Submarine Survival Issues: How Submarine Crews Escape

Submarine Survival Issues: How Submarine Crews Escape

Submarine accidents are relatively rare, but often lead to situations that directly threaten the life of the entire crew. Therefore, the solution to the issue of survival in the modern submarine has always been very significant in the general context of improving the underwater fleet.


Most modern submarines are designed so that if the main ballast tanks are filled with water, they retain buoyancy. If the submarine is not able to continue moving, it should still be able to ascend. But if a large amount of water gets inside the submarine, then sooner or later it will be unrealistic to save it from sinking to the bottom, from the influence of enormous pressure.

Crew life becomes a core value


Experts name several of the most dangerous events during uncontrolled submarine diving: filling the submarine with water, pressure increase, temperature change, air toxicity, failure of the ship’s life support systems. These risks directly affect the permissible duration of the crew on board the submarine.

At dawn stories of the submarine fleet, the crews of the submarines were actually “suicide bombers”: a huge number of submariners were killed. So, during World War II, the only way to escape from a sinking submarine was a torpedo tube, but it was not so simple. More often, sailors simply died.

Now it is very important to preserve the lives and health of crew members, which is why so much attention is paid to issues of survival on the submarine. It is easier to prevent a critical situation than to try to fix it, therefore, weapons, stealth, electronic warfare systems, navigation are given special attention even when constructing submarines. Separately, the possibility of evacuation measures is provided.



Compartments for evacuation are placed in the bow or stern of the submarine, where the special equipment is located, which will be used in case of an emergency. These are signaling means, oxygen supply and absorption of carbon dioxide, individual emergency beacons, rescue diving suits, equipment for receiving emergency life support capsules, etc.

Pop-up rescue cameras


One of the most important means of increasing crew survival in critical situations is the submarine's survival camera. In Russia, such a camera was first tested in 2014: in addition to a team of 5 testers, a ballast equal to the total weight of the crew of the submarine was placed in the camera.

Pop-up rescue cameras today are equipped with all modern and under construction Russian submarines. This invention of Soviet designers is really priceless: VSK can save the life of all members of the crew of the submarine.



However, as the tragedy on the K-278 Komsomolets nuclear submarine in 1989 showed, the VSK is not a panacea: the camera sank, which led to the deaths of many crew members.

On August 12, 2000, the Kursk nuclear submarine sank. She also did not help having a pop-up rescue camera. However, when testing the new VSC on the Severodvinsk nuclear submarine, very good results were shown: ascent took only 10 seconds. Participants in the test compared their sensations during the ascent with a lift on a regular elevator.

In the modern submarine "Yuri Dolgoruky" VSK is located behind the missile compartment. Inside the chamber there are numbered places assigned to each crew member and individual stocks of drinking and food for a few days.

Food stocks and special rafts


In each compartment of a modern Russian submarine, there is also an emergency food supply per week. Each sailor also has a portable breathing apparatus for acting in the first minutes of a fire or the appearance of toxic substances in the air. The task in a critical situation is to connect to the backup breathing system of the submarine.

Also on the submarines are special rafts, each designed for 20 crew members. Each raft is equipped with the necessary devices for survival in the ocean: niches for collecting rainwater, fishing tackle.

Speaking about the survival rate in a modern submarine, it is impossible not to touch on the psychological aspects, since no modern equipment and means of evacuation can replace the coherence and endurance of the crew. Despite the gradual automation and introduction of robotics, the human factor remains determining.

Thus, NATO’s military psychologists, studying the experience of using submarine crews during operations in the Persian Gulf, realized the importance of special psychological hardening of crews before performing combat missions. At the same time, the psychological comfort of the crew largely depends on the living conditions that are created on the submarine.
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  1. Vadim Zhivov 16 May 2020 00: 43 New
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    Interestingly, will there be a sequel?
    1. Ross xnumx 16 May 2020 05: 05 New
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      Quote: VadimLives
      Interestingly, will there be a sequel?

      Continuation of what?
      Emergency situations arising on a submarine can be of a different, and most importantly, unpredictable nature. To date, no “absolute” and effective way to save the crew of the underwater submarine has been developed. The main task is to fulfill the order at any cost.
      The tragedy is that rescue tools that have shown good (positive) results during trials do not work in real life. And the number of accidents in peacetime is quite large:
      According to some reports, from 1968 to the present, more than 70 accidents and incidents involving nuclear submarines or submarines carrying nuclear weapons have occurred in the Pacific Fleet. Among other things, nine fires, 20 collisions, seven technical accidents, four agrounds, three missile accidents and at least eight nuclear power plant accidents were recorded.
      As a result of incidents, at least 107 people were killed, at least 1,39 thousand people received significant doses of radiation.

      Therefore, it should be recognized that in a combat situation (during the war) the crew will be left to their own devices, and the happy outcome of the options for his salvation will be very rare.
      1. Bez 310 16 May 2020 07: 42 New
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        Quote: ROSS 42
        it should be recognized that in a combat situation (during the war) the crew will be left to their own devices, and the happy outcome of the options for his salvation will be very rare.

        It's hard not to agree.
        Search and rescue facilities in the fleet are bulky and slow, and I can not even imagine how they should be used in the face of enemy opposition. In general, everything is complicated ...
    2. Mavrikiy 16 May 2020 05: 17 New
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      Quote: VadimLives
      Interestingly, will there be a sequel?

      Oh how (-) for an innocent question. Are competing pilots gathered? repeat
      And the topic is interesting, technically difficult, albeit morally difficult.
      1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 51 New
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        And the topic is interesting, technically difficult, albeit morally difficult.


        I somehow climbed through the TA first during the "wet training". The chief and the commander are behind me. Well, I vigorously climbed up, quickly crawled to the hatch, and there wasn’t enough air to inhale (training IDAShki, there is only air, there is no oxygen). Well, I think you need to knock. I imagined how, at first, the starpom pulled my legs from the TA, then the cap, then me. I’m breathing, there’s a mixture, but there’s no sense. It dawned on him that he was "out of breath" and that it was necessary to reduce oxygen consumption and calm down. Something like: "Yayayayayaya absolutely sooooo calm." And it helped. Came out fine. But this was a feature of the training equipment of IDAShek. On the same day they pulled out one, he was a witness. I asked him later. The error was like mine — it crawled quickly, was confident in itself, but suddenly it became “nothing to breathe”. At UTK this happens all the time, everything has been worked out for such cases. But at sea, this can end tragically.
        1. sanek45744 17 May 2020 23: 33 New
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          What a fantastic story. Less to you for not telling the truth as complete nonsense
        2. Fizik M 26 May 2020 08: 54 New
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          Quote: Podvodnik
          But this was a feature of the training equipment of IDAShek.

          if closer to the texture - on the UTK IDA is usually WITHOUT 3 DUZES, i.e. with normal supply of O2
          but to whom the STANDARDS (not converted) fell - they climbed out as if from the other world ...
  2. Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 05: 10 New
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    An interesting article, but it does not pull on the analytical one.
    On the topic, the stepfather said that when practicing the emergency lift, they were taught to withstand decompression time at each stop saying "drink lemonade" several times there.
    I think this is about how we were taught to cut the “short three” line to say “thirty-three” and release the hook.
    1. SaLaR 16 May 2020 12: 36 New
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      Thirty-one Thirty-two Thirty-three .. RING .... For those who remember this ...)))
      1. Aviator_ 16 May 2020 14: 53 New
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        Twenty One Twenty Two Twenty Three ...
    2. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 01 New
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      when practicing emergency lifting, they were taught to withstand decompression time at each stop saying "drink lemonade" several times there.


      There is one. This is when exiting through the buoyrep when stopping at musings for decompression. You have to breathe all the time and not close your mouth. Otherwise, barotrauma of the lungs.

      Once we see off the neighbors on the pier. Orchestra, all that. Our mechanic suddenly says: "In the event of an accident by a buoyer, no one will come out." I AM-? He explained that the special bar with the eye (hook) was not thrown back next to the TA. The first outgoing end of the buoys cord catches it when it enters the water. If you fix the cable "inside the bow" of the submarine, then the breakwater shield, closing together with the front cover of the TA after the exit of the "troika" of submariners, will cut the cable. And the buiwi bye bye. Incidentally, I did not know such subtleties.
      1. Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 15: 07 New
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        Quote: Podvodnik
        "In the event of an accident by buirup, no one will come out." I AM-?
        Is there no diver in the crew? Can I probably fix this defect in the sea?
        1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 31 New
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          Is there no diver in the crew?


          All divers, without exception, undergo diving training. There are several "contingent divers" who undergo enhanced specialized training and are approved for the AVM-5 and other equipment. There are several such kits on the submarine.

          But you cannot throw the bar into the sea. If only to emerge into the surface and send a man. Pay attention to the photo of the nasal extremities of the submarine (next to the visible covers (waveguards more precisely) TA), standing in the base. There is nothing to cling to a buoy-rope cable. If this is not done before going to sea, there will be problems in the event of an accident.
          1. Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 15: 31 New
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            Quote: Podvodnik
            If only to emerge into the surface and send a man.

            Now, I’m talking about this.
            1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 16: 44 New
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              In the open sea, people will not be sent to the nasal tip. Can wash off. It’s hard to hold on. If they didn’t do it in the base, they won’t even float into the sea because of this.
              1. Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 16: 57 New
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                Then what's the point in diving training? I'm not talking about emergency escape skills, of course.
                1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 17: 53 New
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                  Then what's the point in diving training?


                  So that the submariners had precisely the practical skills of leaving the submarine, they knew about possible concomitant medical problems. I trained with the crew more than once. Sorted out errors, troubleshooting methods and more. Unfortunately, some training issues were missed. The question of fastening the buoy-vyushki cable is one of them. About the fact that on the case near the breakwater shield there is a special device (which also needs to be “brought into battle") I personally learned after several years of service and access to the sea.
                  This nuance concerns the search and rescue service of the fleet when checking the crew before going to sea.
                  Take any incident from the life of the country and the world. A catastrophe is always the omission of some minor trifle. These little things drag others along, resulting in a "snowball" and tragedy.
                  1. Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 18: 01 New
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                    Quote: Podvodnik
                    So that submariners had precisely the practical skills of leaving the submarine, they knew about possible concomitant medical problems
                    I mentioned it
                    Quote: Vladimir_2U
                    I'm not talking about emergency escape skills, of course.
                    I simply meant the diving skills in underwater operations, because I was absolutely sure that on ships of at least the destroyer rank there are divers prepared for such works. Therefore, he was interested in such sailors on the submarine.
                    Quote: Podvodnik
                    A catastrophe is always the omission of some minor trifle. These little things drag others along, resulting in a "snowball" and tragedy.
                    The depth in this regard is the second cosmos! hi
                    1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 18: 06 New
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                      I simply meant the diving skills in underwater operations, because I was absolutely sure that on ships of at least the destroyer rank there are divers prepared for such works. Therefore, he was interested in such sailors on the submarine.


                      We had "contingent divers" in the crew. They additionally received special training in their program. Sets of light-diving equipment and equipment were available. In case of emergency (the cable was screwed onto a screw for example), there was an opportunity to lower a diver overboard.
  3. Mavrikiy 16 May 2020 05: 11 New
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    Now it’s very important to save the lives and health of crew members,
    Why now, always. request
    1. Sahalinets 16 May 2020 06: 34 New
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      Well, as it were now, conscripts do not serve anywhere in the subflight. And contractors must be attracted not only with money, but also with certain security guarantees. Kamikaze is now not in trend.
  4. demiurg 16 May 2020 07: 33 New
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    Ideally, in combat, the entire submarine should be controlled from the rescue capsule / capsules. Which should be fired at the machine when reaching the maximum depth.
    At a minimum, the capsules should be all over the pl, so that the torpedo does not need to run through 4-5 compartments to the rescue vehicle.
  5. Bastinda 16 May 2020 07: 51 New
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    In Russia, such a camera first tested in 2014 year: in addition to a team of 5 testers, a ballast was placed in the chamber, equal to the total weight of the crew of the submarine.

    However, as the tragedy on the K-278 Komsomolets nuclear submarine in 1989 showed, the VSK is not a panacea: the camera sank, which led to the deaths of many crew members.
    On August 12, 2000, the Kursk nuclear submarine sank. She also did not help having a pop-up rescue camera.

    Somewhere an error with dates.
    1. Ross xnumx 16 May 2020 09: 07 New
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      Quote: Bastinda
      Somewhere an error with dates.

      Which mistakes? In the USSR, tests were carried out, and after the collapse in the Russian Federation, the first tests of this level were passed in 2014 ...
  6. IL-64 16 May 2020 08: 40 New
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    The whole article about VSK? Which was "first tested in 2014", but which still did not help the Kursk crew in 1989? On submarines there are rescued rafts. OK. How will they help the crew that escaped to VSK? Where are they stored, how are they deployed? Article - pieces of information pulled from different places. Student essay level 1-2 courses.
    1. AK1972 16 May 2020 09: 35 New
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      Quote: IL-64
      Article - pieces of information pulled from different places. Student essay level 1-2 courses.

      Moreover, the student wished to remain anonymous.
    2. dgonni 16 May 2020 10: 52 New
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      If the student writes this, he will fly out of alma mater and go to check on himself the charms of the service, and possibly even in the subfloor.
  7. val43 16 May 2020 10: 30 New
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    Most modern submarines are designed so that if the main ballast tanks are filled with water, they retain buoyancy. If the submarine is not able to continue moving, it should still be able to ascend.
    Dear author, where did you read this heresy? Any, even ultramodern submarine, with the cylinder head full and loss of stroke, will inevitably lie on the ground. The only way to emerge is to urgently blow through the Central City Hospital, and even that is not 100%.
    1. dauria 16 May 2020 13: 17 New
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      Any, even ultramodern submarine, with the cylinder head full and loss of stroke, will inevitably lie on the ground. The only way to emerge is to urgently blow through the Central City Hospital


      It’s strange. In addition to ballasting in a lightweight body, there was a leveling in durable. This is in addition to service tanks (replacement torpedo and trim weights). Zero buoyancy and was supported precisely by egalitarian when filled ballast. Ballast Germans even refuel with diesel fuel "on the cork" and perfectly dived and surfaced at the same time.
      By the way, this internal tank was emptied by an electric pump. And if water got into the case during an accident, they carried water in buckets, poured into the tank and pushed it out with the pump without any compressed air. And surfaced. In reality, there were several such accidents. Yes, and in the film "Boat" (Das Boot) Buchheim, it is perfectly and reliably shown.
      1. Arthur 85 16 May 2020 18: 13 New
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        So, in a diesel fuel, the density is 800 ... And cho, did they fill the Central City Hospital after the diesel fuel with overboard water? Greta Tumberg didn’t gnaw them a solid body after? Well this is part of the diesel fuel in the sea will leave after this ... And part of the water - in the engine.
        1. dauria 16 May 2020 23: 00 New
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          So, in a diesel fuel, the density is 800 ... And cho, did they fill the Central City Hospital after the diesel fuel with overboard water?

          Exactly. And not AFTER, but as you spend. Diesel fuel on top of the tank, below is sea water. This made it possible to significantly increase the term "autonomy". By the way, the remnants of the water were driven out of the ballast tanks by the exhaust gases from the diesel engine. At the same time, the inside was protected from rust. A "slurping" with diesel seawater is not uncommon, like a "dying" of diesel air from the inside of the boat.
          Not always everything went smoothly when switching ascent-dive and ventilation of the internal compartments .. Or do you think that there was a fan? No, they “aired” the operation of the diesel engine, sucking in air not through the intake pipe, but through the wheelhouse. And the exhaust went just to the ballast tanks.
          1. Podvodnik 17 May 2020 20: 31 New
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            By the way, the remnants of the water were driven out of the ballast tanks by the exhaust gases from the diesel engine.


            This method of surfacing to the surface contributes to saving the supply of VVD (high pressure air) on diesel engines, but it definitely takes longer than the “usual” blowing of the central cylinder head (tanks of the main ballast).
          2. Podvodnik 17 May 2020 20: 52 New
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            as well as "dying" of diesel air from the internal compartments of the boat.


            At nuclear powered ships there is also diesel as an emergency power source. We had the so-called ASDG-800. Beast car. It feeds naturally from the compartment. There is no RPM device on the submarine. In the event of an accident, we emerge into the surface, open the cabin hatch and all the necessary bulkhead doors, start the diesel, take the load.
            The "neighbors" in the autonomous region needed something. Surfaced, started the diesel, but forgot to open the bulkhead door to the compartment and "put on the hook." Diesel with its "three-liter cans" quickly chose the air from the compartment and died out, creating a "high-mountain climate." Almost the entire personnel of the compartment lost consciousness (several tens of people). Midshipman-hold remained in service, but, as he said, almost turned gray when he saw so many "corpses" lying in the aisles. I was able to navigate, raised the sliding RCP (compressor operation under water) and equalized the pressure. The people "woke up" without consequences.
            After this incident, they with PDA (portable breathing apparatus), which is mandatory for constant wear by divers, even went to latrine. Upon returning from this "campaign" they were all with one PDA when building on the pier. What can I say, the ass (sorry, moderator, this is the word you need) comes unexpectedly. And when it comes, it is remembered for the rest of my life. Especially when your friend falls next to you, and you try to pull the first mask on his face to save him ....
            1. Arthur 85 17 May 2020 22: 28 New
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              Yes. There is something similar on the tank when it draws air through the hatch of the tower underwater driving. And you can even catch a cold to someone who sits under this hatch, as it blows very much. And in the boat, probably, he’s generally knocking down, there’s more diesel.
              But I do not like that the water with the remains of diesel fuel merges into the sea.
              1. Podvodnik 18 May 2020 14: 32 New
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                And in the boat, probably, he’s generally knocking down, there’s more diesel.


                Although we had a diesel emergency, but more tank. In a small room "fit". The database was launched for checks. The diameter of the hatchway is about 65 cm. The draft is decent in the pipe, but you can climb up the bridge. Doesn’t bring down. No one sucked back.
            2. val43 18 May 2020 10: 28 New
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              There is no RPM device on the submarine.
              Yes??? And on K-447 project 667B was ...
              1. Podvodnik 18 May 2020 15: 17 New
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                And on K-447 project 667B was ..


                Of course, the "pull-out" was. But the diesel engines on the Bukakha are intended for an emergency and are only launched in the surface position. The classic RDP (operation of a diesel engine under water) has not only air intake for diesel engines (duct), but also exhaust gas exhaust, i.e. a gas duct. On the nuclear submarine there is not an RDP (called by inertia), but the RCP-operation of the compressor under water. And it is used to replenish the stock of the VVD in the underwater position. But if you served in the second electrical division and you know something special, I will be happy to fill the gaps in my knowledge, I did not serve in the 667s. It is possible that the air did not enter the diesels through the hatchway (the diesels were “far”), but through this the “RDP” and the corresponding air duct, and the exhaust gases were discharged through the device in the fencing enclosure. You can reset the detailed information in PM to avoid flooding.
                1. val43 18 May 2020 15: 31 New
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                  Honestly, I really don’t really remember. But something was, yes, and specifically ... He served in the first division, but the turbine player, 8 compartment, and diesel in the 6th.
    2. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 34 New
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      Any, even ultramodern submarine, with the cylinder head full and loss of stroke, will inevitably lie on the ground.


      Not so. The boat in the underwater position should be "light". It comes with a small nose trim precisely in order to slowly emerge in the event of an emergency loss of stroke and energy. This is a standard requirement of guidance documents.
  8. val43 16 May 2020 10: 48 New
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    submarine survival camera
    I wonder how VSK will help a submarine survive?
    1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 03 New
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      I wonder how VSK will help a submarine survive?


      VSK will help the crew to evacuate with the sunken submarine. The boat itself will die.
      1. val43 18 May 2020 10: 19 New
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        VSK will help the crew to evacuate with the sunken submarine. The boat itself will die.
        Well, what am I talking about?
        1. Podvodnik 18 May 2020 15: 20 New
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          I realized that you mean the ship itself specifically.
          I wonder how VSK will help a submarine survive?
          1. val43 18 May 2020 15: 24 New
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            Of course not. I’m also a submariner, I served at 667B. This article says so, I quoted a quote.
  9. Leha667 16 May 2020 11: 15 New
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    The article is weak. Doesn’t reveal anything at all. Ways of exiting from a sunken submarine are not reflected. Not reflected training in training centers. The ship’s military exercises Zh-1,2,3 are not reflected.
    Write something normal article?)))
    1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 04 New
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      Write something normal article?)))


      I enjoy reading.
    2. Alceers 17 May 2020 09: 57 New
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      Yeah. Rewrite PSP, PVPL, ROZHPL, PBZH And other handdocks, and then sit down for disclosure ...
  10. KSVK 16 May 2020 12: 54 New
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    Quote: Leha667
    The article is weak.
    Write something normal article?)))

    I would listen. It’s really interesting to me personally. Only if there are REAL facts. And not a story about PDA, which are no longer used and replaced by IDA. And by the way, has the IDA-59 replacement been never found? Is it really impossible to think of equipping the crew with at least elementary decompressometers, and not counting time by inspiration and depth by moussing? Although I personally do not really imagine how you can solve some of the tasks to save the crew.
    1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 09 New
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      And not a story about PDA, which are no longer used and replaced by IDA


      These are completely different things. PDA-portable breathing apparatus. It can only be used to protect the organs of vision and breathing during PRIMARY MEASURES to combat survivability. We grab for ten minutes (approximately) intensive work (40 in a calm position) Every submariner must wear it constantly. IDA is much heavier (about 15 kg for understanding) and plus is also used when exiting due to a sunken submarine.
    2. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 18 New
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      And by the way, has the IDA-59 replacement been never found? Is it really impossible to think of equipping the crew with at least elementary decompressometers, and not counting time by inspiration and depth by moussing?


      IDASHA copes with the tasks. The decompression mode when exiting the submarine is calculated according to the table and is reported to each individually (or independently). Depends on the pressure in the compartment and the time spent under it. Everyone can distinguish a double musing from a triple one independently. It is not possible to automate all elements when exiting through a TA. This will increase the size of the equipment. And you have to squeeze through a long narrow pipe. You can get stuck. I personally saw those who physically could not get into the TA because of the size of the body (there was a strong guy). And this is still being a cadet.
  11. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 13: 48 New
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    Most modern submarines are designed so that if the main ballast tanks are filled with water, they retain buoyancy.


    The author was slightly mistaken. Boats (we are talking about ours) are designed based on the possibility of maintaining buoyancy during flooding of one compartment and adjacent central water storage tanks (tanks of the main ballast).
    If filling occurs
    main ballast water tanks
    then the boat will sink.
  12. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 21 New
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    However, as the tragedy on the K-278 Komsomolets nuclear submarine in 1989 showed, the VSK is not a panacea: the camera sank, which led to the deaths of many crew members.


    VSK must still be able to use. At Komsomolets, VSK sank due to gross violations of the operating instructions.
    Less need to be in the ABC book lectures.
    1. Aviator_ 16 May 2020 14: 59 New
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      At the Komsomolets VSK sank only because its hatch was simply shut when the boat was at great depths. This pressure drop opened the hatch by cutting off the latch.
      1. Glory1974 18 May 2020 12: 59 New
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        At the Komsomolets VSK sank only because its hatch was simply shut when the boat was at great depths. This pressure drop opened the hatch by cutting off the latch.

        On Komsomolets, several people, not the entire crew of the boat, got up in the VSK. Nevertheless, after the hatch opened, it began to fill with water and it drowned. It seems to me that this is some kind of structural flaw. The rescue chamber should not just drown. What if the whole crew was there? How many people could be taken from a sinking chamber?
        1. Aviator_ 18 May 2020 18: 11 New
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          The hatch tore off the latch with excess pressure, as part of the crew ran into the chamber during a fire at a depth, so the pressure in the chamber was equal to the outboard pressure. Those who did not have time to put on oxygen apparatuses were poisoned, since CO with toxic pressure is toxic even in small doses. The two survivors simply did not have time to equalize the pressure in the chamber with the atmospheric one, the lid was torn off by a difference (if it had been closed according to the rules, it would not have been torn off). These two were thrown into the sea, but one hit the hatch and died. As a result, one person was saved.
    2. Glory1974 18 May 2020 13: 00 New
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      At Komsomolets, VSK sank due to gross violations of the operating instructions.

      As far as I remember, the only thing that the sailors violated was that they did not equalize the pressure. But in that situation, they could not do this, which means a serious flaw in the design.
      1. Podvodnik 19 May 2020 15: 57 New
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        But in that situation, they could not do it.


        Could not, could not. Just one letter, but how does the meaning change.
        If you could not physically, this is one question. Burned, exhausted, were wounded. Anything can happen. And if you had no idea about the device VSK? Already a different picture. I once asked a cabin neighbor (hold group commander) to give me a lesson on this topic. Because I thought it was important. But it was personally my initiative. To my question, how many people from the crew will be able to take advantage, the answer was: "Three." Of the whole crew. If these three die / pass out, what will the rest do? Correctly. Read what is written inside the VSK as an instruction. This is if you see something and the forces remain. The same three plus two people knew the structure of the fodder ASL (emergency rescue hatch), keeping watch 6 at 6 there at sea. From "nothing to do," they memorized the device and all the instructions. The commander of the BS-5 (mechanic) personally took the test on the topic and with great pleasure set it to “excellent”.
        I was released in the year of the death of Komsomolets and was seconded for some time to its first crew (the second died, on my first autonomous car). It is inconvenient to recall, but their comments were ....
        VSK is equipped not only with a pressure comparison system. There is even a ventilation system with filters and manual transmission. There is a lower hatch (entrance from the nuclear submarine), a side hatch (access to the submarine’s bridge) and an upper hatch (we never used it), which was part of the “roof” of the cabin (just a “cabin” in general). They get to the bridge by climbing through the lower hatch of the VSK, along the ladder through the entire VSK and get out through the side onto the bridge. If you open the side hatch “as always” after shooting the VSK and ascent, and you don’t even equalize the pressure, the opener will fly out into the hatch like a cork from under champagne, the VSK will sag (sway) due to the “air shot” and grate the water. And then the path to the bottom lies.

        Regarding possible objections to air firing. You won’t believe it, it also has weight. Moreover, it is even taken into account by the mechanic in the trim book when calculating the load / trim of the submarine. And if you find out how much the supply of the VVD (high pressure air) that the atomic boat carries with you, you will be very (very much) surprised.
        1. Glory1974 20 May 2020 08: 40 New
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          Thanks for the detailed comment.
          Of course there are many nuances, I am not a sailor, it is difficult for me to judge in detail.
          I know that a lieutenant-graduate is allowed to serve, after passing all the tests for knowledge of the math. That is, in fact, all officers on the boat should know everything 100%. Not to mention the midshipmen, who can serve and engage in only one specialty (business) all their lives.
          If this is not the case, there are gaps in combat training, its organization and conduct.
          If the sailors know the technique, but cannot do everything correctly in an accident, then the question is for the designers. Why such a technique that cannot be saved?
          The same emergency buoys. Many were welded before going so as not to lose at sea.
          Why it was impossible to make it so that in case of an emergency ascent of the VSK, the closure of all hatches takes place automatically? Dying sailors hardly put on breathing masks, not to mention closing the hatch.
          If the side hatch tore off, this explains why the VSK sank. But again, this is an engineering miscalculation. everything should be done so as to level the human factor.
          But unfortunately, I think that everything has remained the same.
          1. Podvodnik 20 May 2020 10: 06 New
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            everything should be done so as to level the human factor


            Man cannot be abandoned with his weaknesses. A full machine can not be done. VSK is easy to use. You just need to know this.

            He went up to the officer from the 1st division about the accident and breakdown journal. Let, I say, read about Chernobyl. He- "I will tell you so." The reviews were unpleasant. There is only one conclusion: it is impossible to provide protection against all fools. There will be the 1001st, which will bypass all the defenses and arrange .... There is only education, training and professional selection. A person must physically and mentally understand what he is doing. Imagine how the wheels spin. Only then will there be any sense. If you "memorized" then the result is deplorable.
            1. Glory1974 20 May 2020 15: 05 New
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              A person must physically and mentally understand what he is doing. Imagine how the wheels spin. Only then will there be any sense.

              What are we talking about. There are flaws in the design decisions. But mostly gaps in the training of personnel. Therefore, we and boats drowned 2 times more than the NATO.
  13. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 24 New
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    On August 12, 2000, the Kursk nuclear submarine sank. She also did not help having a pop-up rescue camera.


    The compartment associated with the VSK died in its entirety during the explosion. Physical access to the remaining crew was not possible.
  14. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 31 New
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    Also on the submarines are special rafts, each designed for 20 crew members.


    Are located. Somehow they tried to pull such a one up in the exercises from the third compartment. That one is hemorrhoids.
    And on Komsomolets, these rafts were upstairs in pressure containers. It was necessary to "roll off" them to the side and open the rack to the bottom. Under its weight, the raft fell down, “pulled” the line itself and was filled. It only remained to go to him. BUT: in the event of an accident, the raft began to be pulled “over the top”, as well as when it was handed over for “verification” in the base.
  15. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 37 New
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    the human factor remains determining.


    I agree completely. In the "east", when the submarine was flooded, the commander of the compartment in the stern was able to organize the crew members' exit, he went out himself and did not flood the compartment. In the "nose" when exiting through TA, a senior officer died from heart problems.

    I myself, at times of emergency alarm, completely forgot my actions (emergency phone). Although in training I did everything normally. Psychology is very important here. Competent actions and clear commands of the Civil Defense Commission (or the commander of the compartment), and even the kick of the starpom in this situation are very important.
  16. Leha667 16 May 2020 16: 11 New
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    Comrade Underwater commented very competently.
    You can paint a lot and for a long time, this is really the topic of more than one article.
    It is enough to open the RBZH submarine and read how many things can happen)))
    I remember the case when a sailor was killed, because instead of air with a pressure of 3-4 kg / cm KV, the freshwater tank located under the commander’s cabin
    due to a malfunction of the pressure reducing valve, air pressure of 45 kg / cmXNUMX went. The tank was torn apart, the cabin was turned, as well as the entire middle deck of the second compartment. And the sailor just at that moment crawled out of the battery pit. Coincidence...
    1. Podvodnik 16 May 2020 16: 58 New
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      Quote: Leha667
      The tank was torn apart, the cabin was turned, as well as the entire middle deck of the second compartment


      Air pressure is a terrible force. If the tank was nominally holding 3-4 kg per cm.sq., it tore it up about 8-10. It's like a high-explosive shell explosion. Just luck that only one person died.
      At the shift, he always instructed sailors: if, when the bulkhead door is opened, an air whistle, remove the "body" to the side. Otherwise, the door, weighing several hundred kg, may break the bones. If ventilation is not properly assembled, this is possible. Well, if you specifically created pressure during the repair of overboard fittings in the base, death is certain, if you do not equalize the pressure and open the bulkhead. With an estimated area of ​​0,5 square meters and a pressure of 0,5 atm, 2,5 tons will press on the door. If you manage to turn the cremallier, then the opening will spread across the wall.
      1. agond 18 May 2020 17: 57 New
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        Che here is incomprehensible, the designer of the pop-up camera Komsomolets nakosyachili and she sank, like the boat itself, then the designer is guilty of deaths.
  17. water 18 May 2020 21: 19 New
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    The article lists emergency rescue equipment and submarine devices. But, to the question of the headline: how submarine crews are saved, there is no answer. For each disaster of a submarine is unique in its own way. The development of a disaster most often does not allow the crew to use regular emergency and rescue equipment. Recall: C-178 - the personnel was saved with the help of search and rescue support (Navy Navy); K-429 - the personnel was saved with the help of search and rescue support: "Komsomolets" - the PSO NF system began entering the "corkscrew", but because they could, they saved it: "Kursk" - the PSO NF system was reset, therefore saved; K-159 - they didn’t save in any way: AS-28 - they called foreigners and saved; AS-31 - returned to the carrier at the cost of heroism and self-sacrifice of a well-trained crew.
    This brief analysis shows that if there are submarines in the Navy, then a Submarine Rescue Vessel (SPL) should always be next to them. Otherwise, the submariners are doomed; in a difficult moment, there is simply no one to save them. This was understood in tsarist Russia — they built the first Volkhov SSLF, this was understood in the USSR — they built an entire SSLF fleet as part of projects 532; 527; 537; and 940. Moreover, the submariners themselves were the initiators of the construction: the commander of a submarine under the tsar, the commanders of submarine associations under the communists.
    1. agond 19 May 2020 19: 12 New
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      Quote: watermark
      This brief analysis shows that if there are submarines in the Navy, then a Submarine Rescue Vessel (SPL) should always be next to them. Otherwise, the submariners are doomed, in a difficult moment there is simply no one to save them.

      Yes, not to be doomed, not rescue vessels are needed, but pop-up cameras, events on submarines can develop so quickly that no rescue vessel can help. Ideally, each submarine compartment should have its own pop-up camera, and the number of compartments should be reduced.
      1. water 19 May 2020 22: 53 New
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        Theorizing can be a long time. However, today and tomorrow, submarines are being built as they are. And this is justified by the tasks of combat mission. And since the VSK is only one and is installed near the CPU, then from the feed compartments during flooding or a fire in the middle, it is not possible to get to it - this is the first. If we assume that today it’s not possible - that the entire crew is concentrated in the CPU and that when a catastrophe emerges safely in the emergence of the VSK, then the boat still needs to be lifted. After all, there are a lot of secrets in it that the adversary should not know. And he will recognize them if the boat is not raised. Finds out. And the state will be damaged by many trillions of rubles. So all the same, submarine rescue ships are needed. After all, they are not only for rescuing submariners, they are also intended for lifting the hull to the surface - this is the second. And the last - no matter how quickly catastrophic events on the submarine develop, someone in the shelter compartments will still remain. And this someone needs to be saved. Although, there is an opinion among the chiefs from submariners that the submariner goes to sea at war, and not in order to escape. Well, God be their judge.
        1. agond 20 May 2020 09: 30 New
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          Quote: watermark
          And since the VSK is only one and is installed next to the CPU, then from the feed compartments during flooding or a fire in the middle, you can’t get to it

          The fact of the matter is that you can’t get there, and then it’s an order of magnitude easier to evenly place between the hulls not large pop-up capsules for 10 people than to push one big one somewhere on the whole crew, but in general it would be logical to try to make the entire central post pop up.
          By lifting the sunken submarines, it’s necessary not only to lift them, but a surface ship can also sink, you need a universal lifting vessel, in the form of a catamaran of a transformer of a self-propelled floating dock, of two hinged joints (inverted letter G in cross section) that can be moved apart and moved after lifting the sunken object forming in cross section an inverted letter P.