Military Review

Holster and sword belt. History and origin of terms

59

The sword belt and the holster almost invariably attached to it are indispensable attributes, without which it is difficult to imagine the appearance of an officer of any army for at least the last couple of centuries. Naturally, for such a long time, these elements of military equipment have considerably changed, while retaining their original names. But where do their roots come from?


The most interesting thing is that the two names, familiar to every person who is more or less familiar with military subjects, have a completely different homeland. It is not surprising: the French porte-épée, which comes from the merger of the words porter - “wear” and épée - “sword”, appeared in those days when there was no individual gunshot weaponswho needed a holster was simply not there. France - knights with swords, and then musketeers that have been memorable to all of us since childhood ... Where else could the term for a cold war band be born?

In Russia, harnesses appeared under Peter the Great, who diligently introduced the regiments of the foreign system, and, accordingly, the ammunition unusual for the archers who were leaving in the past. No, it is clear that checkers and sabers in Russia have long been worn, as a rule, not by a belt sash. This piece of equipment was simply called differently. The appearance of the belts of the officers and non-commissioned officers dates back to about 1705 - the height of the active phase of Peter's military reforms.

They carried a saber, saber, sword, sword, or bayonet on a sword belt. Later - a revolver or a gun. Those who refer to this name as all belts strictly covering the camp of officers captured in old photos are somewhat mistaken. The leather belt with two thinner straps that went under the shoulder straps was not a harness at all, but a set of hiking belts to which binoculars in a case, a flask, various pouches could be attached. On the harness, the Russian hussars also carried the so-called tashka - a small cavalry leather bag, which later evolved, according to many historians, into a modern officer’s tablet.

Holster, by the way, is also a cavalry term, but originally from Turkey. There, the word kubur was the name of a leather cover fastened at the front of the rider's saddle. As a rule, in this case there was a bow. Over time, when this weapon gave way to the "firearms", they did not change the way they were worn for the cavalry - why? This name came to Russia quite late.

As soon as the Russian cavalrymen called the cases for pistols (the infantrymen carried this weapon behind their belts and “didn’t get smart”): a pistol gun, a pig, a rifle arm. The most common was the name "olstra" or "alstryad", which was, like much in the then military terminology, re-translated into the Russian style by the German word holster. The holster, in fact, has come into official use since the time of Emperor Alexander I, firmly taking a place in the army vocabulary by the time of the Patriotic War of 1812.

Since then, more than 200 years have passed, holsters have long become an attribute of equipment of almost all types and branches of the army, as well as special services, divided into types of hidden and open wearing, operational, tactical and God knows what else. And they are increasingly being made not of leather, but of completely different materials. The name itself lives on and it is not going to leave both military and everyday speech.

Holster and sword belt. History and origin of terms


The army sword belt has turned more into an attribute of the parade uniform. Although a complete rejection of its use in the usual version of the service did not happen.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / Holster for PM
59 comments
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  1. Tugarin
    Tugarin 2 June 2020 12: 40 New
    +3
    I have a holster from a revolver lying around. A son will be born - I will give him soldier
    1. novel66
      novel66 2 June 2020 12: 49 New
      23
      it would be better to holster a revolver ..
      1. neri73-r
        neri73-r 2 June 2020 13: 55 New
        +4
        And, preferably, with cartridges ....
        1. novel66
          novel66 2 June 2020 13: 56 New
          +5
          bucket! bucket of ammo!
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 2 June 2020 17: 04 New
        +1
        Who would give me a revolver (with cartridges)
      3. Catfish
        Catfish 2 June 2020 17: 17 New
        +2
        Better two, and preferably free. laughing
      4. Sklendarka
        Sklendarka 2 June 2020 21: 58 New
        0
        And in my pioneer camp, they smoked a sample of the 1870s from the bedside table, like Mikolka’s steam locomotive ....
    2. major147
      major147 2 June 2020 22: 32 New
      +4
      Quote: Tugarin
      I have a holster from a revolver lying around.

      And if not about terms and origin, but about belts? I had to blaspheme at the time, still half a bag is lying around, many are very small (what can I hide there, hehe). I consider our relatives uncomfortable. The shoulder strap is forward on one side, the holster with PM (or even APS) is pulled to the other side. In my opinion, the best version of the sword belt is a two-shoulder four-belt option with a ring.

      1. starpur
        starpur 3 June 2020 01: 00 New
        +1
        This harness is called the equipment of Andrianov, the one who has the Andrianov compass.
        1. major147
          major147 3 June 2020 09: 42 New
          0
          Quote: starpur
          This harness is called the equipment of Andrianov, the one who has the Andrianov compass.

          Now in online stores it appears as "Cossack".

          By the way, the officer field uniform of the Russian army of the time of the first MV was considered the best in the world.
  2. Victorio
    Victorio 2 June 2020 12: 49 New
    +1
    As soon as the cases for the pistols were called by the Russian cavalrymen (the infantrymen wore this weapon in their belts and "did not get clever"): pistol holder, pig, rifle head.
    ===
    Yes. philologists and government officials do not catch mice, there is a constant, and most often thoughtless, borrowing. I suppose already more than half of the words have foreign roots.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 12: 58 New
      +5
      God bless me!
      When Mother Elizabeth officially tried to rebrand foreign names. One of the innovations is the replacement of the foreign word “accountant” with the domestic “accountant”! Do not take root!
      And so offhand foreign words: horse, chest, hut, sword - continue to continue? smile
      1. Victorio
        Victorio 2 June 2020 13: 08 New
        +3
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        God bless me!
        When Mother Elizabeth officially tried to rebrand foreign names. One of the innovations is the replacement of the foreign word “accountant” with the domestic “accountant”! Do not take root!
        And so offhand foreign words: horse, chest, hut, sword - continue to continue? smile

        ===
        not "rebranding", but the selection and creation of a similarity in the Russian language to a new foreign word that is going to be used. it's too late to replace old borrowed words, but to stop, and now, it's high time
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 2 June 2020 17: 37 New
          +1
          Quote: Victorio
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          God bless me!
          When Mother Elizabeth officially tried to rebrand foreign names. One of the innovations is the replacement of the foreign word “accountant” with the domestic “accountant”! Do not take root!
          And so offhand foreign words: horse, chest, hut, sword - continue to continue? smile

          ===
          not "rebranding", but the selection and creation of a similarity in the Russian language to a new foreign word that is going to be used. it's too late to replace old borrowed words, but to stop, and now, it's high time

          This was, perhaps, 50-60 years ago, when there was almost no TV as such. The order of the chairman of the State Television and Radio was enough, not to use foreign words and that’s all. I still remember how Anna Shatilova said: literary Russian, but young people used slang in all. And now in the age of the Internet is unlikely to succeed
          1. Victorio
            Victorio 3 June 2020 13: 40 New
            0
            Quote: vladcub
            And now in the age of the Internet is unlikely to succeed

            ===
            Of course it will not work if you do nothing. and leave the story to historians. otherwise the Russian language will soon become history.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 2 June 2020 17: 21 New
        +1
        The namesake, if I'm not mistaken, Barkov advocated the purity of the Russian language.
        In the 21st century it is almost impossible to limit borrowings from other languages.
        There are borrowings in both Chinese and Japanese
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 2 June 2020 17: 48 New
        +1
        Shop, head, passion, revolution, computer, phone.
        I'm not a boy anymore, but if I have time, I try to watch: "clever and clever", before they had a competition of the Russian language and baldel, when it turned out that the words that I considered Russian, but they are borrowed.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 2 June 2020 21: 30 New
          0
          As in Russian there are a lot of borrowings from the Turkic language (horse, barn, melon, shepherd, head, cauldron ...) and the Spaniards are full of borrowings from Arabic, in particular, a camel is called a dromedary. At a certain stage, the winners (we have Tatars, they have Arabs) brought their words to the vanquished.
          1. Crane
            Crane 3 June 2020 12: 49 New
            +1
            Now count how many Russian words are borrowed from these "winners".
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 3 June 2020 19: 21 New
              0
              "Winner" refers to a very specific historical period of time, both for Russians and Spaniards.
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 2 June 2020 14: 05 New
      +4
      Well, in France there is a special ministry that regulates the purity and correctness of the language, but for that they are Monsieur, who know a lot.

      Language develops, language development has its own laws, one of them is the law of slang formation, and it says that any term within a social group will strive for simple sounding and for two - at most three - syllables.

      And now take all these selyukovy "natsyuryutsyurupniks" and compare them with the borrowed and slang word "condom".

      And so what’s got a simpler sound and more meanings?

      This applies to any common words, and this is the rule of any language.

      English here, by the way, is more advantageous, there are generally fewer syllables in the word, since there is no tradition to hang two prefixes or two suffixes or a bunch of endings on the root, and all manipulations of the semantics of a phrase are through articles, and they are 1-2 syllables.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 14: 28 New
        +4
        Guys and girls, without juggling! In the late Soviet Union, the specialty in my diploma was called Jurisprudence. In 1999, I received a diploma in Law. Today - "National Security"! To be honest, I think that the Soviet “Jurisprudence” is more accessible, closer, dearer and more understandable! Alas, “Lawyer”, “Legal Advisor”, “Legal” are not our original Russian words, but understandable to everyone without exception!
        Take our names: Andrew, Peter, Nikolai, etc. Almost most have a Greek or Roman tradition! Where will we go !! t
        In fact, any correction, pressure from the top will have - resistance from the bottom! Hacking off your shoulder is not trite productive! For example, under Peter, instead of the “March” Team, there was a “go” familiar to the Russian ear!
        Invite CSKA to rewrite the Charter?
        So, if anyone bears for the defense of “our great and mighty” on an armored train, I’m with you! But the commission for its protection in government, I will betray the obstruction even earlier! You need to start small and from childhood, for example, by protecting the letter "ё"!
        Ps I wonder how the French will fight with domestic catering in the form of "Bistro" !!! laughing
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 2 June 2020 14: 43 New
          +4
          No way.
          Once again, another Derrida from the screen will explain to them that using this word in this meaning in French is correct.

          They stupidly have no such thing that they have not yet reconciled with something in their history, and equally respect that the monarchist periods with their personalities, that republican. And they equally honor both Jeanne de Arc and those who sent her to the fire.

          We are still learning and learning from them in this regard.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 14: 48 New
            +2
            So, all is well, what is being done in moderation, without rushing, wisely and carefully !!!
            Regards, Vlad!
            R.s. I am sincerely glad to read your comments! Especially in history, informative !!!
            Good day!
      2. Living7111972
        Living7111972 2 June 2020 23: 08 New
        0
        The French language appeared after the French Revolution, and before this duchy they spoke different languages ​​...
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 3 June 2020 13: 11 New
          0
          You confuse language and dialect.
          If explaining the difference is very simple and understandable, a dialect becomes a language only when it has its own army.
          On the contrary, by the way, it also works.
  3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 12: 49 New
    +7
    Rezanulo!
    No, it’s clear that checkersand sabers in Russia have long been worn, as a rule, not having closed their sashes.

    The checker in the army of the Russian Empire was a fairly modern weapon, which is one hundred years or so younger than the sword belt.
    The word "cabaret" in everyday life of the Russian army appears after the Russian-Turkish wars and did not always have a modern "pistol" meaning, but was a commonplace cover. For example, for a banner. Simply, for the Russian rear of Matushka-Ekaterina, the “cabaret” turned out to be closer and more understandable than the German “Ulstra” (equipment, bandage).
    Well, the last harnesses also allowed the carrying of short-barreled firearms - for example, Tyutcha's harness.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 2 June 2020 17: 35 New
      +3
      Vlad, hello a lot of times. smile
      I don't remember where, but I read, and more than once, that at one time the holster was called in the masculine gender - "KOBUR". Haven't met?
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 18: 01 New
        +1
        All right! But "cabaret" in the Russian language did not take root!
  4. Mouse
    Mouse 2 June 2020 12: 51 New
    +6
    Pulling a harness from the closet,
    Colonel will pour to the brim,
    And the skin will warm warm
    And the heart will gently sing ...

    He was a stern commander.
    And he strictly asked from the fighters,
    But honor didn’t defile the uniform,
    Looking seven Deaths in the face ...

    Okay officer uniform
    Sat on his shoulders
    Hitting the sighting circle more than once
    And in the white block of the doctor ...

    He is modestly indifferent to awards,
    Stroking his belts with his hand
    And he could listen for hours at home
    Their creak, giving peace ...

    Easy wrapped footcloths
    And walked in familiar boots
    Foresters visit clearings,
    Trying on the personality of the mushroom picker ...

    The military has a different form,
    There are no belts already familiar
    And berets squeezed in instantly
    In the harsh life of his guys ...

    Colonel realizes in his heart
    That time in the stall is not worth it
    And waiting for the parade in May
    To silently stand at the black plates ...
    hi
    1. Sklendarka
      Sklendarka 2 June 2020 13: 21 New
      +5
      ,, .. how to dress my belt
      - all dumb and dumb ... "/ army humor / laughing
      1. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee 2 June 2020 14: 18 New
        +2
        Quote: Skalendarka
        harness

        Port u Pei, Port Yankees, Port Arthur, Port Noi, Port Ret, Port Said, Port Cigar, Port Fell, Port U Galia, Port Monet ...
        "Conduit and Schwambrania" Lev Kassil. lol
        1. Sklendarka
          Sklendarka 2 June 2020 15: 22 New
          0
          And shtripki, trainer .... weak? good
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 14: 41 New
        +2
        The military has a different form,
        There are no belts already familiar
        And berets squeezed in instantly
        In the harsh life of his guys ...

        Yours faithfully! In police, harnesses and kabura are still in use today, although black. In principle, “old men” like me have been “stupid” to this day with “brown” equipment for everyday wear, and a charter black one for “looks”!
        By the way, a self-respecting employee always has his own “leather” - soft cabaret with which he goes to fire! Even if it “rolls through”, then a couple of places the strings are “worn out”, the strap “is not threaded according to the charter”. The exercises are fast, so a split second is here, a quarter is there! lol
  5. svp67
    svp67 2 June 2020 13: 07 New
    +6
    In Russia, harnesses appeared under Peter the Great, who diligently introduced the regiments of the foreign system, and, accordingly, the ammunition unusual for the archers who were leaving in the past.
    Of course NO ... It seems that before Peter I we had NOTHING. And even before him, from the time of the "Great Troubles" in the Russian army, we had regiments of "foreign order", where at first only foreigners served, and then Russian volunteers began to fall, but the officers were foreign, somehow I don’t think that my ammunition they called differently ...
    1. Mouse
      Mouse 2 June 2020 13: 11 New
      +2
      Ancestor! wink
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 2 June 2020 14: 11 New
      +3
      In turn, I somehow do not think that besides these officers, someone called their ammunition in these regiments in the native terms of these officers, especially in everyday life.

      For - what's the point?

      For the purity of the language and the search for great ancestors then they didn’t really bother, there were enough other problems, and indeed vital ones.
      1. svp67
        svp67 2 June 2020 14: 17 New
        0
        Quote: AllBiBek
        In turn, I somehow do not think that besides these officers, someone called their ammunition in these regiments in the native terms of these officers, especially in everyday life.

        What do you call them, in your opinion? If many of them, if not most, were their compatriots? Did they all call in Russian? So what?
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 2 June 2020 14: 41 New
          +3
          So the paper has been preserved, from most of these regiments, and there is still debate over the decoding of individual terms.

          They clearly did not fight for the purity of the language, and even more so for spelling. I say well, there were enough really important problems, without any far-fetched from a good life.
          1. svp67
            svp67 2 June 2020 15: 17 New
            0
            Quote: AllBiBek
            So the paper has been preserved, from most of these regiments, and there is still debate over the decoding of individual terms.

            For what period, if not secret?
            1. AllBiBek
              AllBiBek 2 June 2020 15: 26 New
              +2
              Yes, for anyone, when paper has become relatively inexpensive, it’s from the end of the 15th century in Russia.

              Most of all, the stump is clear, from Peter's times onwards, but at least for this period google the official papers of irregular regiments, and the late Zaliznyak would have grabbed his head there.

              But the most that neither is the "people", without any foreign officers there, and without the pernicious influence of damned European languages ​​and military terms.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 3 June 2020 17: 41 New
      0
      Sergey, t. n "regiments of the new system" in Russia appeared during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich.?
      With all due respect to Peter's accomplishments, the evolutionary path of Russia's development is still preferable, the people would be cheaper.
  6. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 13: 13 New
    +5
    As I put on my belt, so dumb and dumb .. laughing ... The only military wisdom I disagree with. Although there were different individuals. By the way, what is this PMovskaya holster without a strap about? Although he himself never used it, except for drill inspections, it was too short for my 192 cm. I had an old Soviet holster, worn out, made of excellent "non-dubious" leather, not like modern, "wooden" and clammy
    1. Mouse
      Mouse 2 June 2020 14: 23 New
      +1
      as I take off my belt ...
      I'm getting smarter and smarter ....
      Litter ....
      1. KVU-NSVD
        KVU-NSVD 2 June 2020 14: 31 New
        +2
        Practice has shown that the hardness of army oaks with the presence of a sword belt does not correlate. But..! this is not bad, for it is said that the more oaks in the army, the stronger our defense! laughing
      2. Alex_You
        Alex_You 2 June 2020 14: 55 New
        +2
        A harness on a bare ass, the mind comes even faster.
        1. Tochilka
          Tochilka 2 June 2020 23: 24 New
          +2
          Yes sir! The fortress of the officer belt repeatedly felt the same place. Especially if the father went to parent-teacher meetings. Raising the level of consciousness, discipline and other indicators began right from the threshold. lol
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 14: 43 New
      +3
      Oak! Yes there was a time, I even had to soak in kerosene !!! laughing
      Tell someone today they’ll laugh !!! good
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 2 June 2020 14: 33 New
    0
    something my brains began to boil. In the picture there is a sword belt, moreover, from the tsarist times, a leather belt with two thinner leather straps extending under shoulder straps, but this is not a sword belt as many people mistakenly think, the author claims. I do not understand. The White Guards flaunted in a similar harness in the Elusive Avengers, the headquarters captain Ovechkin. And in the Soviet Army, the officers of the sword belt with one strap, skew over the shoulder. Correctly wrote no?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 14: 58 New
      +4
      Yes, this is a sword belt! Do not bother !!! The author plays with tracing-books of clothing property of the 30s of the last century, and swings at the end of the year before last! When the sword belt (equipment) was just equipment from several belts.
      By the way, even today in the rear books “trenichik” (Makarov pistol safety strap) is listed as “a Nagan revolver strap”! And PM is already in service, God forbid - there will be seven decades !!! wink
      1. Looking for
        Looking for 2 June 2020 15: 49 New
        +1
        I advise you to ask what a "trainer" is
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 June 2020 18: 03 New
          0
          Quote: Seeker
          I advise you to ask what a "trainer" is

          Thanks, I know! I’m used to the so-called “safety strap” at the new duty station! Why dont know?
        2. Lynx2000
          Lynx2000 2 June 2020 23: 05 New
          +2
          Quote: Seeker
          I advise you to ask what a "trainer" is

          A belt trencher is a leather ring on a belt.
          A pistol trench is a safety cord or modern polymer twisted "telephone wire" attached to the pistol grip, the other end to the metal ring of the belt trench.

          On the test shooting for speed, we - the holsters of the hidden wearing, received a belt with a belt holster, it was oak with a tight braid ...

          Regarding parenting in childhood - I had a choice, a belt for a sword belt or an officer belt. The belt does not hurt!
    2. for
      for 2 June 2020 15: 40 New
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      two thinner leather straps going under the shoulder straps,

      In my understanding, the straps on the belt will act as suspenders for the belt
      so that the load when wearing a holster is not outweighed and distributed. And two straps for carrying more checkers or sabers. While writing looked in the USSR were with two straps in front and one or two at the back.

      1. starpur
        starpur 2 June 2020 20: 01 New
        0
        Equipment Andrianov. The one that is Andrianov’s compass, yes ...
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 2 June 2020 18: 57 New
    0
    The author, it would be gorgeous to add for clarity the image of the sword belt of the early 19th century.
    I think 2/3 of us know what a 20c sword belt looks like. And what a sword belt from the time of Napoleon looks like, I can’t imagine.
    Perhaps, a saddle bag for pistols?
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 2 June 2020 20: 08 New
    0
    Quote: Alex_You
    A harness on a bare ass, the mind comes even faster.

    Immediately smart will become.
  10. Andrey Vasilievich
    Andrey Vasilievich 3 June 2020 10: 25 New
    +1
    Quote: Skalendarka
    ,, .. how to dress my belt
    - all dumb and dumb ... "/ army humor / laughing

    The main thing is that you can’t argue. And if he hadn’t worn a harness, but donned it, he probably wouldn’t be dumb.
  11. bird
    bird 3 June 2020 11: 16 New
    0
    "Drafts and sabers in Russia have long been worn, as a rule, not by plugging their waist sash. This piece of equipment was simply called differently." - But as?? I just wondered ..