Military Review

"The Time of Skydivers" and "Je ne regrette rien"

"The Time of Skydivers" and "Je ne regrette rien"

January 1960, Algeria, student speech against de Gaulle's politics. Student leader Pierre Lagayard in front of the barricade

Having defeated the militants of the National Liberation Front in field battles and defeating the terrorists in the battle for the capital (Algeria), the French seemed to be able to develop success. By 1959, almost all rebel leaders were arrested, killed or fled the country, army units reliably controlled the borders with Tunisia and Morocco, and many underground cells were routed. The disorganized and virtually uncontrolled units of TNF militants could still plunder the indigenous population by collecting “revolutionary taxes” from them, threatening to cut out the family or the whole village in case of refusal. But militarily, they now did not pose any particular danger and already avoided direct clashes with regular French troops or Harki Arabs ready to fight back.

Operation Revival

Under these conditions, the government’s attempts to enter into negotiations with the leaders of the TNF provoked an outbreak of indignation in French Algeria.

On the one hand, too much blood has already been shed between the warring parties, including innocent victims. And this blood shared not only the Arabs and the "black-footed", but the whole Algerian society.

On the other hand, the demands of the TNF leaders on France resembled the conditions of surrender. The Blackfoots, who would decide to stay in Algeria, and the Arabs, their allies, were promised practically nothing and no guarantees were given. But the Arabs in France (there were about 370 thousand at that time) were supposed to study in Algerian schools funded by the French Ministry of Education. Claims were filed for jurisdiction over their Muslim courts, as well as for compensation from the French treasury for “suffering”.

On May 13, 1958, Pierre Lagayard, who headed the Algerian General Students' Association (a participant in the Algerian war, who was demobilized in 1957 and, in the future, one of the founders of the OAS), led the assault on the residence of the Governor of Algeria. He was not to be decisive: it was he who sent the truck to the fencing of the house of the general government, and during these events he was guarded by the Arab detachment Harki.

On the same day, the “Public Security Committee” was created, headed by Raul Salan.

The committee leaders said that the army would be “deeply offended” by the decision to leave Algeria, and demanded the resignation of the government, as well as the adoption of a new constitution and the appointment of Charles de Gaulle as head of state.

General Salan announces army support for Charles de Gaulle, May 13, 1958

Demonstration in Algeria, May 1958. 20 thousand demonstrators in Algeria require the army to defend “French Algeria”

At the headquarters of the 10th division, Jacques Massouet, a plan of operation "Renaissance" was drawn up, which provided for a real landing operation to seize the government offices of Paris. The first "wave" was five thousand paratroopers stationed in Algeria regiments - they were supposed to land at Velizi-Vilacable airbase located near Paris. They would be followed by other combat units from Algeria, which Toulouse parachutists and tank a group from Rambouillet. The link between Algeria and France and an important transshipment base was to be Corsica. Therefore, on May 24, the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment stationed in Calvi took control of the city of Ajaccio, the capital of the island.

On May 29, the Revival operation began (transport planes took off from the base in Le Bourget, which headed for Algeria), but was immediately stopped: the French government and the Chamber of Deputies surrendered and resigned.

That was the end of the Fourth Republic. In the presidential election, Charles de Gaulle won a landslide victory.

Algeria, September 1958, Arab demonstration for the preservation of Algeria as part of France: “Long live France!” "Long live the Army!", "Long live de Gaulle." These people do not yet know that the new president of France will soon abandon them and give Algeria to extremists from the TNF. But the Allies during World War II began talking with de Gaulle only because at a critical moment he unexpectedly had at his disposal 2 battalions of the Foreign Legion, 5 Algerian infantry battalions, 1 Tunisian battalion, 3 squadrons of Moroccan spahi and two "camps" (battalion ) Moroccan gummers. But there were no Frenchmen for Free France then

On December 19, 1958, Raul Salan, who actually brought de Gaulle to power, was transferred to Paris and appointed Inspector General of National Defense, February 7, 1959 - took over as military governor of Paris, June 10, 1960 - was dismissed.

“The betrayal of de Gaulle”

First terrorist attack in stories The Fifth Republic did not have to wait long: they were fired upon by the militants of the Front for the National Liberation of the Machine of Jacques Sustel, who earlier (in 1955-1956) was the Governor-General of Algeria, and at that time was acting Minister of Information. Sustel, like General Massiu, was a staunch supporter of integration, such a person in a high position for the nationalist leaders was very dangerous, and therefore a total of three assassination attempts by the TNF were committed on him.

Meanwhile, de Gaulle had his own vision of the situation, he said:

“Arabs have a high birth rate. This means that if Algeria remains French, France will become Arab. I don't like this prospect. ”

He was supported by numerous “minority” (“reducers”), who openly stated that it was time to stop “feeding the colored population” of the colonies and live quietly within the borders of “little France”. People with a similar character base in 1940 happily surrendered and obeyed the Germans.

Thus, the patriots of French Algeria and de Gaulle, in essence, put France’s interests at the forefront. The tragedy was that each side had its own view of these interests, the exact opposite of the opinion of the opponents. The Blackfoots and their allies wanted to see Algeria a thriving French province - European Africa.

Charles de Gaulle and his supporters tried to isolate themselves from African Algeria in order to preserve the “good old France” they knew from childhood — the country of Joan of Arc, Pierre Terrail de Bayard and Cyrano de Bergerac, the kings and musketeers of Dumas, the heroes of Voltaire’s “philosophical tales” .

The saddest thing is that both sides failed to achieve their goal and lost. Algeria did not become “European Africa,” France is populated by migrants and is rapidly losing its national identity. And so the numerous victims of that war and the tragic struggle of OAS activists were in vain.

However, it should be recognized that the position of the leaders of the "black-footed", who demanded not to give Algeria to the leaders of the defeated TNF and to continue efforts to Europeanize the Arab population of Algeria, was more reasonable and adequate.

Before this country gained independence, Algerians were determined and even sought to abide by the laws of the French Republic common to all — both at home, and especially in the metropolis. More and more Arabs received European education, including in colleges and universities in France. The number of people appreciating the opportunities offered to them and their children has increased. The absolute majority of the population of Algeria was quite satisfied with the rules instituted by the French: there were only about one hundred thousand active supporters of TNF even at the peak of its activity. About 20 percent of local Muslims openly supported the “black-footed” - they were brought up in the traditions of European culture (Algeria exceeded countries such as Portugal and Greece in terms of education, and was comparable to such a country as Spain in terms of economic development). In their way of life, they were similar to the descendants of European settlers, differing from them only in their professions of Islam. Algerian tyrants and spahi regularly served their service. More than 250 thousand Muslims-Harki fought with TNF militants in the French army or defending their cities and villages from them. Many in Algeria knew that over 100 years of French rule, the country's indigenous population increased from one million to eight and a half, and not to see that the standard of living here significantly exceeds that in any Arab country (including the now rich UAE) could only be blind.

In principle, the door to French society was open to all residents of Algeria: to become a full citizen, an Arab or a Berber did not even need to adopt Christianity, it was only necessary to inform the authorities in writing that he recognized the primacy of French laws over Sharia law and was not polygamist. Not everyone was ready for this, but the French did not insist in such cases, allowing them to live "in the old days." But the leaders of the TNF, on the contrary, demanded that the indigenous population strictly comply with the rules and regulations of the Sharia, the “black-footed”, in their opinion, did not have the right to live on Algerian soil, which was reflected in the notorious slogan: “Suitcase or coffin”.

After the implementation of the Evian Agreements, pro-French citizens of Algeria were partially repressed, partially destroyed, and the rest were forced to flee the country. The result was a sharp radicalization of the population. The "fighters for independence" and their children, who suddenly massively wanted to leave their rapidly degrading, impoverished and sliding into a war of all against all countries in the "beautiful France", no longer wanted to become part of French society. They wanted to arrange their Algeria in France, at first demanding that the French not interfere with them, and then - implicitly obey their new and new requirements. Such a future for the French of those years could not have been dreamed in a dream.

Algerian French and French Algerians (Europeanized Arabs, evolvés) strongly disagreed with de Gaulle's position. During the president’s visit to this country on June 4 of that year, they met him with the slogans “French Algeria” and “Save Algeria”.

Poster "France remains" (inscription in French and Arabic)

The inscription on the road in Algeria: "France remains"

On September 16, 1959, de Gaulle declared that Algeria had the right to self-determination, and at the end of January 1960 the "black-footed" students of Algeria revolted. Their leaders were Pierre Lagayard, Guy Forsi and Joseph Ortiz.

Pierre Lagayard, January 1960

Among other things, students also protested against the recall of General Massiu, who dared to declare that the army was mistaken in de Gaulle and might refuse to obey him in the future.

Meanwhile, it was with the activities of Massou, an ardent supporter of the idea of ​​integrating Arabs and Algerian Europeans, that the hopes of many supporters of French Algeria were connected. On the posters of students and citizens supporting them, there were inscriptions: “Algeria is France” and “Long live Massu”.

Students with a poster “Algeria is France”

Algeria, January 1960, captured by the soldiers of the barricade, the sign says: “Territory of France”

Barricades on the streets of Algeria. The inscription on the banner: "Long live Massu"

This performance was quickly suppressed. The leaders of the rebels, Lagayard and Suzini, were arrested and imprisoned, from which in December 1960 they fled to Madrid. Here they met with the retired Raul Salan and Charles Lacherua. The result of this meeting was the conclusion of an anti-Gaullist agreement (the so-called Madrid Treaty), from which the OAS later “grew”.

We have already talked about Raul Salan and Lagayard. Let's say a few words about the other creators of OAS.

Charles Lacherua was a graduate of the Saint-Cyr military school, after which he served in the colonial forces in Upper Volta, Syria, Morocco and Tunisia. During World War II, he fought with allies in Italy, France and Germany. Then, as the battalion commander, he crushed the uprising in Côte d'Ivoire (1949), fought in Indochina, was an adviser to two French defense ministers, dealing with issues of “psychological warfare”. In 1958, he was transferred to service in Algeria, after the defeat of the rebellious generals, he became one of the leaders of the Spanish branch of OAS. He returned to France after the 1968 amnesty.

Charles Lacherua

Jean-Jacques Suzini is one of the leaders of Algerian students, he headed the propaganda department at OAS, and after Salan’s arrest, he became the head of this organization in Algeria and Constantine, was the organizer of several attempts on de Gaulle, was sentenced to death twice in absentia. He also returned to France in 1968, but was arrested there twice: on charges of robbery (1970) and organizing the abduction of Colonel Raymond Gore (1972) - in both cases, the jury passed a acquittal.

Jean-Jacques Suzini

But back to 1961 year.

It was not students who represented the main threat to de Gaulle and his government. A referendum held on January 8, 1961, in which 75% of citizens voted for the independence of Algeria, pushed the military to rebellion supported by the “black-footed”, evolvés and harki (they were described in the article “Algerian War of the French Foreign Legion”).
The rebellion against de Gaulle and his government was led by General Raul Salan, holder of 36 military orders and medals, who enjoyed great prestige in France and Algeria.

Demonstration of the defenders of French Algeria, January 1961: Arabs can be seen among the protesters

The military coup in Algeria

On the night of April 22, 1961, the first parachute regiment of the Foreign Legion (1e REP) took control of all government agencies in Algeria.

His commander, Major de Saint-Marc, said afterwards:

“I preferred crime against the law to crime against humanity.”

This performance was supported by other regiments of the Foreign Legion and the 25th parachute division of the French army. Marines and some other military units were ready to join them, but the commanders loyal to de Gaulle managed to keep them in the barracks.

Leaders of the rebellion: from left to right - Andre Zeller, Edmond Zhuo, Raul Salan and Maurice Schall at the Algerian Government House, April 23, 1961

Vice Admiral Cerville, commander of the French Navy in the Mediterranean Sea, tried to lead Algeria’s loyal de Gaulle formations, but the Admiralty’s building was blocked by Colonel Godard’s tanks. On a patrol boat, Cerville sailed to Oran.

French tanks in Algeria

At about 15 p.m. on April 23, units of General Zeller (former chief of staff of the French army) entered Constantine, where General Gouraud joined the rebels.

On the same day in Paris, OAS “warned” the government by organizing explosions at two stations (Lyonsky and Austerlitsky) and at Orly airport. This was a mistake, as it pushed the Parisians sympathetic to them from the rebels.

On April 24, de Gaulle introduced Article 16 of the Constitution, having unlimited rights, on the 25th Paris entered the loyal 16th Infantry Division, and French regiments stationed in Germany moved to the capital.

In France, there were numerous demonstrations in support of de Gaulle, in Algeria, supporters of Salan took to the streets, it seemed that it was a civil war. And it seems that de Gaulle was mentally prepared to shed the blood of his compatriots, but the leaders of the rebels did not dare to fight "against their own."

Sea lanes controlled by faithful de Gaulle fleet, military formations from France were being transferred to Algeria, but the regiments of Salan and Challe hardened in many years of battles, led by experienced and beloved soldiers, commanders, still seemed and could be ready to drop them into the sea. If the rebels could repel the first blow and gain a foothold in Algeria, the situation could change dramatically. It is unlikely that after the first failure de Gaulle would have risked starting a full-fledged and large-scale war, especially since his opponents had high-ranking and influential supporters in the highest echelons of the French army. And among the troops heading for Algeria, there were few who wished to fight. Already after de Gaulle's victory, the head of the French General Staff, General Charles Allerett, in one of his reports said that only 10% of the soldiers were ready to shoot at the “OAS fighters”. And then, having agreed with his supporters in the Metropolis, Salan, perhaps, could have gone to France.

In the meantime, time worked on de Gaulle, and it was necessary to decide on something. But the leaders of the rebels did not dare to give the order for resistance. In the early morning of April 26, they finally abandoned the fight. Raul Salan and Edmond Zhuo went into an illegal position, Andre Zeller and Maurice Schall voluntarily surrendered to the authorities.

Maurice Schall, trying to save Eli Sen Marc, the commander of the first parachute regiment of the Foreign Legion, who joined the conspirators at the last moment, suggested he flee abroad, but he refused, saying that he was ready to share the fate of his soldiers and his commanders.

Maurice Schall

Ely Dunois de Saint Mark

The employees of the Sante prison in Paris were in shock: they were ordered to consider state criminals people whom in France until that day were unconditionally considered heroes.

La Sante Prison, Paris

Speaking before the court, Saint Mark recalled the humiliating flight of the French from Vietnam and the contempt of the local officers and soldiers who were escorting them. And he said that his soldiers were crying, learning about the order to leave the land of Algeria, covered with their blood, about responsibility to the native Algerians, who believed in France and in the army, who promised to protect them:

“We thought of all the solemn promises made on this African land. We thought about all those men, about all those women, about all those young men who chose because of us the side of France, risking every day, every moment, to die a terrible death. We thought about the inscriptions that covered the walls of all the villages and villages of Algeria:
"The army will protect us. The army remains."
For 15 years I have seen legionnaires, foreigners die for France, perhaps by blood received, but French by blood shed. Because of my comrades, non-commissioned officers and legionnaires who fell with honor on the battlefield, on April 21 at 13.30 I made my choice in front of General Schull. ”

The prosecutor demanded that he be sentenced to 20 years in prison; the court sentenced him to 10 years (of which he spent 5 years in prison - he was granted amnesty on December 25, 1966).

Two former colleagues of Saint Mark, Jacques Lemaire and Jean Histod-Kine, encircled and emphasized their ranks and letters on envelopes of letters addressed to him, as if inviting the authorities to dismiss them too or to arrest them - the de Gaulle government did not dare.

After the amnesty, Saint Mark worked as a sort of head of the personnel department at one of the metallurgical plants. In 2011, President N. Sarkozy returned the Legion of Honor to him.

General Jacques Massoux at this time would be the military governor of Metz and the Sixth Military Region of France. He did not take part in the conspiracy and was not repressed. Largely due to his principled position, de Gaulle was forced to amnesty the conspirators in 1968: during the events of the “Red May” of 1968, Massiu, being the commander of the French troops in Germany, guaranteed de Gaulle support only in exchange for the freedom of his old comrades. De Gaulle was forced to yield, but did not forgive this pressure on himself. In July 1969, Massoux was dismissed. He died on October 26, 2002.

We will return to Algeria in 1961, where supporters of French Algeria “disagreed” with Challu's surrender and made plans to release the former commander of the troops in Algeria from the prison in Tulle. In 1973, the film “Le-complot” (“Conspiracy”) was even shot about this attempt in France, in which the roles were played by well-known actors - Jean Rochefort, Marina Vlady, Michelle Bouquet, Michel Duchossois.

Another conspiracy leader, Edmond Zhuo, general of the French army and chief inspector of the Air Force, the "black-footed" from Oran, to whom Schall transferred 300 thousand francs from personal funds to continue the fight, became Salan's deputy in OAS. He was arrested on March 25, 1962 - and on the same day they tried to release him: one gendarme was killed, 17 were wounded.

On April 11, 1962, the day the trial of Zhuo began, the OAS organized 84 assassination attempts: 67 people were killed and 40 wounded.

This did not save Edmond Zhuo: he was sentenced to death, which, however, was replaced with life imprisonment. In 1968, he was released under an amnesty.

Andre Zeller was sentenced to 15 years and was also amnestied in 1968.

Jacques Moren, which was described a little in the article “Foreign Legion Commanders in the Algerian War”At that time he was in France, acting as inspector of the air forces, did not participate in the conspiracy. But in 1962, after the conviction of his comrades, he resigned - either he decided so, or the authorities asked him "in a good way." He was only 36 years old, he fought all his life and did not know how to do anything else, but he never returned to the army, but the Saint-Cyr military school assigned his name to the 1997 graduation of officers. And Morin died in 1995.

Another famous commander, the hero of the previous article, Colonel Pierre Busch, who served as commander of the La Calais sector, was arrested. At the trial, he said that he knew about the conspiracy, but did not join because he felt his responsibility for covering from the possible invasion of militants in the territory entrusted to him, and was acquitted by jury. He was still fired from the army - November 16, 1961. Later, he became one of the founders of the National Union of Skydivers and held the post of Vice President. He died on April 20, 1978.

The head of the OAS, Raul Salan, was sentenced to death in absentia. On April 20, 1962, the authorities managed to arrest him, this time the tribunal sentenced him to life imprisonment. In 1968 he was amnestied, in 1982 - reinstated in the rank of army general and holder of the Legion of Honor. He died on July 3, 1984, on his tombstone it is written: "Soldier of the Great War."

Marcel Bijard, already familiar to us from past articles, did not join the conspirators, but for 12 years he defiantly refused to hang a portrait of President de Gaulle in his office.

Pierre Lagayard was forced to flee to Spain, returned to France in 1968, settled in the city of Auh and even took over as president in 1978. He died on August 17, 2014.

The bitter fruits of defeat

This attempted rebellion was followed by large-scale repressions, which actually put an end to attempts to defend “French Algeria” - the Blackfoots no longer had the strength to resist. In addition to the arrests and dismissals of many officers, the elite first parachute regiment of the Foreign Legion and two regiments of the 25th Division were disbanded. Leaving their barracks, the 1e REP legionnaires blew them up. Some officers and soldiers of this regiment then went into an illegal position and became members of the OAS, 200 officers were placed in the Paris Fort de Nogent-sur-Marne (built to defend Paris in 1840), where they were held for 2 months, while the investigation was ongoing.

Ironically, one of the recruitment centers of the Foreign Legion is now located here.

The bulk of the privates of the first parachute regiment was transferred to other units of the legion. In the Foreign Legion now only the Second Parachute Regiment remains, which is deployed in Calvi (island of Corsica)

Paratroopers of the Second Regiment of the Foreign Legion

Since then, by the way, the phrase “time of paratroopers” has entered the French language: leftists and liberals use it when they want to talk about some kind of “threat to democracy”.

And among the former paratroopers of the first regiment after the events of April 1961, the song Edith Piaf “Je ne regrette rien” (“I regret nothing”) became extremely popular, but the legionnaires sang other words on its motive:

No, I do not regret anything.
Not about the evil that was done to me
Not about the capture of the city of Algeria.
About nothing, about nothing
I do not regret anything.
And in the parachute regiment of the Foreign Legion
All officers are proud of their past.

And this version of the song ended with promising words:

“And all the officers are ready to start from the beginning.”

Algeria, soldiers of the First Parachute Regiment of the Foreign Legion

And then “Je ne regrette rien” with this text became the unofficial OAS anthem. And even now, when military bands and choirs of the regiments of the Foreign Legion perform the innocent original version of this song, many believe that they still sing the words of the forbidden anthem to themselves.

Orchestra and choir of the French Foreign Legion perform the song “Non, je ne regrette rien”, Comoedia Theater and Concert Hall, Lyon, December 12, 2013

By the way, many of you have heard this song, more than once: in the film “17 Moments of Spring” Stirlitz recalls pre-war Paris under it, although it was written in 1960.

The government of de Gaulle won, but was discredited among the "black-footed" Algeria, where the president was openly compared to the betrayer of France during World War II, Marshal Pétain. De Gaulle himself now did not trust the "black-footed", considering them almost personal enemies. As a result, people most interested in its outcome: the “black-footed” of Algeria, evolvés and harki, were excluded from participation in the referendum that he initiated in April 1962. This was a direct violation of article 3 of the French Constitution, and the vote could not be considered legitimate.

"Old Army Headquarters"

Many citizens of the mother country, who considered the loss of Algeria more serious than the loss of Lorraine and Alsace in 1879, were in solidarity with the Blackfoots. Among them was even such a respectable and respected officer as the chief engineer of the French Air Force, cavalier of the Order of the Legion of Honor, Lieutenant Colonel Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry, whose father was de Gaulle's comrade since the 1930s.

Jean-marie bastien-thiry

Bastien-Tiri was not a member of the OAS - he was a member of the mysterious organization Old Headquarters (Vieil État-Major), which was created back in 1956 by senior officers of the French army opposing the government. It is believed that his top leaders (remaining unknown and our days) played a large role in the fall of the IV Republic, and then organized several assassinations of Charles de Gaulle who did not meet their expectations.

After the defeat of the Algerian rebels, the “Old Headquarters” formed the “Committee 12”, the aim of which was to organize the de Gaulle assassination.

The Committee’s most famous assassination attempt was an attack on the president’s car in a Paris suburb of Petit Clamart on August 22, 1962 - Operation Charlotte Corde. This group was led by Bastien-Tiri.

Some believe that this assassination attempt on de Gaulle was not the first for Bastien-Thiry, and under the pseudonym Germain he could take part in the unsuccessful attempt to kill him in Pont-sur-Seine on September 8, 1961. This attempt has long been attributed to OAS, but now more and more researchers are inclined to think that it was also an action of the “Old Headquarters”, carried out jointly with OAS, which sent its performers.

An explosive device hidden in a pile of sand, consisting of 40 kg of plastid and nitrocellulose, 20 liters of oil, gasoline and soap flakes, went off next to the president’s passing car that day. The data on the explosion is contradictory: people from the President’s security service said that a column of flame rose above the trees. However, some experts argue that the resulting funnel does not match the declared power of the bomb. It was even speculated that the explosive device was timely discovered and replaced by special services - to be a "victim of an attempt" was then in the interests of de Gaulle losing popularity. The spectacular, but absolutely harmless explosion caused sympathy for de Gaulle in French society and became the reason for further repression against his opponents.

Lieutenant Alain de Bougren de La Tokne, Algerian war veteran and former OAS member who escaped from Sante prison, became Bastien Tiri's deputy in Committee 12 (he later wrote the book “How I Did Not Kill De Gaulle”).

Among the subordinates of Bastien-Tiri, it is also worth noting the “black-footed” column of Georges Watin, nicknamed Lame: in Algeria, he became famous for creating his own detachment that guarded the neighborhood from TNF fighters. Former paratrooper Georges Bernier previously belonged to the Delta group, which will be discussed in a future article. Sergeants Jacques Prevost and Dula Shari were participants in the battle of Dienbienf, Serge Bernier fought in Korea.

One of the three Hungarians of this group, Lajos Marton, later stated that the main informant of the “Committee” for a long time was Commissioner Jacques Cantelob — police general controller and head of the security service de Gaulle, who, however, quit shortly before those events. But even without him, surrounded by the president, the “Old Headquarters” had several agents reporting on his movements.

Georges Vatin, who was arrested in Switzerland but not extradited to the French authorities (on the grounds that he was sentenced to death there), took refuge in Paraguay. In 1990, he said in an interview that de Gaulle’s original plan was to capture him alive and put him on trial, but his car appeared earlier and the conspirators, who had no time to prepare, were forced to open fire.

Despite 14 bullet hits in the car in which de Gaulle was, neither he nor his wife were injured.

The well-known film “Jackal Day”, shot in 1973, begins with a story about this attempt (Jackal is a killer hired to liquidate de Gaulle after the execution of Bastien-Tiri, and this is already a “fantasy” part of both the film and the Forsyth novel to which he was filmed).

Bastien-Tiree was arrested on September 17, 1962, at the trial he compared himself to Colonel Stauffenberg, and de Gaulle to Hitler, and accused the president of complicity in the genocide of the European population of Algeria and Muslims loyal to France. And the camps to which the triumphant TNF militants drove hundreds of thousands of French supporters (the population of Western Ukraine would have expected the same future if Stalin had decided to surrender this region to Bandera, but he was not de Gaulle after the war), were compared with Nazi Germany concentration camps. He said the following words:

“There were other solutions for the future of Algerians, solutions that would protect the path of sincerity and honor, respecting the life, freedom and good of millions of native French and French Muslims living on this earth.”

It is not surprising that when the court sentenced him to death, de Gaulle, contrary to general expectations, did not use his right of pardon, cynically saying:

"If France needs a dead hero, let him be such a fool as Bastien-Tiri."

Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry was executed on March 11, 1963 and was the last person to be executed by a court sentence in France. The fear that he inspired the authorities was so great that two thousand policemen guarded the road along which he was taken to execution.

Another response to de Gaulle's actions was a desperate terrorist attack by the Organization of the Secret Armed Organization (OAS), created by de Gaulle's opponents, with the help of which they tried to force the government to refuse to leave Algeria.

We will talk about OAS, the Delta squad and the tragedy of French Algeria in the next article.

In preparing the article, the materials of the blog of Urzova Ekaterina were used: The Story of Saint Mark; "The story of Bush".
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V. A. “Dogs of War” of the French Foreign Legion
Ryzhov V. A. Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion
Ryzhov V. A. The most famous Russian “graduates” of the French Foreign Legion. Zinovy ​​Peshkov
Ryzhov V. A. The most successful Russian “legionnaire”. Rodion Malinovsky
Ryzhov V. A. French Foreign Legion in the First and Second World Wars
Ryzhov V.A. Foreign Legion against Vietnam and the Dienbienf Catastrophe
Ryzhov V. A. "Fire in the Empire." Foreign Legion after World War II
Ryzhov V.A. Algerian war of the French Foreign Legion
Ryzhov V.A. Battle of Algeria
Ryzhov V. A. Commanders of the Foreign Legion in the Algerian War
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  1. tlauicol
    tlauicol 3 June 2020 06: 50
    this is santa barbara. interesting. but after reading to the end, I already forgot the beginning. information overdose
    1. Civil
      Civil 3 June 2020 08: 25
      Pierre Lagayard

      He studied law at the University of Algeria; upon graduation, he practices as a lawyer in Blida.

      He participated in the entire war in Algeria and was discharged in 1957 with the rank of second lieutenant and became a junior reserve officer. In 1957 he headed the General Association of Students of Algeria (AGEA).

      Easily recognizable by his musketmaster, in elegant camouflage uniforms and a red beret of paratroopers,
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 June 2020 06: 53
    Thank you so much!
    I admit, for me, a lot in the essay was a discovery.
    All the good days!
    1. 210ox
      210ox 3 June 2020 11: 37
      Respect to the author for the articles. In general, de Gaulle's figure looks ambiguous. The hero of resistance to the Nazis and the restoration of the country gradually turned into a kind of "a la French Gorbachev." Probably sat on laurels. This also applies to our current leadership.
  3. Graz
    Graz 3 June 2020 07: 31
    each side had its own truth (I mean De Gaulle and opponents of independent Algeria)
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 3 June 2020 07: 47
    Valery, thanks!
    Well, de Gaulle in this story does not look like a very nice person. For me in this article, everything related to the OSA and Algeria is solid news, except for the names, of course. Our Soviet press drove everyone into a certain attitude towards what was happening then: De Gaulle did well, gave Algeria freedom, the TNF was entirely heroes and martyrs, and in the SLA, all terrorists, racists and colonialists are unambiguous.
    And this is how it is. Thanks again. hi
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 3 June 2020 08: 47
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Well, de Gaulle in this story does not look like a very nice person.

      It turned out to be an unwise person, short-sighted. illiterate politician and, in fact, a traitor to France.

      He betrayed millions of people who believed in France, betrayed the ideals of civilization, giving people to be torn to pieces by dark medieval beasts.

      Instead of turning Algeria into France, he began to turn ... France into Algeria fool
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Our Soviet press drove everyone into a certain attitude towards what was happening then: De Gaulle did well, gave Algeria freedom, the TNF was entirely heroes and martyrs, and in the SLA, all terrorists, racists and colonialists are unambiguous.

      I also remember, yes, these laudatory odes to Algerian Islamists. And how much Russian money was destroyed there to support them!

      Praised. until they themselves rattled on the head with the same.

      But put these propagandists before the choice of where to live, in "colonial" French Algeria or with the animals of the FLN, a choice. they would not have done what they voted for ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 June 2020 08: 56

        It turned out to be an unwise person, short-sighted. illiterate politician

        Andrew! hi You're not right. De Gaulle pursued a tough policy regarding American influence in Europe. Perhaps the only politician who forced the United States to repay the national debt to his country, with gold, not paper.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 3 June 2020 10: 18
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          You're not right. De Gaulle pursued a tough policy regarding American influence in Europe. Perhaps the only politician who forced the United States to repay the national debt to his country, with gold, not paper.

          Anton, hello!

          I have been to France more than once and see firsthand what it is turning into. And de Gaulle began it.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 June 2020 12: 09
          Quote: 3x3zsave

          It turned out to be an unwise person, short-sighted. illiterate politician

          Andrew! hi You're not right. De Gaulle pursued a tough policy regarding American influence in Europe. Perhaps the only politician who forced the United States to repay the national debt to his country, with gold, not paper.

          I repeat after the classic - "Great people make great mistakes!"
          You can say the same about De Gaulle, alas, not about Gorbachev, Yeltsin!
          Regards, Vlad!
        3. Catfish
          Catfish 3 June 2020 14: 02
          Anton, hello, but what does it have to do with a steamer with gold and De Gaulle's "gratitude" to the Americans for liberating France for him. If they hadn't landed in Normandy ... In short, I would have looked with great pleasure and no less interest at how De Gaulle would have begun to negotiate with Comrade. Stalin, after our tankers would have drowned out the engines on the Champs Elysees. yes drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 June 2020 20: 09
            Uncle, do you want to wrestle with me in the field of altistory ???
            Sincerely, loving nephew !!!
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 June 2020 20: 50
              Wrestle? I don’t know what will come of it, most likely you will be goring me because I don’t have a tool for this body. Not yet grown. smile
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 June 2020 20: 56
                I didn’t! laughing
                Deer butts horns, mammoths butts tusks!
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 June 2020 21: 05
                  Don't talk about deer, our Seryoga Phil has this sore spot. Immediately remember about Sabianin's "candle factories" and his mood will deteriorate. And we have a Mammoth, Vic Nick, and I won't get out with him even when I'm drunk, sitting in a tank. Better just go around on the opposite lane. The alternative is simple: it's better to get away with the traffic police. recourse
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 June 2020 21: 12
                    Mammoths, bison, rhinos - a lot! One echidna! Guess who? laughing
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 3 June 2020 21: 21
                      Yes, there’s one dude here, another prankster ... No, I don’t dare to voice it, it's more expensive for myself. The alleys at night are dark, not even an hour we cross. stop
                      So it will be for the cat: "Mandrata naupupa, mandrata na."
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 3 June 2020 21: 47
                        I know who you are. I talked to him in PM a couple of years ago. To be honest, I really feel sorry for him, an intelligent, but deeply unhappy person.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 3 June 2020 21: 52
                        I agree. But there is nothing to be done, in my opinion the train left a long time ago and the tail lights are not visible even at night. request
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 3 June 2020 21: 42
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  No deer needed

                  No, it’s necessary! A beautiful animal! And about the reindeer herders! Cowboys of the North! People of a difficult and romantic profession! laughing
                  But about the * reindeer breeder * really is not necessary, he got Good evening, Konstantin!
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 June 2020 21: 49
                    And good evening to you, Sergey! smile
                    Here at the "Monsters in Armor" Seryoga Corsair is having fun, look, talk, and I’m on the side, perhaps. Again, I did not sleep for a day, a louse! negative drinks
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 3 June 2020 21: 52
                      * The plane is good!
                      The helicopter is good!
                      And deer are better! * laughing
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 3 June 2020 21: 58
                      No, everyone has already dispersed. Okay, good night! wink
                      * We will meet, we will definitely meet! * D'Artagnan-Boyarsky.
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 June 2020 22: 19
                    All do not fall asleep the old adulter! As you do not begin to fall asleep, hesitates, then Pamela Anderson, then Anna Semenovich! Wake up upset, marry the outskirts, and there a herd of cows driven. Ugh, damn it, again about the women !!! So you will go back to sleep unsettled. And there, in a dream, again, Anderson, Semenovich .... laughing
                  3. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 June 2020 22: 29
                    The thing that never inspired me was the size of the udder.
                    "And why did you tie my young breasts in a knot on the back !?" (from).
                    And in general I prefer brunettes, and dyed blondes are for khachiks.
                    A little advice from an elder, wise life companion:
                    It makes no sense to broadcast their erotic fantasies to other people's heads.
                    An empty lesson, you’ll miss it anyway. laughing
                  4. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 June 2020 22: 48
                    Bravo, Uncle Kostya! Think uel? So no! I, unlike the mentioned character, like to laugh at myself. For, any jester can be called such, ridiculing, first of all, his vices, and only then, those around him.
                    Otherwise, what the fuck am I ???
                  5. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 11: 40
                    Otherwise, what the fuck am I ???

                    "Yes! I'm a jester, I'm a clown, so what,
                    May my name be the nobles
                    How far they are from me
                    They will never give hands ... "(c)
                    And he, the poor, so wanted to hold on to the handle of some prince or baron. Alas...
                    Think uel?

                    Yes, nevermind, did not even think. Just friendly advice from a senior comrade in the barracks. smile
                  6. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 June 2020 18: 54
                    "I ask, dare, laugh at me!
                    If this helps you,
                    Yes, I seem to be a jester, but in my soul is a king,
                    And no one like me can! "(C) laughing
                  7. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 19: 24
                    "Kings can do anything, kings can do anything ..." (c)
                  8. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 June 2020 19: 35
                    White clown, white martyr,
                    For the sake of laughter drunken burning
                    Will scoff at himself!

                    Here in the evening he has cares,
                    'Cause humiliation is his job
                    But our last laugh
                    The invisible hero.

                    But at the hour when midnight will turn off the colors
                    Former Pierrot will change the mask,
                    The new one who laughed at him
                    Will turn into pus.

                    It’s not for nothing that the clown remembers these faces,
                    In the evening, the buffoon, and now the killer!
                    In a stuffy tavern he renounce
                    With a drunk horde!

                    In a pub with a shrill violin
                    At the table from sticky dirt
                    He will laugh with Satan!

                    Tomorrow he has worries again,
                    'Cause humiliation is his job
                    But our last laugh
                    The invisible hero. (WITH)
                  9. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 19: 58
                    "He laughs well who laughs without consequences ..." wink
                  10. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 June 2020 20: 06
                    A wonderful illustration! I hope, within its framework, you perceive me as a "doctor" ...
                  11. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 20: 17
                    By itself. fellow In general, I respect all doctors, especially after all my "adventures".
                  12. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 June 2020 20: 34
                    Well, I'm not a Doctor !!!
                    I'm a jester!
                    Although, childbirth, in the open field, I will accept.
                  13. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 21: 28
                    Better not, you kill a newborn with a laugh. smile drinks
                  14. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 June 2020 21: 33
                    This is you in vain.
                  15. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 21: 48
                    I meant that he would just laugh. )))
                  16. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 June 2020 22: 07
                    Many people told me that I could make a good gynecologist, historian, engineer ... But an organic aversion to obtaining systematic knowledge prevails in my body. That's why I'm a jester. Perhaps someday, mercantile notes will prevail, and I will become a "journalist", like Kharaluzhny, but it is better to die in a street fight.
                  17. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2020 22: 51
                    I answered you in PM, I do not want to shine here. A street fight, in my opinion, is the destiny of the sub-fence punks.
                  18. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 5 June 2020 09: 01
                    "Nice guy, sailor in flared indigo"
                    Accidentally died in a port fight "(c)
                  19. Catfish
                    Catfish 5 June 2020 13: 28
                    In short:
                    "In the port of Naples with a hole in the side
                    "Jeanette" was adjusting the rigging
                    But before you go on a long journey
                    The crew was released ashore. "(C)
                    It would be better if we sat on board. laughing
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 June 2020 22: 42
    Elijah from The Taming of the Shrew in the barn chopped wood.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 3 June 2020 23: 12
    “Well, after all, there are times when the flesh rises and demands its own?”
    - Of course there are ...
    - And what are you doing?
    - I stab wood, and you?
    - I ring the bells ...
    - And often do you call?
    (shows worn hands) recourse
  7. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 June 2020 23: 14
    One of those films that you can often watch.
  8. Catfish
    Catfish 4 June 2020 11: 41
    It was much more spectacular to dance in a barrel of grapes. good
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 June 2020 22: 03
    Cowboys of the North!
    Sergey, have you ever seen a drunken Sami ??? Cassady and Kid, the cherub will appear!
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 3 June 2020 22: 06
      Hi Anton! I just didn’t see the Saami, but was he drunk?! Three drunk Finns are in one? Or is it even worse? No.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 June 2020 22: 25
      Not worse, "more fun", more varied and inventive.
  • Normal ok
    Normal ok 3 June 2020 13: 01
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Valery, thanks!
    Well, de Gaulle in this story does not look like a very nice person. For me in this article, everything related to the OSA and Algeria is solid news, except for the names, of course. Our Soviet press drove everyone into a certain attitude towards what was happening then: De Gaulle did well, gave Algeria freedom, the TNF was entirely heroes and martyrs, and in the SLA, all terrorists, racists and colonialists are unambiguous.
    And this is how it is. Thanks again. hi

    So now, propaganda is working at full capacity. It would be interesting to see what historians will write about the current policy of the Russian authorities, some 25 years from now ...
  • strannik1985
    strannik1985 3 June 2020 14: 38
    Well, de Gaulle in this story does not look like a very nice person.

    The French and the British (and not only them) lost the colony in May 1940, after WWII there was a partial agony, nothing more.
    De Gaulle only put another comma in the complex relationship "colony - metropolis". One CFA franc (more precisely two - African and Pacific) is worth something.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 June 2020 07: 49
    Thank you, Valery!
    According to Wikipedia, de Gaulle of Bastien-Thiry said the following:
    “France needs martyrs ... But they need to be chosen carefully. I could give them one of those idiot generals playing ball in Tula prison. I gave them Bastien-Tiri. They are smart enough to make a martyr out of him. He deserves it. ”
    What changes somewhat, indicated by you, his attitude to the condemned, but does not change the opinion regarding the protest movement as a whole.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 3 June 2020 07: 59
    The closer to the finish line, the more noticeable the author's one-sided approach to events. The author portrays the tragedy of "French Algeria" so emotionally and convincingly that the uninitiated reader does not even suspect that there is a second side of the coin - the tragedy of "Algerian Algeria". Let me remind you that at the time of the events described, the population of Algeria consisted of two diametrically opposed social groups.
    On the one hand, they were the French, endowed with broad civil rights. They had the right to participate in all elections held both in the metropolis and in Algeria. In fact, these Algerian French, the number of which was a little more than a million, “were the product of centuries of mixing not only the French, but also immigrants from other countries of the Mediterranean, mainly Italians and Spaniards, as well as from Germany and Switzerland, who settled in the region during French colonization” . They were adjoined by another 130 thousand Jews, "who felt completely French." Over time, the Algerian French began to be called "black-footed". In official French documents of the period of the Algerian war, this group of the population of Algeria was called "Frenchmen of European descent," while the other, represented by more than 9 million Muslims, was called "Frenchmen of North African descent." In addition to official terminology, in the everyday life of the representatives of the second group of the Algerian population they called “Aborigines”, “Muslims” or “Arabs”.
    There is no need to talk about any serious social elevators between these groups.
    How different the life of the "French" and "Algerian" Algerians was, the following figures are good. Despite the contradictory internal policy of independent Algeria, its population increased from 13,7 million inhabitants in 1970 to 30,8 million in 2000.
    So "not everything is so simple."
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 June 2020 08: 13
      1. I think the author has the right to his own emotional assessment of the events described. Moreover, it is not as pronounced as that of the "accusers of the" Masters of the West ""
      2. The human population, in principle, tends to increase.
      1. Legionista
        Legionista 3 June 2020 10: 03
        1. I think the author has the right to his own emotional assessment of the events described.

        I agree with you completely! Algeria, like French Guiana, at the time described by the Author of events, had the status of "overseas department" (département d'outre-mer DOM). History does not have a subjunctive mood, but perhaps the situation in Algeria, retaining himself as part of the fifth republic, would be much better for him than at the present moment. Algerian People's Democratic Republic takes 82nd place in the world in HDI (could take 26th like Guiana)
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 June 2020 20: 14
          Thank you comrade! Simply, I am against the demonization of history in all its manifestations.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 3 June 2020 13: 57
      ... Algeria, its population increased from 13,7 million inhabitants in 1970 to 30,8 million in 2000.
      So "not everything is so simple."

      So De Gaulle seemed to call it the main reason for giving Algeria independence. I don’t know, but, in my opinion, they would have been giving birth to no less than being part of France. They generally breed like ... well, otherwise they will again blame and ban something. hi
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 3 June 2020 14: 19
        First of all, De Gaulle, in contrast to the author, was well aware that the national consensus on the Algerian issue, which had developed in the country back in the 1954th century. and did not raise doubts among the French in XNUMX, it exhausted itself and the war in Algeria became not Franco-Algerian, but French-French, splitting society into two parts: anti-colonialists and ultra-colonialists - "ultra".
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 June 2020 20: 20
          Exactly! De Gaulle, in this matter, put on the burghers and won.
      2. Engineer
        Engineer 3 June 2020 14: 46
        I don’t know, but, in my opinion, if they were part of France, they would give birth to no less

        The first demographic transition is described above. I will not venture to say if he happened sooner or later under the French, but it certainly happened.
        Colonial possessions were doomed historically. Direct colonies by the 20th century are already unprofitable. That is the harsh truth. Plus, the ever-growing number of left-wing voters makes colonialism support political suicide.
        De Gaulle's decision real politics is certain. But whether it was optimal I can’t say
    3. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 3 June 2020 16: 13
      They were adjoined by another 130 thousand Jews, "who felt completely French."

      I don’t know how they felt there, but the European from them was only clothes, knowledge of French, and Love for French pop music and cinema. For 130 thousand, there is only one intellectual (Rav Judah Ashkenazi, a former legionary, by the way), the rest is trade and crafts, not a single book read except the Old Testament and the Talmud, and even more like Arabs than Europeans, with the same mentality .
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 3 June 2020 17: 47
        And did you know all 130? !!!
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 3 June 2020 19: 03
          I know Algerian Jews in Israel
          An intellectual is a person known for corresponding activities outside the community. Algerian Jews have one. Moroccan Jews have more.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 4 June 2020 01: 52
            I can’t even believe it! Well, I can’t believe it! For one hundred and thirty thousand Jews - one intellectual! Nonsense! Such a low concentration of intellectuals - is this possible? We need to consult with our rabbi.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 4 June 2020 02: 34
              To begin with, ask him in detail about kashrut at Shrovetide and whether it is possible to baptize a child if Brit Mila falls on Catholic Easter.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 4 June 2020 05: 52
                Is it possible to baptize a child if Brit Mila falls on Catholic Easter.
                It is possible, but it is necessary to trim at the farthest nowhere.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 4 June 2020 12: 28
                  There is nowhere to go until January 14)).
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 4 June 2020 12: 39
                    And on January 1st?
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 4 June 2020 12: 39
                      And on January 1 the Catholics laughing
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 4 June 2020 13: 05
                        The irony of fate is that they were circumcised by some, but quite others celebrate.
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 4 June 2020 13: 08
                        Well, yes - and Dr. representative of another faith is the main holiday of the leading and very respected religion of the planet)).
  • Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 3 June 2020 08: 32
    Very interesting article! Thank you very much!
  • Legionista
    Legionista 3 June 2020 09: 49
    A private consequence of the “putsch of the generals”, that is what the events of 21/04-26 / 04 of 1961 (Putsch des généraux) are called, was that 1 foreign parachute regiment (1REP) 14 parachute regiment of shooters (14RCP), 18 parachute regiment were completely disbanded shooter (18RCP) commando group (groupement des commandos de l'air)
    From 11 regiments I.L. (10 regiments + group of Sahara divisions) the coup supported 3 regiments - 1 REP, 2 REP, 1 REC. This division was, in particular, also related to the fact that there were fresh memories of the fighting between the divisions of the IL during the war, in Syria, in June-July 1941. Not all legionnaires were ready to shoot at each other, even less wanted the "politicization" of the Legion.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 3 June 2020 11: 07
    Nevertheless, the continuation of the war meant for France a second Vietnam, albeit without Dienbienfu. Fundamentalists and their sympathizers are ready to fight for decades.
    Perhaps it would be better for the French to divide Algeria. The North with its ports and infrastructure - a quarter or a third of the territory - to leave for France. No enclaves. Give the rest to the rebels. If desired, give in such a way as to arouse enmity among regional leaders. As they say, nobody canceled tribalism. But this is also not an option. In the event of any internal mixing between the Arabs, tens of thousands of refugees in the "European" part are provided. And this is again a humanitarian catastrophe, reputational losses, a breeding ground for terrorism.
    No win situation. Maybe the truth, it was necessary to bring down. You cannot win. Just pull the end
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 3 June 2020 16: 20
      It was possible, thanks to special programs, to flood Algeria with the European population - from Spain, Portugal, Greece. French would be quick. They themselves would deal with the Arabs - I think, quite effectively.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 3 June 2020 16: 50
        Expensive. Need social programs. Housing Job creation. The French themselves and Blackfoot from this approach would be fucking, all the more so at the first opportunity, new arrivals would move to the European part - citizens, after all, who will forbid them
        "France for the French. Paris for the Parisians" laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 3 June 2020 16: 53
          Here you can take a number of measures to prevent this, such as contracts, cash incentives, etc. Until the granting of citizenship after ten years of work and life in Algeria))
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 3 June 2020 16: 57
            In any case, investment in alien human capital. Voters in the next election may not understand)
            Well, in addition, it is necessary to cut off the marginal and criminal "censored" among the migrants. Something like Canada's FSWP migration program. At the then level of development, it is not realistic.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 3 June 2020 17: 05
              Grandmothers are cheaper than any war, but as for marginal elements, it’s just to settle them in the vicinity of remote settlements. )))
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 3 June 2020 17: 12
                Grandmas are cheaper than war for any

                It doesn’t work out so smoothly. Think about the roadmap of such a project. Since the beginning of the 50s, we have been initiating programs. It takes about 15-20 years to achieve any meaningful result. Ineta is not. We get along with recruiters and newspaper ads. All this time it will be necessary to wage war and arrange immigrants.
                As for the marginal elements - just settle them in the vicinity of remote settlements. )))

                This is an automatic loss in the next election. And the discredit of the idea.
                "Colonialists are flooding the country with all kinds of scam" is an excellent slogan for the opposition.
                Threat will identify marginalized by the method of Lambroso?))
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 3 June 2020 19: 04
                  I agree - at that time it was technically very difficult laughing
  • Operator
    Operator 3 June 2020 12: 11
    Logic is clearly not the strong point of the author of the article: if the Algerians so ardently wished to become a department of the French Republic, then they would have destroyed all the FLF militants without any "black-footed" and metropolitan troops without any "blackfoot" more than 100 thousand people).

    Likewise, the insurgency from the SLA was deprived of logic - if Algeria became part of the French Republic as a department, after some time the ethnic composition of the united country would fundamentally change and it would be dominated by Arabs and Berbers who profess Islam. Those. soon, most of the seats in the government, parliament and the armed forces of France would be occupied by the Islamists, after which the country would be renamed Algeria.

    De Gaulle was well aware of this, supported in a referendum of 3/4 of the French, with the exception of stupid like a traffic jam military rebels and their supporters.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 3 June 2020 12: 53
      A rare case when they wrote something true
  • Fitter65
    Fitter65 3 June 2020 12: 20
    The well-known film “Jackal Day”, shot in 1973, begins with a story about this attempt
    Jackal Day is a novel by the English writer Frederic Forsythe about the attempt by the leaders of the OAS underground organization to kill French President Charles de Gaulle with the help of a hired professional killer, and about the opposition to this attempt by the French security forces.
    First publication: 1967
    Posted by Frederick Forsyth
    Films: Jackal Day (1973)
    The first was the book. By the way, F.Forsyt has another (I like) book - "Dogs of War".
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 5 June 2020 01: 00
      Foresight stоit read ... "Avenger", "Veteran", "Afghan", "Fist of Allah" ... and, of course, "History of Biafra"! In general, he was a very interesting person ...
  • Kronos
    Kronos 3 June 2020 12: 25
    Charles de Gaulle did everything right, abandoning the colony proved to be a wise politician. And the next moaning on the topic that the white race is dying out ignores the economy and history, not realizing that all developed nations are reducing the birth rate
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 3 June 2020 16: 22
      Quote: Kronos
      Charles de Gaulle did everything right, abandoning the colony proved to be a wise politician. And the next moaning on the topic that the white race is dying out ignores the economy and history, not realizing that all developed nations are reducing the birth rate

      Not necessarily - in the United States whites give birth to 2,9 children per family, in Israel (22nd place in the HDI) - a little more
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 3 June 2020 16: 59
        In Israel, mostly Orthodox Jews breed, that is, the factor of religion plays a role as in the United States
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 3 June 2020 17: 02
          Less than 3 children are very rare in the average secular Israeli family
          Orthodox no more than half a million
    2. Dr. Frankenstucker
      Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 23: 34
      Quote: Kronos
      proved himself a wise politician

      Again, this applied idolatry ... Wise politician? What exactly is wise? The Second World War moved the fucking colonial strata - France received fatal hemorrhoids in the colonies, and de G.'s role was simply to acknowledge the collapse of the empire and grimace with a good mine - withdraw from NATO, not signing a moratorium on nuclear weapons testing, etc.
      He is undoubtedly an extremely interesting historical person, but by no means a "wise politician".
      Wisdom is attributed to politicians by slander (c)
      1. Kronos
        Kronos 3 June 2020 23: 37
        The fact that he was able to do all this while maintaining popularity
  • ohka_new
    ohka_new 3 June 2020 12: 30
    A little-known fact, possibly related to the described events, was the IL-9 on February 1961, 18, on which Leonid Brezhnev (at that time the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, that is, formally the first person of the state) flew on a visit to Guinea, was for unknown reason, he was attacked over the Mediterranean Sea by a French Air Force fighter, which made three calls at a dangerously close distance from the aircraft and twice opened fire on a Soviet aircraft with the subsequent crossing of its course. Pilots managed to get their plane out of the firing zone.
    Here is an article about this event in Moskovsky Komsomolets:
    MK February 11, 1961:
    “... From the official statement of the Minister of Foreign Affairs A. Gromyko to the charge d'affaires of France in the USSR:“ On February 9 there was an unprecedented case of an attack by a French military aircraft on a Soviet civilian aircraft, on board of which were Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR L.I. Brezhnev and persons accompanying him. The attack occurred between 14 h. 23 min. 14 hours and 30 minutes each Greenwich time in the airspace over the international waters of the Mediterranean Sea in the region of about 130 km north of Algeria (at that time Algeria was a French colony). The aircraft of the USSR Civil Air Fleet of the Il-18 type followed to Rabat (the capital of Morocco) along a route that had been previously notified to the relevant French authorities.
    At the indicated time, when the aircraft was at an altitude of 8250 m, a jet fighter suddenly appeared with French identification marks and made three calls at a dangerously close distance from the aircraft. During calls, the fighter twice opened fire on a Soviet aircraft with subsequent crossing of the course. This kind of action by a French military plane ... could have caused a grave catastrophe. These actions cannot be regarded otherwise than an act of international banditry. The grossly provocative nature of the actions of the French fighter becomes even more obvious if we take into account that shortly before the appearance of the fighter, the Soviet aircraft established radio communications with the Algerian airport, and thus the French authorities were precisely aware of the location of the Soviet aircraft following the course which he was known in advance to the French government ... In connection with the robbery attack of the French fighter, the Soviet government declares a strong protest to the French Government ... and demands the punishment of those responsible ... ”
    Some details of the incident became known from the words of Boris Bugaev - personal pilot Brezhnev.
    “... The commander of the Il-18 aircraft said:“ In connection with the flight and three times crossing by the French aircraft of the course of our aircraft, the Algerian radio station of the Air Traffic Service, an urgent radiogram in English and French was transmitted from our aircraft: “The military fighter makes circles around our aircraft “Ilyushin-18” No. 75708 Aeroflot. Please recall the fighter. ” The radio station of the airport of Algeria, having received this radiogram, replied “OK!”, Repeating this word twice ... ”
    What meaning the “Algerian French” put into their “affirmative” answer remained unclear. In any case, their fighter not only defiantly attacked our ship, but also fired several shots at it.
    However, no intelligible explanations from the government of General de Gaulle appeared on the newspaper pages in the following days. Apparently, the case was released on the brakes. Leonid Ilyich, having safely reached the Moroccan capital and talking with the king there, flew from Rabat even further - to Guinea and Ghana.
  • Operator
    Operator 3 June 2020 13: 06
    The TNF carried out attacks not only in Algeria, but also in France itself, mainly in Paris.

    The peak of the confrontation was in 1961 - on October 5, a curfew was imposed in Paris for all "French Muslims from Algeria." In response, the local FLN cell issued an appeal: “Algerians must boycott the curfew. For this, starting from Saturday 14 October 1961, they must leave their homes in droves, with their wives and children. They should walk along the main streets of Paris. " The leaders of the FLN cell understood that the Parisian police, furious with the deaths of their comrades in the previous Arab terrorist attacks, would not tolerate curfew violations and calculated that a certain number of Arabs would certainly have to die in this demonstration, so that the blood of the "martyrs" would legitimize the movement.

    The demonstration took place on October 17, 1961. More than 40 thousand Arabs, many with weapons in their hands, carried the slogans: “France is Algeria”, “Beat the Franks”, “Eiffel Tower will become a minaret”, “Beautiful France, when will you die?” and "Paris whores - where is your hijab?"

    The Arabs first beat the windows and set fire to cars, then wounded several accompanying policemen and passers-by, after which they headed to the island of Cite, where Notre Dame Cathedral is located, as well as the French Ministry of Justice (Palace of Justice) in order to set fire to these symbols of the French religion and legal system.

    On the narrow bridge of Saint-Michel, leading to the island of Cite, they were met by special forces of the Paris police of 500 people. The demonstrators were beaten with batons and dumped in the Seine. Arabs took to flight, while a significant number of them (mainly women and children) were trampled. Arrested Arabs in the courtyard of the Ministry of Justice were beaten to death. At the scene of the dispersal of the demonstration, more than 2 thousand units of abandoned firearms were found.

    The exact number of dead Arabs has not yet been established due to the reasons for participating in the demonstration of a large number of illegal immigrants and dumping corpses into the Seine - according to estimates, the number of deaths on the Saint-Michel bridge, in the subsequent crush on the embankment and execution in the courtyard of the Ministry of Justice, is estimated at 1000 people.

    Such a "fun life" would constantly await the French in the event of the unification of France and Algeria.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 3 June 2020 13: 21
      Colony lovers do not understand the main thing for them, but they lost the land
      1. Dr. Frankenstucker
        Dr. Frankenstucker 3 June 2020 13: 35
        and they lost land

        nuclear test sites in the Sahara in the main. Despite the confusion that took place, a test site was built in Regan and already in the 60th they tested the "jerboa", along the way, filling the district with cesium and iodine-131.
        The landfill was worth 120 lard francs, it would be necessary to protect investments.
    2. DeKo
      DeKo 4 June 2020 06: 59
      Little given to Arabs
    3. VLR
      4 June 2020 07: 20
      About this provocation and Maurice Papon, who saved Paris from defeat, in the next article. In the United States, a real man is missing now - with testicles like Papon
      1. Operator
        Operator 4 June 2020 13: 36
        Do not exaggerate - the law-abiding prefect of Paris, Papon, was simply given the command to face and he came off in full. De Gaulle thus drew a line: here you are, Arabs, Algeria, but do not count on France.

        In the United States, now the problem is not in men with testicles, but in the internal political struggle amid a severe economic crisis between isolationist trumpists and globalist anti-trumpists who are trying to overthrow Trump with the technologies of color revolutions they know (bans of the police and internal troops from violent dispersal of riots by mayors cities and state governors, payments to the organizers of the riots and media support from big business). Trump took a break in the hope of "self-burning" of the riots (a standard intra-American trick), in reserve he has the 1807 law and the regular army.

        But then you will have to curtail the US military presence around the world, as well as roll back to the country's position to WWI - that's why Trump wants and is pricking bully
  • silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 3 June 2020 23: 51
    the betrayal put an end to de Gaulle as a hero of France ... and led to the destruction of thousands of people ... true patriots of their homeland
    To be honest ... Algeria was not a colony but an overseas territory ... part of France itself ... and this part was betrayed and hard abandoned ... this has been remembered in the East for centuries ...
  • DeKo
    DeKo 4 June 2020 06: 57
    Actually, for some reason, this student leader has French awards
    1. VLR
      4 June 2020 07: 14
      Because he was a citizen of France and fought in the French army until 1957. Algeria is France until 1962, the same as Bordeaux or Champagne.
      1. DeKo
        DeKo 4 June 2020 08: 19
        Clear. thank
  • saygon66
    saygon66 5 June 2020 01: 07
    - Involuntarily you begin to think about why Russia so easily left the former Soviet republics .... Not the slightest resistance ... not a single attempt ...
  • WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo 6 June 2020 19: 32
    I liked the article, but I can not help but notice that:

    A referendum held on January 8, 1961, in which 75% of citizens voted for the independence of Algeria ...

    It turns out that there was a referendum and the Algerians themselves wanted independence ?!
    Well, well.
    I look forward to continuing - I think the author will tell us what Algeria turned into after the departure of the French.
    1. VLR
      6 June 2020 19: 49
      The Algerians themselves - both the "black-footed" and the Arabs who had the right to vote, were not allowed to vote, which was a violation of Article 3 of the French Constitution, and therefore the referendum cannot be considered legitimate. That is, the fate of French Algeria was decided by the inhabitants of the Metropolis.