Military Review

Algerian war of the French Foreign Legion

231

Algeria city, 1958


In 1954-1962 The foreign legion took part in the fighting in Algeria, where the National Liberation Front (TNF) launched military and terrorist operations against the French administration, the "black-footed" and their compatriots sympathizing with them. Only in 1999 in France, the events of those years were officially recognized as a war, until that time they talked about operations to "restore public order."


Legionnaire training in Algeria, 1961

Blackfoot and evolvés


In the middle of the XIX century, Algerian Arabs and Berbers first became closely acquainted with European settlers. These were no longer renegade corsairs, who had previously quite actively settled on the Maghreb coast, and not soldiers of enemy armies, but farmers, artisans, traders, intellectuals, officials of the French administration. The first thing that caught the eye of the natives in the guise of new neighbors was unusual black boots and boots that were unusual and never seen before. It is because of them that they called the Europeans "black-footed". This word over time has become almost the official name of the European population of Algeria. Moreover, Pieds-Noirs (a literal translation of this word into French) began to be called in the metropolis. The Blackfoots were also called Franco-Algerians or columns. They themselves often called themselves simply "Algerians", and the indigenous people of this country - Arabs and Muslims.

Moreover, not all "black-footed" were French. Since any European born in Algeria received French citizenship, the Italians, Maltese, Portuguese, Corsicans and Jews who lived here entered the Blackfoot communities, but there were especially many Spaniards. In Oran, once owned by Spain, for example, in 1948, more than half of the "black-footed" were of Spanish origin (in this city there was even a bullfighting arena). According to Noël Favreliere, who wrote The Essays of a French Journalist on the National Liberation War of the Algerian People (Le désert à l'aube), TNF fighters generally treated the "black-footed Frenchmen" better than Algerian Europeans of other origin.

The relations between the indigenous population of Algeria and the alien Europeans could not be called absolutely cloudless, especially at first: the difference in culture and traditions was too great, and excesses also occurred. However, remember how many times in our stories the French enthusiastically and enthusiastically slaughtered and killed not even the British, Spaniards and Germans, but each other. In 1871, not so far from our time, they defeated and literally spilled blood on their own capital, killing up to 30 thousand communards and losing about seven and a half thousand soldiers stormed the city (among which there were many legionnaires). Only in July of that year, 10 thousand people were shot. An Italian or Polish surname, a “sideways glance” at a soldier or a gendarme, an insufficiently cheerful expression on the face, and even calloused hands betraying proletarian origin were considered quite suitable reasons for the reprisal. So the residents of Algeria could not complain about double standards - everything was “honest”: “beautiful France” at that time was equally cruel to “friends” and “strangers”. In case of rebellion or unrest, the French authorities of Algeria with Arabs and Berbers acted no worse than the authorities of the metropolis with purebred Frenchmen.

From the very beginning, Algeria was a special territory for the French, which they began to equip as the new province of their country, and already in 1848 it officially became the overseas department of France. This was not in neighboring Tunisia, much less in Morocco. And in Algeria, the French behaved quite differently than in "black Africa" ​​or in French Indochina. Sudan, Senegal, Congo, Chad, Vietnam and other overseas territories were powerless colonies, Algeria - "African France." The standard of living in Algeria, of course, was lower than in Normandy or Provence, but the French invested considerable funds in its development. The “Blackfoot” Albert Camus, whose father was Alsatian and his mother was Spanish, already in the XNUMXth century, speaking of the standard of living in Algeria, wrote about “poverty, as in Naples and Palermo”. But you must admit that Palermo and Naples are still not Abidjan, not Kayes, and not Tombouctou. Algeria's economic performance was constantly growing, and materially, Algerians lived not only no worse, but much better than their neighbors.

Farhat Abbas, one of the leaders of Algerian nationalists, cannot be called a francophile. He was the founder of the Algerian People’s Union party and the Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto, supported the TNF in 1956, became the first chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (located in Cairo) in 1958, and in 1962 was the head of the independent Algeria


Farhat Abbas on the cover of The Times Magazine

But in 1947, Farhat wrote:

“From the European point of view, what was created by the French can make them feel proud. Algeria today has the structure of a genuine modern state: it is better equipped than all North African countries and can even withstand comparison with many countries of Central Europe. With its 5 km of railways, 000 km of highways, the ports of Algeria, Oran, Bon, Buji, Philippville, Mostagan, with its large dams and reservoirs, with its organization of public services, finance, budget and education, which widely satisfy the needs of the European element “It can take a place among modern states.”

The statement is very strange and provoking a sense of bewilderment. Farhat does not seem to deny the obvious, but did you pay attention to the phrases: “from the point of view of the European” and “broadly satisfying the needs of the European element”?

That is, roads, ports, reservoirs, public services and educational institutions, in his opinion, were needed only by Europeans? But what about the Arabs and Berbers of Algeria? They all this was unnecessary? Or did they not even have the right to step on the asphalt or take the train and move not along the roads, but along them?

By the way, house numbers in Kasbah (the old city) of Algeria also appeared under the French. Prior to that, finding the right building was almost impossible, and even the old-timers could only find out the address of neighbors living with them on the same street. However, even now this is often blamed on the colonialists: they say it was done for police needs and aimed at finally enslaving and putting under the control of the French administration the freedom-loving children of the desert.

For several generations of Blackfoots, Algeria was the home and homeland, and many of them were never in France or Europe. This was the main difference between the "black-footed" from the Europeans of the French colonies, who went to Tonkin or Morocco only for a while, so that, having earned money, return to Paris, Rouen or Nantes. And Algeria was the first and main house of the Foreign Legion, which is why the legionnaires fought so desperately and fiercely for it: with the TNF militants, and then with the “de Gaulle traitors”.

In the middle of the XNUMXth century, the “black-footed” were already markedly different from the French living in the metropolis: they were a special sub-ethnic group, and, preserving their European appearance and culture, acquired new character and behavior traits that were unique to them. They even had their own dialect of the French language - patwaet. And therefore, the forced resettlement to France after the expulsion from Algeria and the process of adaptation in the new environment were not easy and painless for them.

On the other hand, a large number of Europeanized Arabs appeared in the cities of Algeria (they were called evolvés - “evolved”), who often received education at colleges and universities in the metropolis and were the vehicles of French culture among the local population.

Algerian war of the French Foreign Legion

French poster on Algeria street: “Aren't you beauties? Take off your veils! ”


Algeria, Kasbah, marriage registration for young Arabs-evolvés

But even among the indigenous people of Algeria not affected by Europeanization, there were many who were completely satisfied with the new orders and new opportunities. The peasants have new markets for their products and the possibility of buying cheap (compared with the times of dey) industrial goods. Young men willingly entered the units of Algerian riflemen (tyraeli) and spag squadrons, which organically became part of the French army, fighting for an empire in all parts of the world.

The life of those who did not want active contacts with the new authorities has not changed much. The French retained the traditional institution of elders on the ground, officials did not meddle in their affairs, confining themselves to collecting taxes, and the former rulers and their close associates can be blamed for anything, but not in the ardent desire to increase the well-being of their subjects and make their life easy and enjoyable .

Let’s take a look at some photographs illustrating the mixing of civilizations in French Algeria.

This is the interior of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Algeria. The inscription on the wall reads: “Virgin of Africa, pray for us and for Muslims”:


These photographs could be taken before the war began on the streets of Algeria:



In this photo, two “black-footed” Europeans calmly walk along Konstantin Street:


And here is how peacefully looked the square of the Algerian city of Nemur in 1947:


So, Algeria was the real home of the "black-footed", but, remaining Europeans, they sincerely tried to bring a particle of Europe to their new homeland. The hundred-year stay of the "black-footed" in Algeria has changed the face of the cities of this country. To the major of the first parachute regiment, Eli Sen Marc, the Algerian quarter of Bab El Oued seemed like the Spanish cities of the Caribbean islands, and he called the language of its inhabitants (françaoui) “a mixture of Catalan, Castilian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Arabic and Provencal dialects.”


Algeria, view of the district of Bab el-Oued from the fortress of Kasbah. On the hill - Notre Dame Cathedral

Other authors compared the new quarters of Algerian cities with the cities of Provence and Corsica.

But "European Africa" ​​did not take place. After more than a hundred years of relatively peaceful coexistence, Algeria was forced to leave not only the descendants of European settlers, but also many indigenous people, whom the nationalists declared traitors.

The tragic confrontation in the Algerian war


So, let's begin our story about the Algerian war of 1954-1962. It is little known in our country, but meanwhile it was very bloody and wore a civilian character: it split Algerian society into two parts.

On the one hand, it turned out that not all Arabs and Berbers of Algeria are supporters of the idea of ​​independence and not everyone is happy with the efforts of the TNF to free them from the “French colonial oppression”. In the outbreak of the war, part of the indigenous population of Algeria, primarily the Europeanized evolvés, became allies of the French.

You may have seen photos of the founder of the National Front, Jean-Marie Le Pen, with a blindfold on his left eye (which he had to wear continuously for 6 years, and then put it on periodically).


He received an injury in 1957 at a rally in support of a candidate from the movement “For French Algeria”: he was hit in the face with a boot. It would seem that there is nothing particularly surprising in this incident. But it turns out that the captain of the Foreign Legion received this injury not during the fighting, but during “off hours”, and the candidate defending whom Le Pen suffered was Algerian Arab Ahmed Jebbude.

In the last days of the Fourth Republic, it was the “black-footed” and the generals who spoke out in defense of French Algeria that demanded equal rights for Muslims from the central authorities. And even the leaders of the extremist organization OAS (which will be discussed later), contrary to the widespread opinion about the anti-Arab nature of their activities, stated that they are fighting not only for the “black-footed” Europeans, but also for the entire people of Algeria, who are going to betray the central authorities of France. They considered equally enemies and leaders of the TNF, as well as de Gaulle and his supporters. Look at the posters of this organization:


OAS Poster: Brothers


OAS Poster: "To arms, citizens!"

Eli Sen Marc, commander of the First Parachute Regiment of the Foreign Legion, who was arrested after an attempted military coup in April 1961, said in court that he had joined the rebels for reasons of honor: he did not want to betray millions of Arabs and Berbers of Algeria who believed in France - and didn’t cause anyone to surprise, not a sarcastic and condescending smile.

Harki tragedy


Starting January 24, 1955, Mobile Security Groups and Local Self-Defense Groups were created in many cities and villages of the country, in which Arabs served to protect their homes and loved ones from extremists. They were called "arches" (harki - from the Arabic word "movement"). Harki detachments were in the French army, one of them will be discussed in another article. And, I must say that the number of Harki (up to 250 thousand people) significantly exceeded the number of TNF fighters, which even on the eve of independence were no more than 100 thousand.


Harki in Oran, 1956

The bulk of the indigenous population of Algeria was indifferent, but the TNF militants managed to intimidate these people, brutally cracking down on “traitors”. After watching the Soviet film “Nobody Wanted to Die” (shot at a Lithuanian film studio by a Lithuanian director and in the original in Lithuanian in 1965), you will understand what was the situation in Algeria at that time.


A shot from the film "Nobody Wanted to Die" (recognized as the best Soviet film of 1966). The Lithuanian "Harki", a self-defense unit led by the Lokis brothers, defend the village from the "forest" gang of nationalists. This film was so believable that even the Lithuanians themselves accepted it favorably

The fate of Algerian Harki was sad. It is estimated that during the years of the war and during the repressions that followed the evacuation of the French troops, about 150 thousand members of such groups died. De Gaulle actually threw the bulk of Harki to its own devices - only 42 out of 500 were evacuated. And those who ended up in France were placed in camps (like foreign refugees), where they were until 250. In 1971, they were still recognized as war veterans; since 1974, France has celebrated "Day of Sympathy (National Acknowledgment) for Harki" in France on January 2001.

In the book “My Last Round” written in 2009, Marcel Bijard, a story about which we began in an article “Foreign Legion Against Vietnam and the Dienbienfu Catastrophe”, accused de Gaulle of the betrayal of Algerian Muslims who fought on the side of the French army.

In 2012, Sarkozy pleaded guilty to France and formally apologized to Harki.


Harki-dedicated commemorative stella in the town of Saint-Pont-de-Thomier, department of Hero, 39 km from Narbonne and 69 km from Albi

And in modern Algeria, Harki are considered traitors.

Schism in french society


On the other hand, at first, some of the "black-footed" (of whom about 1 million 200 thousand people) took the side of the nationalists of the TNF, naively believing that they were only fighting for social justice. The nationalist slogan “Coffin or suitcase” for these people (who were Algerian French in the 3-4th generation and this country was considered their homeland) was a complete surprise.

Moreover, Algerian nationalists were supported in the left circles of France, anarchists and Trotskyists, native Parisians, Marseilles and Lyons, fought on their side.

Jean-Paul Sartre and other liberal intellectuals called on French soldiers to desertion (the Russian liberals also called on Russian soldiers to desert and surrender to militants during the first Chechen campaign).

In 1958, after a series of attacks by Algerian militants against Parisian policemen (4 of them were killed), authorities arrested several thousand supporters of TNF, smashing 60 underground groups and preventing terrorist attacks at airports, metro, television centers, as well as an attempt to infect the water supply system. Liberals at that time called the methods of the French special services "Gestapo" and demanded better conditions for the arrested militants.

And in the last years and months of the existence of French Algeria, another civil war broke out - between supporters and opponents of Charles de Gaulle and his politics. And the purebred French again did not spare each other. OAS hunted de Gaulle and other "traitors". De Gaulle ordered the torture of the arrested Oasovites and declared them fascists - people, many of whom, unlike him, after the surrender of France in 1940, did not write an appeal from London, but with weapons they fought with the Germans in their hands and were real heroes of the French Resistance.

On the way to war


The first sparks began to erupt already in 1945, when the leaders of the Arab nationalists decided to take advantage of the weakness of France and demand at least broad autonomy, if not sovereignty.

On May 8, 1945, a certain Buzid Saal, who was walking with an Algerian flag, was killed at a demonstration in Setif. The result was a riot during which 102 blackfoots were killed. The response of the French authorities was extremely harsh: artillery was used against the rioters, Tanks, and in some places aviation. It was then that Larbi Ben Mkhaidi (Mhidi), an activist of the Algerian People's Party, who later became one of the 6 founders of the TNF, was first arrested.

The fire of the beginning of the rebellion was covered in blood, but the "embers" continued to smolder.

In 1947, a "secret organization" was created in Algeria - the OS, which became the armed wing of the "Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Freedoms", then "armed groups" of the "Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto" appeared. We remember that the founder of this party was Farhat Abbas, quoted above. In 1953, these units merged, the territory of Algeria was divided by them into six military districts (Vilaya), each of which had its own commander. And finally, in October 1954, the Algeria National Liberation Front was created. 6 people are considered its founders: Mustafa Ben Boulaid, Larbi Ben Mhidi, Didouche Mourad, Didouche Mourad, Rabah Bitat, Krim Belkacem and Mohamed Boudaf ) that formed the Revolutionary Committee of Association and Action. The leader of the military wing was Ahmed Ben Bella (incidentally, a World War II veteran), who managed to organize illegal deliveries to Algeria of a large number of weapons from Egypt, Tunisia and some other countries. The actions of field commanders were coordinated from abroad. Later, Muslims in Algeria and France were taxed unofficially, and rebel training camps appeared in Morocco and Tunisia.


Photo taken in one of the militant training camps of the Algerian National Liberation Front

The first "partisan" TNF detachment had 800 soldiers, in 1956 there were about 10 thousand troops in Algeria, and in 1958 up to one hundred thousand, armed with artillery pieces, mortars and even anti-aircraft guns.


FNO militants next to killed French soldiers


Artillery TNF


Weapons and explosives found in one of the caches of the TNF

The French, in turn, increased their army in Algeria from 40 thousand people in 1954 to 150 thousand people at the beginning of 1959.


2nd REP legionnaires in northeastern Algeria in 1958


5th REI legionnaires in Algeria, 1959


Officer and legionnaires from 5e REI during an operation in northeastern Algeria, around 1960


"Artillery scooter Vespa150-TAP." These are the products of a diesel engine (in the amount of 800 pieces) used by the French army during the Algerian war

It is believed that about a million French men went through the Algerian war, 17,8 thousand of them died during the fighting. More than 9 thousand died as a result of illnesses and injuries, 450 are still reported as missing. Almost 65 thousand French soldiers and officers were injured in this war.


French priest next to the wounded, Algerian war


Assisting a wounded French soldier

In addition to the legionnaires, soldiers from other units of the French army also took part in the Algerian war, but, remaining within the cycle, we will now tell about the events of those years through the prism of the history of the Foreign Legion.


Legionnaires on the march

The beginning of the Algerian war


The night of November 1, 1954 in France is called the “red day of all saints”: nationalist units attacked government offices, army barracks and the houses of the “black-footed” - only 30 objects. In particular, a school bus with children in Bon was shot and a family of French teachers working in a school for Algerian children was killed. The confrontation became especially fierce after 1955 people were killed in August 123 in the small town of Philipville (Skikda), including 77 Blackfoot (Philippville Massacre). And on August 20 of the same year, in the mining village of Al-Khaliya (a suburb of Constantine), a detachment of militants who broke into it killed 92 people, 10 of whom were children.

Marcel Bijar in Algeria


In 1956, Marcel Bijar, who had already received his first glory during the battles in Indochina, ended up in Algeria. He took the post of commander of the 10th parachute battalion and for 4 months of this year, received 2 wounds in the chest - during one of the battles in June and during the assassination attempt in September. In 1957, Bijar led the 3rd regiment of colonial paratroopers, making him a model unit of the French army. The motto of this regiment was the words: "To be and continue to exist."


Third Parachute Regiment of Bijar, Algeria

Bijar subordinates captured 24 thousand FNL fighters, 4 thousand of whom were shot. In February 1957, one of the six founders and top leaders of the TNF, Larbi Ben Mkhaydi, the commander of the Fifth Vilaya (military district), who during the Battle for Algeria (or the Battle for the Capital) was responsible for preparing the groups, was captured. “Sacrificing oneself” (Fidaev).


Larby Bin Mahdi in the cell

After the destruction of a large group of militants in the mountainous regions of the Atlas (the operation lasted from May 23 to 26, 1957), Bijar received a semi-serious “title” from General Massiu Seigneur de l'Atlas.

Unlike subordinates, many generals and senior officers of the French army did not like Bijar, considering him an upstart, but the Times in 1958 stated: Bizhar is “a demanding commander, but an idol of soldiers who forces his subordinates to shave every day and gives onions instead of wine onions because wine reduces stamina. ”

In 1958, Bijar was sent to Paris to organize a center for training French officers in the methods of counterterrorism and war with rebel forces. He returned to Algeria in January 1959, becoming the commander of a group of forces in the Saran Oran Sector: in addition to the legionnaires, the 8th Infantry Regiment, the 14th Algerian Tyrael Regiment, the 23rd Spahi Moroccan Regiment, the artillery regiment and some others connections.


Marcel Bijard and de Gaulle, 1959

After the end of the Algerian war, in an interview with the Le Monde newspaper, Bijar confirmed that his subordinates sometimes used torture to interrogate prisoners, but said that it was a “necessary evil”: using these “extreme” methods, it was possible to prevent more than one terrorist act and a number of Militant attacks on peaceful cities and villages:

"It was hard to do nothing when seeing women and children with severed limbs."

To help you better understand these words, I will give a small quote from the memoirs of Michel Petron, who was then serving in Algeria:

“These were demobilized soldiers. They left 2 months earlier than us because they were married. When they were found, they lay their head to Mecca. Cut off parts (genitals) in the mouth, and the stomach is full of stones. 22 of our guys. "

But these are soldiers, albeit demobilized. And here are three stories about how militants acted with civilians.

Gerard Cuto recalled:

“Once, when my platoon was on alert, we were called to free a farm belonging to Arab peasants. This farm was attacked, and it burned when we arrived at the place. The whole family was killed. One picture will forever remain in my memory, I think, because it shocked me. There was a child of 3 years old, he was killed by hitting his head against a wall, his brain spread across this wall. "

Francois Meyer - about the reprisal of TNF militants over those who took the side of France:

“In April 1960, all tribal leaders and their advisers were abducted. Their throats were cut, some were even put on a stake. The people who ... were on our side. "

And here is the testimony of Maurice Favre:

“The Melo family. This was a poor Algerian colon, not a wealthy entrepreneur at all. The attackers began by cutting off the hands and feet of the father of the family with an ax. Then they took the child from his wife and chopped him into pieces on the kitchen table. They ripped open a woman’s belly and stuffed pieces of a child there. I do not know how to explain it".

There is still an explanation. This is what the nationalist leaders called for in their speeches on the radio:

“My brothers, not only kill, but mutilate enemies. Tear out your eyes, cut off your hands, hang them. "

Answering an “uncomfortable question”, the captain of the First Parachute Regiment of the Foreign Legion, Joseph Estu, mocked in an interview:

“The military says:“ get intelligence ”, the world says:“ interrogate with bias, ”and only the French say:“ torture. ”

What can be said about this?

Many probably watched the Soviet film “In the Special Attention Zone”, which tells about the “work” of three sabotage groups of Soviet paratroopers, who during the army exercises were instructed to find and capture the command post of the conditional enemy. Even in school, I was most struck by the words addressed to the interrogated “prisoner” of one of these groups:

“Well, shame on you, Comrade Senior Lieutenant ?! In war, I would have found the means to talk to you. ”

The hint, it seems to me, is more than transparent.


The Soviet Major Moroshkin from the film “In the Zone of Special Attention” knows how to “extract intelligence”

It should be recognized that in any war and in any army, commanders periodically have to choose: to go on the offensive in the morning on uncharted positions of the enemy (and, perhaps, “put” half of their soldiers during this attack) or how to interpret “the language”, in between breaking a couple of ribs. And, knowing that each of the subordinates of the house is waiting for a mother, and some still have a wife and children, it is very difficult to play the role of an angel who came down from the heights only yesterday.

"Pandora's Box"


Since the fall of 1956, terrorist acts in the capital city of Algeria have become almost continuous. The first to attack civilians were TNF fighters, whose leaders ordered:

"Kill any Europeans from 18 to 54 years old, do not touch women and the elderly."

In 10 days, 43 completely random young men of European appearance were killed. And then the radicals of the "black-footed" staged an explosion in the old Kasbah of Algeria - 16 people became victims, 57 were injured. And this terrorist act literally dissolved the gates of hell: all the “brakes” were broken, moral barriers were destroyed, Pandora’s box was opened wide open: the leaders of the TNF ordered to kill women and children.

On November 12, 1956, the command already known to us by article was appointed to command the French troops in Algeria. “Foreign Legion Against Vietnam and the Dienbienfu Catastrophe” Raul Salan. The situation was already so aggravated by that time that power in the capital was transferred to General Jacques Massoux (commander of the military zone of Algeria), who in January 1957 introduced the 10th parachute division into the city in addition to the zouaves already “working” there.


Paratroopers on the street of Algeria


Zouaves in Algeria, 1960

Due to the growing weakness of the civil administration, many functions were forced to assume the servicemen of the French army and legion. Already quoted by us, Joseph Estu, arrested for participating in an attempted coup in April 1961, said in court about his activities in Algeria:

“I was never taught in Saint-Cyr (an elite military school) to organize the supply of fruits and vegetables to a city like Algeria. On June 25, 1957, I received an order.
I was never taught police work in Saint-Cyr. In February 1957, in September and October 1958, I received an order.
I have never been taught in Saint-Cyr how to act as prefect of the police with 30 citizens. In January, February and March 000 I received an order.
I was never taught in Saint-Cyr to organize polling stations. In September 1958, I received an order.
I was never taught in Saint-Cyr to organize the beginnings of a municipality, open schools, open markets. In the fall of 1959 I received an order.
I was never taught in Saint-Cyr to deprive the political rights of insurgents. In February 1960, I received an order.
Moreover, I was not taught in Saint-Cyr to betray my comrades and commanders. ”


Joseph Estu among the officers of the first parachute regiment of the Foreign Legion (second from left), 1961

In the next article, we will talk about the “battle for Algeria” (mass attacks on civilians in November 1956 - September 1957), “Kabile smiles,” beautiful life-loving terrorists with beach purses in their hands and the methods of General Jacques Massoux.


In preparing the article, the materials of the blog of Urzova Ekaterina were used:
The story of Bijar (by tag): https://catherine-catty.livejournal.com/tag/%D0%91%D0%B8%D0%B6%D0%B0%D1%80%20%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C
About TNF atrocities: https://catherine-catty.livejournal.com/270597.html
Speech by Joseph Estu: https://catherine-catty.livejournal.com/800532.html
Also in the article, quotes from French sources translated by Catherine Urzova were used.
Some of the photos are taken from the same blog.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V. A. “Dogs of War” of the French Foreign Legion
Ryzhov V. A. Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion
Ryzhov V. A. The most famous Russian “graduates” of the French Foreign Legion. Zinovy ​​Peshkov
Ryzhov V. A. The most successful Russian “legionnaire”. Rodion Malinovsky
Ryzhov V. A. French Foreign Legion in the First and Second World Wars
Ryzhov V.A. Foreign Legion against Vietnam and the Dienbienf Catastrophe
Ryzhov V. A. "Fire in the Empire." Foreign Legion after World War II
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  1. svp67
    svp67 21 May 2020 05: 42 New
    12
    or how to deal with the “language”, breaking the case between him a couple of ribs.
    Phew, how rude ... there are other means to "untie the tongue," without breaking the ribs. The very TAPIK is a very good tool ... And in war, when the question is about life and death, it makes no sense to liberalize.
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 21 May 2020 05: 47 New
    +2
    Liberals at that time called the methods of the French special services "Gestapo" and demanded better conditions for the arrested militants.
    Well, just like ours. Nothing changes. request
    1. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 18: 28 New
      +1
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Liberals at that time called the methods of the French special services "Gestapo" and demanded better conditions for the arrested militants.
      Well, just like ours. Nothing changes. request

      I believe that if history preserved North Africa and France in a normal relationship, history would not have lost anything.
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 May 2020 05: 57 New
    +7
    Thank. For various events, the article passes. And small observations also make her pretty, like onions instead of wine.
    1. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 20: 27 New
      +1
      Sergey, Cynicism, a good thing, To a certain limit. Algeria and France and a little bit of Egypt .... one .... E MIC in friendship .... a garlic turnip floats and flies, as it were ... Like ... There are none of ours ... fellow
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 22 May 2020 21: 45 New
        +1
        You can look at any event from different bells. Who is closer to the cynics, who are the Stoics, who are the Epicureans.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 May 2020 05: 59 New
    +6
    But "European Africa" ​​did not take place.

    “European Africa” did not take place, which means it will take place African Europe which is happening for a long time on the Mediterranean coast of France, where for a long time it is not clear, is it still France or already Azhir.

    Marseille and others, practically, Algeria.

    De Gaulle did not understand that an escape from Algeria would lead to this situation.

    Where to run next?
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 21 May 2020 06: 23 New
      +6
      A rhetorical question.

      "Where there are no ends of the world
      And nowhere to go ”(c).
    2. Free wind
      Free wind 21 May 2020 07: 03 New
      +9
      De Gaulle, that still p.p.politik. Where the fig, there smoke. I remember during student performances in France in the 60s. He rushed to the restaurant in jeans and a T-shirt, sort of like I was for the people, if not mountain, then such a small bunch .. Although before that I demanded to destroy all these unrest. Incomprehensible person.
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 May 2020 08: 16 New
      +9
      “Non-nuclear charges will blow up the world. The world will blow up the womb of an Arab woman” Y. Arafat
      1. Fat
        Fat 22 May 2020 18: 22 New
        +1
        Anton! Sincerely, Find the Three Differences
        1 World will blow up the womb of an Arab woman "Y. Arafat
        2 "Parisians still give birth" ... (anonymous)
        3 .... Still need ...
        NOT a claim to Stalin .... Many
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 22 May 2020 18: 29 New
          +2
          "Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius" (Kill everyone, the Lord will know his own).
    4. saygon66
      saygon66 21 May 2020 23: 58 New
      0
      -
      Quote: Olgovich
      De Gaulle did not understand that an escape from Algeria would lead to this situation.

      - Who knows ... It is sad that leaders who are much closer to us in time and territorially do not understand this ...
    5. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 17: 46 New
      +1
      I can’t agree here. The republic invested a lot of resources in Africa, much more than in its own recovery. ... And Euro-France did not suffer seriously. De Gaulle solved the problems of the Marshall Plan. It was not possible for him to return the Congolese uranium from the first call, So he recalled later ... I will not lie ....
      This country, as it were, did not suffer in the war .... as if it hadn’t fought .... No matter how .... And not the country at all .... De Gaulle Withdrew the country from NATO, the military bloc .....
      Andrew! De Gaulle Understood ... And the Country in the occupation by the coalition ... Her?
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 21 May 2020 06: 33 New
    19
    At the time when these events took place in Algeria, I was just at school and I remember very well how they talked about this on television, as adults discussed what was happening there. Then, meetings were held in the Union in support of the TNF, because the Algerians fought for independence from the "damned colonial yoke." Everyone stigmatized criminal terrorists from the SLA, and no one had any idea about the problems of the "black-footed" and the massacre that the so-called "fighters for inviolability."
    Thanks to Valery, I now present in a completely different light everything that was happening there at that time.

    PS Of course, I saw the film "Nobody Wanted to Die" and he made an indelible impression on me. I now review it periodically. And, yes, in Lithuania he was also received “with a bang”, I know that for sure, because every summer I went there with relatives and talked with different people.
    I especially remember the answer of the eldest of the Lokis brothers to the mother’s rebuke about blood transfusion:
    "I'm a soldier, mom, when I can’t shoot, I don’t shoot."
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 May 2020 07: 44 New
      20
      Hi Uncle Kostya!
      When I was just in school we gathered "specks of solidarity" in support of the "prisoner of conscience" Nelson Mandela. What South Africa turned into a "fiery fighter against apartheid" is very revealing.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 May 2020 07: 54 New
        15
        Hello beloved Nephew!
        Well, we didn’t get to the “patch”, thank God, but the chest and newspapers (which I didn’t read) talked about it constantly and Ben Bell’s name was so deeply remembered that he saw him in his article as a “native”.
        As for South Africa, then - yes, my army buddy hit the road with a dump truck to De Beers. Then he came to me, told how these mandels ruined a beautiful country, he became such a racist that you can not describe. laughing
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 21 May 2020 08: 11 New
          13
          What kind of obsessors were not promoted in my childhood !!! From Dr. Hyder to Yasser Arafat! One bright spot among these rogues I remember - Samantha Smith.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 21 May 2020 08: 23 New
            +8
            As it was with Vysotsky:
            "............................................
            The match won the USSR - Germany,
            One hundred villains captured
            And Magomayev sings in KVN. "
            That's all and it is clear: we won in hockey, just a hundred “laymen", so somewhere in Africa we took white mercenaries, and of course Magomayev and Kobzon, without them, dear ones. laughing drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 21 May 2020 18: 42 New
              +2
              "Heavy smog enveloped

              Washington He lives happily without work In the vaunted jungle of stone freedom, Where the CIA and the Pentagon rule. 1: Among the capitalists of these countries, the frenzy of military psychosis is growing. They scare red
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 21 May 2020 18: 48 New
              +2
              "Heavy smog enveloped Washington.
              It’s not fun to live without work,
              In the vaunted jungle of stone freedom
              Where the CIA and the Pentagon rule.
              Among the capitalists of these countries,
              The frenzy of military psychosis is growing
              They scare the "red menace" '
              Deceived workers and peasants! "(C)
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 21 May 2020 08: 32 New
            11
            On August 25, 1985, returning with her father from the shootings of the series “Street Lyme,” Samantha Smith died in a plane crash. This incident caused widespread publicity and gave rise to a conspiracy theory, but an official investigation showed that the responsibility rests with the pilot. The memory of Samantha was immortalized both in the USA and the USSR.

            Sorry for the girl. But we remembered her like that -
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 21 May 2020 18: 55 New
              +3
              A depressing paradigm shift. Girl Samantha wanted to save the world, girl Greta wants to destroy it.
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 21 May 2020 20: 14 New
                +4
                Yeah. Both girls, but what are their different goals ...
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 21 May 2020 20: 24 New
                  +5
                  I may be biased and still in love with Samantha’s smile, but the grimaces of Greta are seeking out my gagging.
          3. hohol95
            hohol95 21 May 2020 08: 33 New
            +7
            Missed Angela Yvonne Davis.
            1. VLR
              21 May 2020 21: 13 New
              +6
              Davis was the mistress of the Black Panther extremist activist who was accused of assaulting police officers.
              During the trial, his accomplices took hostage the prosecutor, several judges and jurors. During the hostage rescue operation, Jackson Jr. and one of the judges were killed. The weapon used in the attack belonged to A. Davis and she went off as an accomplice. That is, her case is not political, but criminal.
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 22 May 2020 08: 39 New
                +2
                But in the USSR there was a slogan - Freedom to Angela Davis!
                The film "Farah" - the hero of the film as a child really wanted to see Angela and wrote letters to her!
                1. VLR
                  22 May 2020 09: 19 New
                  +5
                  I also had a Soviet childhood and I remember all this very well, and the memories, in general, are lightly colored. But now I see that, unfortunately, sometimes, for the sake of momentary political interests, very dubious people were declared heroes. According to the principle - "the enemy of my enemy is my friend." I’ll talk about one such “heroine” in the next article - it will be very interesting. The same can be said of the United States, where they were not at all afraid to "get dirty", supporting the most terrible and disgusting characters - if only they were not communists and did not prevent American companies from robbing their country. Politics, in general, is an incredibly dirty thing.
    2. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 21: 54 New
      +1
      This is Congo, Belgian Congo. They could not help but make slaves and money. Union Miniere is a Belgian company .... For the French nuclear program, All ore was handled. There were two transport vehicles by 1940 ... According to Soviet intelligence, more than 140 tons, Ours asked .... They were not told this. Raw materials appear in the states were in abundance for 2 -4 hits. To you!
      \ The next real blow was only ready for the end of the Korean War ....
      Parity achieved. The parallel war is over ....
    3. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 22: 04 New
      0
      You can translate into any language, and this is not the language of the Lokis brothers .... If ....
      "I'm a soldier, mom, when I can’t shoot, I don’t shoot[i] [/ i]. "
  6. Free wind
    Free wind 21 May 2020 06: 52 New
    15
    The victorious Algerians immediately began to tear the claws from such an independent and wealthy Algeria. Industry, agriculture fell into decay. The same winemaking., Some brands were in demand in the world. Everything was destroyed. They began to drive the "wine material". For technology, for industrial equipment, for weapons, for the lives of our soldiers. calculated by "wine material". Except for the USSR, no one dared to buy it.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 May 2020 07: 35 New
      +5
      Hmm ... That is, the "fruitful" hails from Algeria?
      1. old_pferd
        old_pferd 21 May 2020 08: 08 New
        +8
        Solntsedar was made from Algerian wine materials. Import was, I remember 1963-1967. Plus or minus a year, but something like this. But the recipe itself from the late 50s, ours, dear, well, and later made again from our wine materials.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 21 May 2020 08: 14 New
          10
          "I hook the ruble twenty-eight,
          I'd like to catch the "Golden Autumn" "
        2. AK1972
          AK1972 21 May 2020 12: 54 New
          +3
          It was recalled: "Do not waste time in vain, hangover at Solntsedar."
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 21 May 2020 07: 58 New
      +8
      ... calculated by "wine material". Except for the USSR, no one dared to buy it.

      For sure, Alexander, I well remember this garbage dump, when there was nothing worthwhile at hand, even the notorious “Solntsedar” was preferred to this Algerian stink. Brrrrr ...
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 21 May 2020 08: 29 New
        11
        Sorry, but “accept the atomic strike, our incomparable“ Sunzedar. ”Alas, it was made from Algerian poison. Moreover, it was interesting that the tankers transporting this material appeared through holes in the hull in a couple of months, corroded. They tried to varnish the tanks, even the minium, It didn’t help. The recipe for making this marvelous drink is secret, but I’ll reveal it to you and Bacchus will forgive me. Algerian wine material was supplemented with alcohol from the factory located in the village of Soltsedar (now Gelendzhik) and a little water from the nearest swamp, reducing degrees. you I started up until 1982, but already with our materials, but the techie was always there. At 83 I whipped glasses of 2-3, I wanted to quit drinking. I vomited for a week. After a couple of months after seeing wine in general store, I felt sick.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 May 2020 08: 35 New
          +6
          Wow, damn it! For me, the news is that they drove him out of Algeria. Thank you for enlightening. About this joke:
          "A man in the morning, swollen from a hangover, enters the wine department. Asks the seller:
          “Do you have a Solcedar?”
          -- There is !
          Further, the sufferer has an uncontrollable puke by Niagara Falls ... drinks
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 21 May 2020 09: 37 New
            +5
            There was still a drink "ogututu", "in the morning the citizen died," the crankshaft. The same unique taste and a slight aftertaste after jumping. I had a case, a peasant, who was terribly sick in the morning, asked for a hangover, said that in the evening I got drunk on Solntsedar. I felt sorry for him, I remembered myself. I had a bottle of "French water", I first saw how they drink cologne. A man drank half, thanked. And then he drank himself, Tee, Shipr, Russian Forest. The mouthwash “cucumber” went like liquor. laughing
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 21 May 2020 09: 44 New
              +4
              “Crankshaft”, it seems, was called vodka because of the “crooked” spelling of the word VODKA on the label. Yes, Denaturat enjoyed even greater success. laughing
              1. Free wind
                Free wind 21 May 2020 09: 58 New
                +7
                Who would gash down a topic about drinks, not very consuming in the army, before or after. I remember a cocktail drank, "Deep Bomb" or "Chpok". You drink from a mug, not a lot of beer. Throw a glass of vodka, with a glass and drink while a glass on the teeth "chpok".
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 09 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Free Wind
                  Who would gash down a topic about drinks, not very consuming in the army, before or after. I remember a cocktail drank, "Deep Bomb" or "Chpok". You drink from a mug, not a lot of beer. Throw a glass of vodka, with a glass and drink while a glass on the teeth "chpok".

                  It went from the English sailors - only they have whiskey instead of vodka
                2. Undecim
                  Undecim 21 May 2020 15: 49 New
                  +3
                  Who would gash down a topic about drinks, not very consuming in the army, before or after.
                  And even better, someone would gash a topic that makes people eat all this muck.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 May 2020 19: 34 New
                    +2
                    This is to the Doctor;
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 21 May 2020 19: 49 New
                      +4
                      I had to observe firsthand these "sufferings." Moreover, "technologists" showed amazing ingenuity and knowledge of "technology". True, sometimes "technological errors" occurred, followed by resuscitation or even a morgue, but this was perceived as an unavoidable cost. By the age of forty, a man was turning into a ruin and looked eighty years old.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 May 2020 20: 02 New
                        +3
                        Viktor Nikolaevich, you never had to pull out heroin addicts from an “overdose”.
                      2. Undecim
                        Undecim 21 May 2020 20: 11 New
                        +2
                        It was not necessary to pull out, but it was necessary to observe. There was an experience of part-time work as a nurse in a drug dispensary. True, in those distant times, "emphasis" was a rarity, "more and more with the" squirrel "the client came. But there were" drug addicts ".
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 May 2020 20: 17 New
                        +2
                        In this place I have a gap in the knowledge of your biography.
                        I had to, more than once.
                      4. Undecim
                        Undecim 21 May 2020 20: 35 New
                        +5
                        It may sound blasphemous, but the point? Man stubbornly does not want to live, and he stubbornly is not allowed to go where he wants.
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 May 2020 20: 42 New
                        +5
                        These were people whom, at that time, I considered friends ... Based on current life experience, yes, it was easier to cut the throat.
                        But it was a quarter century ago, I still believed in people ...
                      6. Undecim
                        Undecim 21 May 2020 20: 44 New
                        +3
                        I believe in them today. In certain conditions.
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 May 2020 20: 52 New
                        +4
                        An idealist You, Viktor Nikolaevich, a humanist and an optimist! God forgive me, on a sinful word!
                      8. Liam
                        Liam 21 May 2020 20: 55 New
                        +5
                        Pessimist is a well-informed optimist
                      9. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 May 2020 21: 01 New
                        +3
                        Yeah. And the value of cosine in wartime can reach four!
                      10. Fat
                        Fat 23 May 2020 09: 49 New
                        0
                        Anton, what for in cosmos military affairs? ahh this tangent can! any for your money! fellow lol laughing
                    2. Fat
                      Fat 23 May 2020 09: 45 New
                      0
                      I know another couple of expressions.
                      1. If trouble is possible, it will happen (Murphy's Law)
                      2 Murphy was an optimist (O. Thule's supplement to Murphy's law)
                  2. Undecim
                    Undecim 21 May 2020 21: 21 New
                    +4
                    After your comment, I asked my wife to see if I have wings on the back. Says no.
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 May 2020 21: 29 New
                    +5
                    Your spouse is biased. Possibly negative.
                  4. Undecim
                    Undecim 21 May 2020 21: 36 New
                    +3
                    No, I also looked in the mirror for control. Nimbus is also missing.
                  5. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 May 2020 21: 45 New
                    +2
                    Victor Nikolaevich! Other entities are not reflected in the mirrors and do not give shadows. Equally for both sides of the confrontation.
                  6. Undecim
                    Undecim 21 May 2020 21: 51 New
                    +3
                    Okay, tomorrow I'll ask my grandson again. He certainly won't cheat.
                  7. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 May 2020 22: 10 New
                    +4
                    This dog will not fool. And children grow up and become humans. With its own problems, interests, passions and vision of the world.
                  8. Undecim
                    Undecim 21 May 2020 22: 13 New
                    +3
                    His grandson is at such an age that he is not interested in deception in such high spheres.
                  9. Catfish
                    Catfish 22 May 2020 06: 53 New
                    +3
                    This dog will not fool.

          2. Liam
            Liam 21 May 2020 21: 36 New
            +2
            A good wife will not let her wings fly .. she will cut off immediately on take-off)
          3. Undecim
            Undecim 21 May 2020 21: 53 New
            +3
            The concept of a "good wife" is strictly individual. As the saying goes, Russian is good, then German is death. The most difficult thing is to correctly determine immediately. Given almost forty years of living together, I think I succeeded.
          4. Liam
            Liam 21 May 2020 22: 06 New
            +3
            I mean, that we are often drunk on irrationality, flying in a dream and in reality, wings seem to be again. And women with their practicality and realism return to the earth on time until we do something stupid in this state)
          5. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 21 May 2020 22: 21 New
            +3
            "Cry Yaroslavna poor,
            I cried more than once
            Prince Igor with the Pechenegs,
            Playing preference
            Blown "to the cross"
            Will come: "I'm sorry, baby!",
            You will regret the beast
            Hug ... And forgive! " (WITH)
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 21 May 2020 21: 56 New
        +2
        And here you are wrong. For any woman, proud and admire her man - this is important. Otherwise, why then give birth to children from him?
      3. Liam
        Liam 21 May 2020 22: 09 New
        +2
        I tried to clarify my point in the answer to Comrade Undecim).
  • hohol95
    hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 13 New
    +3
    Vodka

    Here it is the Compassion of the Communist Andropov
    1. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 23: 28 New
      0
      Here it is bullshit of a policy that does not have any resource provision! Alex for something you can sell your soul, the market is this: indicate the price! BEHIND! What the? ....
  • hohol95
    hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 17 New
    +5
    Yes, I’ll see a “master of sports of international class”!
    Morning Lotion ...
    "Cucumber" - not a rinse, but a lotion for the face.
    He gave the breath the aroma of lightly salted cucumbers.
    Now we must be wary of such perfumes.
  • hohol95
    hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 28 New
    +3
    Toothpaste not bred?
    And why didn’t the people "bodyify" for a "blow to the brain."
    Up to bakelite varnish and shoe wax.
    In other countries, go and did not do similar.
    And the soldiers of the foreign legion never tasted French perfumes.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 21 May 2020 10: 45 New
      +6
      Pomorin, 10 tubes per liter. and wait for the muck laughing will settle. The law of the mushroom picker, you do not know do not drink "neopomorin" did not drink, feared. Gutalin is just the way to go. Smear on bread, and in a cool place, preferably in the refrigerator. Alcohol is absorbed into the bread. Cut off the top layer with muck, after an hour, and enjoy the sandwich. True, some become like avatars, turn a little blue. But it even gives a noble shade to the skin, well, the blue-blooded kid.
      1. Jünger
        Jünger 21 May 2020 10: 50 New
        +6
        Interesting) Then such citizens die at the age of 50, and whoever doesn’t complain about expensive drugs in pharmacies, inefficient medicine and the fact that a pension of 65 is too late smile
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 52 New
        +3
        Pomorin, 10 tubes per liter. and wait for the muck  to settle.

        There were craftsmen - one tube per glass and without waiting for precipitation ...
        And then “ROYAL” appeared and ... But that was a different country.
        Yeah. Here's what you need to torture the taken "language" - alcoholic surrogates:
        Chapaev and Petka caught a hare. They think what to do with it. Chapaev says:
        - Let's drink it and tomorrow we will not give a hangover?
        - Well, you are a monster, Vasily Ivanovich
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 21 May 2020 11: 04 New
          +1
          Quote: hohol95
          And then came "ROYAL"

          with which fireplaces were lit in the west. We spread something with water, poured a bag of zuko, and drink.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 21 May 2020 11: 17 New
            +7
            Why breed? Since there is some kind of liquid besides the piano, you can just drink it, or you can use a cigarette. smile
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 11: 09 New
          +6
          Chapaev and Petka caught a hare. They think what to do with it. Chapaev says:
          - Let's drink it and tomorrow we will not give a hangover?
          - Well, you are a monster, Vasily Ivanovich

          Alexei, a similar joke reminded me of another, also about torture, and with the same characters.
          - Do not inject, Vasily Ivanovich!
          - And you gave him my foot wraps?
          - Well, what about me, monster, or what ?!

          The other day in NVO they said that they would shoot a series about Catherine the Great, and Prince Rostov would play in it ... hmm .. Afro-prince! wassat An interesting Internet meme appeared in connection with this:
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 16 New
            +4
            I cut him a two-headed eagle on his chest. Nails twitched. He burned heels with fire ... But he is silent

            This is normal - they took actors from the most proletarian milieu - the mining community! Just wash forgot! Eka in them coal dust eaten.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 11: 23 New
              +5
              Will Smith is wearing a hat! drinks
              took actors from the most proletarian milieu

              in the Dominican Republic, a worker receives three dollars per ton of harvested reed. And the daily rate is three tons. Work there on plantations, as I understand it, mostly Haitians.
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 28 New
              +4
              Work there on plantations, as I understand it, mostly Haitians.

              Correctly! Locals are busy with the "diverse ways of entertaining and satisfying" the natural needs of tourists!
              They have no time for sugarcane! Yes, and tourists pay more!
            3. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 11: 37 New
              +6
              Locals are busy with the "diverse ways of entertaining and satisfying" the natural needs of tourists!

              entertainment seen, satisfaction not offered. laughing
              They have no time for sugarcane! Yes, and tourists pay more!

              every hotel employee thinks you should give him tips on cocoa! It was finished when, at the time of departure, a security guard at the airport, a young mulatto came up from there and politely offered for a small share to draw without a line through the turnstile for VIPs ... wink
            4. hohol95
              hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 47 New
              +2
              satisfaction not offered.

              Eh, in the wrong place you rested ...
              I haven’t been there at all ...
              "Tipping" is what their Americans taught them to "earn."
              Everything themselves on the "tip" holds. And they are offended when they don’t throw them on the “tea leaves with sugar”!
        3. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 16 New
          +3
          Quote: Pan Kohanku
          Will Smith is wearing a hat! drinks
          took actors from the most proletarian milieu

          in the Dominican Republic, a worker receives three dollars per ton of harvested reed. And the daily rate is three tons. Work there on plantations, as I understand it, mostly Haitians.

          So it turns out above the minimum wage
        4. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 13: 27 New
          +3
          So it turns out above the minimum wage

          Albert, this was in 2013, even before all the shocks, he took the amount according to the stories of the guides. Now I do not know.
          Our lives there up to 50 thousand. A girl flew with us - they offered a job as a photographer, it seems. I brought a cat with me. Poor animal - 12 hours fly.request
        5. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 36 New
          +3
          For 2013, yes, it was a penny. Today it is $ 9 x25 working days x 70 rubles = 15750
          Minimum wage - 12130
        6. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 13: 41 New
          +6
          Today it is $ 9 x25 working days x 70 rubles = 15750

          offer to quit everything and go to Dominican Republic to work as blacks? wink living space there is clearly cheaper ... drinks
        7. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 48 New
          +7
          No, I propose working in Russia so that our population is not poorer than the Haitian blacks drinks
        8. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 13: 58 New
          +5
          No, I propose working in Russia so that our population is not poorer than the Haitian blacks

          accepted! good You just need to put a little nuances: Haitian blacks in the Dominican Republic receive so much. In their native Haiti, they receive only poverty and a voodoo cult - the country is almost poorer than Afghanistan. Although one island! request
        9. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 14: 00 New
          +4
          I am aware - Dominican Republic received during the WWII a good emigration of European refugees
        10. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 14: 04 New
          +4
          I am aware - Dominican Republic received during the WWII a good emigration of European refugees

          I’m not aware of this immigration. I remember that any shaking hands with blood in their hands fled to Latin America (already with the help of Pope Pius some there - "Operation Odessa"). Cuba, before the Communists, was a haven for all sorts of dark things, ranging from the alcohol trade. There, it seems, even Lucky Luciano, expelled from the USA, was hanging out for a while, doing business. what
          According to the guides, the Dominican resort of Punta Cana began with the fact that Julio Iglesias and his friends decided to take this land into circulation, and made the desired resort there. drinks
        11. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 14: 10 New
          +5
          Cuba - the mafia man Meir Lansky, who had risen to the dry law and legalized, along with Luciano, at a casino in Las Vegas (they made this city what it is today) at one time was even the Minister of Tourism of Cuba - cash out, deauches, casino - but lost the entire base before the arrival of Fidel.
          The Dominican Republic in 1938 took a thousand refugees from Germany - they quickly raised their agricultural.
        12. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 14: 21 New
          +4
          Cuba - Mafioso Meir Lansky, who rose on the dry law and legalized, along with Luciano

          Luciano was heavily abused by his fellow tribesmen that he himself was in partnership with Jewish organized crime. wink Of the Jews, one can also mention Luis "Accountant" Accountants - the one, EMNIP, was the leader of the "corporation of hired killers." hi
          Our military experts in the 30s, after listening to overseas news, decided that the submachine gun was the weapon of gangsters and the police. This is not a common cliche, it was quite seriously sounded at a meeting on the results of the Finnish war in April 1940. Although at the beginning of the war there was a Degtyarev PP with a magazine for 25 rounds, but it was in the arsenal of the NKVD! soldier
          The Dominican Republic in 1938 took a thousand refugees from Germany - they quickly raised their agricultural.

          who specifically ran, Albert?
        13. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 14: 26 New
          +5
          The sculptor was a scumbag
          Communists and Jews - who else escaped from Germany in 1938? laughing
        14. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 14: 31 New
          +3
          The sculptor was a scumbag

          It would be foolish if he weren’t - with this kind of dubious activity! laughing
          Communists and Jews - who else escaped from Germany in 1938?

          many were persecuted there ... Including even, excuse me, homosexuals ... The Jews then, in their overwhelming part, left Israel for the Dominican Republic, most likely? hi
        15. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 14: 59 New
          +5
          To the States and to Israel
          But there are still a couple of hundred of my fellow tribesmen there
          By the way, maybe gays arrived there
          And maybe gay communists of Jewish origin laughing
          As for the Accountant - complete chaos))
        16. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 15: 10 New
          +3
          And maybe gay communists of Jewish origin

          yes, that would be complete trash. drinks
          About the Accountant - a complete chaos

          at one time he loved to read Razzakov, "Bandits of the West." Although he was scolded a lot - almost like Shirokorada. laughing Razzakov in a light style, in principle, gave an idea of ​​many of the then criminals. Bonnie and Clyde were also those jokes. It was later that of them romantic movie heroes were blinded.wink
          There is a legend, beautiful, supposedly Frank Sinatra got his first "green road" to show business from the mafia. fellow That one of his relatives asked Luciano to protect the young man, and Lucky associates personally listened to Frank's performance in his own penthouse. "Concert at home" they liked! And now ... we have the world famous pop star. But this is a legend! drinks
        17. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 22 May 2020 13: 34 New
          +2
          The Senate bike went after the books of Mario Puzo - the Carleone guys put the head of their beloved horse in the bed to the producer, who did not want to give the Italian singer-friend la names in the musical film. In general, the Italians closest in appearance and mentality to Jews. Only the latter are more cultured and elegant)).
        18. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 22 May 2020 14: 08 New
          +1
          Only the latter are more cultured and more elegant.

          ek you said beautifully! laughing
          The Senate bike goes after the books of Marjo Puzo

          like this, we took and destroyed the legend ... crying drinks
        19. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 22 May 2020 14: 42 New
          +1
          But the melody for the film The Godfather is what ... there is a word for it.
          I was bitten by a hippo for tuches
          And I climbed the tree branches
          And tuches here, hypopo there
          I was bitten by a hippo for tuches fellow
        20. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 22 May 2020 14: 44 New
          +1
          I was bitten by a hippo for tuches

          But what, a bite in the seat helps to doze? laughing
          yes, the cult melody ...
        21. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 22 May 2020 19: 54 New
          +2
          If the Hippo - then even climbing))
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 00: 15 New
    +1
    not A ... But elegantly - it’s a pin on a red star on an everyday cap ... And nobody saw a TV before TV bully
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 23 May 2020 00: 26 New
    +3
    Elegantly - it is to feed a man in his own restaurant, to put in his maserrati, lava an indication to the accomplice sitting in the back seat, to strangle the thief along the road through the wasteland. It’s rude for Jews to invite them to a restaurant owned by competitors and blow it up together with the establishment)).
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 03: 17 New
    +1
    I’m not just happy about you ... I can’t cry for this wonderful sacrificial Maserati ... ... and does the enterprise really cost at least a ferrari on the beach?
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 23 May 2020 08: 53 New
    0
    Why sacrificial? Ferrari is probably worth it))
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 09: 29 New
    0
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Why sacrificial? Ferrari is probably worth it))

    ... And where to!? Pancake! This is a statue !!! parking monument request winked laughing wassat
  • Okolotochny
    Okolotochny 22 May 2020 13: 01 New
    +2
    You see, and you argue about the absence of a "Jewish conspiracy"? In Cuba, even "their tentacles" spread out)))
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 22 May 2020 13: 03 New
    +4
    Welcome hi About ten years later, throw again laughing
    Competition Vegas and Patae.
  • Okolotochny
    Okolotochny 22 May 2020 13: 21 New
    0
    But Pasaran)))
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 22 May 2020 13: 23 New
    +2
    Muerte Party! laughing
  • Okolotochny
    Okolotochny 22 May 2020 13: 23 New
    +1
    Albert, hi. I remember my early youth, one of my friends was lucky to get to the cinema for the Once Upon a Time screening in America, he told us about an hour and a half, there were times. Can you imagine an hour and a half listening to the tale of Jewish boys in America?)))
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 22 May 2020 13: 30 New
    +4
    laughing
    One of my favorite movies
    In fact, so that Americans do not talk about super-booster democracy, until the First World Jewish doctor could get a job in New York only in a Jewish hospital, before the Civil (American) in Manhattan figs a Jew was taken to a Protestant hospital, in the 30s interest rate for admission to all Ivy League Universes, etc. From there, big Jewish crime in those years. It came to naught in the 60s. Mafia dads literally broke their sons' legs if they started to bandyuk instead of studying laughing
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 03: 36 New
    0
    Their excuse, Alexey, you almost didn’t like the 4-hour movie. You found the interpreter to cut the apupey ..... do not be offended ... for a smile)))))
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 03: 28 New
    0
    Bullshit fse Us fseh from Ludomania pastor Evans, such a name, but I personally, no Advance no-no ...
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 03: 23 New
    +1
    here lies from beginning to end. We all had our own. The Cubans are a harsh people ... they didn’t like us .....
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 21 May 2020 11: 00 New
    +5
    Quote: Free Wind
    Pomorin, 10 tubes per liter. and wait for the muck to settle.

    Boris Fedorych was wound on a drill. The caramel mash in the washer twisted.
    1. AK1972
      AK1972 21 May 2020 13: 05 New
      +3
      At our radio factory for wiping circuit boards they gave out a gasoline-alcohol mixture. Gasoline was added so as not to drink, so the men thought of adding water in a 1: 1 ratio, the water dissolved in alcohol, forming vodka and gasoline floated up, and the interface was clearly visible, then cambric dropped to the bottom of the can, the vodka was sucked up and merged into another capacity. the resulting product was called "galosh" because of the taste of rubber.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 10 New
    +2
    And the glue moment on the drill? )))
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 21 May 2020 14: 38 New
      +5
      Clay medical BF-2 (Boris Fedorich) went as it went like a noble cognac, BF-6 about like CalvAdos. Salt was poured into the glue, a piece of iron was welded to the reinforcement, so that a design in the form of the letter t was obtained. And in a drill or in a machine., And forward. The rubber in the glue curled up, the remaining fluid was used to lubricate the larynx and esophagus with the stomach. Bfs, with a digital index higher, about like Armagnac, the truth was a small side effect. Many blinded to hell. most likely these are adverse environmental factors. Maybe solar activity is to blame. laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 21 May 2020 15: 24 New
        +2
        Blind, most likely due to global warming
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 May 2020 13: 26 New
    +4
    Quote: Free Wind
    Smear on bread, and in a cool place, preferably in the refrigerator. Alcohol is absorbed into the bread. Cut off the top layer with muck, after an hour, and enjoy the sandwich.

    Tee, Shipr, Russian Forest. Mouthwash "cucumber" went like liquor

    la, what MUCH! belay request

    God was merciful, did not even see a similar (process of drinking) .....
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 May 2020 19: 51 New
      +1
      How noble you are! laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 22 May 2020 07: 36 New
        0
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        How noble you are!

        We also had officers drinking (to the utter disgrace), and even after the collapse of the USSR, I worked quite a lot on construction sites, but I have never seen with my own eyes neither consumption ... cologne, nor wax, nor so on.

        Maximum moonshine and mash ... Soldiers from the southern republics were catching up with balls from the parcels ,,,
    2. saygon66
      saygon66 22 May 2020 00: 10 New
      0
      - Normally they drank like that - they did not frown ... And even Karmazin!
      - Somehow, on an urgent, they treated ... But, as a person spoiled by "Chashma" and "Agdam" I did not appreciate this drink ... laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 22 May 2020 07: 28 New
        0
        Quote: saygon66
        They drank normally - they did not frown ... And even Karmazin!

        what is it? belay
        Quote: saygon66
        Somehow, on an urgent, they treated ... But, as a person spoiled by "Chashma" and this drink I did not appreciate ...

        And this is what? recourse
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 22 May 2020 12: 59 New
          +1
          - laughing Both on! Well, how is that? Well, "Chashma" (a spring, in translation) is an analogue of "Agdam" - made in Uzbekistan, although it was sold in other places ... And "Karamazin" is a liquid for hair extensions! no
          - And what - the times were severe: Prohibition from the Marked! wink
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 22 May 2020 13: 12 New
          +1
          Quote: saygon66
          And "Karamazin" is a liquid for framing hair!
          - And what - the times were severe: Prohibition from the Marked!

          Mum!!! belay request

          And ... moonshine, mash, could not do?

          Chesslovo, I have never seen it personally!

          The most terrible memories are beet moonshine ... request
        3. saygon66
          saygon66 22 May 2020 16: 28 New
          0
          - They set the mash ... but, of course, it did not live up to condition ... And with alcohol, really. it was hard - part of the forest stood ... everything that the zimogors used to bring to the shops of the nearest villages themselves ... smile
        4. Olgovich
          Olgovich 23 May 2020 06: 54 New
          +1
          Quote: saygon66
          And with alcohol, really. it was hard

          Duc, and to hell with him?
        5. saygon66
          saygon66 23 May 2020 09: 28 New
          +2
          - wink No way possible! Tradition s ...
          - “Her Majesty’s Grenadier is not afraid of quantity wines!” (C) From the regiment folklore of the Life Guards of the Cuirassier of Her Majesty Empress Maria Fedorovna’s regiment ... “Blue” or Gatchina cuirassiers.
        6. Olgovich
          Olgovich 23 May 2020 10: 29 New
          0
          Quote: saygon66
          No way possible! Tradition with

          Ha, "tradition"! no

          Tradition is mine non alcoholic An army wedding with the unit commander in the role of the godfather and the political commissar-toastik and ... tea ("tea")! In! good
        7. saygon66
          saygon66 23 May 2020 14: 16 New
          0
          - Exclusively "tea"! But what about ... winked
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 21 May 2020 16: 07 New
    +1
    They tried, tried, and the French tried, or rather, whipped how much in vain. So even Napoleon was not averse to skipping a glass of French wine mixed with French water, he drank and advised others to this cocktail. French water, nee "Cologne", we have ...... "triple cologne" Moreover, the French are pioneers.
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 00: 09 New
    0
    Enemy officers taught my Dad .... if there is no brush, then the hands grow closer to the head than the ass .... laughing Madhouse! There’s nothing to explain!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 21 May 2020 19: 12 New
    0
    In the army, "Coniferous" used a dental rinse aid.
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 00: 02 New
    0
    Alexander! You know why a citizen .... slightly this ... there are no popular ones on the list
    YOU don’t have confidence ...... I’ll explain to you Where you screwed up .... Surely “You didn’t even see the cucumber” ..... In short .... 6 years I didn’t understand that the brain is needed and Shipr and Russian forest. You have a chance
  • Fat
    Fat 22 May 2020 23: 21 New
    0
    Quote: Free Wind
    from such an independent and wealthy Algeria. Industry, agriculture fell into decay. countries The same winemaking., some brands were in demand in the world. Everything was destroyed. They began to drive the "wine material". For technology, for industrial equipment, for weapons, for the lives of our soldiers. calculated by "wine material". Except for the USSR, no one dared to buy it.

    When did Algeria become independent ???? You know, Brother, all this is a lie, like a politician, the USSR had resources from this country that were cheaper than inside Our Country .... What is Dumb in the State Planning Commission ??? And Epp have you signed the "agreement"?
  • Fat
    Fat 23 May 2020 02: 40 New
    0
    Alaeksander, Really nobody risked? Maybe .... six years of a lieutenant colonel .... Sorry Damn, I’m heading to the RFP ... Schaub CX fell into decline. On X Yours “Apart from the USSR, nobody dared“ Kaneshnazh ”They began to drive“ wine material. ”I’m wondering who did this FEYKERMAN a good colonel already 14. Find the strength in yourself and find the post of this wind ... I don’t know whose it is ! I’ve been more than four years on the site ... maybe someone more. I think. Sometimes other LIE for us. wassat
    I myself do it .. hi
  • kalibr
    kalibr 21 May 2020 07: 15 New
    +8
    Well done Valery! Very interesting and well filed material. What can not be said about the then legionaries: "24 thousand FNL fighters, 4 thousand of whom were shot." It was necessary to shoot everyone, and not 4 thousand. General Halifé acted more wisely: "Whose hands are shot in gunpowder." Violence can only be fought with violence!
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 21 May 2020 09: 43 New
      +4
      This crooked-legged cavalryman, Gallifez infection, masked his crooked-legged all Europe in these pants. The Americans did not succumb to this fashion. And their military uniform was considered the most convenient and practical.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 20 New
        +4
        I read that the Americans created their uniform on the basis of a ski suit.
        That's why practicality with convenience.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 11: 11 New
          +4
          As far as I remember, raglan and cardigan also got names from the names of military leaders? drinks
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 20 New
            +2
            Р
            eglan - a type of cut of the sleeve of clothes, in which the sleeve is cut out along with the shoulder part of the front (shelf) and the back of the product. This type of sleeve is named for the British Field Marshal Baron Raglan ...

            The word CARDIGAN, which means a wool jacket, originated in England.
            This jacket model owes its origin to a man like James Thomas Bradnell. He was a Count from Cardigan, and with the help of such a jacket he tried to insulate a not-so-hot military uniform.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 11: 27 New
              +2
              This type of sleeve is named for the British Field Marshal Baron Raglan ...

              The breeches were bastard, and Raglan was one-armed! wink
              and with the help of such a jacket he tried to insulate a not-so-hot military uniform.

              hmm .. and they had overcoats in the 19th century? what Here, as Pal Petrovich introduced, so far. hi
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 42 New
                +3
                Not strong in the British form of the 19th century, But judging by the drawings and engravings - jackets, raincoats and thin short overcoats. The British army suffered very poorly in winter in Crimea.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 11: 54 New
                  +3
                  The British army suffered very poorly in winter in Crimea.

                  Yes. True, there also began the disease. Here is interesting material on the diseases of the "allies" even before the siege of Sevastopol!
                  https://warhead.su/2019/07/21/krymskaya-voyna-vostochnye-stradaniya-frantsuzov-i-anglichan
    2. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 22 May 2020 13: 05 New
      +1
      I agree, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Request to the author - I think that Raul Salan deserves a separate and comprehensive article.
  • Jünger
    Jünger 21 May 2020 09: 18 New
    +7
    Powerful article.
    Question on this statement
    It is estimated that about a million French men went through the Algerian war, killing about 178 thousands of them.

    Has the French army lost so many soldiers in Algeria? sad Isn't that a typo? In my opinion, this is too much.
    Still -
    Algeria received the status of a department, but did the Berbers and Arabs not receive full French citizenship?
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 21 May 2020 11: 07 New
      -1
      Quote: Junger
      Has the French army lost so many soldiers in Algeria? Isn't that a typo? In my opinion, this is too much.

      Because of this, ex-SLA fighters and assassinations were organized on de Gaulle. Although the loss figure is a bit big.
      1. VLR
        21 May 2020 16: 49 New
        +3
        A comma was inserted and added data on those who died from other causes, injured and missing.
  • Moskovit
    Moskovit 21 May 2020 09: 34 New
    -5
    Sow the wind, reap the storm. France’s centuries-old predatory colonial policy has led to such a sad outcome. The overwhelming majority of Africa is an abscess and the arena of endless ethnic conflicts is to blame for Western countries. Trying to make amends, they now accept refugees. And they come off in full.
    1. Jünger
      Jünger 21 May 2020 09: 42 New
      12
      Quote: Moskovit
      France’s centuries-old predatory colonial policy has led to such a sad outcome

      Yes of course. And when in the eighth century these same Arabs with Berbers swallowed Spain and fell upon the borders of France, were the French also to blame?
      This complex of guilt that a modern white person has is destructive and is not justified. It is necessary to get rid of it. But these comrades will only be tamed by the constant war in their territories, no matter how sad it may sound.
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 21 May 2020 12: 53 New
        -3
        You take before. When the Romans fell on the land of the Berbers in the first century BC ...
        No need to talk about white people. Talk about the French. They created their empire, they robbed, killed, poisoned the peoples of Africa. Let them answer now. I have no complexes and obligations towards Africans.
        I, in order to get Schengen, turn my soul in front of Europeans. I show zp, property, money, reservation, tickets. They will kindly be allowed to travel to them for a year or two. And they may still refuse me! These same comrades in boats sail and stay there. Should I spare the French? Little of. The French cannot do without them now. Those who do the dirtiest and lowest paid jobs in France are blacks and Arabs.
        1. Jünger
          Jünger 21 May 2020 13: 24 New
          12
          Quote: Moskovit
          Talk about the French. They created their empire, they robbed, killed, poisoned the peoples of Africa. Let them answer now.

          The fact is that in condemning the French you are condemning yourself. There is no particular difference between them and the Russians. All great European states have the same fate, plus or minus. They have Algeria, Vietnam, we have the Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia, Alaska. And the reasons for the appearance there and the methods of warfare - all in general are identical.
          And I really regret not the French, but the Russians, whose fate will be unfortunate if our next “de Gaulle” again surrenders something and concludes another Khasavyurt.
          Well, the French - yes, I feel sorry. And them and the Germans and other Europeans. Better, on the western border, the old-fashioned physiognomy with the usual behavior will be old-fashioned than a horde of grimy snouts will be drawn there, building another caliphate. They will build it with us then, but I don’t need it at all.
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 21 May 2020 09: 45 New
      +9
      What about European countries? )))
      Africans have always fought with each other. Black slaves in the States - were not caught by whites in Africa. Just cheaply bought prisoners of war and debtors from local leaders
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 21 May 2020 13: 03 New
        0
        Yes Yes. What is the well-being of Europe based on? On pumping money out of the colonies. Who sent expeditions that hunted people? Yes, they used feuds between the tribes, often they themselves incited them.
        America is now enjoying the fruits of a slaveholding past, and there will be more.
        We will not go far, where did the origins of one of the most terrible genocides of recent times come from - the 1994 massacre in Rwanda? The Belgians artificially isolated the Tutsi and oppressed the Hutus. And then washed off at the right time. And if you look at the roots of many ethnic conflicts, you can see whose skillful hands fired a fire.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 43 New
          +9
          The well-being of Europe is built on the results of the industrial revolution and Marxist additions to the law - ala Bismarck in the 1880s. Germany did not have colonies.
          Europeans and Americans did not catch people - they bought debtors and prisoners from the locals.
          The American South enjoyed the fruits of slavery until the American Civil War - but it lost to the industrial North, where there were no slaves)).
          Rwanda - without the Belgians, Hutus would have been cut out by Tutsis earlier. As tribes, the loyal Mandela drove the opposing clans with the fall of apartheid in South Africa.
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 21 May 2020 10: 11 New
    +8
    The French turned Algeria into a prosperous country, surpassing Spain in terms of development.
    The living standards of the Arabs of French Algeria were the highest among all the then Arab countries (this was before the emergence of the oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf). In terms of higher and secondary education per capita, Algerian Arabs were already in the 30-s. ahead of such European countries as Greece and Portugal.

    Algerian Arabs under French domination enjoyed wide internal autonomy and retained their cultural institutions. Moreover, thanks to European achievements in the field of health, the Muslim population entered the phase of the population explosion already in the 20-ies. Twentieth century. When the French began to conquer Algeria, there were only about one million inhabitants in it. By 1900, the number of Algerian Arabs exceeded 3 a million people, and by 1950, they were already 8, 5 million.

    As the number of Arabs grew, and among them the proportion of semi-educated, but very ambitious intellectuals, sharply increased, the French authorities in Algeria began to weaken. “Why should the French own all these plantations, and luxury houses, if they are built on our land?” Asked the text of one of the underground leaflets distributed among Arabs. The fact that it was the French who built all these plantations and luxury homes, of course, the leaflet did not say.

    As usual, the “damned invaders-colonialists” were blamed for everything, but after France left Algeria, the country would slide into such a terrible bloody massacre of the civil war, after which all French “atrocities” would seem like fairy tales.
    The local authorities, as usual, will announce the beginning of the construction of socialism, and billions and billions of money and military equipment — airplanes, tanks, weapons, agricultural equipment, and military and civilian specialists — will flow from the USSR to Algeria. Although this trend began under Nikita Sergeyevich and was inherited by Vladimir Vladimirovich (in 2006, Russia wrote off Algeria $ 4,7 billion in debt to the USSR and again issued loans for new decent amounts)) there is no peace in Algeria to this day .. .
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 31 New
      +3
      How is "bloody gebnya" usually to blame? So it turns out.
      Did the Russians start this all and continue to interfere with the democratic development of Algeria and many other countries?
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 21 May 2020 11: 05 New
        +8
        Quote: hohol95
        How is "bloody gebnya" usually to blame? So it turns out.
        Did the Russians start this all and continue to interfere with the democratic development of Algeria and many other countries?

        I leave an attack on "bloody gebnya" on your conscience. negative

        What kind of "democracy" are you talking about? There are whole nations who do not know and understand what it is. They do not need her at all. They are used to living and working exclusively from under a stick, under the yoke of their ruling tyrants. Im so good. You can not destroy the habitual, formed over centuries, ways.
        The silly Obama, who claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood was a legitimate government elected by the people, nearly pulled Egypt into a bloody meat grinder. The happiness that Al Sisi with iron eggs turned out to be in place and crushed this shelupon into cabbage.
        At the slightest weakening of the central government, gangs of robbers come out turning the country into a poor desert for many years. There are dozens of examples - Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Libya ...
        “Normal” countries have nothing to do there. This is how to climb with a healthy head into a sore bed. It’s full of costs, the benefits, by and large, are zero, and to get bogged down there for years, one or two. Do you need examples? hi
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 12 New
          -3
          The silly Obama, who claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood was a legitimate government elected by the people, nearly pulled Egypt into a bloody meat grinder.

          It’s not dripping over Obama ...
          And my black conscience will endure “gebnyu”!
          They "threw nationalistic firewood" to us in the union republics. We answered them ...
          And the money spent ... So for them no longer ask!
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 21 May 2020 11: 22 New
            +4
            Quote: hohol95
            And the money spent ... So for them no longer ask!

            So what new to give again? You can’t lend a drunk constantly. He swells everything to the last penny. Is this not clear? How much can freeloaders feed?
            All new loans will have to be written off again. This is despite the fact that they themselves, obviously, have to save on the most necessary.
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 21 May 2020 11: 24 New
              +4
              So what new to give again? You can’t lend a drunk constantly. He swells everything to the last penny. Is this not clear? How much can freeloaders feed?

              This is the next time you ask in a straight line with the President of the Russian Federation!
              Maybe you will answer ...
              Doesn't answer us!
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 21 May 2020 11: 35 New
                +5
                Quote: hohol95
                This is the next time you ask in a straight line with the President of the Russian Federation!
                Maybe you will answer ...
                Doesn't answer us!


                It’s worthless for me to do business with strangers, government. You and I can gossip this in a virtual environment, so to speak, to discuss theoretical issues, but no more. hi

                Although, I would ask. Chesslovlo! Only he straight line with his happy with the people, alas ...
        2. Moskovit
          Moskovit 21 May 2020 12: 42 New
          -3
          And if the democrats had not climbed into Syria, Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, then they would have lived quietly by their own laws.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 21 May 2020 13: 29 New
            +9
            Syria is another song. The so-called "Ba'athist socialism" - the land and large enterprises belonged to the state, the peasants, if it went wrong, received subsidies. But Bashar came, a man more European than eastern, gave the land to the peasants, income-generating enterprises - relatives on the mother’s side (the Makhlouf family - banks and the backbone connection), but with the onset of the drought everything collapsed - the peasants received no state support and rushed to the cities, which served as the Islamization of the latter, and help was seen only from Islamic organizations involved in Zakiyat - mainly with flooded and Saudi money. Plus, dissatisfaction with the results of privatization among many secular Sunnis. Plus, the increase in housing prices in cities due to the influx of migrants. And the Arcadian spring of 2010 fell a year later into the abyss of the Civil War.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 21 May 2020 21: 24 New
              +2
              Colleague Krasnodar, you probably have a typo: "the family of Mahlouf-banks and the backbone connection." Perhaps you wanted to say: "banks and mobile communications"?
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 21 May 2020 21: 28 New
                +3
                That's right - cellular
      2. Jünger
        Jünger 21 May 2020 11: 17 New
        +8
        Quote: hohol95
        How is "bloody gebnya" usually to blame?

        Well, who else? After all, Algeria didn’t help Hitlerite Germany in the “struggle against the invaders,” namely the USSR.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 21 May 2020 21: 32 New
      0
      Privalov’s colleague, and the twelfth colleagues and Mikhail Trilobit below paint a slightly different picture in Algeria
  • VLR
    21 May 2020 10: 46 New
    +6
    Quote: Junger
    Powerful article.
    Question on this statement
    It is estimated that about a million French men went through the Algerian war, killing about 178 thousands of them.

    Has the French army lost so many soldiers in Algeria? sad Isn't that a typo?

    Yes, for sure, the comma is missing, we will try to fix it
    And at the same time I will add information on the missing and wounded. And dead from other causes.
    1. Jünger
      Jünger 21 May 2020 10: 56 New
      +5
      In general, I am critical of France, but it just became a shame for her)
  • VLR
    21 May 2020 11: 02 New
    +8
    Quote: kalibr
    Very interesting and well filed material.

    Thank you, I am always glad when you pay attention to the article.
    The next - “The Battle of Algeria”, by the way, will probably seem even more interesting to many.
  • Operator
    Operator 21 May 2020 11: 09 New
    +4
    In Algeria, everything is simple - there were an order of magnitude fewer French and local Muslims loyal to them than those who wanted independence. Which predetermined the victory of the latter in the civil war. Plus, support for Egypt, neighboring Morocco and Tunisia, the USSR and the USA - France had no chance, moreover, given the fact that ordinary Frenchmen did not want to pay taxes on the war.

    Another thing is that after the Algerian war, France launched a goat into the garden - it allowed the mass migration of Algerians to the former metropolis as cheap labor. As a result, Algerian and other African Muslims make up about 10% of the population of France.

    As for the ethnicity of Algerians: the overwhelming majority of them are Berbers by origin (haplogroup E), but the majority are assimilated linguistically and culturally by the Arab conquerors (haplogroup J1), immigrants from the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 21 May 2020 11: 42 New
    +1
    Probably the putsch of the 1961 generals in Algeria will wait.
    1. VLR
      21 May 2020 12: 02 New
      +7
      Yes, of course.
      Also will be talked about SLA and the Delta group.
  • Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 21 May 2020 11: 52 New
    +4
    And now how this war was presented in the USSR:
    On the night of November 1, 1954, the TNF launched an anti-imperialist uprising, which marked the beginning of the National Democratic Revolution in Algeria. Units of the French army were transferred to Algeria (in July 1955 the number of French troops in Algeria was increased to 400 thousand people), but the uprising gradually spread to all of Algeria. Following the poorest peasantry of the mountainous regions, it was supported by the proletariat, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and students. Solidarity with the Mujahideen, fighters of the National Liberation Army (ANO, created in 1954), took various forms: mass strikes, fundraising, clothing and medicines for the rebels, and a campaign to boycott the colonial authorities. Actively active urban underground - the Fidai and auxiliary fighters - Musabili, who carried out acts of terror and sabotage. In 1955-56, almost all nationalist parties self-dissolved and joined the TNF. The TNF was widely supported by trade unions, student organizations, traders, etc.

    By the summer of 1958, the number of ANO reached 130 thousand people. The international authority of the TNF, which received diplomatic, political and material support from socialist African and Asian countries, also grew. In September 1958, TNF leaders formed the Provisional Government of the Republic of Algeria (IPAR) in exile with a residence in Cairo (then Tunisia), which advocated a negotiated settlement of the Algerian issue. VPAR was recognized by the USSR (de facto - in October 1960, de jure - in March 1962), other socialist states, countries of Asia and Africa.

    Source: https://www.bibliofond.ru/view.aspx?id=70087
    © Bibliofond


    So briefly mentioned acts of terror and sabotage.
    Not a word about dismemberment, murders of children and women.

    True, everyone has their own ...
    But in fact, not a word of truth and all sides.
    1. A. Privalov
      A. Privalov 21 May 2020 12: 07 New
      +3

      Pravda also separately printed a statement from the Algerian Revolutionary Council communicated by radio on the TASS channels from Paris (in a France-Press broadcast). The communiqué signed by Boumedien said, in particular:
      "Although national sovereignty has existed for three years, there are intrigues in the country, secretly plotted, clashes between different trends and clans that have revived to serve the old trick: divide and conquer." "The people who decided today to respond to the alarming appeal of the Algerian people and fulfill their most precious aspirations, aim to regain usurped freedom and their violated dignity."
      Hinting at the overthrown ANDR President Ahmed Ben Bell, the communiqué stated that
      "No matter what the significance of the tasks of a person, no one can claim that he alone embodies Algeria, revolution and socialism at the same time."


      Although, I probably get ahead of ourselves and we still read about this in the following articles. hi
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 22 May 2020 18: 45 New
        +1
        - Ahmed bin Bella. He was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin, winner of the Lenin Prize ... Cavalier of the Military Cross (Croix de Herr) and the Military Medal (Medal Milter)
        - However...
        1. A. Privalov
          A. Privalov 22 May 2020 19: 43 New
          0
          Quote: saygon66
          He was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin, winner of the Lenin Prize.

          True, Ahmed bin Bella cunningly attached himself to peck from the hands of the USSR and the USA.
          In those days, it was fashionable to award orders and medals to all sorts of Arab political activists. Gamal Abdel Nasser and his Minister of Defense Abdel Hakim Amer were also awarded.
          Ben Bella was overthrown by his outgoing friend and accomplice Boumedien, and kept under house arrest for almost 15 years.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 21 May 2020 21: 17 New
      0
      Dmitry Vladimirovich, in your opinion, in the Soviet leadership knew about: "the murders of children and women"? Perhaps we thought that these were single excesses?
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 21 May 2020 12: 47 New
    +8
    Paying tribute to Valery's work, I cannot but note that his old illness is affecting him - the lack of objectivity. The author, as is characteristic of him, first formed his own position on the issue under study, after which he tried to substantiate it by “natural selection” of facts.
    The picture was very clear - a peaceful and blissful life in Algeria was grossly violated by nationalist bandits, plunging the country into the abyss of a bloody civil war. The atrocities of the rebels are angrily condemned, the same on the part of the government is justified by military necessity.
    But this question can also be viewed from the other side.
    The population of Algeria was clearly divided into two categories.
    The first is privileged (pienoirs or “black-footed”), which made up about 10% of the population and controlled 90% of financial and other assets. All government posts in power were also held by representatives of this category of the population. Besides the fact that they stood out sharply with their appearance, they also stood out sharply with their well-being, standard of living, education, aplomb and arrogance.
    The second - the main part of the population - lived extremely poorly, they had no chance at all to take leading positions in government bodies, as well as chances to increase their well-being. Those of them who decided to break away from their roots and tried to join the Europeanized elite found themselves in a position of "the raven behind, did not stick to the pavas." Of course, there was a definite entry of local cadres into the elite of Algerian society, but this process was extremely difficult and slow, so it did not have a significant impact on the course of events.
    Social elevators in Algeria did not work at all.
    As early as 1945, the first conflict erupted with numerous victims on the basis of a dissonance between the increased national identity of the indigenous population of Algeria and the inertness and arrogance of the Europeanized elite. The government opened fire on peaceful May Day demonstrations, as a result - popular outrage, pogroms, victims. To suppress the uprising, the army, aviation and navy were used against virtually unarmed people. The settlements where the local population lived were often completely destroyed, burned to the net. As a result, about a hundred Europeans died, no more than two hundred were injured. Victims among the local population are difficult to calculate, but they are calculated, in any case, at least ten thousand only dead.
    But the most interesting thing is that this uprising did not teach anything to Europeans in Algeria. No concessions, changes that could quench or at least reduce the tension in the country were not undertaken. In subsequent years, tension only grew and, in general, the further civil war seems to be a completely logical outcome.
    So there was no peaceful Algeria, there was no unity and consent, on the one hand there was stupidity, inertness, greed and arrogance of local alien elites and poverty, savagery, envy and anger, generating radical unbridled nationalism among the Algerian people themselves.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 21 May 2020 16: 29 New
      +4
      I agree with you, Michael. To understand some historical events it can be very useful to go directly to the place and chat with the participants in the process. Moreover, not as a tourist-beachman, but to live among the natives. In this regard, the attitude of local couch turbopatriots to the events in Venezuela and the heroic cries of "hands off Maduro" are very indicative.
      But back to Algeria. As you rightly noted, the population of Algeria was clearly divided into two social strata - about a million "black-footed" and about nine million "indigenous people."
      An interesting point. In the elections, one vote of the “black-footed” Algerian was equated to nine votes of the “indigenous people”. And one more significant moment. In 1954, the average life expectancy in Algeria for “blackfoots” was 60 years for men and 67 years for women. For indigenous people, these figures are 30 and 33 years, respectively. This is French data. I had a chance to visit both North Africa and South Africa. Therefore I will say "not everything is so simple."
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 May 2020 17: 50 New
        +5
        Quote: Undecim
        attitude of local couch turbopatriots to events in Venezuela

        As the media present, this is the attitude. To be honest, I can also draw information on this issue only from the media, but the acquired skepticism tells me that everything is not so simple there and the matter is not only in US politics, although of course it is also in it.
        As for Algeria in general, and this article in particular, I have long made it a rule, before praising the author’s articles, to check if there are other points of view on a specific issue, since Valery is a person who is carried away and not without some kind of young enthusiasm, when I want to swim against the tide, debunk authorities, protest and subvert, and in this state it is easy to splash out a child with water. smile
        France’s policy in Algeria is a typical example of how the “white master” takes care of his native subjects. It’s certainly nice to pursue such a policy and enjoy its fruits, it contributes to a good mood and complacency, condescending love for one’s neighbor, and some especially sensitive young people may even get some altruistic urges when they want to get into a rural school and teach young local Aboriginal people the ABCs among them come across some pretty smart ones! smile
        Fortunately, all the main issues in this world are solved by people who are pragmatic and cynical, selfish and envious. But, unfortunately, these people do not always have this very pragmatism and cynicism, and, most importantly, the mind.
        With a ratio of 1: 9 in terms of population and 2: 1 in terms of life, there can be no talk of any equilibrium. Some of these relationships had to be urgently changed in the direction of the equation, to build schools, hospitals, include social elevators, but this is impossible only at the expense of altruistic romantics.
        In short, what they sowed is what they reaped.
        1. Fat
          Fat 22 May 2020 18: 53 New
          0
          [quote = Trilobite Master] With such a ratio as 1: 9 in terms of population and 2: 1 in terms of life, there can be no question of any equilibrium. Some of these relationships had to be urgently changed in the direction of the equation, to build schools ....
          They tried to buy the country. How? Have you bought?
          Nobody needs Africa now, maybe we, China?
          It is necessary to think ....
        2. Fat
          Fat 22 May 2020 18: 59 New
          0
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          France’s policy in Algeria is a typical example of how the “white master” takes care of his native subjects. It is certainly nice to pursue such a policy and enjoy its fruits, it contributes to a good mood

          I do not believe in this for a long time! It was francolonies and not Vichy who made the country a “winner” ...
        3. Fat
          Fat 22 May 2020 19: 08 New
          0
          Very respect, my friend!
          But you yourself contradict:
          "like a" white master "takes care of his native subjects."
          Here where? How? How much has this country invested in itself and how much in the "territory"
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 22 May 2020 19: 56 New
            +1
            Yesterday I tried to find specific figures for the number of schools, hospitals per capita in Algeria, at least for the 30s. Found only on forums with someone’s words. Not a single direct link.
            And to the question how much France invested in Algeria and how much it took, I think the answer is obvious. Those who were at the helm of the war for independence knew how to count, and if their calculations showed that after independence they would have less, not more money, I think their enthusiasm should have diminished.
            France fought for Algeria to the end, the War of Independence, as far as I remember, the Bedouins actually lost, and Algeria gained independence under pressure from outside France. Well, plus more troubles in the metropolis itself.
            1. Fat
              Fat 23 May 2020 00: 22 New
              +1
              Michael, you are absolutely right .... THESE people were in a hurry .... WHERE?
    2. saygon66
      saygon66 22 May 2020 19: 05 New
      +2
      - Replace “Algeria” with “Uzbek SSR” we get almost the same:
      - The percentage of the Russian population is about 9%.
      - Everything else, with the exception of bloodshed - like a carbon copy ....
      1. Fat
        Fat 22 May 2020 19: 58 New
        0
        Quote: saygon66
        - Replace “Algeria” with “Uzbek SSR” we get almost the same:
        - The percentage of the Russian population is about 9%. It was. "WE are you, as a neighbor does not hurt ...."
        - Everything else, with the exception of bloodshed - like a carbon copy ....

        Bloodshed can and cannot be ruled out. It was....
        How to live with IT now. Others will be with this ....
      2. Fat
        Fat 22 May 2020 20: 10 New
        0
        I said, look, I’m not hiding my profile, I, Konstantin .... Tajikistan, Uzbekistan ... Kazakhstan in part, people in the mind have been there recently. I know such guys from "These" so you and will not have the money ....
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 22 May 2020 20: 28 New
          +2
          - Such as in Algeria, thank God there wasn’t ... Although, the scale is comparable if we consider Uzgen, Karasu-Ilyichevsk, Ferghana, Namangan, Andijan, Jalalabad, Osh ...

          1. Fat
            Fat 22 May 2020 22: 42 New
            0
            Quote: saygon66
            - Such as in Algeria, thank God there wasn’t ... Although, the scale is comparable if we consider Uzgen, Karasu-Ilyichevsk, Ferghana, Namangan, Andijan, Jalalabad, Osh ...

            Friends, they said, We did not leave, We are glad that we are alive ... crying Yes and no, you have such a chip to note .... I .... very softly ... said nothing .... am
  • Easyrider
    Easyrider 21 May 2020 12: 55 New
    +4
    Photo from the wedding of Algerians - a shot from the movie "Battle for Algeria" Pontecorvo. The other day I watched a pretty good movie.
  • Altona
    Altona 21 May 2020 13: 11 New
    +2
    Mostly watched photos. In the first photo, a tank similar to the AMX-13, with a swinging tower.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 13: 38 New
      +8
      In the first photo, a tank similar to the AMX-13, with a swinging tower.

      I also thought so at first, then I saw wheel arches for 4 pairs of wheels.
      This is the post-war Panhard EBR. Apparently, the EBR EBR 90 F2 modification is a 1963 model (with a Type 11 turret and a 90 mm Mle F.2 gun) (from Wikipedia). Yours faithfully, hi

      и
      1. Altona
        Altona 21 May 2020 13: 41 New
        +4
        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        I thought so too at first

        --------------------------
        Thank you, because the driver’s hatch and flashlights are confusing right away, so it’s “similar”. And about arches you are sure. I didn’t even notice the elephant, I immediately “ran into the tower”. laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 13: 45 New
          +5
          Thanks, because the driver’s hatch and flashlights are confusing right away

          Eugene, and I recognized by the hatch of the driver and driver (first photo). At first I immediately thought, a sinful thing, that this is the American M38 Wolfhound, and then I remembered about this French cardrinks
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 15: 42 New
          +4
          I didn’t even notice the elephant, I immediately “ran into the tower”.

          the most interesting thing is that this elephant could also squeeze two middle axes. yes They have it, as "extra for cross", apparently. Look, in the bottom photo you can see that even the tread is different on them. what And the front and rear axles seemed to be turning. So, you begin to study small details - and how much information, right? drinks
          1. Altona
            Altona 21 May 2020 15: 45 New
            +4
            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            So, you begin to study small details - and how much information, right?

            -------------------------
            That is yes. In general, post-war tanks and armored vehicles are just the most interesting.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 16: 05 New
              +4
              In general, post-war tanks and armored vehicles are just the most interesting.

              Well yes. But I also like the technical section of the times of “interbellum” - there, it seems to me, such a colossal amount of “trial and error” was - mom, do not worry! drinks For example, I would like to receive a competent article on our little-known developments. Infa - a little. request
              Here in this monster, TR-4, climbed 15 people. How did they fit there ...
          2. kalibr
            kalibr 22 May 2020 16: 59 New
            +1
            The four middle wheels were all-metal!
      2. Legionista
        Legionista 21 May 2020 16: 48 New
        +6
        I will allow myself a little clarification. In the photo is really a "reconnaissance armored vehicle" EBR 75 (FL10). Since 1954, a tower (FL10) from an AMX-13 tank with a semi-automatic gun of 75mm caliber (SA50) was installed on the machine. EBR 90 began to produce since 1964, the type of turret (FL11), gun D924 caliber 90 mm (Cn 90 F2).
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 16: 51 New
          +4
          I will allow myself a little clarification.

          I bow to you for clarification! hi sorry, not so strong in the post-war French armored vehicles! drinks and did the two middle axles of this machine have a drive?
          1. Legionista
            Legionista 21 May 2020 17: 10 New
            +6
            You are welcome! Yes, two middle axles had a permanent drive. Another feature of this machine was that it could reverse, without turning around. For which there was a second rear driver seat.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 17: 23 New
              +5
              For which there was a second rear driver seat.

              understand, push and push. laughing In Russian history, EMNIP, the first rear command post on the Austin armored car was installed in a platoon of Viktor Poplavko. The one who developed the idea of ​​the "assault armored personnel carrier" "Jeffery."

              and General Filatov initially envisaged reverse control on the Garford armored cars with the help of his designed “mirror device”. Then they abandoned this idea, and established a back post. "Mirror device" - its casing comes from the driver's seat from the cab.

              And the Austrian ADGZ must be recognized as the leader of the push-pulls?

              What is your name? I prefer to communicate by name with good people. With respect, Nicholai drinks
              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. Legionista
                Legionista 21 May 2020 19: 08 New
                +4
                Good afternoon! I wrote to you in a personal hi
              3. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 21 May 2020 19: 22 New
                +2
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                and General Filatov

                Yes, yes, Nikolai, General Filatov! From this place in more detail and, preferably, a separate paragraph! laughing
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 21: 05 New
                  +4
                  Yes, yes, Nikolai, General Filatov!

                  there were a lot of them. hi Captain Poplavko (getting off the footboard in the first photo) generally proposed the draft of the first Russian armored personnel carrier (or even a BMP), and even described in detail the tactics of its application. Thirty cars were supposed to approach the line of enemies at dawn. Look at the nose of the armored car - on it is a special device that crushes the barbed wire. In the back of each armored car there should have been an assault group armed with Mausers, grenades and daggers (yes, Poplavko also understood in the rapid-fire assault short-barrels!). Cars crushed wire, approached the trenches. The attack aircraft under their cover threw grenades, dispersed, and in a short battle occupied the first line. Further through the trenches light bridges were built, fussing on each armored car, the cars moved on, and repeated the same thing on the next line.
                  Jeffery were manufactured, and brought into the Special Forces division. Who was waiting for just such "his time." But, unfortunately, the armored cars have never performed in such a capacity! At first they didn’t apply it, and then periodically pulled it off for current tasks ... request several cars were captured during the collapse of the army, the rest were "Ukrainianized". But part, judging by the drawings, then served the Soviet government.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 21 May 2020 19: 03 New
    +4
    Valery, today is your day!
    Thanks for your work!
    I apologize for not being noted under the previous article, but I read it!
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 21 May 2020 20: 52 New
    +2
    Quote: Mavrikiy
    Liberals at that time called the methods of the French special services "Gestapo" and demanded better conditions for the arrested militants.
    Well, just like ours. Nothing changes. request

    Liberals probably always and everywhere cry over those that need to be destroyed
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 21 May 2020 20: 54 New
      +4
      Liberals probably always and everywhere cry over those that need to be destroyed

      but the site "communists" are certainly ready to destroy everyone who is not with them. love
      1. Altona
        Altona 22 May 2020 13: 08 New
        +3
        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        but the site "communists" are certainly ready to destroy everyone who is not with them.

        -----------------------
        These are rather Putin’s patriots.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 22 May 2020 13: 26 New
          +2
          These are rather Putin’s patriots.

          ah .. we do not swear at our company, and this is the most important thing! drinks It was nice to chat yesterday for everything.
          1. Altona
            Altona 22 May 2020 13: 29 New
            +1
            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            It was nice to chat yesterday for everything.

            --------------------
            And in my home library, the ancient Bumblebee book at home has “Tanks in battle” and here his article about AMX-13 from 2012 on the website is about this tank, so I remembered. Rather, about this tricky tower.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 22 May 2020 14: 02 New
              +1
              Rather, about this tricky tower.

              if not mistaken, the tower was used on several more tanks. For example, on the upgrade of "Sherman", released for Egypt. It is necessary to ask Albert-Krasnodar - he must have been to Latrun! drinks

              She lit up on the Argentinean tank Patagon, and on the Austrian Cuirassier. In general, the tower was a success! drinks
              1. Altona
                Altona 22 May 2020 14: 16 New
                +3
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                For example, on the upgrade of "Sherman", released for Egypt.

                --------------------
                I did not even imagine that such mutants from antiquity exist. Obtained by direct crossbreeding of species. laughing Now this is normal, because the tower was called the "combat module."
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 22 May 2020 14: 32 New
                  +2
                  I did not even imagine that such mutants from antiquity exist.

                  yes easily! The Egyptians and our technology "mutated."
                  And here is the "patagon". With the same tower. drinks

                  The Argentines, it seems to me, are generally big entertainers - the Germans designed their main tank "TAM". As a result, the gloomy genius modeled a product that clearly looked like a “panther”! laughing
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 23 May 2020 19: 22 New
        +2
        Nicholas "to Pan Kohanku", if you mean G. A. Zyuganov of his followers, then you are deeply mistaken: they are not Communists, but IMPOSERS!
    2. Fat
      Fat 22 May 2020 22: 52 New
      0
      Hi Astra! They are liberals, they always cry, then! If they do not cry, then it’s not the liberals but the terrorists, I think .... tongue wassat laughing
  • Jünger
    Jünger 21 May 2020 20: 57 New
    11
    Quote: Undecim
    In 1954, the average life expectancy in Algeria for “blackfoots” was 60 years for men and 67 years for women. Aboriginal people have these indicators - 30 and 33 years, respectively

    If people do not have culture and education, for example, like Arabs and Berbers, then they will drink raw water, do not wash their hands, vegetables and fruits before eating, do not visit a doctor regularly or do not visit at all. Naturally their life will be short and sad.
    However, they can live in Denmark, Canada or on Red Square - this will not change anything. You cannot force anyone into paradise. The French gave the natives an opportunity for a normal life and most did not take advantage of it, therefore their problems.
    So everything is quite clear.
    Quote: Undecim
    In the elections, one vote of the "black-footed" Algerian was equated to nine votes of the "indigenous people"

    Most likely, the indigenous people did not know how to read and could vote even for a dead horse. It is amazing that they were generally allowed on the site.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 21 May 2020 21: 51 New
      +1
      Quote: Junger
      The French gave the natives an opportunity for a normal life and most did not take advantage of it,

      What are you saying! ..
      The white gentlemen must have set up thousands of schools, hospitals, libraries in Algeria for more than a hundred years of their rule ... And, of course, all this has stood for many years, teachers and doctors cried from loneliness and idleness, because wild Arabs and Berbers fundamentally did not want to study and be treated ...
      Or maybe the French squeezed money from Algeria partially sent it to the metropolis, while the rest themselves lived perfectly, admiring the sunrises and sunsets over the Mediterranean Sea? And they did not spit from the bell tower of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Africa at these savages that breed and die down there, like flies in a garbage can?
      Well, would you, if you were a civilized European in wild Africa, which option would you choose?
      1. Jünger
        Jünger 21 May 2020 22: 05 New
        +7
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        White gentlemen must have set up thousands of schools, hospitals, libraries in Algeria for more than a hundred years of their rule ...

        Have you read the article? The words that came from the mouth of the native
        Algeria today has a structure of a true modern state: it is better equipped than all North African countries and can even withstand comparison with many countries of Central Europe

        So yes - built, definitely. It also says that the French did not prevent Aboriginal people from living "according to their own ideas." Here the majority lived on them. And if these people have been treated for centuries for appendicitis by invoking Allah, then it is not surprising that they died at the age of 40.
        Who wanted to develop, he took off the veil (or whatever he had) and went to study.
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        Well, would you, if you were a civilized European in wild Africa, which option would you choose?

        I would have agreed with the Russian emperor on the resettlement of the indigenous population to Oymyakon. To help reindeer breed Yakuts. smile Then there would have been no Algerian war and everyone would have been happy.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  • Graz
    Graz 22 May 2020 06: 49 New
    +2
    very similar to the situation with Chechnya, it was a difficult time, perhaps de Gaulle made a mistake with Algeria
  • Fat
    Fat 22 May 2020 13: 47 New
    +2
    Powerful stuff! It was necessary to divide it into three articles. I reread it until it died. Please copy it to re-read it. Not sure if it will remain intact.
  • Arabfun
    Arabfun 24 May 2020 23: 37 New
    +1
    As Stalin left, the thaw of the Khrushchev spring began around the world.