Military Review

Submarine Survival Issues: How Submarine Crews Escape

70
Submarine Survival Issues: How Submarine Crews Escape

Submarine accidents are relatively rare, but often lead to situations that directly threaten the life of the entire crew. Therefore, the solution to the issue of survival in the modern submarine has always been very significant in the general context of improving the underwater fleet.


Most modern submarines are designed so that if the main ballast tanks are filled with water, they retain buoyancy. If the submarine is not able to continue moving, it should still be able to ascend. But if a large amount of water gets inside the submarine, then sooner or later it will be unrealistic to save it from sinking to the bottom, from the influence of enormous pressure.

Crew life becomes a core value


Experts name several of the most dangerous events during uncontrolled submarine diving: filling the submarine with water, pressure increase, temperature change, air toxicity, failure of the ship’s life support systems. These risks directly affect the permissible duration of the crew on board the submarine.

At dawn stories of the submarine fleet, the crews of the submarines were actually “suicide bombers”: a huge number of submariners were killed. So, during World War II, the only way to escape from a sinking submarine was a torpedo tube, but it was not so simple. More often, sailors simply died.

Now it is very important to preserve the lives and health of crew members, which is why so much attention is paid to issues of survival on the submarine. It is easier to prevent a critical situation than to try to fix it, therefore, weapons, stealth, electronic warfare systems, navigation are given special attention even when constructing submarines. Separately, the possibility of evacuation measures is provided.



Compartments for evacuation are placed in the bow or stern of the submarine, where the special equipment is located, which will be used in case of an emergency. These are signaling means, oxygen supply and absorption of carbon dioxide, individual emergency beacons, rescue diving suits, equipment for receiving emergency life support capsules, etc.

Pop-up rescue cameras


One of the most important means of increasing crew survival in critical situations is the submarine's survival camera. In Russia, such a camera was first tested in 2014: in addition to a team of 5 testers, a ballast equal to the total weight of the crew of the submarine was placed in the camera.

Pop-up rescue cameras today are equipped with all modern and under construction Russian submarines. This invention of Soviet designers is really priceless: VSK can save the life of all members of the crew of the submarine.



However, as the tragedy on the K-278 Komsomolets nuclear submarine in 1989 showed, the VSK is not a panacea: the camera sank, which led to the deaths of many crew members.

On August 12, 2000, the Kursk nuclear submarine sank. She also did not help having a pop-up rescue camera. However, when testing the new VSC on the Severodvinsk nuclear submarine, very good results were shown: ascent took only 10 seconds. Participants in the test compared their sensations during the ascent with a lift on a regular elevator.

In the modern submarine "Yuri Dolgoruky" VSK is located behind the missile compartment. Inside the chamber there are numbered places assigned to each crew member and individual stocks of drinking and food for a few days.

Food stocks and special rafts


In each compartment of a modern Russian submarine, there is also an emergency food supply per week. Each sailor also has a portable breathing apparatus for acting in the first minutes of a fire or the appearance of toxic substances in the air. The task in a critical situation is to connect to the backup breathing system of the submarine.

Also on the submarines are special rafts, each designed for 20 crew members. Each raft is equipped with the necessary devices for survival in the ocean: niches for collecting rainwater, fishing tackle.

Speaking about the survival rate in a modern submarine, it is impossible not to touch on the psychological aspects, since no modern equipment and means of evacuation can replace the coherence and endurance of the crew. Despite the gradual automation and introduction of robotics, the human factor remains determining.

Thus, NATO’s military psychologists, studying the experience of using submarine crews during operations in the Persian Gulf, realized the importance of special psychological hardening of crews before performing combat missions. At the same time, the psychological comfort of the crew largely depends on the living conditions that are created on the submarine.
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  1. Vadim Zhivov
    Vadim Zhivov 16 May 2020 00: 43 New
    +3
    Interestingly, will there be a sequel?
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 16 May 2020 05: 05 New
      0
      Quote: VadimLives
      Interestingly, will there be a sequel?

      Continuation of what?
      Emergency situations arising on a submarine can be of a different, and most importantly, unpredictable nature. To date, no “absolute” and effective way to save the crew of the underwater submarine has been developed. The main task is to fulfill the order at any cost.
      The tragedy is that rescue tools that have shown good (positive) results during trials do not work in real life. And the number of accidents in peacetime is quite large:
      According to some reports, from 1968 to the present, more than 70 accidents and incidents involving nuclear submarines or submarines carrying nuclear weapons have occurred in the Pacific Fleet. Among other things, nine fires, 20 collisions, seven technical accidents, four agrounds, three missile accidents and at least eight nuclear power plant accidents were recorded.
      As a result of incidents, at least 107 people were killed, at least 1,39 thousand people received significant doses of radiation.

      Therefore, it should be recognized that in a combat situation (during the war) the crew will be left to their own devices, and the happy outcome of the options for his salvation will be very rare.
      1. Bez 310
        Bez 310 16 May 2020 07: 42 New
        +4
        Quote: ROSS 42
        it should be recognized that in a combat situation (during the war) the crew will be left to their own devices, and the happy outcome of the options for his salvation will be very rare.

        It's hard not to agree.
        Search and rescue facilities in the fleet are bulky and slow, and I can not even imagine how they should be used in the face of enemy opposition. In general, everything is complicated ...
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 16 May 2020 05: 17 New
      +4
      Quote: VadimLives
      Interestingly, will there be a sequel?

      Oh how (-) for an innocent question. Are competing pilots gathered? repeat
      And the topic is interesting, technically difficult, albeit morally difficult.
      1. Podvodnik
        Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 51 New
        +7
        And the topic is interesting, technically difficult, albeit morally difficult.


        I climbed somehow through the TA first in the "wet workout". The chief officer and the commander are behind me. Well, I briskly climbed, I quickly crawled to the hatch, and there was not enough air to inhale (training IDAS-there is only air, there is no oxygen). Well, I think we should knock. I imagined how first the chief officer was pulled out of the TA by the legs, then the cap, then me. I breathe, there is a mixture, but there is no sense. Then I realized that I was "out of breath" and needed to reduce oxygen consumption and calm down. Something like, "Yayayayaya is totallyoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo. And it helped. Came out fine. But this was the peculiarity of the training set of IDAS. On the same day they pulled out one, was a witness. I asked him later. The error was like mine, crawling quickly, I was confident in myself, but suddenly there was "nothing to breathe". At UTK this happens all the time, everything is worked out for such cases. But at sea this could end tragically.
        1. sanek45744
          sanek45744 17 May 2020 23: 33 New
          0
          What a fantastic story. Less to you for not telling the truth as complete nonsense
        2. Fizik M
          Fizik M 26 May 2020 08: 54 New
          +1
          Quote: Podvodnik
          But this was a feature of the training equipment of IDAShek.

          if closer to the texture - on the UTK IDA is usually WITHOUT 3 DUZES, i.e. with normal supply of O2
          but to whom the STANDARDS (not converted) fell - they climbed out as if from the other world ...
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 05: 10 New
    +2
    An interesting article, but it does not pull on the analytical one.
    On the topic, my stepfather said that when practicing an emergency ascent, they were taught to say "drink lemonade" several times to maintain the decompression time at each stop.
    I think this is about how we were taught to cut off a short line on a Kalasha to say "thirty-three" and release the hook.
    1. SaLaR
      SaLaR 16 May 2020 12: 36 New
      +6
      Thirty-one Thirty-two Thirty-three .. RING .... For those who remember this ...)))
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 16 May 2020 14: 53 New
        +3
        Twenty One Twenty Two Twenty Three ...
    2. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 01 New
      +9
      when practicing emergency ascent, they were taught to say "drink lemonade" several times to maintain the decompression time at each stop.


      There is one. This is when exiting through the buoyrep when stopping at musings for decompression. You have to breathe all the time and not close your mouth. Otherwise, barotrauma of the lungs.

      We see off our neighbors on the pier. Orchestra, stuff like that. Our mechanic suddenly says: "In the event of an accident, no one will get out on the boorip." I-? He explained that the special bar with an eye (hook) was not thrown back next to the TA. The first outgoing end of the buoy's cable clings to it when entering the water. If you fix the cable "inside the bow end" of the submarine, then the waveguard, closing together with the front cover of the TA after the exit of the "troika" of submariners, will cut the cable. And the buffalo bye-bye. By the way, I did not know such subtleties.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 15: 07 New
        +2
        Quote: Podvodnik
        "In the event of an accident, no one will get out on the buoyp." I-?
        Is there no diver in the crew? Can I probably fix this defect in the sea?
        1. Podvodnik
          Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 31 New
          +3
          Is there no diver in the crew?


          All divers, without exception, undergo diving training. There are several "freelance divers" who undergo enhanced special training and are admitted to the AVM-5 and other equipment. There are several such kits on the submarine.

          But you cannot throw the bar into the sea. If only to emerge into the surface and send a man. Pay attention to the photo of the nasal extremities of the submarine (next to the visible covers (waveguards more precisely) TA), standing in the base. There is nothing to cling to a buoy-rope cable. If this is not done before going to sea, there will be problems in the event of an accident.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 15: 31 New
            +2
            Quote: Podvodnik
            If only to emerge into the surface and send a man.

            Now, I’m talking about this.
            1. Podvodnik
              Podvodnik 16 May 2020 16: 44 New
              +4
              In the open sea, people will not be sent to the nasal tip. Can wash off. It’s hard to hold on. If they didn’t do it in the base, they won’t even float into the sea because of this.
              1. Vladimir_2U
                Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 16: 57 New
                +1
                Then what's the point in diving training? I'm not talking about emergency escape skills, of course.
                1. Podvodnik
                  Podvodnik 16 May 2020 17: 53 New
                  +8
                  Then what's the point in diving training?


                  So that the divers have just the practical skills of leaving the submarine, they know about possible accompanying medical problems. I have trained with the crew on numerous occasions. Sorted out errors, methods of elimination, etc. Unfortunately, some preparation issues were overlooked. The issue of attaching the buoy cable is one of them. The fact that there is a special device on the hull next to the breakwater shield (which also needs to be "brought into combat"), I personally learned after several years of service and going to sea.
                  This nuance concerns the search and rescue service of the fleet when checking the crew before going to sea.
                  Take any incident from the life of the country and the world. A disaster is always the omission of some minor trifle. These little things drag others with them, resulting in snowball and tragedy.
                  1. Vladimir_2U
                    Vladimir_2U 16 May 2020 18: 01 New
                    0
                    Quote: Podvodnik
                    So that submariners had precisely the practical skills of leaving the submarine, they knew about possible concomitant medical problems
                    I mentioned it
                    Quote: Vladimir_2U
                    I'm not talking about emergency escape skills, of course.
                    I simply meant the diving skills in underwater operations, because I was absolutely sure that on ships of at least the destroyer rank there are divers prepared for such works. Therefore, he was interested in such sailors on the submarine.
                    Quote: Podvodnik
                    A disaster is always the omission of some minor trifle. These little things drag others with them, resulting in snowball and tragedy.
                    The depth in this regard is the second cosmos! hi
                    1. Podvodnik
                      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 18: 06 New
                      +4
                      I simply meant the diving skills in underwater operations, because I was absolutely sure that on ships of at least the destroyer rank there are divers prepared for such works. Therefore, he was interested in such sailors on the submarine.


                      We had “freelance divers” in our crew. They additionally underwent special training according to their program. Kits of light diving equipment and equipment were available. In case of emergency (for example, the cable was wound on the propeller), it was possible to lower the diver overboard.
  3. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 16 May 2020 05: 11 New
    +1
    Now it’s very important to save the lives and health of crew members,
    Why now, always. request
    1. Sahalinets
      Sahalinets 16 May 2020 06: 34 New
      +3
      Well, as it were now, conscripts do not serve anywhere in the subflight. And contractors must be attracted not only with money, but also with certain security guarantees. Kamikaze is now not in trend.
  4. demiurg
    demiurg 16 May 2020 07: 33 New
    +3
    Ideally, in combat, the entire submarine should be controlled from the rescue capsule / capsules. Which should be fired at the machine when reaching the maximum depth.
    At a minimum, the capsules should be all over the pl, so that the torpedo does not need to run through 4-5 compartments to the rescue vehicle.
  5. Bastinda
    Bastinda 16 May 2020 07: 51 New
    +4
    In Russia, such a camera first tested in 2014 year: in addition to a team of 5 testers, a ballast was placed in the chamber, equal to the total weight of the crew of the submarine.

    However, as the tragedy on the K-278 Komsomolets nuclear submarine in 1989 showed, the VSK is not a panacea: the camera sank, which led to the deaths of many crew members.
    On August 12, 2000, the Kursk nuclear submarine sank. She also did not help having a pop-up rescue camera.

    Somewhere an error with dates.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 16 May 2020 09: 07 New
      +1
      Quote: Bastinda
      Somewhere an error with dates.

      Which mistakes? In the USSR, tests were carried out, and after the collapse in the Russian Federation, the first tests of this level were passed in 2014 ...
  6. IL-64
    IL-64 16 May 2020 08: 40 New
    14
    The whole article about VSK? Which "was tested for the first time in 2014", but which back in 1989 did not help the crew of the Kursk? There are rescued rafts on the submarines. OK. How will they help the crew that escaped to VSK? Where are they stored, how are they deployed? An article - pieces of information pulled from different places. The level of the student's essay is 1-2 courses.
    1. AK1972
      AK1972 16 May 2020 09: 35 New
      +9
      Quote: IL-64
      Article - pieces of information pulled from different places. Student essay level 1-2 courses.

      Moreover, the student wished to remain anonymous.
    2. dgonni
      dgonni 16 May 2020 10: 52 New
      +5
      If the student writes this, he will fly out of alma mater and go to check on himself the charms of the service, and possibly even in the subfloor.
  7. val43
    val43 16 May 2020 10: 30 New
    10
    Most modern submarines are designed so that if the main ballast tanks are filled with water, they retain buoyancy. If the submarine is not able to continue moving, it should still be able to ascend.
    Dear author, where did you read this heresy? Any, even ultramodern submarine, with the cylinder head full and loss of stroke, will inevitably lie on the ground. The only way to emerge is to urgently blow through the Central City Hospital, and even that is not 100%.
    1. dauria
      dauria 16 May 2020 13: 17 New
      +4
      Any, even ultramodern submarine, with the cylinder head full and loss of stroke, will inevitably lie on the ground. The only way to emerge is to urgently blow through the Central City Hospital


      It's strange. In addition to ballast in a lightweight case, there was an equalizing in a durable one. This is in addition to service tanks (replacement weight of torpedoes and trimming). Zero buoyancy was maintained precisely by equalizing with filled ballast ones. Ballast Germans even refueled diesel fuel "on the cork" and perfectly dived and surfaced at the same time.
      By the way, this inner tank was emptied with an electric pump. And if water got inside the case during an accident, they carried water in buckets, poured it into a tank and pushed it out with a pump without any compressed air. And they surfaced. There were several such accidents in reality. And in Buchheim's film "The Boat" (Das Boot) this is perfectly and reliably shown.
      1. Arthur 85
        Arthur 85 16 May 2020 18: 13 New
        0
        So, in a diesel fuel, the density is 800 ... And cho, did they fill the Central City Hospital after the diesel fuel with overboard water? Greta Tumberg didn’t gnaw them a solid body after? Well this is part of the diesel fuel in the sea will leave after this ... And part of the water - in the engine.
        1. dauria
          dauria 16 May 2020 23: 00 New
          +3
          So, in a diesel fuel, the density is 800 ... And cho, did they fill the Central City Hospital after the diesel fuel with overboard water?

          Exactly. And not AFTER, but as it is spent. Diesel fuel on top of the tank, below is sea water. This made it possible to significantly increase the "autonomy" period. By the way, the remaining water was discharged from the ballast tanks with exhaust gases from the diesel engine. At the same time, the inside was protected from rusting. A diesel engine "sips" sea water is not uncommon, as well as the diesel engine "sips" air from the inner compartments of the boat.
          Everything did not always go smoothly during the ascent-submersion switching and ventilation of the inner compartments .. Or do you think that there was a fan there? No, they "ventilated" the diesel engine, sucking in air not through the intake pipe, but through the wheelhouse. And the exhaust went just into the ballast tanks.
          1. Podvodnik
            Podvodnik 17 May 2020 20: 31 New
            +1
            By the way, the remnants of the water were driven out of the ballast tanks by the exhaust gases from the diesel engine.


            This method of surfacing helps to save HPP (high pressure air) reserves on diesel engines, but it definitely takes more time than the "usual" blowing of the CGB (main ballast tanks).
          2. Podvodnik
            Podvodnik 17 May 2020 20: 52 New
            +6
            as well as the diesel engine's "suction" of air from the internal compartments of the boat.


            At nuclear powered ships there is also diesel as an emergency power source. We had the so-called ASDG-800. Beast car. It feeds naturally from the compartment. There is no RPM device on the submarine. In the event of an accident, we emerge into the surface, open the cabin hatch and all the necessary bulkhead doors, start the diesel, take the load.
            "Neighbors" in the autonomous system needed somehow. We surfaced, started up the diesel, but forgot to open the bulkhead door to the compartment and "put it on the hook". Diesel with its "three-liter cans" quickly took the air out of the compartment and stalled, creating a "high-altitude climate". Almost the entire personnel of the compartment lost consciousness (several dozen people). The bilge midshipman remained in the ranks, but, as he said, he almost turned gray when he saw so many "corpses" lying in the aisles. I was able to orient myself, raised the retractable RCP (compressor operation under water) and equalized the pressure. The people "woke up" without consequences.
            After this incident, they with a PDA (portable breathing apparatus), which is required to be constantly worn by submariners, even went to the latrine. Upon their return from this "campaign", they were all with the PDA while building on the pier. What can I say, the ass (sorry, moderator, this is the word you need) comes unexpectedly. And when it comes, it will be remembered for the rest of your life. Especially when your friend falls next to you, and you try to pull the mask over his face first to save him ...
            1. Arthur 85
              Arthur 85 17 May 2020 22: 28 New
              +2
              Yes. There is something similar on the tank when it draws air through the hatch of the tower underwater driving. And you can even catch a cold to someone who sits under this hatch, as it blows very much. And in the boat, probably, he’s generally knocking down, there’s more diesel.
              But I do not like that the water with the remains of diesel fuel merges into the sea.
              1. Podvodnik
                Podvodnik 18 May 2020 14: 32 New
                +1
                And in the boat, probably, he’s generally knocking down, there’s more diesel.


                Although we had an emergency diesel engine, it was bigger than a tank one. It will "fit" into a small room. The database was launched for checks. The diameter of the conning tower is about 65 cm. The draft in the chimney is decent, but you can climb up to the bridge. Doesn't knock off his feet. Nobody was sucked back.
            2. val43
              val43 18 May 2020 10: 28 New
              +1
              There is no RPM device on the submarine.
              Yes??? And on K-447 project 667B was ...
              1. Podvodnik
                Podvodnik 18 May 2020 15: 17 New
                +1
                And on K-447 project 667B was ..


                Of course, there was a "pull-out". But the diesel engines on the "Bukah" are intended for an emergency and are launched only on the surface. The classic RDP (diesel engine operation under water) has not only an air intake for diesel engines (air duct), but also an exhaust gas outlet, i.e. a gas duct. On the nuclear submarine there is not a RDP (called by inertia), but RCP-operation of the compressor under water. And it is used to replenish the VVD stock in a submerged position. But if you served in the second electrical division and know something special, I will gladly fill in the gaps in my knowledge, I did not serve in the 667s. It is possible that the air was supplied to the diesels not through the conning tower (the diesels were "far away") but through this "RDP" and the corresponding air duct, and the exhaust gases were thrown out through the device in the conning tower. You can dump detailed information in a personal message to avoid flooding.
                1. val43
                  val43 18 May 2020 15: 31 New
                  +2
                  Honestly, I really don’t really remember. But something was, yes, and specifically ... He served in the first division, but the turbine player, 8 compartment, and diesel in the 6th.
    2. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 34 New
      +6
      Any, even ultramodern submarine, with the cylinder head full and loss of stroke, will inevitably lie on the ground.


      Almost not. The submerged boat must be "light". It comes with a small nose trim just in order to float slowly in the event of an emergency loss of progress and energy. This is a standard requirement in guidance documents.
  8. val43
    val43 16 May 2020 10: 48 New
    -1
    submarine survival camera
    I wonder how VSK will help a submarine survive?
    1. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 03 New
      +4
      I wonder how VSK will help a submarine survive?


      VSK will help the crew to evacuate with the sunken submarine. The boat itself will die.
      1. val43
        val43 18 May 2020 10: 19 New
        +1
        VSK will help the crew to evacuate with the sunken submarine. The boat itself will die.
        Well, what am I talking about?
        1. Podvodnik
          Podvodnik 18 May 2020 15: 20 New
          +1
          I realized that you mean the ship itself specifically.
          I wonder how VSK will help a submarine survive?
          1. val43
            val43 18 May 2020 15: 24 New
            +2
            Of course not. I’m also a submariner, I served at 667B. This article says so, I quoted a quote.
  9. Leha667
    Leha667 16 May 2020 11: 15 New
    +9
    The article is weak. Doesn’t reveal anything at all. Ways of exiting from a sunken submarine are not reflected. Not reflected training in training centers. The ship’s military exercises Zh-1,2,3 are not reflected.
    Write something normal article?)))
    1. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 04 New
      +5
      Write something normal article?)))


      I enjoy reading.
    2. Alceers
      Alceers 17 May 2020 09: 57 New
      +3
      Yeah. Rewrite PSP, PVPL, ROZHPL, PBZH And other handdocks, and then sit down for disclosure ...
  10. KSVK
    KSVK 16 May 2020 12: 54 New
    0
    Quote: Leha667
    The article is weak.
    Write something normal article?)))

    I would listen. It’s really interesting to me personally. Only if there are REAL facts. And not a story about PDA, which are no longer used and replaced by IDA. And by the way, has the IDA-59 replacement been never found? Is it really impossible to think of equipping the crew with at least elementary decompressometers, and not counting time by inspiration and depth by moussing? Although I personally do not really imagine how you can solve some of the tasks to save the crew.
    1. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 09 New
      +7
      And not a story about PDA, which are no longer used and replaced by IDA


      These are completely different things. PDA-portable breathing apparatus. It can only be used to protect the organs of vision and breathing during PRIMARY MEASURES to combat survivability. We grab for ten minutes (approximately) intensive work (40 in a calm position) Every submariner must wear it constantly. IDA is much heavier (about 15 kg for understanding) and plus is also used when exiting due to a sunken submarine.
    2. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 15: 18 New
      +4
      And by the way, has the IDA-59 replacement been never found? Is it really impossible to think of equipping the crew with at least elementary decompressometers, and not counting time by inspiration and depth by moussing?


      IDASHA copes with the tasks. The decompression mode when exiting the submarine is calculated according to the table and is reported to each individually (or independently). Depends on the pressure in the compartment and the time spent under it. Everyone can distinguish a double musing from a triple one independently. It is not possible to automate all elements when exiting through a TA. This will increase the size of the equipment. And you have to squeeze through a long narrow pipe. You can get stuck. I personally saw those who physically could not get into the TA because of the size of the body (there was a strong guy). And this is still being a cadet.
  11. Podvodnik
    Podvodnik 16 May 2020 13: 48 New
    +2
    Most modern submarines are designed so that if the main ballast tanks are filled with water, they retain buoyancy.


    The author was slightly mistaken. Boats (we are talking about ours) are designed based on the possibility of maintaining buoyancy during flooding of one compartment and adjacent central water storage tanks (tanks of the main ballast).
    If filling occurs
    main ballast water tanks
    then the boat will sink.
  12. Podvodnik
    Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 21 New
    +6
    However, as the tragedy on the K-278 Komsomolets nuclear submarine in 1989 showed, the VSK is not a panacea: the camera sank, which led to the deaths of many crew members.


    VSK must also be able to use. VSK sank at Komsomolets due to gross violations of the operating instructions.
    Less need to "smoke ABC lectures".
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 16 May 2020 14: 59 New
      +2
      On "Komsomolets" VSK sank only because its hatch was simply slammed when the boat was at great depth. It was this pressure drop that opened the hatch, cutting off the latch.
      1. Glory1974
        Glory1974 18 May 2020 12: 59 New
        +1
        On "Komsomolets" VSK sank only because its hatch was simply slammed when the boat was at great depth. It was this pressure drop that opened the hatch, cutting off the latch.

        Several people, and not the entire crew of the boat, went to the Komsomolets on board. Nevertheless, after opening the hatch it began to fill with water and it drowned. It seems to me that this is some kind of design flaw. The rescue chamber shouldn't just drown. What if the whole crew were there? How many people would be able to take from a sinking chamber?
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 18 May 2020 18: 11 New
          +2
          The hatch tore off the latch with excess pressure, as part of the crew ran into the chamber during a fire at a depth, so the pressure in the chamber was equal to the outboard pressure. Those who did not have time to put on oxygen apparatuses were poisoned, since CO with toxic pressure is toxic even in small doses. The two survivors simply did not have time to equalize the pressure in the chamber with the atmospheric one, the lid was torn off by a difference (if it had been closed according to the rules, it would not have been torn off). These two were thrown into the sea, but one hit the hatch and died. As a result, one person was saved.
    2. Glory1974
      Glory1974 18 May 2020 13: 00 New
      0
      VSK sank at Komsomolets due to gross violations of the operating instructions.

      As far as I remember, the only thing that the sailors violated was that they did not equalize the pressure. But in that situation, they could not do this, which means a serious flaw in the design.
      1. Podvodnik
        Podvodnik 19 May 2020 15: 57 New
        +2
        But in that situation, they could not do it.


        Could not, could not. Just one letter, but how does the meaning change.
        If you could not physically, this is one question. They were burned out, exhausted, and wounded. Anything can happen. And if you had no idea about the VSK device? Already a different picture. I once asked my cabinmate (the commander of the bilge group) to teach me a lesson on this topic. Because he considered it important. But this was my personal initiative. When I asked how many people from the crew would be able to use, the answer was: "Three". Of the entire crew. If these three die / lose consciousness, what will the rest do? Right. Read what is written inside the VSK as an instruction. This is if you see something and the strength will remain. The device of the stern ASL (escape hatch) was known by the same three plus two people who were on watch there at sea 6 through 6. From "nothing to do" they memorized the device and all the instructions. The commander of the BCH-5 (mechanic) personally accepted the test from them on the topic and gave it "excellent" with great pleasure.
        I graduated in the year the Komsomolets was destroyed and for some time was assigned to its first crew (the second died in its first autonomous vehicle). It is inconvenient to remember, but their comments were ....
        VSK is equipped not only with a pressure comparison system. There is even a manual ventilation system with filters. There is a lower hatch (entrance from the nuclear submarine), a side hatch (exit to the bridge of the nuclear submarine) and an upper hatch (we never used it), which was part of the "roof" of the wheelhouse enclosure (just a "wheelhouse" in general). They get onto the bridge by climbing through the lower hatch of the VSK, along the ladder through the entire VSK and get out through the side to the bridge. If, after shooting the VSK and ascending, the side hatch is opened "as always" and the pressure is not equalized, the opening one will fly out into the hatch like a cork from under champagne, the VSK will sink (sway) due to the "air shot" and water will spill out. And then the way to the bottom lies.

        Regarding possible objections to air firing. You won’t believe it, it also has weight. Moreover, it is even taken into account by the mechanic in the trim book when calculating the load / trim of the submarine. And if you find out how much the supply of the VVD (high pressure air) that the atomic boat carries with you, you will be very (very much) surprised.
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 20 May 2020 08: 40 New
          +1
          Thanks for the detailed comment.
          Of course there are many nuances, I am not a sailor, it is difficult for me to judge in detail.
          I know that a lieutenant-graduate is allowed to serve, after passing all the tests for knowledge of the math. That is, in fact, all officers on the boat should know everything 100%. Not to mention the midshipmen, who can serve and engage in only one specialty (business) all their lives.
          If this is not the case, there are gaps in combat training, its organization and conduct.
          If the sailors know the technique, but cannot do everything correctly in an accident, then the question is for the designers. Why such a technique that cannot be saved?
          The same emergency buoys. Many were welded before going so as not to lose at sea.
          Why it was impossible to make it so that in case of an emergency ascent of the VSK, the closure of all hatches takes place automatically? Dying sailors hardly put on breathing masks, not to mention closing the hatch.
          If the side hatch tore off, this explains why the VSK sank. But again, this is an engineering miscalculation. everything should be done so as to level the human factor.
          But unfortunately, I think that everything has remained the same.
          1. Podvodnik
            Podvodnik 20 May 2020 10: 06 New
            +1
            everything should be done so as to level the human factor


            Man cannot be abandoned with his weaknesses. A full machine can not be done. VSK is easy to use. You just need to know this.

            I went up to an officer from the 1st division about the log of accidents and breakdowns. Let me read about Chernobyl, I say. He- "I'll tell you anyway." The reviews were hard-hitting. There is only one conclusion: it is impossible to provide protection against all fools. There will be 1001st, which will bypass all the defenses and arrange .... There is only education, training and professional selection. A person must physically and mentally understand what he is doing. Imagine how the wheels are spinning. Only then will it make sense. If you "memorized" then the result is deplorable.
            1. Glory1974
              Glory1974 20 May 2020 15: 05 New
              +1
              A person must physically and mentally understand what he is doing. Imagine how the wheels are spinning. Only then will it make sense.

              What are we talking about. There are flaws in the design decisions. But mostly gaps in the training of personnel. Therefore, we and boats drowned 2 times more than the NATO.
  13. Podvodnik
    Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 24 New
    +3
    On August 12, 2000, the Kursk nuclear submarine sank. She also did not help having a pop-up rescue camera.


    The compartment associated with the VSK died in its entirety during the explosion. Physical access to the remaining crew was not possible.
  14. Podvodnik
    Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 31 New
    +2
    Also on the submarines are special rafts, each designed for 20 crew members.


    Are located. Somehow they tried to pull such a one up in the exercises from the third compartment. That one is hemorrhoids.
    And on "Komsomolets" these rafts were upstairs in pressurized containers. It was necessary to "roll" them aside and open the rack from below. Under its weight, the raft fell down, itself "pulled" the line and filled. It only remained to switch to it. BUT: in case of an accident, the raft was pulled out "over the top", as well as when it was handed over for "check" in the base.
  15. Podvodnik
    Podvodnik 16 May 2020 14: 37 New
    +6
    the human factor remains determining.


    I agree completely. In the "east", when the submarine was flooded, the commander of the compartment in the stern was able to organize the exit of the crew members, went out himself and did not flood the compartment. A senior officer died in the "nose" while exiting through the TA from heart problems.

    I myself, at times of emergency alarm, completely forgot my actions (emergency phone). Although in training I did everything normally. Psychology is very important here. Competent actions and clear commands of the Civil Defense Commission (or the commander of the compartment), and even the kick of the starpom in this situation are very important.
  16. Leha667
    Leha667 16 May 2020 16: 11 New
    +3
    Comrade Underwater commented very competently.
    You can paint a lot and for a long time, this is really the topic of more than one article.
    It is enough to open the RBZH submarine and read how many things can happen)))
    I remember the case when a sailor was killed, because instead of air with a pressure of 3-4 kg / cm KV, the freshwater tank located under the commander’s cabin
    due to a malfunction of the pressure reducing valve, air pressure of 45 kg / cmXNUMX went. The tank was torn apart, the cabin was turned, as well as the entire middle deck of the second compartment. And the sailor just at that moment crawled out of the battery pit. Coincidence...
    1. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 16 May 2020 16: 58 New
      +8
      Quote: Leha667
      The tank was torn apart, the cabin was turned, as well as the entire middle deck of the second compartment


      Air pressure is a terrible force. If the tank was nominally holding 3-4 kg per cm.sq., it tore it up about 8-10. It's like a high-explosive shell explosion. Just luck that only one person died.
      On watch, he always instructed the sailors: if air whistles when opening the bulkhead door, remove the "body" to the side. Otherwise, a door weighing several hundred kg can break bones. If the ventilation is not properly assembled, this is possible. Well, if the pressure was specially created during the repair of the outboard fittings in the base, it was definitely death, if you did not equalize the pressure and open the bulkhead. With an estimated area of ​​0,5 square meters and a pressure of 0,5 atm, 2,5 tons will press on the door. If it turns out to turn the rack, then the opener will smear on the wall.
      1. agond
        agond 18 May 2020 17: 57 New
        0
        Che here is incomprehensible, the designer of the pop-up camera Komsomolets nakosyachili and she sank, like the boat itself, then the designer is guilty of deaths.
  17. water
    water 18 May 2020 21: 19 New
    0
    The article lists the rescue equipment and submarine devices. But there is no answer to the question of the title: how are submarine crews saved. For each submarine disaster is unique in its own way. The development of the disaster often does not allow the crew to use the standard emergency rescue equipment. Recall: S-178 - personnel rescued by the search and rescue forces (PSO of the Navy); K-429 - the personnel were rescued with the help of search and rescue forces: "Komsomolets" - the PSO system of the Northern Fleet began to enter a "tailspin", and therefore, as they could, they saved: "Kursk" - the PSO system of the Northern Fleet was reset to zero, therefore it did not saved; K-159 - they were not saved in any way: AS-28 - they called foreigners and saved them; AS-31 - returned to the carrier at the cost of heroism and self-sacrifice of a well-trained crew.
    This brief analysis shows that if there are submarines in the Navy, then there should always be a Submarine Rescue Vessel (SSR) next to them. Otherwise, the divers are doomed, in difficult times there is simply no one to save them. This was understood in tsarist Russia - they built the first SSPL "Volkhov", they understood this in the USSR - they built an entire SSPL fleet as part of projects 532; 527; 537; and 940. Moreover, the initiators of the construction were the submariners themselves: the commander of the submarine under the king, the commanders of submarine formations under the communists.
    1. agond
      agond 19 May 2020 19: 12 New
      0
      Quote: watermark
      This brief analysis shows that if there are submarines in the Navy, then a Submarine Rescue Vessel (SPL) should always be next to them. Otherwise, the submariners are doomed, in a difficult moment there is simply no one to save them.

      Yes, not to be doomed, not rescue vessels are needed, but pop-up cameras, events on submarines can develop so quickly that no rescue vessel can help. Ideally, each submarine compartment should have its own pop-up camera, and the number of compartments should be reduced.
      1. water
        water 19 May 2020 22: 53 New
        0
        Theorizing can be a long time. However, today and tomorrow, submarines are being built as they are. And this is justified by the tasks of combat mission. And since the VSK is only one and is installed near the CPU, then from the feed compartments during flooding or a fire in the middle, it is not possible to get to it - this is the first. If we assume that today it’s not possible - that the entire crew is concentrated in the CPU and that when a catastrophe emerges safely in the emergence of the VSK, then the boat still needs to be lifted. After all, there are a lot of secrets in it that the adversary should not know. And he will recognize them if the boat is not raised. Finds out. And the state will be damaged by many trillions of rubles. So all the same, submarine rescue ships are needed. After all, they are not only for rescuing submariners, they are also intended for lifting the hull to the surface - this is the second. And the last - no matter how quickly catastrophic events on the submarine develop, someone in the shelter compartments will still remain. And this someone needs to be saved. Although, there is an opinion among the chiefs from submariners that the submariner goes to sea at war, and not in order to escape. Well, God be their judge.
        1. agond
          agond 20 May 2020 09: 30 New
          0
          Quote: watermark
          And since the VSK is only one and is installed next to the CPU, then from the feed compartments during flooding or a fire in the middle, you can’t get to it

          The fact of the matter is that you can’t get there, and then it’s an order of magnitude easier to evenly place between the hulls not large pop-up capsules for 10 people than to push one big one somewhere on the whole crew, but in general it would be logical to try to make the entire central post pop up.
          By lifting the sunken submarines, it’s necessary not only to lift them, but a surface ship can also sink, you need a universal lifting vessel, in the form of a catamaran of a transformer of a self-propelled floating dock, of two hinged joints (inverted letter G in cross section) that can be moved apart and moved after lifting the sunken object forming in cross section an inverted letter P.