Military Review

War of the future. How the US will wage war in 2040

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War of the future. How the US will wage war in 2040
AFC motto: Forging the Future


The United States is making plans for the further development of the armed forces and their materiel. A special place in them is occupied by network technologies and artificial intelligence (AI), capable of solving a wide range of problems. So far it is only about the introduction of certain elements of this kind, but plans are already being made for the distant future. The other day, some curious thoughts about the implementation and application of modern and promising technologies became known.

Future Command


A key role in the planning and development of army development issues is played by the Army Futures Command (AFC), formed less than two years ago. On May 30, The National Interest published excerpts from a conversation with its head, General John M. Murray. The commander revealed the possible ways of developing the army and its equipment for the coming decades. The topic of conversation was the expected change in the US Army until 2040.

The general noted the complexity of planning and solving tasks. AFC in planning has to take into account not only the future needs of the army, but also the expected capabilities of science and technology. It is also necessary to predict the development of the latter, so that the required technologies appear in the expected period.

According to General Murray, the main areas of development for army systems are network-centric technologies and AI. Separately, they can give certain advantages, and their combined application promises special benefits.

To help a person


AFC proposes to continue the development of network technologies. The general control loops for diverse forces and assets have already proven their potential and should be improved. One of the ways of modernization will be the introduction of AI elements. The latter can be interesting in isolation from networks, to reduce the load on people. At the same time, facilitating the work of crews, operators, etc. is almost the main task.


Demonstration of the principles of "multi-operation" in the chart from AFC

In the network sphere, the main goal is the development of technologies of so-called Multi-Domain Operations Troops should be able to work simultaneously in space, in air, on land and on water, as well as in the electromagnetic spectrum and cyberspace. All systems of various kinds involved in the operation must work in the same information management environment. This management approach is highly sophisticated, but provides obvious benefits.

The introduction of artificial intelligence is offered at different levels. So, such systems can be useful in creating new equipment for the ground forces, aviation or fleet. By collecting, processing and issuing information, AI will be able to take on the routine tasks of managing equipment, and people will be able to focus on priorities.

AI will be useful at the operational-tactical or operational-strategic level. He will be able to process large volumes of intelligence data, information about the situation on the battlefield, the actions of his troops, the enemy, etc., and then issue recommendations to the command. All this will increase the speed and efficiency of the staffs.

The prospective appearance of the troops proposed by the Command of the Future provides for the active development of all existing directions and the introduction of new technologies. While maintaining the existing "manned" samples of equipment of different classes, new unmanned systems should be introduced. Each manned and robotic platform should become a node of a large information-control network and possess AI elements with the necessary capabilities.

Real projects


J. Murray revealed some features of past and current works in the context of information networks and artificial intelligence. Some of them are conducted within the framework of existing programs, while others are created with a reserve for the future.


Helicopter Sikorsky DB-1 while learning to fly on their own. In the future, his AI will be able to control drones. Photo Sikorsky / Lockheed Martin

New technologies are being introduced in the Future Vertical Lift (FVL) program, which aims to create a high-speed multi-purpose helicopter. They propose to equip such equipment with a set of various sensors, as well as their own computer for processing incoming data. First of all, this is done to simplify piloting as much as possible - such issues are being worked out in the Controlled Flight into Terrain project. Its successful completion will facilitate the work of pilots, as well as provide the opportunity to continue the flight in case of their defeat.

A highly efficient exchange of raw and processed data between helicopters, other equipment and headquarters will be provided. Accordingly, the commanders will be able to get the most complete picture in almost real time. It is expected that the FVL will be able to work with UAVs of one kind or another, exchanging data with them and giving orders.

Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing new technologies and solutions. In the early stages, there are still projects to create complex systems, including a manned vehicle and driven crewless systems - both land and air or sea.

One of the projects of this kind is intended for the program of promising land combat vehicles Next-Generation Combat Vehicle. The possibility of introducing AI-based unmanned reconnaissance and data processing systems into the artillery systems of the Long Range Precision Fires program is being considered.


The expected appearance of the missile system LRPF. Networks and AI will help him hit faster and more accurately. US Army Graphics

Another promising area is autonomous “swarms” of unmanned systems. Such complexes will have to conduct reconnaissance, and in the future solve combat or other missions. It is curious that in the context of unmanned systems, the army so far shows interest only in systems that complement existing models and in which key decisions are made by man. AFC is proactive and is already engaged in fully autonomous complexes.

Collaboration work


The technological development of the armed forces is carried out through the joint work of different structures with different tasks. Moreover, as noted, there are serious difficulties. In preparing for future conflicts, the army and industry are often mistaken in their forecasts - it is necessary to reduce such risks.

For a more complete analysis and the most accurate forecasting, there is the Army Futures Command. It studies the current situation and tries to predict the situation in the future, as well as formulates general recommendations. Then, research and design organizations, such as ARL or defense enterprises, begin to implement the proposed ideas.

In these processes, AFC has a particularly difficult task. The forecasts of this organization must take into account a lot of factors of various kinds, from technical and economic to geographical and demographic. Any current mistake in such work can lead to serious problems in the future. With all this, one should not forget about the “ordinary” mistakes of long-term army planning.

Future wars


AFC is currently conducting research and making plans until the forties, inclusive. Solutions and technologies are proposed, some of which have already been accepted for development and will appear in the foreseeable future. Other ideas have long been studied, worked out and put into practice - and now they need to be improved.


DARPA's Squad X pilot complex is another Pentagon AI development. DARPA Photos

For example, the US Army has long and actively used a variety of network systems and structures that simplify data exchange and troop control. The command of the future army proposes to continue the development of this direction. Smart armaments are widely used and AI elements are being introduced. In the future, their role and scope will increase.

At the moment, we are talking about the systematic development of existing areas with the simultaneous creation of fundamentally new technologies. In the future, all these developments should be combined with each other and improve the technique of familiar classes. However, the implementation of all such plans will not be simple and quick - according to current plans, this one will take at least 20 years.

Thus, with the successful solution of all the tasks posed by AFC specialists, by the forties the US army will change dramatically. It will be as saturated as possible with the most modern and high-performance electronics connected to powerful information-management networks. Manned vehicles will enter the battlefield, in the water area and in the contested airspace, with the support of robots of varying degrees of autonomy. The processing of data at headquarters will be done by artificial intelligence, capable of giving the generals the best recommendations. However, this is still a long way off both in time and in the efforts required to carry out all the necessary work.
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  1. codetalker
    codetalker 2 June 2020 18: 08 New
    +2
    And will the USA be in the forties? This question can be asked about other countries. Times are not very stable.
    1. Shurik70
      Shurik70 2 June 2020 18: 26 New
      +3
      Wars of the future are wars of robots.
      Let the person give orders for the attack. But only the robot can manage to repel the attack. And only the robot can take revenge if there is no one to give the order.
      Specifically, the United States ... FIG knows. Its collapse was predicted for a long time, but it still stood ... While different groups could come to compromises. But now (thanks to Comrade Trump) no compromise has been found. The current pogroms are clearly choreographed. They let the "genie" out of the bottle, but will they be able to drive it? We will see.
      1. at84432384
        at84432384 2 June 2020 20: 49 New
        0
        Corona rule clearly shows that in order to destroy the state and its economy, no expensive hardware is needed at all. It is enough to launch a virus and then "vaccinate" the population. Moreover, we will also pay for this "vaccine" (as in the Third Reich, the relatives of a murdered prisoner were sent a bill for his destruction). These are all distracting maneuvers. What else could there be "artificial intelligence" !? Only in the fevered brains of liberal globalists such as Gref and Sobyanin.
      2. YOUR
        YOUR 3 June 2020 03: 47 New
        +2
        Quote: Shurik70
        Wars of the future are wars of robots.

        Each action will have its own opposition. They will begin to develop electronic warfare systems, various viruses, and these robots will be mad at their bullets, or they will become useless trash. In the end, everything will return to a man with a gun, or it will come to such an extent that we will fight with bows. But we’ll fight anyway
        1. Shurik70
          Shurik70 3 June 2020 22: 13 New
          0
          Quote: YOUR

          Each action will have its own opposition. They will begin to develop electronic warfare systems, various viruses, and these robots will be mad at their bullets, or they will become useless trash

          By the way, electronic warfare is now controlled mainly by automation. Man only tunes her up.
    2. Keyser soze
      Keyser soze 2 June 2020 18: 47 New
      +6
      And will the USA be in the forties?


      Are you expecting to bend again? laughing

      If you read a new American story, you will see that this did not happen.
      1. codetalker
        codetalker 2 June 2020 19: 24 New
        +3
        If you read world history, you will see how many states (which have reached high development) have ceased to exist.
        1. Keyser soze
          Keyser soze 2 June 2020 20: 08 New
          -1
          If you read world history,


          If you understand the story that you read, you will see that not one of them has bent at the top of the power of its army and economy.
          1. codetalker
            codetalker 2 June 2020 20: 36 New
            +2
            In your USA, at the top of the power of your army and economy?) It is clear that you read a new American story, but did not quite understand.
            1. Shurik70
              Shurik70 2 June 2020 20: 59 New
              +2
              At the expense of the "top" of the economy - I agree.
              Most of their economies are bloated. It could not be otherwise in a country where banks and their lending run the economy. So to get real numbers, official ones should be divided by ten (if not more)
              1. Keyser soze
                Keyser soze 2 June 2020 21: 18 New
                -6
                Most of their economies are bloated.


                Colleague, have you read the model that Immanuel Wallerstein has defined?


                No one in developed countries holds large factories at home. For this, there are China, Vietnam or Indonesia. But when Shchaty decide to stop patents on 5 nm chips and machines, and Huawei begins to produce its own technology two generations ago (example).

                Eto only you think that the plants are power and might, and the rich watch how to throw them into cheap countries. But you may be mistaken even further.
                1. Voyager
                  Voyager 2 June 2020 23: 56 New
                  +3
                  5 nanometer process technology developed at TSMC, then at Samsung, and this is far from the United States.
                  1. Carnifexx
                    Carnifexx 3 June 2020 08: 02 New
                    0
                    Sorry no, Samsung does not have 5nm, this is pure marketing - they, with EVERY update of their chips (which are not a fountain at all), reduce the manufacturing process. Intel has the most honest nanometers, while AMD 7nm concerns processor elements, so the growth in chip performance is ahead of the decrease in the process technology. I recommend an educational video on PRO hi-tech
                    1. Voyager
                      Voyager 3 June 2020 08: 29 New
                      0
                      I will get acquainted, thanks!
                2. blackice
                  blackice 3 June 2020 04: 56 New
                  0
                  Remind me of the Nobel Prize in economics, for the mathematical confirmation of the impossibility of collapse of the American mortgage market and what happened then?
                  What do you know about Detroit?
                  That Detroit indicator is what the economic power of the United States.
                3. Carnifexx
                  Carnifexx 3 June 2020 08: 06 New
                  +1
                  Sorry, but not Wallerstein's world-system. Institutions play a greater role in the welfare of countries than "colonies". Who did South Korea colonize? And over the past 60 years, the country has lifted itself out of dire poverty - in the past, per capita GDP was at the level of Somalia. The world-system fully describes the world in the middle of the 19th century, although the theory was created to describe modernity, in connection with the failure of orthodox Marxism.
                  1. Glory1974
                    Glory1974 3 June 2020 09: 57 New
                    0
                    Whom did South Korea colonize? And over the past 60 years, the country has escaped from dire poverty - in the past, per capita GDP was at the level of Somalia.

                    Indeed, progress is evident in South Korea. But by what efforts has this been achieved?
                    A 12-hour work day at a 6-day work week.
                    Who agrees to plow like that, and most importantly why? Personally, I do not agree that my children should work for the capitalist like that. My friend went to Korea to work, he says he didn’t work like that in life. This is real slavery.
                4. Vol4ara
                  Vol4ara 4 June 2020 11: 07 New
                  -1
                  Quote: Keyser Soze
                  Most of their economies are bloated.


                  Colleague, have you read the model that Immanuel Wallerstein has defined?


                  No one in developed countries holds large factories at home. For this, there are China, Vietnam or Indonesia. But when Shchaty decide to stop patents on 5 nm chips and machines, and Huawei begins to produce its own technology two generations ago (example).

                  Eto only you think that the plants are power and might, and the rich watch how to throw them into cheap countries. But you may be mistaken even further.

                  And what will happen if China declares war on the states, well, maybe this happens theoretically, and nationalizes all foreign plants with all the technologies and patents?
            2. Keyser soze
              Keyser soze 2 June 2020 21: 08 New
              -2
              In your USA, at the top of the power of its army and economy?


              First place in the world in terms of GDP, first place for the army. And only AI and Network wars are being developed. Interesting everything is ahead. The armies of the Cold War will not even come close to the armies that we will see in 10 years.
              1. codetalker
                codetalker 2 June 2020 22: 26 New
                -1
                You won’t fight the first place in the rating and you won’t feed people.
          2. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 3 June 2020 15: 34 New
            0
            Quote: Keyser Soze
            If you understand the story that you read, you will see that not one of them has bent at the top of the power of its army and economy.

            At the same time, many bent states believed that they were at the top of the power of their army and economy. smile
        2. for
          for 3 June 2020 01: 10 New
          +1
          Quote: codetalker
          highly developed

          Well, what about "your" "Well they are stupid"
    3. iouris
      iouris 2 June 2020 22: 22 New
      0
      Quote: codetalker
      And will the USA be in the forties?

      The question, of course, is interesting. But it is very narrowly formulated: not every bird reaches the middle ...
    4. vVvAD
      vVvAD 2 June 2020 23: 25 New
      0
      Quote: codetalker
      And will the USA be in the forties?

      Will be. Must be. Even if you are hinting at the harm they are doing to the world, it’s worth thinking about this: parasitic creatures, illnesses and other troubles of our lives also exist for something. For example, to keep in good shape and prevent falling into the brain’s sleep. To remain human.
      And then, those who were born there are also people and are absolutely not guilty of having been born there.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 2 June 2020 18: 12 New
    0
    . It is curious that in the context of unmanned systems, the army so far shows interest only in systems that complement existing models and in which key decisions are made by man. AFC is proactive and is already engaged in fully autonomous complexes

    As an option - Eggheads will destroy the Earth! From what sphere of armament it will not be so important, give them free rein, deploy in all directions.
    Their energy, but for peaceful purposes !!!
  3. Mouse
    Mouse 2 June 2020 18: 20 New
    -2
    Sorry of course ... I understand that 20 years will stretch ... But then ... one god knows ...
  4. Vik66
    Vik66 2 June 2020 18: 21 New
    -3
    What about EW? How are they going to fight in such conditions?
    1. Carnifexx
      Carnifexx 3 June 2020 08: 08 New
      0
      They will also have electronic warfare, and the autonomy of the drones will increase.
    2. Vol4ara
      Vol4ara 4 June 2020 11: 09 New
      -1
      Quote: Vik66
      What about EW? How are they going to fight in such conditions?

      In the submissions of the layman, the reb is such a lifesaver, turned on and all the problems are solved in practice, but in general, not a fig
  5. Alexey Kartashov
    Alexey Kartashov 2 June 2020 18: 24 New
    -3
    if they continue to do so, then at 40m they will fight with slingshots.
  6. Operator
    Operator 2 June 2020 18: 24 New
    -4
    The correct headline is "How Canada and Mexico will fight the war in 2040" bully
  7. Masha
    Masha 2 June 2020 18: 32 New
    +1
    Charged for war ...
    The tractor rides ....
    Tyr, tyr, tyr ...
    Who is where ...
    And we are for the world!
  8. knn54
    knn54 2 June 2020 18: 41 New
    +1
    "It was smooth on paper, but they forgot about the ravines" ...
    One point: there are practically no names of American "strategists" among the CLASSICS of military science. And today the military "thought" of the Pentagon is not up to par.
    The ability to kill the Yankees at the height of the army. This can not be taken away.
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 3 June 2020 10: 05 New
      0
      there are practically no names of American "strategists" among the CLASSICS of military science.

      And what names of classics do you know in modern military science? I'm afraid you will not name a single name.
      And those that were 100 years ago are now irrelevant.
      Americans learn fast. At one time they studied all the Soviet operations of the Second World War. The wars they waged showed that they learned the lessons well. Moreover, they creatively developed to such an extent that everyone else in the role of catching up.
    2. lubesky
      lubesky 9 June 2020 00: 18 New
      0
      In fairness, it was they who became the ultimate beneficiaries of the two world and cold. So everything is decided by military strategists. And they think strategically for a long time best of all while they are. Nothing lasts forever, but in the bottom line we have a leader, without military strategists on the board of a common history ..
  9. Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 2 June 2020 18: 54 New
    -3
    In 2040, the United States will no longer fight, the United States is reformatting to the level of a regional power ... Is it with Brazil, where there are many wild monkeys (s)
  10. Masha
    Masha 2 June 2020 19: 01 New
    +3
    ... The greatest Sith and Emperor - Darth Sidious - the whole galaxy was in awe of this name. None of the living knew the limits of his power ... And he himself, admittedly, periodically forgot how cool he was ...
    ... like eggs ... wassat
  11. Charik
    Charik 2 June 2020 19: 25 New
    +3
    Leonid Ivashov said that all this vaccination-chipization is not for you khukh-mukhra-there is a planned destruction of people.
    1. Thunderbringer
      Thunderbringer 2 June 2020 21: 04 New
      +1
      Who is this?
      1. Charik
        Charik 2 June 2020 21: 23 New
        0
        Yandex to the rescue
      2. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara 4 June 2020 11: 29 New
        -1
        Quote: Thunderbringer
        Who is this?

        The Russian military, apparently a good man, is just not doing what he needs. I propose to all anti-vaccinators not to vaccinate their children. Where did the information about chipping come from
        1. lubesky
          lubesky 9 June 2020 00: 21 New
          +1
          By the way, anti-vaccines are most dissatisfied with the lack of a vaccine against the crown, because they can not protest against it
  12. APAHAKC
    APAHAKC 2 June 2020 19: 42 New
    0
    HA HA HA! why would war be needed if there are no PEOPLE !? war is first of all people
    1. Charik
      Charik 2 June 2020 21: 26 New
      +1
      part of it will be destroyed with medication part of the viruses who want to be a slave, will chip out, and I will suppress the resistance with robots, if everything grows together for those who are plotting
      1. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara 4 June 2020 11: 31 New
        -1
        Quote: Charik
        part of it will be destroyed with medication part of the viruses who want to be a slave, will chip out, and I will suppress the resistance with robots, if everything grows together for those who are plotting

        The way out is simple, do not use medicines, do not get vaccinated, sell everything you have and go to Siberia to the Old Believers. How will you be in place, write to us
        1. Charik
          Charik 4 June 2020 11: 34 New
          0
          so I don’t eat pills and do not get vaccinated for 10 years, it is not clear why to sell everything and go somewhere
          1. Vol4ara
            Vol4ara 4 June 2020 12: 16 New
            -1
            Quote: Charik
            so I don’t eat pills and do not get vaccinated for 10 years, it is not clear why to sell everything and go somewhere

            In order not to get sick. So most vaccines are made once in childhood, in the adult state, perhaps only the flu
            1. Charik
              Charik 4 June 2020 15: 14 New
              0
              I did the last time from the flu and got sick after 3 days, after that no
  13. Junior Private
    Junior Private 2 June 2020 22: 11 New
    0
    Quote: Shurik70
    Wars of the future are wars of robots.

    I can’t remember who said: In the XNUMXst century, people will stop robbing, raping and killing. All this for them will be done by robots.
  14. Junior Private
    Junior Private 2 June 2020 22: 27 New
    +2
    Quote: Keyser Soze
    In your USA, at the top of the power of its army and economy?


    First place in the world in terms of GDP, first place for the army.

    The point is not in America at all, but in international capital and the economic system. That capital will move from the United States to Russia or China or somewhere else, as the TNCs have steered the world, they will continue, and by and large they don’t give a damn about America.
  15. gridasov
    gridasov 3 June 2020 00: 12 New
    +1
    We can definitely say that everything that was said about AI is not a fairy tale. People do not even imagine what the brain is in terms of the mechanism of analysis of what is happening and perceived. The mathematics of analysis, and this is what the process of the brain and not only human beings can be called, contains far from the concepts that a person is guided by based on modern scientific knowledge. The creation of AI in its real sense cannot be without owning the fullness of the natural
    intelligence. Therefore, the objectivity of the perception of the future is like pointing a finger at the sky. Even the current issues of the Americans today, they had little idea that this could happen to them.
    1. Carnifexx
      Carnifexx 3 June 2020 08: 13 New
      +1
      An AI turret with a machine gun can be "trained" to kill people with weapons in their hands, and not to kill unarmed ones, with a negligible chance of error, and it is not so important that the "electronic brain" cannot be examined - it will work fine. Already a lot of AI technology has entered our lives, and again the problems that you listed did not interfere.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 3 June 2020 08: 20 New
        -1
        AI primarily involves the work of rapidly variable large data capacities, which are also located at different energy levels. These are not computational methods. You are talking about completely different processes and intellectual tasks.
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 3 June 2020 10: 02 New
          0
          AI primarily involves the work of rapidly variable large data capacities, which are also located at different energy levels.

          he does it. only while it can according to the program laid. But everything is developing, in the future will be able to make decisions by itself. But even at the present stage, its use gives an advantage over the enemy.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 3 June 2020 10: 55 New
            +1
            I will give some example that reflects the difference between what you are talking about and what is mathematical analysis. So. Modern turbines built on the principles of screwing the blades into the elastic external space have reached their dead end when the speed of rotation of these blades leads to flow disruption. Further attempts to adjust the configuration of the plane of these blades in order to avoid areas of variable pressure no longer lead to a positive solution, since the rotational speeds themselves are different and therefore these planes must change shape or be edastic. But this is impossible to achieve. Hence the inability to raise the traction characteristics of both rocket engines and aircraft. In the first case, because there is a so-called turbo fuel supercharger. So, in order to understand and implement solutions to such complex issues, it is necessary to understand the consistency of processes at each point of the turbulent flow. But, this is a dynamic flow with its own parameters at each point. And it is impossible to calculate such a stream by computational methods. So we need some unusual technology for analyzing such processes. And they are not based on the basis of huge data warehouses as a pillar for selective search. And yet a solution was nevertheless found. And this solution allows us to understand that mathematics as a technology for analyzing such super-intensive and fast variables in all parameters of physical data should be somewhat different. The intellectual, and then the rest of the advantage over confrontation with present and future opponents and problems depends on this. Therefore, for any so-called highly potential event levels, a different analysis technique or just-so-real AI is applicable. What is being used now is not AI.
            1. Glory1974
              Glory1974 3 June 2020 13: 22 New
              0
              very interesting. thanks.
              I agree that it is now incorrect to call it AI. Therefore, for the time being it is called "decision support system".
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 3 June 2020 15: 50 New
                0
                Yes, but it is important to note here that the questions of mathematics must be reconciled with the fact that the machine should also work on the same principle. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the need to switch to a multi-polar transistor in order to
                To express the value of a number as a mathematical structure with mega-variable capabilities with a magnetic impulse. Because what scientists now call combinatorial optimization is primitive. After all, the dynamics of the system are necessary depending on the streaming input data. Therefore, computational methods as such should be forgotten.
  16. _Ugene_
    _Ugene_ 3 June 2020 16: 11 New
    0
    SkyNet on the way
    1. lubesky
      lubesky 9 June 2020 00: 24 New
      0
      There is an old igrulya - Fear, a shooter. Suspended turrets under the ceiling and no protection - this is the future))
  17. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 3 June 2020 19: 36 New
    0
    Lots of noodles .. give money and then .. America will be great. The whole message of such planning is in three phrases. In our country, this is based on the mantras "innovative" "nanotechnological" "digitalization" - for the American military on "AI" "Network-centric" and "improved data exchange"
  18. DDT
    DDT 4 June 2020 23: 38 New
    0
    God, what terrible headlines ... God forbid, they won’t be in the 2040s before the war. They will give them hands to stop living medieval thinking
  19. Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 6 June 2020 15: 51 New
    0
    I studied the article, looked through the comments ...
    One thing is good, in the 2040th I will be 63 years old, and those who plan the war by this year will be gone.
    As Einstein said: "I do not know what the results of the 3rd World War will be, but I can say that the 4th World War will be fought with clubs."
    As for the economy, it is divided into the real sector (industry), and, financial (banking).
    Before World War I, the real sector of the economy dominated - the industrial.
    Prior to this, the financial services industry.
    What is war? This is a continuation of diplomacy. What is diplomacy? From the moment of bourgeois revolutions, it is an instrument of the influence of capital ...