Forgotten governor-general. Count Mikhail Andreevich Miloradovich
Hero of the Patriotic War 1812 of the Year, 23 of the Governor General of St. Petersburg,
Chevalier of the Order of Andrew the First-Called, statesman,
Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Count Mikhail Andreevich Miloradovich (1771-1825)
(prepared based on the story by Y. Sh. Shatrakov, “The Forgotten Governor-General”, published in the journal Yunost, No. 11, 2010)
To be always with your excellency,
need to have a spare life "
From the letter of A.P. Ermolov MA Miloradovich.
Russian-Austro-French War, 1805 year
Count Mikhail Andreevich Miloradovich (1771-1825):
- city center lighting has been introduced
- The Institute of Communications, the Pedagogical Institute, the Artillery and the Engineering Schools,
- built Mikhailovsky Palace,
- a circus building was built,
- the suburbs of St. Petersburg were intensively settled down, the construction industry was created and the first steamboats for the Neva and Gulf of Finland were being prepared,
- a reform of the activities of the theaters was carried out, a new system of keeping prisoners in prisons was introduced, ensuring their normal maintenance, the first stage of implementing prohibition was carried out, and a program was prepared to abolish serfdom in Russia.
- Showed personal heroism in the aftermath of the devastating floods of 1824.
- Member of the State Council.
- Honorary Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1823 year).
- Commander of the Order of St. Andrew the First Called.
The Serbian genus of Miloradovich, descended from Herzegovina, moved to Russia at the same time as the associate of Peter the Great, Count Sawa Lukic Vladislavich-Raguzinsky.
Russian military general Mikhail Andreevich Miloradovich was born on 1 in October 1771. Received an excellent education. From the age of seven he was abroad, in Germany and in France. Four years he studied at the University of Königsberg directly under I. Kant, two years at Göttingen, then went to Strasbourg and Metz to improve military knowledge.
He participated in the Russian-Swedish war 1788-1790. Since July 1798 - Major General and Chief of the Absheron Musketeer Regiment. In the fall of 1798, with his regiment, he entered the borders of Austria, which was an ally of Russia, in the spring of the next year he was already in Italy. Participated in the Italian and Swiss campaigns; he always went on the attack in front of his regiment, and more than once his example turned out to be decisive for the outcome of the battle. He was a favorite student of Suvorov, who appointed Miloradovich as a general on duty and did not miss the opportunity to give him the opportunity to differ on the battlefield.
In 1805, as part of the forces of the anti-Napoleonic coalition, he led one of the detachments aimed at helping the Austrians. At the critical moment, Miloradovich himself led the soldiers into a bayonet attack. Visible from afar, the smart-waving general skillfully inspired the troops, regained his composure. The main quality, earned respect among his soldiers and the enemy, was courage and courage.
Miloradovich was a born warrior: in the moments of greatest danger he was especially animated and cheerful. He had a rare gift to speak with the soldiers and, without sparing himself, he shared with them all the adversities of wartime. The soldiers loved him for his unlimited courage and good attitude towards his subordinates. The personal motto of General MA Miloradovich sounded like this: "I am where it is difficult."
For his qualities he received the rank of lieutenant general and other awards. He took part in the battle of Austerlitz.
In the Russian-Turkish war 1806-1812 - the corps commander who 13 December 1806 liberated Bucharest from the Turks, in 1807 defeated the Turks at Turbat and Obilesti, September 29 for the victory at Rasevat was promoted to generals from infantry .
In April, 1810 was appointed Kiev military governor. The short-term stay of Miloradovich at the post of the Kiev military governor was marked by the most comfortable conditions of service of his subordinates created by him, as well as by the atmosphere of unusual tolerance and benevolence.
In July, 1812, Miloradovich led the mobilization of the regiments of the Left Bank, Sloboda Ukraine and southern Russia.
From 14 August 1812 M.A. Miloradovich in the campaign against Napoleon Bonaparte forms detachments for the active army between Kaluga, Volokolamsk and Moscow.
In the battle of Borodino, commanded the right wing of the First Army. Then he led the rearguard, who kept the French troops.
Thanks to conviction and diplomatic methods, Miloradovich inclined Murat to conclude an armistice for a day. This ingenious maneuver of the commander of the rear-guard of the Russian army allowed Kutuzov’s army to break away from the pursuing military units of Napoleon after the Battle of Borodino on 30 versts and take the 70-thousandth Russian army to the newly prepared positions. It was classified by his contemporaries as the "Savior of Russia."
October 22. The battle took place under the Vyazma avant-garde of the Russian army under the command of General Miloradovich and Don Ataman M.I. Platov (1812 thousand people) with 25 French corps (total 4 thousand people), ended in a brilliant victory of the Russian troops.
The greatest fame and glory of Miloradovich acquired as one of the most experienced and skilled avant-garde commanders of the Russian army, who successfully pursued the French to the borders of the Russian Empire, and then in the foreign campaign.
For the difference in the battle of Kulme, Miloradovich was awarded the gold sword For Bravery. For successful actions of his corps at the beginning of 1813, Miloradovich was the first to receive the right to wear the monogram of Emperor Alexander I on epaulets, and for the skillful leadership of troops in the 1 foreign campaign in May 1813, he was the title of count of the Russian Empire.
In the Battle of the Nations (at Leipzig), Miloradovich and the guards entrusted to him proved themselves better than all the allied units. For this, Alexander I granted the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called to Miloradovich, as well as the honorable right to wear the soldier's Cross of St. George. In the retinue of Emperor Miloradovich, the victor enters Paris.
19 August 1818 was appointed military governor-general of St. Petersburg and a member of the State Council. On his own initiative, he was preparing a draft abolition of serfdom. Under his leadership in St. Petersburg, a reform of the theaters was carried out, a circus building was built, lighting of the city center was introduced, the Pathways of Communication, Pedagogical, Artillery and Engineering schools developed, the Mikhailovsky Palace was built, the suburbs of St. Petersburg were intensively settled. Miloradovich engaged in improving the state of city prisons and the situation of prisoners, organized an anti-alcohol campaign, reducing the number of pubs in the city and prohibiting them from gambling.
The administrative routine, he only occasionally found the way out of his indomitable energy, regularly appearing on the streets of the capital at the head of the detachment during fire fighting. During the catastrophic flood of 1824, Miloradovich took an active part in the rescue of people, as mentioned by A.S. Pushkin in the "Bronze Horseman": he set out "to rescue the fearful and drowning people at home in a dangerous way amidst the turbulent waters."
Affordable and indulgent Miloradovich as governor-general tried in all matters to observe justice and humanity. Regarding his merit in peacetime, he was skeptical, he wrote to the king: “I earnestly request your majesty not to reward me ... For me, it is better to beg for tapes to others than to receive them sitting by the fireplace”.
The events of 1825 on the Senate Square turned out to be fatal for him. In more than fifty battles, happily escaping injury, he received two wounds on that day, one of which was fatal: one, a bullet, from Kakhovsky (shot in the back) and the second - a bayonet, from Obolensky. When, overcoming pain, he allowed the doctors to remove the bullet that had penetrated his lung, having examined it and saw that it was fired from a pistol, he exclaimed: “Oh, thank God! This bullet is not a soldier! Now I am completely happy! ”
The dying Miloradovich dictated his will, in which he freed the peasants from 1500 serfdom.
On the night of 15, Miloradovich passed away. The soldier general was killed by a retired Russian lieutenant. By the highest decree of the 38-th Tobolsk infantry regiment bore the name of Miloradovich. One of the islands in the Pacific was also named after him.
Miloradovich was buried in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. And in 1937, he was reburied in the Annunciation tomb of the monastery, next to the grave of his teacher, Generalissimo Suvorov.
The inscription on the tombstone reads: “The ashes of the General from the Infantry of all Russian orders and all European powers, gentleman of Count Mikhail Andreevich Miloradovich, rest here. Born 1771 of October year 1 of the day. He died from wounds inflicted by a bullet and bayonet on St. Isaac's Square on December 14 of the day of 1825 in St. Petersburg. "
Not a single monument to Count MA Miloradovich in Russia is not. There is no memorial plaque on the building (Morskaya St., 38) that the office of the Governor General of St. Petersburg, Count M.A. Miloradovich.
- Shatrakov Yury Grigorievich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Hon. science worker of the Russian Federation, ac. tsp Grew up Acad. technologist. of science
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