Each Katyusha had its own “Raisa Sergeevna”: from the history of the Great Patriotic War

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Each Katyusha had its own “Raisa Sergeevna”: from the history of the Great Patriotic War

When it comes to the BM-13 rocket artillery fighting vehicle, it is often recalled another name - affectionate - “Katyusha”. In 2020, it marks 75 years since the end of World War II, and exactly the same since the end of production at the Soviet factories of the legendary BM-13.

For whom is Katyusha, and for whom is the Stalinist organ, historians will say. Indeed, for the enemy it is formidable weapon and the name was different. Due to the characteristic sound, when the Germans left the BM-13 guiding missiles, the Germans gave the Russian Katyusha their own version of the name that existed until the end of the war.



Today it’s hard to find a person in our country (and this is good) who wouldn’t know what weapons our warriors called “Katyusha” during the war. The point, of course, is not that "everyone knows about the BM-13." The thing is that, so to speak, practically everyone can “outline” the installation.

However, not everyone knows that Katyusha had its own aunts. And each of them was called “Raisa Sergeevna” (“Rais-Sergeevna”). That is how the soldiers of the Red Army dubbed the aforementioned missiles, which were indicated by the letter combination of RS. This is the 132-mm m-13 ammunition for the rocket launcher. M-13 is a high-explosive high-explosive projectile, developed in 1938 as part of the program, as they would say now, of modernizing the RS-132 aircraft projectile.

It is noteworthy that historical the documents contain evidence that the decision on the mass production of Rais-Sergeevn (of course, at that time such a name did not exist yet) was made just a few hours before the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union - at a meeting of June 21, 1941. In 1944, an updated version of this munition M-13 of the UK appeared.

"Raisa Sergeevna" consisted of a warhead and a powder propellant engine. The explosive of the M-13 warhead was provided by a contact fuse and an additional detonator. The RS engine for BM-13 had a propellant combustion chamber with a powder charge. This charge was a system of cylindrical checkers with an axial channel. The pyrozapals served to ignite the powder charge of Raisa Sergeevna. The ejection of the pieces themselves through the nozzle was prevented by a specially placed diaphragm.



Four feather stabilizer M-13 provided stabilization in flight. This option affected the accuracy, but it allowed to increase the range of rockets of this type. And this range for the initial versions reached almost 8,5 km. At the same time, the lateral deviation of the projectile by 3-5 km exceeded 50 m. But during the launch of the salvo, the negative deflection factors of the M-13 were actually leveled - the damage to the enemy’s battle lines was very, very significant.
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    1. +7
      24 May 2020
      The weapon of victory!
      Simple and tasteful!
      1. +1
        24 May 2020
        Each Katyusha had its own “Raisa Sergeevna”: from the history of the Great Patriotic War
        there was no "raisa maksimovna" ... and won. and this couple with the "marked" fucked everything up. however, the process continues.
        1. +1
          24 May 2020
          Quote: Dead Day
          however, the process continues.

          In his native Paramilitary, it’s not like that at all. The last missiles from the test stand fly out with a similar sound, but one can already say so with "Putin's organ" - super-sound from the start, and then uuuh and hyper. It must be said that it is very impressive. Is this the case for our "partners"?
          1. +1
            24 May 2020
            Quote: Tusv
            In native Paramilitary it’s completely different. The last missiles from the test bench fly out with a similar sound,

            Air defense (paramilitary organization) - this is our EVERYTHING!
            Enlighten why LAST?
            I mean the LATEST?
            Or in the sense of the last by shelf life?
            1. +3
              24 May 2020
              Quote: Victor_B
              Air defense (paramilitary organization) - this is our EVERYTHING!

              Well, the paramilitary is only the third in a NATO headache. In the first places of the Strategic Missile Forces and the Strategic Missile Forces
              Enlighten why LAST?

              And our missiles and previously damaged stabilizers did not interfere with knocking down the Americans with the Jews. But the latter is something fascinating. I'm not afraid of the word symphony

              1. -7
                25 May 2020
                nudole? Are you seriously? what is impossible in nature video, let's take the facts
                1. +2
                  25 May 2020
                  Quote: ApJlekuHo
                  nudole? Are you seriously? what is impossible in nature video, let's take the facts

                  Clown, it’s possible with us! Supersound at the start !!!
              2. +1
                25 May 2020
                Stunned !!!!!
                If there were no site rules, I would put it more specifically!
    2. +2
      24 May 2020
      Another ingenious creation of Soviet engineers. But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.
      1. -4
        24 May 2020
        Therefore, Langerermak was shot in advance
        1. +2
          24 May 2020
          Quote: Doccor18
          Therefore, Langerermak was shot in advance

          Rather, they believed more in their Stucks / Lapteshniki / Yu-87. How the States are now in their manuals of the last century. But, to the joy of mobility Katyush shut up skeptics
          1. +1
            24 May 2020
            Georgy Erichovich Langemak, July 8, 1898, Starobelsk - January 11, 1938, Moscow - a Soviet scientist, one of the pioneers of rocket technology and one of the creators of the first rockets in the USSR, a military engineer of the 1st rank. And such a person became an enemy of the people
            1. -3
              24 May 2020
              Quote: really
              And such a person became an enemy of the people

              We bet that if NATO attacks our country, all who in the slightest way interfere with the aggression will be declared "enemies of the people." And the evidence will be concocted murderous. Alas, this is part of the war
              1. 0
                24 May 2020
                Those. You claim that the country's leadership will be in one with the attackers? Because the evidence is written by the prosecutor, and she reports to the president. sorry but you or logic is not ok
                1. -1
                  24 May 2020
                  I say that everything will be done to discredit. Look what now: "Putin has disappeared", Putin does not understand "," Putin does not know "," Putin is tired "The last 2 months there is such a boil. And tell me that these are not real headlines hi
                  1. -4
                    24 May 2020
                    The king chooses the retinue, and only then the retinue makes the king, but how is this a matter of the initial choice
                    1. -1
                      24 May 2020
                      Quote: really
                      The king chooses the retinue, and only then the retinue makes the king, but how is this a matter of the initial choice

                      Oh oh oh. The king, if he is the king, chooses the guard, and the retinue. Well, choose her. First, she is a front, then the opposition, then gelatin. Personally, they did not choose me, but they appointed me to the Guard. And there is no doubt about it. In my case, 70 km from the border and fly to your health hi
                  2. +1
                    24 May 2020
                    Quote: Tusv
                    "Putin has disappeared", Putin does not understand "," Putin does not know "

                    And if Putin is in place, is he in the know, and holds the steering wheel firmly? And all this diarrhea - only from "foreign agents" who work out their cookies. No headlines - no cookies.
                    Russian information channels are cutting out from Mordokniga, Chirikalki, TyTruba to the root - Western hamsters should not have doubts about the imminent victory of the executioners over common sense.
                    1. -5
                      24 May 2020
                      Quote: Oyo Sarkazmi
                      From Mordoknigi, Tweets

                      Putin will answer me later for closing Losinki. In the meantime, I dober wearing a mask and gloves and my lappedo outside Losinki. These are the rules hi
                2. 0
                  24 May 2020
                  Quote: really
                  Those. You claim that the country's leadership will be in one with the attackers?

                  Yes, it's just idiocy who thinks so.
      2. +4
        24 May 2020
        Quote: Doccor18
        Another ingenious creation of Soviet engineers. But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.

        I couldn’t repeat it, but they were their own, and they were a hassle.
      3. +2
        24 May 2020
        Quote: Doccor18
        But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.

        Why, then. They had six-barrel mortars. Guides and a way to start are another matter. For example, they say that a couple of RS pilots asked to attach a muzzle in the tail so that Goering's chicks would not feel at ease. I don’t know whether it is a bike or not, but it’s beautiful
        1. +3
          24 May 2020
          German six-barreled mortars were the worst weapon. If not mistaken, caliber 155mm. Several of these installations covered a decent area. Recharging also did not take much time. They fired using an electric launch system from cover.
          1. +3
            24 May 2020
            Belarusians recently showed a film about the battle of Mogilev. There, in the final shots, they were demonstrated hi
          2. +2
            25 May 2020
            Quote: Old Fuck
            If I am not mistaken, caliber 155mm

            158,5 mm ... the "caliber" of tubular guides ... The installation was named: 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 ... Very often in the "literature" -150 mm was indicated. But, presumably, 150 mm is the caliber of the tail warhead of the missile ...
        2. +1
          25 May 2020
          Most likely a bike.
          It’s so easy to launch a rocket back from an airplane, you need a long guide to disperse it, and you don’t even have to talk about an aimed shot back.
      4. +3
        24 May 2020
        Quote: Doccor18
        But the gloomy German genius was unable to unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha

        Yes, he solved everything. And even issued copies. It didn’t. The gloomy German genius could not bear such a wasteful expenditure of ammunition with such a great dispersion. The economics of war.
        Type the query "German copies of Katyusha" ...
        1. -1
          24 May 2020
          Quote: Mountain Shooter
          Type the query "German copies of Katyusha" ..

          Dial query Second shock and there Vlasovites. But in fact, under the Mgoy, my grandmother darned fighters and had nothing to do with the traitor
          1. +3
            25 May 2020
            Quote: Tusv

            Dial request Second shock and there Vlasovites

            And this has to do with it? Are we talking about technology, or where? I had a book - "Germany's missile weapons". Nice book with illustrations. There was a copy of "Katyusha", it did not take root. They also tried to make a copy of SVT, and even a copy of the PPSh was released, about 10 thousand pieces, however, chambered for parabellum ... Does this somehow diminish the achievements of our designers? In my opinion, the opposite.
        2. +2
          25 May 2020
          The fact that the gloomy German genius was more important than massive prodigies in the format of jet aircraft for obvious purposes, or it’s completely unclear why super-heavy tanks are his sexual difficulties.

          That's why he is gloomy on the spot.
      5. -2
        25 May 2020
        But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.


        he didn’t even bother, but yanked YA in Japan to dispel all doubts. today they’re not even thinking why he did it.
    3. -8
      24 May 2020
      Few people know that one of the leading designers Langemak Georgy Erichovich and the creators of the multiple launch rocket system (Katyusha) was shot in 1938.
      "Langemak was signed for repression in the" first category "(execution) in the list" Moscow Center "dated January 3, 1938 for 163 people, No. 73, at the suggestion of the head of the 8th department of the GUGB NKVD V. E. Tsesarsky. : “For” Zhdanov, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov.
      "The first category" meant that the members of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee did not object to the shooting of these people. Further, the cases of the repressed were considered by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the meeting usually lasted 10 minutes, after which the members of the Military Collegium were removed and passed a sentence (usually execution), not subject to appeal and carried out on the same day. The Military Collegium of the Supreme Court passed a death sentence on approximately 80-90% of the accused on the list in the "first category."
      PS How much could he do with his employees to strengthen the defense capability of the USSR? This is where the answer "why did the 1941 mega catastrophe take place?"
      1. +11
        24 May 2020
        I advise you to get acquainted with historical facts more closely. There, they all wrote denunciations and blamed each other for all mortal sins. Whoever reported first is on horseback. Korolev, Glushko and many others from this office suffered.
        In fact, the creator of Katyusha does not exist, many people created it collectively.
      2. +6
        24 May 2020
        Quote: Old Fuck
        PS How much could he do with his employees to strengthen the defense of the USSR?

        Yes, FIG knows. If you read at least excerpts from the case, it becomes clear that there was no team at the research institute. There were a bunch of dogs that were more ready to taste anything for a bone .. Langemak did sign the testimony against Korolev .. so ... it's dark, which for some reason fell on Stalin ..
        About the same situation was with Mandelstamm .., who was taken at 38m by denunciations of members of the Writers' Union ..
      3. -7
        24 May 2020
        And here they do not believe that there was more harm from the NKVD. The case of Langerermak was led by investigator Shestakov, who lived to an advanced age
        https://nkvd.memo.ru/index.php/Шестаков,_Михаил_Николаевич
      4. +4
        24 May 2020
        Quote: Old Fuck
        submission to the head of the 8th department of the GUGB NKVD V.E. Tsesarsky. Signatures: “for” Zhdanov, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov.
        "The first category" meant that the members of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee did not object to the shooting of these people. Further, the cases of the repressed were considered by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the meeting usually lasted 10 minutes, after which the members of the Military Collegium were removed and passed a sentence (usually execution), not subject to appeal and carried out on the same day. The Military Collegium of the Supreme Court passed a death sentence on approximately 80-90% of the accused on the list in the "first category."

        Few people know that all this is linden. And "Old Fuck" is its distributor, akin to OBS.
        1. +1
          25 May 2020
          Quote: Krasnoyarsk
          Few people know that all this is a linden.

          Lipa, that Langemak was shot?
          Uncle, aren't you inside yourself? This is actually a historical fact.
          1. -2
            26 May 2020
            Quote: Old Fuck

            Lipa, that Langemak was shot?

            In the quote that I quoted, there is not a word about Langemak.
            So, aunt, this is you not in yourself.
            About Langemak and others like him, better read the interrogation protocols of Yagoda and Yezhov. Everything is clearly said there - for what and why.
            1. 0
              26 May 2020
              Quote: Krasnoyarsk
              better read the protocols of interrogations of Yagoda and Yezhov.

              Uncle, do you know where to put these protocols? I think even you know.
              Actually, I thought smart people live in Siberia. But I see there are exceptions. What normal person will give a link to the protocols of Yagoda and Yezhov, which even Uncle Joe could not stand and destroy?
              1. 0
                26 May 2020
                Quote: Old Fuck
                the protocols of Berry and Yezhov, which even Uncle Joe could not stand and destroyed?

                Yeah, I burned it in my ashtray. laughing
    4. +2
      24 May 2020
      The theme of Luke Mudischev in the context of Raisa Sergeevna is not disclosed.
      1. +7
        24 May 2020
        Quote: AllBiBek
        The theme of Luke Mudischev in the context of Raisa Sergeevna is not disclosed.

        Not everyone, you see, is aware of the M-30. My grandfather from 1942 to 1944 fought as the commander of the M-30 battery, in the 45th he sat on the BM-31. In childhood he told me a lot about "Luka", especially when he went to graze cows with him. Fortunately, there was plenty of time, and the ears were "free". He was then for me the center of the universe. Y-yes .... Today I would like to talk to him. But he's gone ...
        1. +2
          26 May 2020
          Quote: Hagen
          But he left ....

          Alas for all of us. If only I knew that they would spit on the Red Army and the USSR like that. I would have tasted everything from my own, who did not want to remember the front of my father. And about the hunger of the 30s, and about the war, and about how ordinary people spoke about their generals. About everything I would figure out, with details. But, alas, you won’t ask him. How stupid I was that I did not ask, did not demand a story. For myself, for my children, for my grandchildren. There are only rewards left. I keep them. I will tell my son, with a story about his grandfather, the son of my grandson. I hope the relay does not break.
          1. +1
            26 May 2020
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            How stupid I did not ask

            Unfortunately, this is a disease of "Homo sapiens" in principle. When there is an opportunity to ask, we have no interest in him. When interest arises, there is often no one to ask.
    5. +5
      24 May 2020
      A note for the sake of a note. Neither drawings, nor characteristics, nor TsAGI's work on increasing the accuracy of the PC (compensation for the asymmetry of the nozzles by rotating the projectile in flight - the author is Academician Khristianovich), nor comparison with foreign analogues, but there are many of them, nothing. The impression that the seventh grader wrote on distance learning. And what is the relation between imeer's article and the "News" heading? Yes, and anonymous. Article minus.
      1. -2
        24 May 2020
        Well, again. PC itself was invented by the Chinese, prototypes were used by the ancient Koreans. Even the Mythbusters made them. But the first who thought of putting this on a mobile platform were Our
        1. -1
          24 May 2020
          Quote: Tusv
          But the first who thought of putting this on a mobile platform were Our
          - Well, yes ..... Nebelverfer weighing 540 kg, the calculation that could roll them across the field easily and the tractor right up to the horse is not mobility ... yeah ...
          1. -3
            24 May 2020
            Quote: your1970
            Nebelverfer weighing 540 kg, the calculation that could roll them across the field easily and the tractor up to the horse is not mobility ... yeah ...

            Nude nude. According to rocade against draft power against ... This is not mathematics for you. Think of 30 km per thousand front. Your trench would be taken unnoticed and most importantly for free hi
            1. +4
              24 May 2020
              Quote: Tusv
              According to rocade against draft power against.
              -and?


              what is the problem? this transport will not stretch 100-200 km?

              Moreover - if our fuel was running out, then you won’t be able to take it even 200 meters away, and a couple of horses could easily pull 10 and 20 and 30 km without refueling feel
              Finding grass in the field is much easier - than 200 liters of gasoline in the same field

              What is more mobile in the absence of fuel - baaalshoy question
              1. -1
                24 May 2020
                AND? Your answer is not fig, not draft power. For reference. Tax power is horses and other domestic animals. And you have stupid mechanization in the pictures
                1. +3
                  25 May 2020
                  Quote: Tusv
                  On rokad on draft power against

                  Your words?? !!!
                  I gave you an example, how it was possible to carry along the road and far ...
                  Give you horse tax?
                  You open the instruction for the 76-mm cannon (three-inch) and you will be surprised to learn that even it was horse drawn ... and even such a trifle as a 45 mm cannon - which also weighed 20 kg heavier Nebelwerfer - horses dragged with songs ... photo 45 - to attach to you with horse draft?
                  And the Germans used the gun carriage of a similar gun for Nevelvelfer

                  Z.Y. even the divisional 122 mm horses dragged quite a
        2. -1
          24 May 2020
          The Chinese themselves invented RS,

          And what was the point with them? By the end of the 1941th century, RS were removed from service in all countries (in the Republic of Ingushetia there was their last use in the Akhal-Teke campaign, Great Britain also stopped using its Congreve missiles at about the same time.) Then they were only suitable for chasing savages. A truly combat MLRS was made at a completely different level in our country in 1942, and the issue of their organization and combat use was correctly resolved. The Germans had captured samples of our MLRS by February 1950, but they did not go to copy them, or to change the structure of the organization of their "Nebelwefers". By the way, the use of German "Nebelwefers" by the North Koreans in the 53-13 war did not show any advantages over the BM-1944. Perhaps this was due to the fact that the captured "Nebelwefers" were produced in 45-XNUMX, and were of poor quality.
          1. +1
            24 May 2020
            The idea itself is still alive. S-8. KVO penny from two to 4 km
        3. 0
          25 May 2020
          Quote: Tusv
          But the first who thought of putting this on a mobile platform were Our

          Apparently the German system was more thoughtful, mobile and tenacious in the war. Under the dominance of enemy aircraft, the RS is a convenient target on the car chassis. When at the beginning of the offensive the artillery bombardment began with a group of hundreds of trunks, vehicles with RSs could be brought to the front line and give them a salvo at the end of the artillery bombardment, thereby increasing the density of artillery by several times and shortening the artillery bombardment time. In the Korean War, rocket launchers made by the type of German by the Chinese and Koreans were assessed as more tenacious and efficient. Afghans used single-barrel RS against the Soviet army, and the Vietnamese against the American. In the Vietnam War, during the day, Vietnamese tankers often fired no more than one shot, and the rest of the time they were hiding from the aircraft. Protecting the BM-13 from bombs, splinters, bullets and napalm is much more difficult than the PT tank. Apparently, the success of Katyushas in 1941-1945 was caused by the appearance in the USSR of advanced technology for the production of cheap fast gunpowders suitable for equipping missiles. Moreover, this technology was worked out before the war.
    6. Ham
      +4
      24 May 2020
      German officers who served in the French foreign legion during the first Indo-Chinese war - sharply lost their fighting spirit after the Vietnamese began to use "Katyushas" supplied from the USSR ...
      "this is the fire of stalingrad!" - they said ...
    7. 0
      24 May 2020
      What is the article about?
      https://topwar.ru/643-tajny-russkogo-oruzhiya-proekt-bm-13-zagadki-i-legendy-reaktivnaya-sistema-zalpovogo-ognya-bm-13-16-katyusha.html - намного информативней...
    8. -2
      25 May 2020
      Praise the gods that the Jews invented it all themselves. And Rais and rice and black soil.
    9. 0
      27 May 2020
      The rocket itself was invented already in 1912 by N, I, Tikhomirov.
      Successfully used in the conflict on Hakhin-Gol. In 14 battles, the I16 and I135 fighters shot down 17 Japanese aircraft. 14 fighters and three bombers. Mostly RS 82.
    10. 0
      27 May 2020
      Ethnic German G.E. Langemak (director of the RNII ..) together with the shit engineer V.I. Dudakov, I. T. Kleymenov and a group of other specialists was shot in 1937. It all happened after the visit of the People's Commissar Tukhachevsky to the RNII. S.P. Korolev (the father of Russian cosmonautics ...) went with the RNII to the Kolyma gold mines .... The first Katyusha installations were manufactured at the RNII. Later they were mass-produced by the compressor plant in Moscow. In besieged Leningrad, the M28 system was developed - over-caliber. Possessing a strong high-explosive effect. Such a projectile was launched from a wooden machine.
      Launchers themselves were mounted on ZIS cars and on almost all Lend-Lease trucks manufactured in the USA and Britain. There were 16 chargers and 32 and 48 pu.
    11. +1
      27 May 2020
      Until 1945, the troops used single projectiles fired from one guide, installed on machine-gun mounts. There were also super shells made in regimental workshops. These are the so-called "land torpedoes" The basis of the movement there was a serial projectile, on which a casing of tin, filled with TNT, was put on. It was a weapon over 2m long and about 300mm in caliber. In terms of the high-explosive effect, with a small firing range, it was comparable to an aircraft bomb.
      1. 0
        27 May 2020
        My comments disappear ...
        1. 0
          27 May 2020
          The missiles themselves were invented in 1912 by N.I. Tikhomirov.
          1. 0
            27 May 2020
            PC82 was actively used in the Khalkhin-Gol conflict. Moreover, they were used with fighters I16 and I135. Each carried 8 shells, under the wings. In 14 airborne fears, 14 fighter jets and 3 Japanese bombers were shot down.
            1. 0
              27 May 2020
              In besieged Leningrad, the M28 shell was developed and mass-produced. Possessed a huge explosive effect.
              1. 0
                27 May 2020
                By the way. The Katyusha was removed from the armament of the USSR army in 1980.
                1. 0
                  27 May 2020
                  The director of the RNII until 1937 was the ethnic German G.E. Langemak. He and a group of leading experts were shot in 1937
                  1. 0
                    27 May 2020
                    The rocket engine of the RS consisted of 7 cylindrical blocks with a channel inside. The fuel was set on fire at the head, with the help of an electrical contact. A steel mesh pre-guided the fuel from the fuel nozzle through the nozzle. RSs flew to a range of up to 8500m. They had a high-explosive and fragmentation effect, significantly superior to howitzer, comparable in caliber. With warhead detonation, the solid fuel residues were also detonated. Their accuracy was not high. The average deviation is 50m.
                    1. +1
                      27 May 2020
                      M28 projectile, the official name is MTV (heavy rotating mine ..) army names "Ivan-dolbai", "Vanyusha". High-explosive fragmentation action. In general, it was a replica of a caliber ammunition from a 6-barrel German mortar. 320mm ammunition was also produced, of a similar design, but with an incendiary warhead. Firing range up to 1900m. This ammunition was produced and used only in Leningrad, did not have stabilizers. Their accuracy and accuracy were not high.

                      Compared to the "nebelwerfer", which had a slightly longer firing range (up to 4000m), Vanyushi's launcher gave less accuracy and accuracy.

                      At the beginning of mass production of RS, Pyroxylin-TNT gunpowder (PTP ..) was used. In wartime conditions not too technological in production
                      1. +1
                        27 May 2020
                        My info did not like the admin. And I work at the institute that developed the PC82 and PC132
                        1. 0
                          28 May 2020
                          The most interesting thing is that the institute (now the Keldysh Research Institute ..) has a "Katyusha" model 1951. on the run. and with shells, but the museum does not have a single sample of rockets from other manufacturers.
                        2. 0
                          28 May 2020
                          After the arrest of Langemak, A.G. became the director of the RNII. Kostikov. According to the St. Petersburg (Leningrad ..) Museum of Artillery of the Engineer and Signal Corps, it was Kostikov who wrote the denunciation to the leadership of the RNII in the NKVD. After which the entire top of the RNII was spread out. Nevertheless, a commemorative marble plaque inside the institute immortalized Kostikov as the head of RS production in the USSR
                        3. 0
                          28 May 2020
                          In the book "Weapons of Victory", printed by the printing house Mashinostroenie - Moscow 1987 (USSR ..), the name of Kostikov is not mentioned in the topic "rocket weapons systems" anywhere !!!!!! Generally...
                        4. 0
                          28 May 2020
                          The RNII itself (at the merger of the GDL and GIRD ,,) in 1932 occupied the complex of buildings of the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy (VISKHOM ..). The development, bench testing and small-scale production of missiles of the RS ... series were carried out in the building1. He still has an authentic appearance. Well viewed from the street. Onega in Moscow.

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