Military Review

Each Katyusha had its own “Raisa Sergeevna”: from the history of the Great Patriotic War

73
Each Katyusha had its own “Raisa Sergeevna”: from the history of the Great Patriotic War

When it comes to the BM-13 rocket artillery fighting vehicle, it is often recalled another name - affectionate - “Katyusha”. In 2020, it marks 75 years since the end of World War II, and exactly the same since the end of production at the Soviet factories of the legendary BM-13.


For whom is Katyusha, and for whom is the Stalinist organ, historians will say. Indeed, for the enemy it is formidable weapon and the name was different. Due to the characteristic sound, when the Germans left the BM-13 guiding missiles, the Germans gave the Russian Katyusha their own version of the name that existed until the end of the war.

Today it’s hard to find a person in our country (and this is good) who wouldn’t know what weapons our warriors called “Katyusha” during the war. The point, of course, is not that "everyone knows about the BM-13." The thing is that, so to speak, practically everyone can “outline” the installation.

However, not everyone knows that Katyusha had its own aunts. And each of them was called “Raisa Sergeevna” (“Rais-Sergeevna”). That is how the soldiers of the Red Army dubbed the aforementioned missiles, which were indicated by the letter combination of RS. This is the 132-mm m-13 ammunition for the rocket launcher. M-13 is a high-explosive high-explosive projectile, developed in 1938 as part of the program, as they would say now, of modernizing the RS-132 aircraft projectile.

It is noteworthy that historical the documents contain evidence that the decision on the mass production of Rais-Sergeevn (of course, at that time such a name did not exist yet) was made just a few hours before the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union - at a meeting of June 21, 1941. In 1944, an updated version of this munition M-13 of the UK appeared.

"Raisa Sergeevna" consisted of a warhead and a powder propellant engine. The explosive of the M-13 warhead was provided by a contact fuse and an additional detonator. The RS engine for BM-13 had a propellant combustion chamber with a powder charge. This charge was a system of cylindrical checkers with an axial channel. The pyrozapals served to ignite the powder charge of Raisa Sergeevna. The ejection of the pieces themselves through the nozzle was prevented by a specially placed diaphragm.



Four feather stabilizer M-13 provided stabilization in flight. This option affected the accuracy, but it allowed to increase the range of rockets of this type. And this range for the initial versions reached almost 8,5 km. At the same time, the lateral deviation of the projectile by 3-5 km exceeded 50 m. But during the launch of the salvo, the negative deflection factors of the M-13 were actually leveled - the damage to the enemy’s battle lines was very, very significant.
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  1. Victor_B
    Victor_B 24 May 2020 17: 53 New
    +7
    The weapon of victory!
    Simple and tasteful!
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 24 May 2020 17: 59 New
      +1
      Each Katyusha had its own “Raisa Sergeevna”: from the history of the Great Patriotic War
      there wasn’t the "maximov rais" ... and they won. and this couple with the "tagged" all crap. however, the process continues.
      1. Tusv
        Tusv 24 May 2020 18: 15 New
        +1
        Quote: Dead Day
        however, the process continues.

        In native Paramilitary it’s completely different. The last missiles from the test bench fly out with a similar sound, but you can already say so with the “Putin body” - super-sound from the start, and then uuuh and hyper. This must be said very impressive. Does this have our "partners"?
        1. Victor_B
          Victor_B 24 May 2020 19: 06 New
          +1
          Quote: Tusv
          In native Paramilitary it’s completely different. The last missiles from the test bench fly out with a similar sound,

          Air defense (paramilitary organization) - this is our EVERYTHING!
          Enlighten why LAST?
          I mean the LATEST?
          Or in the sense of the last by shelf life?
          1. Tusv
            Tusv 24 May 2020 19: 19 New
            +3
            Quote: Victor_B
            Air defense (paramilitary organization) - this is our EVERYTHING!

            Well, the paramilitary is only the third in a NATO headache. In the first places of the Strategic Missile Forces and the Strategic Missile Forces
            Enlighten why LAST?

            And our missiles and previously damaged stabilizers did not interfere with knocking down the Americans with the Jews. But the latter is something fascinating. I'm not afraid of the word symphony

            1. ApJlekuHo
              ApJlekuHo 25 May 2020 03: 45 New
              -7
              nudole? Are you seriously? what is impossible in nature video, let's take the facts
              1. neri73-r
                neri73-r 25 May 2020 08: 14 New
                +2
                Quote: ApJlekuHo
                nudole? Are you seriously? what is impossible in nature video, let's take the facts

                Clown, it’s possible with us! Supersound at the start !!!
            2. demo
              demo 25 May 2020 22: 30 New
              +1
              Stunned !!!!!
              If there were no site rules, I would put it more specifically!
  2. Doccor18
    Doccor18 24 May 2020 18: 07 New
    +2
    Another ingenious creation of Soviet engineers. But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.
    1. really
      really 24 May 2020 18: 18 New
      -4
      Therefore, Langerermak was shot in advance
      1. Tusv
        Tusv 24 May 2020 19: 38 New
        +2
        Quote: Doccor18
        Therefore, Langerermak was shot in advance

        Rather, they believed more in their Stucks / Lapteshniki / Yu-87. How the States are now in their manuals of the last century. But, to the joy of mobility Katyush shut up skeptics
        1. really
          really 24 May 2020 19: 41 New
          +1
          Georgy Erichovich Langemak, July 8, 1898, Starobelsk - January 11, 1938, Moscow - a Soviet scientist, one of the pioneers of rocket technology and one of the creators of the first rockets in the USSR, a military engineer of the 1st rank. And such a person became an enemy of the people
          1. Tusv
            Tusv 24 May 2020 19: 46 New
            -3
            Quote: really
            And such a person became an enemy of the people

            We argue that if NATO attacks our country, all those who malomalski will interfere with aggression will be declared "enemies of the people." And the evidence will be concocted killer. Alas, this is part of the war.
            1. really
              really 24 May 2020 19: 55 New
              0
              Those. You claim that the country's leadership will be in one with the attackers? Because the evidence is written by the prosecutor, and she reports to the president. sorry but you or logic is not ok
              1. Tusv
                Tusv 24 May 2020 20: 02 New
                -1
                I say that everything will be done to discredit. Look what’s now: “Putin has disappeared,” Putin does not understand, “Putin does not know,” “Putin is tired.” The past 2 months have been so turbulent. And tell me that these are not real headlines. hi
                1. really
                  really 24 May 2020 21: 57 New
                  -4
                  The king chooses the retinue, and only then the retinue makes the king, but how is this a matter of the initial choice
                  1. Tusv
                    Tusv 24 May 2020 22: 15 New
                    -1
                    Quote: really
                    The king chooses the retinue, and only then the retinue makes the king, but how is this a matter of the initial choice

                    Oh oh oh. The king, if he is the king, chooses the guard, and the retinue. Well, choose her. First, she is a front, then the opposition, then gelatin. Personally, they did not choose me, but they appointed me to the Guard. And there is no doubt about it. In my case, 70 km from the border and fly to your health hi
                2. Oyo Sarkazmi
                  Oyo Sarkazmi 24 May 2020 22: 12 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Tusv
                  "Putin has disappeared," Putin does not understand, "" Putin does not know. "

                  And if Putin is in place, is he in the know and holds the steering wheel firmly? And all this diarrhea is only from "foreign agents" who work out their cookies. There will be no headlines - there will be no cookies.
                  Russian information channels are cutting out from Mordokniga, Chirikalki, TyTruba to the root - Western hamsters should not have doubts about the imminent victory of the executioners over common sense.
                  1. Tusv
                    Tusv 24 May 2020 22: 23 New
                    -5
                    Quote: Oyo Sarkazmi
                    From Mordoknigi, Tweets

                    Putin will answer me later for closing Losinki. In the meantime, I dober wearing a mask and gloves and my lappedo outside Losinki. These are the rules hi
              2. tihonmarine
                tihonmarine 24 May 2020 22: 55 New
                0
                Quote: really
                Those. You claim that the country's leadership will be in one with the attackers?

                Yes, it's just idiocy who thinks so.
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather 24 May 2020 18: 19 New
      +4
      Quote: Doccor18
      Another ingenious creation of Soviet engineers. But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.

      I couldn’t repeat it, but they were their own, and they were a hassle.
    3. Tusv
      Tusv 24 May 2020 18: 23 New
      +2
      Quote: Doccor18
      But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.

      Why, then. They had six-barrel mortars. Guides and a way to start are another matter. For example, they say that a couple of RS pilots asked to attach a muzzle in the tail so that Goering's chicks would not feel at ease. I don’t know whether it is a bike or not, but it’s beautiful
      1. Old Horseradish
        Old Horseradish 24 May 2020 18: 37 New
        +3
        German six-barreled mortars were the worst weapon. If not mistaken, caliber 155mm. Several of these installations covered a decent area. Recharging also did not take much time. They fired using an electric launch system from cover.
        1. Tusv
          Tusv 24 May 2020 19: 07 New
          +3
          Belarusians recently showed a film about the battle of Mogilev. There, in the final shots, they were demonstrated hi
        2. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 25 May 2020 01: 14 New
          +2
          Quote: Old Horseradish
          If I am not mistaken, caliber 155mm

          158,5 mm ... the "caliber" of the tubular guides ... The installation was named: 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 ... Very often -150 mm was indicated in the "literature". But, presumably, 150 mm is the caliber of a tail warhead of a missile ...
      2. Avior
        Avior 25 May 2020 01: 43 New
        +1
        Most likely a bike.
        It’s so easy to launch a rocket back from an airplane, you need a long guide to disperse it, and you don’t even have to talk about an aimed shot back.
    4. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 24 May 2020 20: 22 New
      +3
      Quote: Doccor18
      But the gloomy German genius was unable to unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha

      Yes, he solved everything. And even issued copies. It didn’t. The gloomy German genius could not bear such a wasteful expenditure of ammunition with such a great dispersion. The economics of war.
      Type the query "German copies" Katyusha "...
      1. Tusv
        Tusv 24 May 2020 21: 00 New
        -1
        Quote: Mountain Shooter
        Type the query "German copies" Katyusha "..

        Dial query Second shock and there Vlasovites. But in fact, under the Mgoy, my grandmother darned fighters and had nothing to do with the traitor
        1. Mountain shooter
          Mountain shooter 25 May 2020 07: 35 New
          +3
          Quote: Tusv

          Dial request Second shock and there Vlasovites

          And what does it have to do with it? Are we about technology, or where? I had a book - "German missile weapons." A good book, with illustrations. There was a copy of Katyusha, it did not take root. They tried to make a copy of the CBT, and even released a copy of the PCA, about 10 thousand pieces, however, under the parabellum cartridge ... Does this somehow detract from the achievements of our designers? In my opinion, the opposite.
      2. AllBiBek
        AllBiBek 25 May 2020 00: 53 New
        +2
        The fact that the gloomy German genius was more important than massive prodigies in the format of jet aircraft for obvious purposes, or it’s completely unclear why super-heavy tanks are his sexual difficulties.

        That's why he is gloomy on the spot.
    5. ApJlekuHo
      ApJlekuHo 25 May 2020 03: 48 New
      -2
      But the gloomy German genius could not unravel the secret of the legendary Katyusha.


      he didn’t even bother, but yanked YA in Japan to dispel all doubts. today they’re not even thinking why he did it.
  3. Old Horseradish
    Old Horseradish 24 May 2020 18: 22 New
    -8
    Few people know that one of the leading designers Langemak Georgy Erichovich and the creators of the multiple launch rocket system (Katyusha) was shot in 1938.
    "Langemak was signed for repression in the" first category "(shooting) on ​​the Moscow Center list of January 3, 1938 for 163 people, No. 73, on the recommendation of V.E. Tsesarsky, the head of the 8th department of the NKVD GUKB. Signatures : “For” Zhdanov, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov.
    The “first category” meant that members of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee did not object to the execution of these people. Further, the cases of the repressed were examined by the Military College of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the meeting usually lasted 10 minutes, after which the members of the Military College retired and sentenced (usually shot), not subject to appeal and carried out on the same day. The Military Collegium of the Supreme Court pronounced a death sentence on approximately 80-90% of the accused from the “first category” list. "
    PS How much could he do with his employees to strengthen the defense of the USSR? Here lies the answer "why did the mega-catastrophe of 1941 take place?"
    1. mister-red
      mister-red 24 May 2020 19: 41 New
      11
      I advise you to get acquainted with historical facts more closely. There, they all wrote denunciations and blamed each other for all mortal sins. Whoever reported first is on horseback. Korolev, Glushko and many others from this office suffered.
      In fact, the creator of Katyusha does not exist, many people created it collectively.
    2. dvina71
      dvina71 24 May 2020 19: 55 New
      +6
      Quote: Old Horseradish
      PS How much could he do with his employees to strengthen the defense of the USSR?

      Yes, FIG knows. If you read at least excerpts from the case, it becomes clear that there was no team at the research institute. There were a bunch of dogs that were more ready to taste anything for a bone .. Langemak did sign the testimony against Korolev .. so ... it's dark, which for some reason fell on Stalin ..
      About the same situation was with Mandelstamm .., who was taken at 38m by denunciations of members of the Writers' Union ..
    3. Igoresha
      Igoresha 24 May 2020 19: 56 New
      -7
      And here they do not believe that there was more harm from the NKVD. The case of Langerermak was led by investigator Shestakov, who lived to an advanced age
      https://nkvd.memo.ru/index.php/Шестаков,_Михаил_Николаевич
    4. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 24 May 2020 20: 23 New
      +4
      Quote: Old Horseradish
      submission to the head of the 8th department of the GUGB NKVD V.E. Tsesarsky. Signatures: “for” Zhdanov, Molotov, Kaganovich, Voroshilov.
      The “first category” meant that members of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee did not object to the execution of these people. Further, the cases of the repressed were examined by the Military College of the Supreme Court of the USSR, the meeting usually lasted 10 minutes, after which the members of the Military College retired and sentenced (usually shot), not subject to appeal and carried out on the same day. The Military Collegium of the Supreme Court pronounced a death sentence on approximately 80-90% of the accused from the “first category” list. "

      Few people know that all this is a linden. And "Old Horseradish" its distributor, akin to OBS.
      1. Old Horseradish
        Old Horseradish 25 May 2020 22: 02 New
        +1
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        Few people know that all this is a linden.

        Lipa, that Langemak was shot?
        Uncle, aren't you inside yourself? This is actually a historical fact.
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 26 May 2020 09: 43 New
          -2
          Quote: Old Horseradish

          Lipa, that Langemak was shot?

          In the quote that I quoted, there is not a word about Langemak.
          So, aunt, this is you not in yourself.
          About Langemak and others like him, better read the interrogation protocols of Yagoda and Yezhov. Everything is clearly said there - for what and why.
          1. Old Horseradish
            Old Horseradish 26 May 2020 15: 09 New
            0
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            better read the protocols of interrogations of Yagoda and Yezhov.

            Uncle, do you know where to put these protocols? I think even you know.
            Actually, I thought smart people live in Siberia. But I see there are exceptions. What normal person will give a link to the protocols of Yagoda and Yezhov, which even Uncle Joe could not stand and destroy?
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 26 May 2020 17: 31 New
              0
              Quote: Old Horseradish
              the protocols of Berry and Yezhov, which even Uncle Joe could not stand and destroyed?

              Yeah, I burned it in my ashtray. laughing
  4. AllBiBek
    AllBiBek 24 May 2020 18: 29 New
    +2
    The theme of Luke Mudischev in the context of Raisa Sergeevna is not disclosed.
    1. Hagen
      Hagen 24 May 2020 19: 57 New
      +7
      Quote: AllBiBek
      The theme of Luke Mudischev in the context of Raisa Sergeevna is not disclosed.

      Not everything, see, is up to date on the M-30. My grandfather fought from the M-1942 battery commander from 1944 to 30, and in the 45th sat on the BM-31. He told me a lot of things about “Luka” in childhood, especially when cows grazed with him. The benefit of the time was plenty, and the ears were "free." He was then for me the center of the universe. N-yes .... Today I would talk to him. But he left ....
      1. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 26 May 2020 09: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: Hagen
        But he left ....

        Alas for all of us. If only I knew that they would spit on the Red Army and the USSR like that. I would have tasted everything from my own, who did not want to remember the front of my father. And about the hunger of the 30s, and about the war, and about how ordinary people spoke about their generals. About everything I would figure out, with details. But, alas, you won’t ask him. How stupid I was that I did not ask, did not demand a story. For myself, for my children, for my grandchildren. There are only rewards left. I keep them. I will tell my son, with a story about his grandfather, the son of my grandson. I hope the relay does not break.
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 26 May 2020 10: 32 New
          +1
          Quote: Krasnoyarsk
          How stupid I did not ask

          Unfortunately, this is a disease of "reasonable man" in principle. When it is possible to ask, we have no interest in him. When interest arises, there is often no one to ask.
  5. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 24 May 2020 18: 56 New
    +5
    Note for the sake of note. Neither drawings, nor characteristics, nor TsAGI’s work to increase the accuracy of the RS, (the compensation for the asymmetry of nozzles by turning the projectile in flight was written by Academician Khristianovich), or comparisons with foreign counterparts, but there are many of them, nothing. The impression that the seventh grader wrote on distance learning. And what does the note have to the heading "News"? Yes, and anonymous. Article minus.
    1. Tusv
      Tusv 24 May 2020 19: 29 New
      -2
      Well, again. The Chinese themselves invented the PC, the ancient Koreans used prototypes. Even the Destroyers of Legends made them. But the first who thought of putting this on a mobile platform were Our
      1. your1970
        your1970 24 May 2020 20: 53 New
        -1
        Quote: Tusv
        But the first who thought of putting this on a mobile platform were Our
        - Well, yes ..... Nebelverfer weighing 540 kg, the calculation that could roll them across the field easily and the tractor right up to the horse is not mobility ... yeah ...
        1. Tusv
          Tusv 24 May 2020 21: 05 New
          -3
          Quote: your1970
          Nebelverfer weighing 540 kg, the calculation that could roll them across the field easily and the tractor up to the horse is not mobility ... yeah ...

          Nude nude. According to rocade against draft power against ... This is not mathematics for you. Think of 30 km per thousand front. Your trench would be taken unnoticed and most importantly for free hi
          1. your1970
            your1970 24 May 2020 21: 22 New
            +4
            Quote: Tusv
            According to rocade against draft power against.
            -and?


            what is the problem? this transport will not stretch 100-200 km?

            Moreover - if our fuel was running out, then you won’t be able to take it even 200 meters away, and a couple of horses could easily pull 10 and 20 and 30 km without refueling repeat
            Finding grass in the field is much easier - than 200 liters of gasoline in the same field

            What is more mobile in the absence of fuel - baaalshoy question
            1. Tusv
              Tusv 24 May 2020 21: 53 New
              -1
              AND? Your answer is not fig, not draft power. For reference. Tax power is horses and other domestic animals. And you have stupid mechanization in the pictures
              1. your1970
                your1970 25 May 2020 00: 04 New
                +3
                Quote: Tusv
                On rokad on draft power against

                Your words?? !!!
                I gave you an example, how it was possible to carry along the road and far ...
                Give you horse tax?
                You open the instruction for the 76-mm cannon (three-inch) and you will be surprised to learn that even it was horse drawn ... and even such a trifle as a 45 mm cannon - which also weighed 20 kg heavier Nebelwerfer - horses dragged with songs ... photo 45 - to attach to you with horse draft?
                And the Germans used the gun carriage of a similar gun for Nevelvelfer

                Z.Y. even the divisional 122 mm horses dragged quite a
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 24 May 2020 21: 18 New
        -1
        The Chinese themselves invented RS,

        And what was the use of them? By the end of the 1941th century, RSs were withdrawn from the arsenal of all countries (in the Republic of Ingushetia there was their last use in the Akhal-Teke campaign, Britain also stopped using its Kongrev missiles at about the same time.) Then they were suitable only to drive savages. A truly combat MLRS was made at a completely different level with us in 1942, and the question of their organization and combat use was correctly resolved. The Germans had captured samples of our MLRS already by February 1950, but did not go to either copy them or to change the organization structure of their “Novelwefer”. By the way, the use of the German "Nebelvefer" by the North Koreans in the war of 53-13 did not show any of their advantages compared to the BM-1944. Perhaps this was due to the fact that the trophy "Novelwefer" were produced in 45-XNUMX, and were of poor quality.
        1. Tusv
          Tusv 24 May 2020 21: 25 New
          +1
          The idea itself is still alive. S-8. KVO penny from two to 4 km
      3. gsev
        gsev 25 May 2020 01: 43 New
        0
        Quote: Tusv
        But the first who thought of putting this on a mobile platform were Our

        Apparently the German system was more thoughtful, mobile and tenacious in the war. Under the dominance of enemy aircraft, the RS is a convenient target on the car chassis. When at the beginning of the offensive the artillery bombardment began with a group of hundreds of trunks, vehicles with RSs could be brought to the front line and give them a salvo at the end of the artillery bombardment, thereby increasing the density of artillery by several times and shortening the artillery bombardment time. In the Korean War, rocket launchers made by the type of German by the Chinese and Koreans were assessed as more tenacious and efficient. Afghans used single-barrel RS against the Soviet army, and the Vietnamese against the American. In the Vietnam War, during the day, Vietnamese tankers often fired no more than one shot, and the rest of the time they were hiding from the aircraft. Protecting the BM-13 from bombs, splinters, bullets and napalm is much more difficult than the PT tank. Apparently, the success of Katyushas in 1941-1945 was caused by the appearance in the USSR of advanced technology for the production of cheap fast gunpowders suitable for equipping missiles. Moreover, this technology was worked out before the war.
  6. Ham
    Ham 24 May 2020 20: 44 New
    +4
    German officers who served in the French foreign legion during the first Indo-Chinese war - sharply lost their fighting spirit after the Vietnamese began to use the Katyushas delivered from the USSR ...
    "This is the fire of Stalingrad!" they said ...
  7. Taoist
    Taoist 24 May 2020 21: 48 New
    0
    What is the article about?
    https://topwar.ru/643-tajny-russkogo-oruzhiya-proekt-bm-13-zagadki-i-legendy-reaktivnaya-sistema-zalpovogo-ognya-bm-13-16-katyusha.html - намного информативней...
  8. ApJlekuHo
    ApJlekuHo 25 May 2020 03: 41 New
    -2
    Praise the gods that the Jews invented it all themselves. And Rais and rice and black soil.
  9. Keldysh Mstislav
    Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 06 New
    0
    The rocket itself was invented already in 1912 by N, I, Tikhomirov.
    Successfully used in the conflict on Hakhin-Gol. In 14 battles, the I16 and I135 fighters shot down 17 Japanese aircraft. 14 fighters and three bombers. Mostly RS 82.
  10. Keldysh Mstislav
    Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 22 New
    0
    Ethnic German G.E. Langemak (director of the RNII ..) together with the naval engineer V.I. Dudakov, I.T. Kleimenov and a group of other specialists were shot in 1937. Everything happened after a visit to the RNII People's Commissar Tukhachevsky. S.P. Korolev (the father of Russian cosmonautics ...) with the RNII went to the Kolyma gold mines .... The first Katyusha installations were made at the RNII. Subsequently, they were mass-produced by the compressor plant in Moscow. In Siege of Leningrad, the M28 system was developed - supercaliber. With a strong high-explosive effect. Such a projectile was launched from a wooden machine.
    Launchers themselves were mounted on ZIS cars and on almost all Lend-Lease trucks manufactured in the USA and Britain. There were 16 chargers and 32 and 48 pu.
  11. Keldysh Mstislav
    Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 31 New
    +1
    The troops used until 1945 and single shells fired from the same rail mounted on machine guns. There were also super shells manufactured in regimental workshops. These are the so-called "land torpedoes". The basis of the movement there was a serial projectile, on which a tin casing was put on, flooded with TNT. It was a weapon over 2m long and about 300mm caliber. According to the high-explosive effect, with a small firing range, this was comparable to an aerial bomb.
    1. Keldysh Mstislav
      Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 33 New
      0
      My comments disappear ...
      1. Keldysh Mstislav
        Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 34 New
        0
        The missiles themselves were invented in 1912 by N.I. Tikhomirov.
        1. Keldysh Mstislav
          Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 38 New
          0
          PC82 was actively used in the Khalkhin-Gol conflict. Moreover, they were used with fighters I16 and I135. Each carried 8 shells, under the wings. In 14 airborne fears, 14 fighter jets and 3 Japanese bombers were shot down.
          1. Keldysh Mstislav
            Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 40 New
            0
            In besieged Leningrad, the M28 shell was developed and mass-produced. Possessed a huge explosive effect.
            1. Keldysh Mstislav
              Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 42 New
              0
              By the way. The Katyusha was withdrawn from the armament of the USSR army in 1980.
              1. Keldysh Mstislav
                Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 10: 44 New
                0
                The director of the RNII until 1937 was the ethnic German G.E. Langemak. He and a group of leading experts were shot in 1937
                1. Keldysh Mstislav
                  Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 11: 34 New
                  0
                  The rocket engine of the RS consisted of 7 cylindrical blocks with a channel inside. The fuel was set on fire at the head, with the help of an electrical contact. A steel mesh pre-guided the fuel from the fuel nozzle through the nozzle. RSs flew to a range of up to 8500m. They had a high-explosive and fragmentation effect, significantly superior to howitzer, comparable in caliber. With warhead detonation, the solid fuel residues were also detonated. Their accuracy was not high. The average deviation is 50m.
                  1. Keldysh Mstislav
                    Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 11: 48 New
                    +1
                    M28 shell, the official name of MTV (heavy rotating mine ..) army names "Ivan-dolby", "Vanyusha". High-explosive fragmentation. In general - a copy of the ammunition from the 6 German barrel mortar. 320mm ammunition was released, similar in design, but with warhead incendiary. Firing range up to 1900m. These ammunition was produced and used only in Leningrad, had no stabilizers. Their accuracy and accuracy were not high.

                    Compared to the “non-belverfer", in which the firing range was slightly larger (up to 4000m), the Vanyusha launchers gave less accuracy and accuracy.

                    At the beginning of mass production of RS, Pyroxylin-TNT gunpowder (PTP ..) was used. In wartime conditions not too technological in production
                    1. Keldysh Mstislav
                      Keldysh Mstislav 27 May 2020 13: 08 New
                      +1
                      My info did not like the admin. And I work at the institute that developed the PC82 and PC132
                      1. Keldysh Mstislav
                        Keldysh Mstislav 28 May 2020 09: 32 New
                        0
                        The most interesting thing is that the institute (now the Keldysh Research Institute ..) has a Katyusha model of 1951g / v. on the run. and with shells but in the museum there is not a single sample of rockets of other manufacturers.
                      2. Keldysh Mstislav
                        Keldysh Mstislav 28 May 2020 09: 40 New
                        0
                        After the arrest of Langemak, A.G. became the director of the RNII. Kostikov. According to the St. Petersburg (Leningrad ..) Museum of Artillery of the Engineer and Signal Corps, it was Kostikov who wrote the denunciation to the leadership of the RNII in the NKVD. After which the entire top of the RNII was spread out. Nevertheless, a commemorative marble plaque inside the institute immortalized Kostikov as the head of RS production in the USSR
                      3. Keldysh Mstislav
                        Keldysh Mstislav 28 May 2020 09: 45 New
                        0
                        In the book "Weapons of Victory", published by the printing house Engineering - Moscow 1987 (USSR ..), the name Kostikov is not mentioned in the subject "reactive weapon systems" anywhere !!!!!! Generally...
                      4. Keldysh Mstislav
                        Keldysh Mstislav 28 May 2020 10: 15 New
                        0
                        The RNII itself (at the merger of the GDL and GIRD ,,) in 1932 occupied the complex of buildings of the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy (VISKHOM ..). The development, bench testing and small-scale production of missiles of the RS ... series were carried out in the building1. He still has an authentic appearance. Well viewed from the street. Onega in Moscow.