Military Review

Type 2 "KA-MI": Japanese amphibious tank

48

Characteristics



The year production began - 1942.
Weight without pontoons is 9,5 tons.
Weight with pontoons - 12,5 tons.
Crew - 5 man.

Dimensions


Length without pontoons is 4,83 meters.
Length with pontoons - 7,42 meters.
Width - 2,79 meters.
Height - 2,34 meters.
Ground clearance - 0,36 meters.

TECH SPECS


Engine power - 120 l. with.
Speed ​​on the highway - 37 km / h.
Water speed - 10 km / h.
Cruising on the highway - 170 km.
Cruising range on water - 100 km.

weaponry


The gun is 37 mm.
Machine gun - 2x7,7 mm.

Armored amphibian


The peculiarity of the formation of Japanese armored forces was that Tanks, ineffective in the war on the islands, played a secondary role in the structure of the army. Nevertheless, it was also impossible to neglect weapons so important for this period. Back in the 1920s in Japan, work began on the creation of a floating tank, adapted to perform landing operations on the islands.

On land and at sea


Initially, Japanese designers followed the path of European colleagues, developing machines that remained afloat due to the large displacement hull. However, the test of such machines each time gave extremely unsatisfactory results. The seaworthiness of these tanks was very low, and even a slight disturbance at sea could become fatal for them. Due to the large dimensions of the hull on land, such machines turned out to be clumsy and seriously inferior to their land counterparts in armor and weapons.

Everything changed in 1941, when the Mitsubishi company introduced the prototype of the KA-MI tank. When developing this machine, the company's specialists abandoned the generally accepted scheme with a large displacement body. Instead, buoyancy was ensured by large steel pontoons that were attached to the front and rear of the tank. The shape and size of the pontoons gave good seaworthiness, making the machine suitable even for prolonged sailing in turbulent waters. On land, dropping the pontoons, the tank enters the battle as a land.

Undoubtedly, the KA-MI water-floating tank was an outstanding achievement in Japanese tank construction. However, the machine intended for offensive operations appeared too late, when Japan had already switched to defense, and the KA-MI crews could not realize all the advantages of the tank.

Combat success


The baptism of fire "KA-MI" took place at the end of 1942 in the battle of Guadalcanal, in which the tanks "HA-GO" also participated. A sufficient number of KA-MI appeared in the troops only in 1943. One of the few episodes with the mass use of KA-MI tanks was the night landing operation from June 15 to 16, 1944 on the island of Saipan to attack American troops, which began landing on the island. During the operation, a group of KA-MI tanks succeeded in landing on the enemy’s flank. However deprived aviation and the artillery support of the machine could not be opposed to the US troops who managed to regroup.

In the future, until the end of the war, the main task of the KA-MI floating tanks became raids on the enemy rear, which did not bring significant results. Tanks were also used in the defense of Iwo Jima and Okinawa, when, like most other poorly armored Japanese armored vehicles, they were used as fixed firing points, remaining buried in the ground.

To date, ten samples of this tank have been preserved. Seven of them, damaged in battle and abandoned by crews, are scattered across the islands of the Republic of Palau. They all stand in the open air and are in poor condition. The remaining three copies are stored in Russia: in the Central Museum of Armored Arms and Equipment in Kubinka, as part of an exposition of military equipment and engineering structures in Victory Park in Moscow and on the island of Shumshu of the Kuril chain.
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  1. Theodore
    Theodore 20 May 2020 18: 11 New
    +3
    And where is the photo of these Shushpanzers?
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 20 May 2020 18: 32 New
      -10
      and we had "something" ... desperate times demanding "desperate measures".
      Moscow 1946
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 20 May 2020 19: 19 New
        16
        You confuse a river armored boat with a floating tank! If you compare it with the T-37/38/40 family. At the same time, Soviet tanks were not supposed to be used in big water.
        1. Grandfather
          Grandfather 20 May 2020 19: 20 New
          -11
          Quote: hohol95
          You confuse a river armored boat with a floating tank! If you compare it with the T-37/38/40 family. At the same time, Soviet tanks were not supposed to be used in big water.

          oh, betray me anathema ... figuratively, about the variety of defense equipment in emergency mode.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 20 May 2020 19: 22 New
            12
            Sprinkle yourself with ash and beads ...
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 20 May 2020 19: 24 New
            +7
            For a variety of defense in emergency mode, as you write, please upload a photo of "an armored boat without a turret with 76,2 mm Lender guns openly mounted on the deck." This was the "river weapon of the emergency regime" in the USSR!
            And in your photo there are quite normal armored boats with gun turrets from the T-34 tank. Before the war, they set towers from the T-28 tank!
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 20 May 2020 19: 28 New
        +4

        Read a free evening ...
    2. Peter is not the first
      Peter is not the first 20 May 2020 18: 47 New
      16





      Here is a photo of these "shushpanzerov" from the Internet.
      1. Theodore
        Theodore 20 May 2020 19: 47 New
        +5
        From this I understand! From all faces and profiles! hi
      2. pirr
        pirr 20 May 2020 20: 46 New
        +1
        unless there are not enough dimensional leaders!
  2. Walking
    Walking 20 May 2020 18: 20 New
    +2
    Some kind of uninformative article.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 20 May 2020 19: 38 New
      +8
      People will write comments on two articles. Read.
  3. A.TOR
    A.TOR 20 May 2020 18: 28 New
    +8
    When talking about such samples of technical thought - as, incidentally, about others - it is advisable to make comparisons with those created simultaneously in other countries.
    In this case, with American, Soviet and English amphibious tanks. Photos, diagrams (drawings), dimensions, weight, weapons, main performance characteristics, number of losses.
    And so - "nothing", may the author forgive me
    Very superficial, not informative.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 20 May 2020 21: 12 New
      +6
      If I am not mistaken, then in that war only Americans had serious machines for landing amphibious assault forces.
      Amphibious tanks LVT (A) (1) and LVT (A) (4) /


      1. A.TOR
        A.TOR 20 May 2020 23: 41 New
        +2
        LVT was developed as a floating transporter, then a version of the "fire support vehicle" was made from it, leaving the function of transporting troops. There were developments - experimental - from the Germans and the British.
        It would be just interesting to compare the "swirls of technical thought" of different schools. By the way, domestic amphibious tanks, as well as experienced amphibious armored vehicles developed in the 30s, will be in place here.
        By the way, the French, too, if memory serves, considered such ideas.
        The Japanese even developed and built an experimental floating tank (?) - a torpedo bomber!
        In general, articles on such a topic should, you see, be written much more thoughtfully!
        So to speak, the subject of the site obliges ...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 20 May 2020 23: 52 New
          0
          ... articles on such a topic should, you see, be written much more thoughtfully

          I totally agree. hi Two lines with TTX technique, this is not an article.
          By the way, you have no data on German developments in this regard, it would be interesting to look at the ideas of the "Teutonic genius".
          1. A.TOR
            A.TOR 21 May 2020 00: 12 New
            +2
            Yes, but I am in time pressure at work (due to known events).
            In general, there is a desire to prepare an article on this topic, if I find time
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 21 May 2020 00: 15 New
              0
              It would be great, with good articles on the site now it has become somehow problematic. You really try for the sake of the people. smile I wish you success. drinks
  4. knn54
    knn54 20 May 2020 18: 33 New
    +4
    -A sufficient number of "KA-MI" appeared in the army only in 1943.
    "Road spoon to dinner".
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 20 May 2020 18: 38 New
    11
    To be honest, I don't understand the site's policy - why are these rewriting of Wikipedia, moreover, with a significant "deterioration". Was it really impossible to pick up a photo?

    Type 2 Ka-Mi without floats. By the way, without the floats, the tank could also swim. It was assumed that the landing from the sea will be carried out with floats, and on the rivers and lakes the tank will be used without floats.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 20 May 2020 18: 41 New
      11

      Type 2 Ka-Mi with floats.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 20 May 2020 18: 45 New
        +2
        Oh, how he and his comrades bewitched me when we read about him in the "technology of youth" in the early 80s! The solution with floats, against the background of our T37 / 38, seemed simple and ingenious!
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 20 May 2020 18: 48 New
          +8
          In addition to the Type 2 Ka-Mi, the Japanese had a similar Type 3 Ka-Chi device.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 May 2020 18: 52 New
            +3

            He is with the floats dropped.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 20 May 2020 19: 02 New
              +6
              And the third in this row is Type 5 To-Ku.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 20 May 2020 19: 10 New
                +6
                The British had a similar idea by creating Duplex Drive tanks.

                Sherman tank in position "on land".
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 20 May 2020 19: 12 New
                  +5

                  And "at sea".
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 20 May 2020 21: 03 New
                  +5
                  And even with a more "serious" gun.

                  M4 Sherman DD.
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 20 May 2020 20: 56 New
            +6
            There is such a miracle in Kubinka. It looks like a ridiculous homemade product.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 20 May 2020 21: 10 New
              +5
              It has already been transported to the Patriot Park and repainted. It looks much better.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 20 May 2020 21: 13 New
                +3
                Removed from Kubinka? And the fig? recourse
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather 20 May 2020 19: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      To be honest, I don't understand the site's policy - why are these rewriting of Wikipedia, moreover, with a significant "deterioration".

      duck money paid for the article ... BOOKS! wassat and we are asked to throw it off! laughing
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 20 May 2020 19: 29 New
        +5
        Money platinum website to the author! And then what to pay for? The publication of such materials only discredits the site. And Wikipedia has recently been tightly registered on the site. Today at least two articles from there.
        1. tanki-tanki
          20 May 2020 20: 46 New
          +1
          Sorry, the information was not taken from Wikipedia!
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 May 2020 20: 52 New
            +2
            What prevented you from indicating the source? Proud "author" you did not forget to write.
  6. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 20 May 2020 18: 40 New
    10
    The peculiarity of the formation of Japanese armored forces was that tanks, ineffective in the war on the islands, played a secondary role in the structure of the army.

    The army didn’t have a headache about the islands — these were mostly naval affairs. The army had a huge mainland China, which she spud with varying success. And as the tanks were drawn into this war, more was needed.
    The secondary importance (more precisely, the technical backwardness) of Japanese tanks was mainly due to the fact that the army did not have a comparable enemy for a long time - even that menagerie on tracks was enough for China. which was given to the IJA by the industry of Japan. The Khalkhin-Gol Japanese armored vehicles cheered up a bit - they finally managed to meet a comparable enemy and evaluate their armored vehicles. Based on the results of this assessment, the development of new models began, but since there were no new Khalkhin-Golov in the next few years, further progress subsided. And in Europe, meanwhile, there was a ground war. As a result, the new models created from the experience of meetings with the T-26 and BT met with the "Shermans" and with the PTO, created from the calculation of the defeat of the German menagerie. The Japanese tried to answer ... but it was already 1943, and the Lockwood boys were frolicking on the communications. Japan could still make a project and a small series, but it is no longer possible to replace old models with new ones.
    Everything changed in 1941, when Mitsubishi presented a prototype of the KA-MI tank.

    Moreover, a naval (not army) tank. smile
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 20 May 2020 19: 37 New
      +6
      Maybe the Japanese first encountered the Stewarts?
      But you are right. In Japan, as in France, two kinds of troops riveted their equipment. The French have infantry and cavalry. The Japanese have a land army and navy. Own planes! Your tanks!
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 21 May 2020 09: 50 New
        +3
        Quote: hohol95
        Maybe the Japanese first encountered the Stewarts?

        And even with M2A4. smile
        But the Stewart is a more or less familiar enemy for the Japanese, something like the T-26 with better armor. But the "Sherman" with its 51-mm armor and 75-mm cannon with good OFS and decent armor penetration covers the entire Japanese armored zoo in 1943 like a bull sheep.
        Quote: hohol95
        The Japanese have a land army and navy. Own planes! Your tanks!

        Own aircraft carriers, submarines and landing ships. smile
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 04 New
          +2
          The French cavalry also had their own horses! Different from infantry horses. tongue
          The Japanese were already powerless against “Matilda” and “Valentine”. Only the Britons with the OFS had a "pipe". Or with armor-piercing without OFS or with OFS (howitzer), but without armor-piercing.
          "Sherman" or T-34 were generally "heavenly punishment" for the Japanese.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 21 May 2020 10: 39 New
            +2
            Quote: hohol95
            "Sherman" or T-34 were generally "heavenly punishment" for the Japanese.

            Singles - not yet. In amphibious operations at the initial stages, the Shermans suffered significant losses.
            But at least in small groups, and even in interaction with infantry, artillery and other pleasures of life - yes, oh. smile
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 21 May 2020 10: 41 New
              +2
              So the lonely "Tiger" would have been "dismantled" by the Japanese for metal. One tank, one platoon. And banzai ...
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 21 May 2020 12: 02 New
                +3
                Quote: hohol95
                So the lonely "Tiger" would have been "dismantled" by the Japanese for metal. One tank, one platoon. And banzai ...

                Ten people against the tank - our everything! smile
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 21 May 2020 16: 00 New
                  0
                  Against the "Tiger", the separation would not be enough. Platoon.
  7. hohol95
    hohol95 20 May 2020 23: 08 New
    +3

    This book is more informative.
  8. Avior
    Avior 21 May 2020 00: 41 New
    +2

    The tank, according to Wikipedia, has an unusual reservation scheme - a small reservation has a gun mask, which is quite typical, and a hull top, which is not quite typical.
    Booking a tank for World War II is rather symbolic.
    Forehead of the body (top), mm / city. 6-12
    Board of the case (top), mm / city. 14
    Housing feed (top), mm / city. 8
    Front of the tower, mm / deg. Xnumx
    The mask of the gun, mm / city. Xnumx
    Board towers, mm / city. Xnumx
    The feed of the tower, mm / city. Xnumx


    There is, however, another version
    RESERVATION, mm:
    body forehead - 16,
    board - 14,
    tower - 14.

    which is closer to the classical, although still symbolic
    https://war-book.ru/tip-2-ka-mi-plavayushhij-tank/

    They write that 101 landing troops are being taken to Saipan, June 1944. Pontoons are not visible, they are not going to land, which is understandable. It is not clear why the airborne detachment. The Americans began the assault on June 15th - before this, the landing is not needed, just landing on the coast, after all the more.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 21 May 2020 09: 56 New
      +3
      Quote: Avior
      It is not clear why the airborne detachment. The Americans began the assault on June 15th - before this, the landing is not needed, just landing on the coast, after all the more.

      They write that the landing was to counterattack the landed Americans.
      On June 16, Vice Admiral Nagumo ordered a counterattack.

      Together with the 136th Infantry Regiment, 44 tanks were sent to the island under the command of Colonel Goto. In addition to “Ha-ha” and “Chi-ha” of the 9th tank regiment, there were also two “Ka-mi” landing tank companies. The landing was doomed to failure, having neither air support or cover, nor fire support by the ships of the Japanese fleet. But the tankers did the maximum possible. Tanks successfully landed in the rear of the American Marine Corps, which was entrenched on the western coast of the island, but made a lot of noise on the pebble beaches of Garapan before moving forward, placing infantry on the armor. US Marines managed to call a Sherman platoon and several self-propelled 75 mm M3 anti-tank guns. In the light of the lighting shells, the “Ka-mi" were hit by the fire of guns and a "bazooka".
      1. Avior
        Avior 21 May 2020 10: 01 New
        0
        Clearly, a gesture of despair.
        By the way, there are three tanks in the photo.
  9. DDT
    DDT 28 May 2020 22: 37 New
    0
    Quote: Dead Day
    and we had "something" ... desperate times demanding "desperate measures".
    Moscow 1946

    River armored boats? Class, in Termez we were on the Amu Darya flotilla. By the way, a spectacular and not useless thing.