Where did the word “soldier” come from: from the history of military terms


A soldier is a collective definition for a soldier in an army of any country in the world. This is one of the most frequently used words on military-themed resources, in military reports of news agencies.


Often the term "soldiers" is associated with the rank and file of troops, although this is a somewhat erroneous view today. Soldiers are understood to mean virtually the entire army, including sergeants, warrant officers and officers, which speaks of the generalization that is generally inherent in the term. Any general - after all, he is also, in fact, a soldier.

Today there is no person who does not know the word “soldier” (all the more so since it sounds almost the same in dozens of languages ​​of the world), but there are a considerable number of people who, due to various circumstances, do not know where the word came from and what it originally meant.
In this regard, a little material on the topic.

So where did the word soldier come from


The word has a Latin root and it is directly related to the word "solid". This is a gold coin, which was put into circulation in the XNUMXth century AD. The minting of this Roman coin was carried out for several hundred years, and its circulation (in one form or another) in Europe took place many years after the fall of Constantinople.

Where did the word “soldier” come from: from the history of military terms

Solid Justinian II


So how can Roman solidity be related to military terminology? It is believed that everything is extremely simple. A soldier began to be called a man who in medieval Italy received a certain salary for military service. Formally - in a soldo. Soldo is a medieval derivative of the very Roman coin, which, however, had no relation at face value to the Roman solid. In other words, a soldier should have been understood exclusively as a professional, or, if a little rougher, as a mercenary who receives money for his “craft”.

But here the question may arise: Roman soldiers received a salary even before the appearance of a solid (and, of course, before the appearance of the Italian soldier). For example, these were the Aureus introduced into circulation during the Second Punic War (III century BC), or the Antoninians of the emperor Caracalla. Why, then, are the military not called the "Aureuses" and "Antoninians" today?

Here we need to touch on the question of how the word "solid" is translated from Latin, and why the word was assigned to the soldiers already in medieval Italy, and not in the Roman Empire. The translation of the word sounds like “solid” or “strong”. That is, the term "soldier", as some historians write, has been established in connection with the fact that it is "a strong warrior who receives pay for his service."

However, it must be said that this is only romanticization. In fact, the word "soldier" is correlated precisely with the Italian soldo, which was a simple bargaining chip. For example, in medieval Venice, 1 soldier was equal to 1/140 of the cecin, which was minted from the end of the 3,5th century. The weight of the workshop was about 1 g. From this we can conclude that 140/3,5 of the XNUMX-gram gold coin had a very low “banking” value. It is with this that the concept of “soldier” is associated. So in medieval Italy they began to call a certain category of soldiers, because they put in this name an understanding of the too small value of their lives.


Soldo of Venice


Much less romantic than in comparison with solid, but it is this that is much closer to the true understanding of the term "soldier", which has been established historically.

It is important to note that perhaps the term would have nothing to do with military affairs in the end if the Italian coin “soldo” (by its name) did not generate the word “soldare” with its variations in European languages. This verb can be translated as "hire".

That is why soldiers in medieval Europe began to be called precisely mercenaries - moreover, those who received relatively low salaries for their services. And only then, centuries later, the word “soldier” began to acquire a collective meaning, which includes virtually all military personnel and representatives of, say, informal and semi-formal armed groups.

So, the Latin word "solid" with centuries has been transformed first into the word "mercenary", and only then, having discarded the "linguistic-financial" roots, it has become a soldier familiar to everyone. Emperor Constantine today, I think, would be a little surprised to find out how the term is used, which during his reign designated the name of the coin. True, it is from the Latin solid that another modern word leads its way - solid, but, as they say, this is completely different история.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / http: //www.cngcoins.com, Wikipedia / Antonio Venier. Russian Defense Ministry
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  1. Free wind 31 May 2020 14: 43 New
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    Poor dad Carlo, his Pinocchio sold for 4 soldiers. Yes, and Alice with Basilio, suckers. because of cents, so many ordeals were postponed. Could and rattle for 5 years. for abducting a child, albeit wooden.
    1. Avior 31 May 2020 14: 59 New
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      saw a recount in modern money as of 2016

      So it will be clearer how much smile hi
      1. Free wind 31 May 2020 15: 11 New
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        According to article 1, cekhin = 140 soldo. at that time, wooden shoes at Pinocchio were more expensive.
      2. Free wind 31 May 2020 15: 27 New
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        Pinocchio sold the primer in order to visit the puppet booth, do not find that 27 thousand is now expensive. At the moment, 200 rubles per child, especially for disabled people, is not in Moscow.
        1. Avior 31 May 2020 17: 22 New
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          This is from the Komsomol, they were counted in different ways, through the price of meat and so on.
          And this is not the cost of the primer, it is the value of 5 gold that Karabas gave him, and which he buried on the field of miracles.
      3. Astra wild 31 May 2020 18: 36 New
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        Avior colleague, thanks for your calculator. And what are they equal to: pistol, louisdor or livres? When I read The Three Musketeers, I often met these names. They interested me and I tried to make my own “calculator”
        Pistol - Spanish gold coin, analogue of luidor - French gold coin = 20 francs, analogue 100r. I was 15 years old then and how did I calculate this ?? I don’t remember now
        Probably, the colleague "twelfth" will now post a certificate, saying that Louis - a gold coin was minted from the time of Louis the 13th to the French Revolution. Of course, this is all true, but my "calculator" is dear to me
        1. Avior 31 May 2020 21: 14 New
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          Let's calculate not the most correct, but the easiest way, at the price of gold.
          The current price of gold is about $ 50.
          So, let's start with the Spanish.
          escudo - 3,4 g of gold, double escudo-doubloon - 6,8 grams - at current prices about 350 dollars.
          It was the Spanish doubloon in France called the pistol.
          That is, if someone poured 100 pistols to Dartanyan, that means he received $ 35000.
          Luidor - you are absolutely right - this is a French analogue of a pistol, about the same cost.
          With livery more difficult.
          Originally so called one Roman foot of silver, 330 grams.
          Later, the livre was used not as a means of payment, but as a means of payment, and there was no such coin. The course floated and changed significantly, there were different liveries, bills were introduced instead of silver, a lot of things changed with the livery.
          But specifically under Louis 13, around the time of the story of the book musketeers, in 1640 (dArtagnan went to Paris in April 1625), louisor cost about 10 livres, that is, a livre - about $ 35 in modern money.
          But, I think, just primitively counting the price of gold, as I did, is not entirely true, the price of gold really changes with time.
          hi
      4. ANB
        ANB 3 June 2020 23: 37 New
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        5 coins, if we consider 3,5 grams of guinea pigs, cost 66 rubles at the Central Bank rate for tomorrow.
        1. ANB
          ANB 4 June 2020 19: 44 New
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          A ticket cost 377 rubles.
          For the alphabet, Papa Carlo gave his jacket. But Pinocchio shed it on the cheap for 4 soldi (377 rubles). Dear ABC was, it turns out.
    2. Mavrikiy 31 May 2020 16: 46 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      Yes, and Alice with Basilio, suckers. because of cents, so many ordeals were postponed.

      READ THE TALE. On the “field of miracles” Pinocchio planted 4 gold, not a soldier (for soldier he sold a primer)
      1. Free wind 1 June 2020 13: 58 New
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        I hated fairy tales. maybe I read 10 pieces, considered them nonsense. I read from 5 years old, I liked reading adventure literature, history, and technical. Previously, there were many magazines, in the library you could read selections. Later he tried to read War and Peace; everything Tolstoy died for me, like all classics, with their conclusions. My son studied at school, once again tried to read the war, no, tyagomotin.
        1. Mavrikiy 1 June 2020 14: 33 New
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          Quote: Free Wind
          I hated fairy tales. maybe I read 10 pieces, considered them nonsense. I read from 5 years old, I liked reading adventure literature, history, and technical. Previously, there were many magazines, in the library you could read selections. Later he tried to read War and Peace, everything Tolstoy died for me, like all classics
          hi Will we be treated?
          Tolstoy did not die, just heavy. Now I’ve listened to “War and Peace” with an audiobook, not right of course, but for show, the opinion on the sites ..... And what’s it for a hundred-year-old oak tree, you’ll tear the navel and tear it up. You need to start the classics with Leskov. Then you can Goncharova, Gorky, too, you can, but it will be thinner. The adventures of Kataev, Kaverin, not Stevenson of course, but humane.
          Tales, well, you need it for your grandchildren, about 5, and to read them to Pushkin himself, etc., and not cartoons. Can people getrepeat hi To be honest, I read to the children, I liked it myself. I tried it now, the breathing apparatus is weak, the diction has disappeared, eh ... Grandchildren will go, maybe everything will work out. But read the tales yourself with comments and explanations.
      2. ANB
        ANB 3 June 2020 23: 33 New
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        A ticket to the theater cost 4 soldiers. But Pinocchio received 5 gold coins from Karabas Barabas. One was taken from him in the tavern and 4 he buried on the Field of Miracles.
        Dams, and so called the transfer ....
    3. Wildgoose 1 June 2020 13: 33 New
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      Burn for connections with the andromorphic dendromutant of the sorcerer Carlo
  2. Uncle lee 31 May 2020 14: 46 New
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    So, the name of a military man came from money ... soldier
    1. sabakina 31 May 2020 15: 03 New
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      Volodya! If you follow the teachings of M. Zadornov, then the word soldier; sol-sunny, dat-date. In total, a sunny day. Let us recall to whom the Russian soldiers brought a peaceful sky above their heads? wink
      1. Uncle lee 31 May 2020 15: 06 New
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        Quote: sabakina
        peaceful sky above your head

        Hello glory hi But we will remember this!
  3. Pessimist22 31 May 2020 14: 51 New
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    Emperor Constantine made Christianity the state religion from the sect, he contributed to its spread to a greater extent, the empire consisted of various groups with different gods, and he decided to make monotheism, especially Christianity has slavish submission.
  4. Something went trend ... Military - explanatory dictionary. Can a heading open a new one?
    It’s strange. Every day I look at two more military sites. On them news - in bulk! One more "military review" is enough, if divided equally! But some of them reach us late a day or two. The rest is generally lost, but they are chewing on what a latrine, soldier, bazaar, bottle is ...
    1. Volodin 31 May 2020 15: 14 New
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      Have you tried to choose topics of interest? If you are aware of a soldier or a market, this does not mean that all thousands of readers are aware. This is the first.
      Second: if you decide to write the latest news, then post - IN only for, and readers will be grateful.
      1. You know, the editors limit me to articles. Set me a kind of "limit." But I don’t chase quantity, I write only when there is inspiration and when I see rare, I hope interesting material. Therefore, in three years only 13 articles ...
        1. Volodin 31 May 2020 16: 28 New
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          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          You know, the editors limit me to articles. Set me a kind of "limit."

          I work as part of the editorial office and for the first time I hear about some kind of personal limit for you.
          In any case, thanks for your interest in VO.
          1. That would not be unfounded ...

            I’m not complaining about the editor for this limit. Well at least sometimes they print. Worse, as readers correctly point out, the quality of the materials has fallen dramatically.
            1. Volodin 31 May 2020 17: 12 New
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              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              That would not be unfounded ...

              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              Worse, as readers correctly point out, the quality of the materials has fallen dramatically.

              I just want to clarify for what reason you have this strange "limit". Maybe proofreaders are tormented with edits of your texts? Do you write the word “what” separately? I myself get a crack for the need to make corrections)) Then you need to start with yourself, maybe then the overall quality of the materials will grow.

              I know Oleg Chuvakin very well. Just like that, he will not set any "limits". And if you set it, we will all sort it out with your help ...)))
          2. Astra wild 31 May 2020 18: 56 New
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            Colleagues, I just looked into Volodin’s profile: 2769 publications, and the Leader, as he says, 13. Hence the conclusions: a) Volodin is a “prolific" author, b) a favorite of the editorial board.
            You can add other letters, but this is up to you. I don’t give any ratings, but just give the numbers.
            Dear: Volodin and the Leader of the Redskins, you are completely equal to me
            1. Volodin 31 May 2020 20: 15 New
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              Dear Astra! You did the job as Miss Marple)). But it’s not clear to whom it was a secret ... Your humble servant works for VO, in VO editorial staff. Soon as 10 years. And it seems like it never hid from you or anyone else. Therefore, your letters look strange, like an indication of the number of articles for all these years of work))) It's all as if you were working as a doctor, and I would say that you made an appointment for 2000 patients in 9 years. Well, right, the doctor accepts patients, the journalist prepares materials in the media. Something like this.
              1. 3x3zsave 31 May 2020 21: 50 New
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                Ironically in vain. Even that which is laid out openly under the heading "About Publication" is not read by 99% of site users. What can we say about internal interweaving!
    2. Bashkirkhan 31 May 2020 15: 14 New
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      The audience of the site is rapidly degrading. Experts and specialists who served in the army, navy, and aviation are replaced mainly by mentally deprived idiots or youngsters who do not care what to shout about. Therefore, the content is simplified.
      1. Pessimist22 31 May 2020 17: 05 New
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        About over-age idiots right to the point laughing
      2. Lekov L 31 May 2020 18: 53 New
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        The audience of the site is rapidly degrading. Experts and specialists who served in the army, navy, and aviation are being replaced ...

        They just leave, because ... they don’t want to mess.
        Ahhh - it's useless .. request
        In the comments only:
        or a kind of foul smelling with ... since the supposedly Bolsheviks with supposedly White Guards (as if this is no longer our common story),
        or dumping tons of manure on the successes of our science and industry,
        or the joy of their difficulties
        in which comrades with ____________________ joyfully add substance (substitute the necessary name of the country).
        Even in the "weapons" section, and then watering the slop from head to head.
        Every day there is less desire to write at least something - it becomes uninteresting, former comrades in arms.
        It is a pity. recourse
        With respect to the decent people staying here.
    3. vladcub 31 May 2020 15: 17 New
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      Leader, I agree with you: there are few really interesting materials on the site. But there is an abundance of "404", and on a direct subject there is very little material
      1. Volodin 31 May 2020 15: 25 New
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        For today, I have not found a single material about the "404".
        1. vladcub 31 May 2020 15: 38 New
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          It’s a pity, but how many similar materials were in various variations?
          1. Volodin 31 May 2020 16: 01 New
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            Quote: vladcub
            That's a pity, but how many in different variations было similar materials?

            So "was" or "becomes" ... Decide, please. In Ukraine, in fact, a civil war is going on, Ukraine was entangled in anti-Russian (they are, in fact, anti-Ukrainian) forces. It would be strange on the pages of VO to ignore this topic altogether, wouldn't it ...
        2. Well, today it’s not over yet ... And so, offhand, offhand ...
          Only in the "news" section:
          Yesterday, one article related to Ukraine, on the 21st - three, on the twentieth - three ... So in vain you attack the reader.
          1. Volodin 31 May 2020 16: 31 New
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            Quote: Leader of the Redskins
            So in vain you attack the reader.

            I'm sorry, I’m not attacking anyone here. As I understood from your comment - 7 materials, somehow related to Ukraine, in 11 days. Over the same 11 days, more than 200 odd materials went to the VO. Well, if 7 of the more than 200 materials is a lot, then oh ...
            In general, I would like to speak in the comments on the topic of the material. For the rest there is a "PM". Thank.
            1. I have not processed 11 days. And he took selectively THREE days. Dates indicated.
              Specially counted - 21 news in 10 days.
              1. Volodin 31 May 2020 17: 07 New
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                Again.
                Quote: Volodin
                In general, I would like to speak in the comments on the topic of the material. For the rest there is a "PM". Thank.
          2. Normal ok 31 May 2020 21: 13 New
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            Quote: Leader of the Redskins
            Well, today it’s not over yet ... And so, offhand, offhand ...
            Only in the "news" section:
            Yesterday, one article related to Ukraine, on the 21st day - three, on the twentieth - three ...

            Already published in today's news. But how could it be without this topic. You need to kick someone, otherwise you have to think about your own problems.
  5. AllBiBek 31 May 2020 16: 40 New
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    Excuse me, but with what important reluctance, one of the theories of the origin of the word "soldier" is presented as the ultimate truth?

    There is an equally justified theory of the origin of the "soldier" from the Mongol "suldete"; literally something like "stinging" in terms that local readers understand, because Sulda is a Mongolian deity of war.

    Before Europe clashed with the Mongolian troops - not a word "soldier", nor a close sounding written. Like the words "hero" in the pre-Mongolian Russian sources, but it is absolutely accurate from the Mongolian "bahatura".
    1. Free wind 31 May 2020 16: 52 New
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      Nobody says anywhere that this is the ultimate truth.
      1. AllBiBek 31 May 2020 17: 08 New
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        Come on?
        Direct copy-paste from the text:

        "So where did the word soldier come from

        The word has a Latin root and it is directly related to the word "solid." "

        The fact that "according to one of the theories" is not a word, not even a word about "the theory seems to be the most probable ...".

        That's what the words “gang” and “bow” are of the same root, and they come from the Byzantine army of Justinian II times, because detachments of a hired rabble understood who from where and to whom they obey only by colored ribbons on their sleeves, which were tied so that in which case quickly take off with one hand - this is a fact, and the "soldier" from the "solid" is a theory.
    2. Operator 31 May 2020 16: 57 New
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      "Bogatyr" from the Sanskrit bahagadhara, which through the Iranian languages ​​of the peoples of Central Asia (the so-called Turan) got to the Turks and there turned into a "batyr". By the time the Turks arrived in Europe, the bahagadhara had gone out of circulation with Slavic tribes - blood relatives of the Aryans, Sanskrit speakers.
  6. Gato 31 May 2020 16: 55 New
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    So many modern military terms were formed among Landsknechts and their "beloved" Swiss mercenaries: the captain (head), lieutenant (French deputy), a company of others, and together with German and French military experts migrated to the Russian army during the time of Mikhail Fedorovich and Peter I. Then, apparently, the official term "soldier" appeared in Russia:
    In 1642, two “elected” (that is, selected) regiments of the soldiers formed from Moscow Slobodans and Streltsy children — Pervomoskovsky and Butyrsky.
  7. Mavrikiy 31 May 2020 17: 45 New
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    set (+), and then thought and .......
    Here we need to touch on the question of how the word "solid" is translated from Latin, and why the word was assigned to the soldiers already in medieval Italy, and not in the Roman Empire. The translation of the word sounds like “solid” or “strong”. That is, the term "soldier", as some historians write, has been established in connection with the fact that it is "a strong warrior who receives pay for his service."
    hi Everything is clear and harmonious and suddenly .....
    the word "soldier" is correlated precisely with the Italian soldo, which was a simple bargaining chip.
    Sorry, when you say, the impression is that you are raving (Ivan Vasilievich)hi Simple logic talks about this. If a soldier is so cheap, then millions of armies would roam Europe. request And the kings never had money to pay them, why? But because .....
    Sun - the sun is in Italian, from here solid - Gold full-weight trading coin. Here is the price of a soldier and there is, full-weight gold. So the word soldier derived from the word the sun semantic solar coin. And if you like
    generated the word "soldare" in European languages
    1. Volodin 31 May 2020 18: 21 New
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      "I'm sorry when you say the impression is that you are raving." Hmmm ... In a comment, insults can do without * not only everything * ... A soldier-sun is a beautiful version. Too beautiful for a soldier and the truth. Only what other million-strong army? What are you, dear friend? Read how many people lived in medieval Venice ...
      1. Mavrikiy 31 May 2020 19: 39 New
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        hi Everything is clear and harmonious, and suddenly ..... What difference does it make how many lived in Venice? Mercenaries from all countries roamed Europe. Yes, in turmoil we had two battalions of Venetians. But there were Germans, Swiss, Spaniards .... All the kings needed mercenaries and if they cost a penny, why should their people be harassed? No, professionals are expensive!
  8. 3x3zsave 31 May 2020 21: 02 New
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    Not a bad article, but I don’t want to participate in the “holivar” !!!
  9. raif 31 May 2020 22: 38 New
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    in the Russian Federation, the word "soldier" has long been precisely the category of rank-and-file and corporal in the ground units. just open the Disciplinary Rules - the fastest way and you will find this separation. the categories are clearly spelled out there: officers, warrant officers / midshipmen, sergeants / foremen, soldiers / sailors.
    and leave all sorts of philosophical-snotty nurses about the "colonel who was a real soldier" for magazine women, poetesses and couch soldiers
    1. Gato 1 June 2020 02: 50 New
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      and leave all sorts of philosophical-snotty nurses about the "colonel who was a real soldier" for magazine women, poetesses and couch soldiers

      ... and vaudeville
  10. Mikhail3 1 June 2020 14: 15 New
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    In the old days, the army was initially tribal, then local. What did that mean? And this meant that to raise troops on a campaign, much more was needed than the will of the ruler. It was necessary to convince people to fight. Bring them good reasons. Of course, several hundred hunters wave weapons no matter what, anyhow, you can always find a fight. But this is not an army ...
    So, with the growth of state incomes (initially in Italy, due to the very high agricultural productivity, a lot of people began to appear "extra" money), soldiers began to appear, that is, people living on pay and going to war to work out. This pay was not great (so that the soldier could not collect money for something that would allow him to get rid of the service), but enough that a man free from economy, taxes and other smut-tricks, not adapted by way of his personality to peaceful life, could exist due to the fact that he went to fight where the boss orders. In fact, the soldiers were low-paid mercenaries.
    In general, there is nothing honorable in the original sense of the word. However, those states that did not understand the values ​​of the soldiers were simply destroyed. A uniformly trained and thoughtfully led army almost always defeated all kinds of militias. True, the soldier could not be relied on ... They did not care who they cut, by and large. So the next applicant paid a little more, poured wine, and changed the ruler as he wanted. Dead end.
    Then the word "soldier" began to fill with real meaning. Patriotism was added, the defense of the motherland, compatriots ... Well, in those countries where these words made sense, but were not betrayed and sold countless times, it completely abraded the meaning.
    The current concept has nothing to do with someone else’s soldier.
  11. iouris 2 June 2020 22: 10 New
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    The term (from lat. Terminus - limit, border) - a word or phrase, which is the name of some concept of any area of ​​science, technology, art, and so on.
    Concept - the unity of essential properties, connections and relations of objects or phenomena reflected in thinking; a thought or a system of thoughts that distinguishes and generalizes objects of a certain class according to general and, in their totality, characteristics specific to them.
    The concept in its abstraction opposes the specificity of perception. Also, the concept is opposed to the word, which can be interpreted as a sign of the concept.
    Under the concept, Kant meant any general idea, since the latter is fixed by the term.
    The concepts are “abbreviations in which we encompass, according to their general properties, many different sensually perceived things” (F. Engels).
    A concept is one of the basic forms of human thinking, which generally outlines the essence of the phenomena and objects of the real world surrounding us, highlighting both general and specific signs among them, and consolidating the experience gained in definitions (definitions).
    Concept - is an endless mental abstraction, where an indefinite number of objects or phenomena can be written. Definition - is a fixed description of any one specific subject or phenomenon.
    The concept already contains truth, while the definition is a process aimed at revealing this truth.
    Thus, the series of articles is not related to terminology, but to the history of the appearance of the words of the Russian military vocabulary, the history of the development of the achievements of Western military science and Western military technologies.
  12. Barmal 3 June 2020 01: 03 New
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    Salt, Solntse, Sunny, le Soleil (le salts) -fr. The sun,
    sel, sol - salt. Salt for the price of gold. Gold and salt, as well as spices of the East - the main values ​​of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. The fact that inflation and the turning of coins over the centuries has devalued solidity in a soldier is nothing strange. The Venetian soldo is really not made of gold, judging by the photograph. Salt-give is quite a Russian root in the "soldier". Taking salary with salt? Taking salt? Here the moment is important, whether it is recognized by the reasoning that Latin is a derivative of the other Russian language.