa 3 June 2020 08: 56 New
      +2
      It was 20 years ago and has lost relevance for 10 years already.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 3 June 2020 07: 29 New
    +4
    I remembered: the uniform is English, the shoulder strap is French, the tobacco is Japanese, the ruler is Omsk. Oh, my scumbag, American, There will be no money, I'll take it for sale
  6. evgen1221
    evgen1221 3 June 2020 08: 44 New
    -2
    A pipe that seems to be TANAP if I don’t confuse? Well, taking into account the route through Syria and also the price per km with such a long distance, I think they will not build it in this life and century. And largely because of the cost of laying and the mass of unpredictable local elites and external players who want to bite off a piece of fatter, in general, a bunch of contradictions with these routes. And if you wanted to throw money and political resources into the West in the West, then you would have started pulling back to the USSR in the 70s, but not really))). The USSR was somehow more predictable and even with our planned economy it cost a lot less gas to drag than from Arabia . But tankers don’t carry much.
  7. d4rkmesa
    d4rkmesa 3 June 2020 08: 55 New
    -5
    The Qatari pipelines will definitely not take place - it’s expensive to pull through Iran (and competition, it’s necessary to build gas somewhere from its part of the field), and KSA is now the enemy and does not want to have anything to do with them. Most likely, LNG production growth will stagnate amid competition. By the way, LNG is already being attacked by eco-activists about stripping gas. In the future, Europe will also cease to support LNG projects for environmental reasons, i.e. there will be no loans from the EBRD and other banks.
    1. parma
      parma 3 June 2020 10: 15 New
      +2
      Do you think gas is transported through the pipe without costs or environmental damage?
      1. d4rkmesa
        d4rkmesa 3 June 2020 13: 25 New
        -2
        By no means, where did you get it? Although, compressor stations can be electric, like the Norwegians. This is not the point, but whether Qatar can increase LNG production at times? In the place of Gazprom, I would begin to actively feed eco-activists.
  8. Doctor
    Doctor 3 June 2020 10: 48 New
    +2
    The card is beautiful. But the question arises: why is everything through Syria?
    But through Israel in any way?
    1. podymych
      3 June 2020 10: 54 New
      0
      On the promised land, everything is simple. Intifada sir!
      1. Doctor
        Doctor 3 June 2020 10: 55 New
        +1
        On the promised land, everything is simple. Intifada sir!

        So the gas is supposedly Arabic. The funds will go to fight the infidels. laughing
  9. Operator
    Operator 3 June 2020 11: 25 New
    -6
    A strange article: either Qatar is an appendage of Iran (if there are American bases in the Arab country), then the Qatari gas pipeline is planned to be laid through Saudi Arabia and Kuwait immediately to Turkey (bypassing Iraq) - by space, apparently laughing

    In fact, LNG (requiring very expensive liquefaction and subsequent gasification operations, as well as the use of more expensive maritime transport) at a price will always be more expensive than pipeline. Plus, the irreconcilable economic and political contradictions between Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq make the position of the dwarf state of Qatar extremely shaky. He can only thank Allah that it is possible to supply liquefied gas to India and China. The European market for Qatari pipeline gas is tightly blocked by economic competitors Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, as well as the price of Russian pipeline gas.

    In turn, India and China have alternative gas suppliers represented by Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan and Australia. Therefore, Qatar does not shine except to continue to fight them in the Asian market. In general, the future of Qatar as a state is vague due to the political crisis in the United States covering it.
  10. Suslin
    Suslin 3 June 2020 12: 41 New
    -2
    The production of metals is very energy-consuming, and the production of rare-earth metals and even more so. The transition to environmentally friendly transport - electric cars, etc., will require increased electricity consumption. Hence, gas demand will increase significantly. And you also need to consider the costs of the disposal of production waste and the operation of such vehicles. And this is only for transport!
  11. Boratsagdiev
    Boratsagdiev 3 June 2020 13: 33 New
    0
    Vootoot ... and I already wrote that Qatar wants to increase production by 22% by the 50nd year, and by 27% by the 100th.
    Gazprom is already looking for "sponsors" to build its "candle factory" to liquefy gas.
    The revolution needs to be organized there, or how the Americans do it - sanctions.
  12. Undecim
    Undecim 3 June 2020 14: 04 New
    +1
    Shipments from Iran really support life in Qatar at a very high level,
    Podymov with Chichkin in his repertoire - far from reality.
    Qatar ranks first in the world in per capita GDP, and Iran is not even among the top ten among Qatar's foreign trade partners. In addition, Qatar has a positive foreign trade balance. And further. This tiny country is ranked 46th in the world in arms imports.
  13. Grading
    Grading 3 June 2020 18: 16 New
    +1
    Quote: Undecim
    Shipments from Iran really support life in Qatar at a very high level,
    Podymov with Chichkin in his repertoire - far from reality.
    Qatar ranks first in the world in per capita GDP, and Iran is not even among the top ten among Qatar's foreign trade partners. In addition, Qatar has a positive foreign trade balance. And further. This tiny country is ranked 46th in the world in arms imports.

  14. Grading
    Grading 3 June 2020 18: 42 New
    0
    Quote: evgen1221
    TANAP

  15. Grading
    Grading 3 June 2020 18: 51 New
    0
    Quote: ccsr
    Quote: Grading
    How is methanol not fuel for you?

    I already heard about the “revolutionary” biofuel, which is a mixture of monoalkyl esters of fatty acids, which was obtained from agricultural products. Where is it?

    Here it is
  16. alone
    alone 3 June 2020 20: 22 New
    +2
    Qatar, in addition to oil and gas, still occupies a significant place in the fertilizer market. They are produced from natural gas .. And they also have a large metallurgical company that produces steel, which is exported entirely .. Imported raw materials ..
  17. Grading
    Grading 4 June 2020 19: 58 New
    -1
    [quote = ccsr] [quote = Grading] Germans say something else The share of natural gas in the German electric power industry remained in the 1st quarter of 2020 approximately at the level of the first three months of last year and amounted to 12,7%. [/ quote]
    Here is what they write at the end of 2019:
    The source is not German so clear