USSR debts: how Russia returned them


Today, when from the lips of some politicians and leaders of post-Soviet countries, from time to time, statements are made about their merciless economic exploitation as part of the USSR, and on the basis of these demarches, it is concluded that the Russian Federation, which is the successor to the Union, needs something again raise the topic of real debts of the Soviet Union. And especially of how and when Russia gave them.


Any person building an idea of ​​the Soviet period stories our country, on acquaintance with concrete and reliable data about that time, there must certainly be bewilderment that a state with a powerful and self-sufficient complex of the national economy in general was in debtor almost half of the world. Moreover, he managed to get into this hole so deeply that Russia had to pay off his obligations almost to the present moment. Here, "thank" is, of course, the last head of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, as well as his team of "reformers".

In itself, the presence of external debt is normal for any state. The only question is its volume. Soviet foreign debt began to grow sharply (300% immediately) since the end of 1984. In absolute terms, this was an increase in debt from 5 to 15 billion dollars. But by 1989, it was already estimated at 50 billion, and by the time when Gorbachev and his relatives brought the country to a pen, to collapse and collapse, the debt reached 100 billion!

Categories of loan commitments


At the same time, all credit liabilities, hanging a heavy burden on the USSR, were clearly divided into three categories. These are debts to the Paris Club, that is, the richest and most influential countries of the Western world, such as the USA, Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Japan and others. These are debts to other states: UAE, Kuwait, Turkey. Finally, these are the amounts of credit debt that were formed as a result of “fruitful cooperation” with our dear “allies and partners” in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, which after 1991, quickly “reforging” into capitalists, remembered everything to the last penny.

It turned out to be, perhaps, the most offensive: the financial imbalance, which Moscow subsequently had to pay for, arose, for the most part, due to the fact that it conducted trade with the CMEA countries exclusively in their favor. The calculations were not in freely convertible currency (in which later they had to repay debts). The main thing is weapon, energy, industrial equipment entered the countries of the socialist camp at low prices, and consumer goods received from them in return were priced at the highest rates. Such a "friendship of peoples" ended up sideways ...

One cannot fail to mention the fact that Gorbachev simultaneously thought of recognizing part of the debts of the Russian Empire (for example, to Great Britain), about which his predecessors did not want to listen. In a word, the “inheritance” of Russia got something else. However, not only Russia. Indeed, in the USSR, as we recall, 15 republics were included. In accordance with the intergovernmental memorandum signed at the end of October 1991, and then approved a month later by the corresponding official communiqué, all of his “children” had to repay the debt of the “peace-rested” Soviet Union. On this occasion, even before the collapse of the country, an official summit was held in Moscow, the purpose of which was precisely the settlement of the "credit issue".

In this event, in addition to representatives of the seven most significant creditor countries, delegations from most of the Union republics also took part. Initially, only Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Uzbekistan took the position “to whom I owe, I forgive everyone”. As a result of negotiations, the following solution was worked out: both the debts of the Soviet Union itself and all its assets are transferred in equal proportions to all independent states formed after its collapse. Russia owed 61,3%, Ukraine 16,3%, Belarus 4,1%, and so on. The problem was that such, seemingly the most logical solution, did not suit anyone.

Creditors did not want to receive their hard-earned money from many small debtors, many of whom had nothing to take. And, apparently, the goal was to put the maximum (preferably - completely unbearable) burden on the financial system of Russia from the very beginning. One way or another, but in the end it was our country that proposed to shoulder the entire burden of USSR debt obligations - in exchange for all its assets located abroad, without exception. With such a tempting offer, everyone agreed, except Kiev. The Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada flatly refused to ratify the “zero option” twice. By the way, Viktor Yanukovych was also his ardent opponent, whom our country eventually sheltered after the shameful flight from its own country. The question remains open to this day ...

And Russia has distributed debts. First of all, in 2006 they settled with the Paris Club, saving $ 7,7 million on interest. Kuwait was repaid a debt of $ 1,1 billion ten years later, with more than 600 million dollars in interest having been repaid, not by money, but by domestic products. More than 400 million Swiss francs were returned to China in 2015. The last debt of the USSR, to Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the amount of 125 million dollars, inherited from Yugoslavia, was “closed” by Russia on August 8, 2017.

Thus, the financial obligations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were fully repaid by our country. It is a pity that this cannot be said in any way about the repayment of amounts by foreign states to Russia itself, is the successor of the Soviet Union. The logic is generally interesting: if payments on Soviet debts needed to be claimed, then they immediately remembered the "succession", but as soon as it came to their own payments, they immediately declared that there was no one to pay, it seemed, because the USSR did not exist.
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  1. It is a pity that this cannot be said in any way about the repayment of amounts by foreign states to Russia itself, is the successor of the Soviet Union
    Really sorry!
    1. Insurgent 13 May 2020 11: 16 New
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      ultimately, it was our country that proposed to shoulder the entire burden of USSR debt obligations - in exchange for all its assets located abroad, without exception. With such a tempting offer, everyone agreed, except Kiev. The Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada flatly refused to ratify the “zero option” twice. By the way, Viktor Yanukovych was also his ardent opponent, whom our country eventually sheltered after the shameful flight from its own country.


      To be honest, I can’t understand at what stage of political activity Yanukovych was the opponent of the “zero option”.
      Somehow "fell" out of sight request Perhaps in 2002-2005, when he served as Prime Minister under Kuchma?
      Indeed, at a later date, with the repayment of USSR debts, Russia “sat down”, and the “world community” simply did not give a damn about the “only-independent” opinion of any Ukraine.
      1. Avior 13 May 2020 11: 48 New
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        Last weekend, President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych joined in disputes over foreign property of the former USSR. In an interview with Ukrainian TV, he said that he did not support the transfer of all property in favor of Russia and suggested sharing it between the former Soviet republics.

        smile
        1. Insurgent 13 May 2020 11: 52 New
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          Quote: Avior
          Last weekend, President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych joined in disputes over foreign property of the former USSR. In an interview with Ukrainian TV, he said that he did not support the transfer of all property in favor of Russia and suggested sharing it between the former Soviet republics.


          Actually, so what?

          Quote: Insurgent
          at a later date, with the repayment of USSR debts, Russia “sat down”, and the “world community” simply didn't give a damn about the “only-independent” opinion of any Ukraine.


          He could fool around as much as he wanted, but everything was decided without an outskirts, and even if he were the Pope himself, his opinion ALREADY meant nothing.
          1. Avior 13 May 2020 11: 54 New
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            I answered your question- "on which
            stage "?
            To be honest, I can’t understand at what stage of political activity Yanukovych was the opponent of the “zero option”.

            hi
      2. depressant 13 May 2020 11: 54 New
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        In fact, it is known that the current external debt of corporations with state participation is $ 500 billion. What to do with this? It turns out that even socialism, even capitalism, without the external debt of the economy of Russia can not live? Despite the fact that corporations withdrew $ 3 trillion.
        1. tihonmarine 13 May 2020 12: 37 New
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          Quote: depressant
          In fact, it is known that the current external debt of corporations with state participation is $ 500 billion. What to do with this? It turns out that even socialism, even capitalism, without the external debt of the economy of Russia can not live? Despite the fact that corporations withdrew $ 3 trillion.
          If only 3 trillion, but remember who forgot, or who does not know this humiliating deal at all.
          "Deal of Mountain - Chernomyrdin": the true goals of our American "partners"
          In 2012, the last shipment of uranium was sent, which was sent to the United States on the basis of a Russian-American agreement concluded 20 years ago, providing for the delivery to America of 500 metric tons of uranium, which Russia undertook to extract from its nuclear weapons and which America intended to use as fuel for work of nuclear power plants.
          This uranium deal was rather actively discussed in the 1990s, but today this topic turned out to be “behind the scenes” of discussions of the key problems of our life. This is an act of the largest robbery of Russia, not only in its recent history, but also in the entire history of the country. Russia lost the Cold War to the West, primarily to the United States. Lost to a large extent due to the treacherous policies of our leaders. The same tops continued to surrender the country in the 1990s. “Uranium deal” - the consent of our treacherous elite to pay tribute to the winner in the form of weapons-grade uranium. It is also called the Millennium Scam due to its unprecedented scale. In fact, it was an operation of the West, which solved several strategic goals at once:
          a) unilateral nuclear disarmament of Russia by depriving it of weapons-grade uranium reserves, as well as preparing the conditions for the United States to withdraw from the ABM Treaty;
          b) causing enormous economic damage to Russia (the accumulated stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium was a significant part of the national wealth of Russia at that time);
          c) depriving Russia of colossal energy sources in the future after the planned introduction of a new thorium nuclear power technology.
          The total transaction for the supply of 500 tons of uranium was determined at 11,9 billion dollars. Meanwhile, the cost of the indicated volume of highly enriched uranium is incomparably higher. To produce such a volume of weapons-grade uranium, several hundred thousand people worked in the country's mining and defense industries for about 40 years. According to estimates made by specialists at the end of the last century, the real cost of 500 tons of weapons-grade plutonium was at least $ 8 trillion at that time.
          Probably the largest indemnity in recent history was paid by Germany defeated in the First World War. Media reported that Germany only three years ago finished paying reparations under the terms of the 1919 Paris Peace Treaty. Germany has been repaired in the amount of 269 billion gold marks. The amount, of course, is huge: it is equivalent to about 100 tons of gold. At the current price of yellow metal, about $ 000 trillion is obtained.
          1. Cube123 13 May 2020 13: 27 New
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            Before you pump up, you first decide what you are talking about: uranium or weapons-grade plutonium. These are different things and cost differently.

            Quote: tihonmarine
            on the basis of the Russian-American agreement concluded 20 years ago, providing for delivery to America 500 metric tons of uraniumwhich Russia pledged to extract from its nuclear weapons and which America intended to use as fuel for the operation of nuclear power plants.


            Quote: tihonmarine
            According to estimates made by specialists at the end of the last century, the real value 500 tons of weapons-grade plutonium at that time was at least 8 trillion dollars.


            In reality, it was a question of processing highly enriched URANIUM into low-enriched URANIUM.
            https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Соглашение_ВОУ-НОУ
            “During the 20-year agreement under the program, 500 tons of HEU were processed into 14446 tons of LEU [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. The total income of the Russian side from the implementation of the Agreement is about 17 billion USD, budget revenues of $ 13 billion. "

            For reference: the current value of highly enriched uranium is $ 21 per kg.
            https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5d7e632323bf4800ad6a8ed4/stoimost-urana--sekretnye-dannye-5e4e4a0e07349e4ee436e1f7

            Thus 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium worth $ 10,5 billion today.
            1. tihonmarine 13 May 2020 14: 01 New
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              Quote: Cube123
              Thus, 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium costs today $ 10,5 billion.

              Yes, it’s better not to read Wiki, but our website dated November 21, 2013 https://topwar.ru/36255-afera-tysyacheletiya-zavershilas-poslednyaya-partiya-nashego-urana-ushla-za-okean.html
              1. Cube123 13 May 2020 14: 08 New
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                For me, Valentin Katasonov is not an authority. This sometimes writes belay And often, what he writes, no one can confirm hi
            2. nikon7717 14 May 2020 00: 35 New
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              Minus for the comment. 21000 is 238 uranium, energy. Gold is now more expensive per kg. They sold then weapons 235, enrichment of 90%, which in kg of energy contains 0,6%. That’s the difference. In content it will be from 5000000 to 10000000 minimum! dollars per kg. So consider how much profuca.
              1. Cube123 14 May 2020 07: 30 New
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                Quote: nikon7717
                Minus for the comment. 21000 is 238 uranium, energy. Gold is now more expensive per kg. They sold then weapons 235, enrichment of 90%, which in kg of energy contains 0,6%. That’s the difference. In content it will be from 5000000 to 10000000 minimum! dollars per kg. So consider how much profuca.

                You know, even critics of this deal do not dispute the cost of uranium. For instance:
                https://proza.ru/2018/01/31/960
                "" Separation of uranium isotopes is a troublesome and expensive business. To facilitate calculations, they introduced the so-called "unit of separation work", abbreviated EPP. A quotation is set for it on the world market. Now it is about $ 120. Until recently, Russia had a separate quote for EPP. Of course, different from the world down! I won’t bother you with formulas and calculations. Take my word for it. To produce one kilogram of reactor uranium from natural uranium, you need to spend at least six SWUs. just to produce poorly enriched uranium from depleted uranium, but to get a kilogram of weapons-grade uranium, you need more than 180 SWU! To produce one kilogram of HEU you need to spend 21,6 thousand dollars, or half a million rubles. "

                There the criticism is that the associated costs were not taken into account.
                "For the receipt of five hundred tons of HEU, the total cost will be $ 11 billion, which roughly corresponds to the amount that appears in the HEU-LEU agreement. However, we forgot about natural uranium! Yes Yes! Those same 120 thousand tons that went into the preparation of 500 tons of HEU! Due to the energy crisis, the price of uranium has risen sharply. Now it is 60 English pounds per pound (also English!), Or about three hundred dollars per kilogram. Our natural uranium costs $ 36 billion! Add 11 billion for the work of separation. We will receive 47 billion. Taking into account some other expenses: storage, transportation, disposal (for example, the transfer of 120 thousand tons of natural uranium from nitrous oxide to hexafluoride will cost one billion), round up the amount to 50 billion. 500 tons of HEU cost fifty billion dollars! Here is the real price of our weapons-grade uranium! One hundred dollars per gram! One and a half times more expensive than platinum, but, alas, it doesn’t attract diamond. ”

                But, as it turns out, non-Russian uranium was used for dilution
                "Why did the Russians give their uranium to the USA? And did they give ..."
                https://topwar.ru/29719-zachem-russkie-otdali-ssha-svoy-uran-i-otdali-li.html
                An interesting article, by the way. Her epigraph:
                “On the Internet, some gentlemen many times in every way told the tale that Russia allegedly sold the“ last uranium shirt ”to evil Americans, and for nothing, and now we don’t have weapons-grade uranium and plutonium to make atomic bombs. all polymers"
                Quote from her:
                “Secondly, the Russians threw the USA also for raw materials. In the 90s, Russia, after the separation of Ukraine and Kazakhstan, simply did not have enough natural uranium to fully load its enrichment capacities. Own production of natural uranium in Russia focused on a single facility - Priargunskoye field, where only about 2.500 tons of ore were mined, and at least 7.000 tons a year was needed, why should ultracentrifuges be allowed to stand idle?

                Therefore, the Americans were told that Russia allegedly lacked natural uranium to dilute the weapons component. In order to ensure at least some implementation of the program (and in the first 6 years of the contract, only 50 tons of HEU diluted with any kind of shipment were shipped), in 1999 the US Government convinced the largest western producers of natural uranium - Cameco (Canada), Cogema ( now Areva, France), and Nukem (Germany) to sell to Russia at a special price of 118.000 tons of natural uranium! You think about this figure - this is the raw material for 17 years of full load of our centrifuges. And the US provided it to us. "

                And also, "good testicle for Christ's Day." This deal allowed to preserve the Russian nuclear industry
                https://www.seogan.ru/atomnaya-otrasl-rossii-vizhila-s-pomoshyu-kontrakta-vou-nou.html
                "The nuclear industry of Russia has survived through a HEU-LEU contract"
                1. nikon7717 14 May 2020 21: 39 New
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                  You wrote in your calculations about $ 50 billion. This is your only price wow. One moment missed. Weapon uranium 235 is enriched up to 90%, for delivery in TVEL tablets 4-5% are required according to the US standard. Deliveries, as you know, were already at the request of the customer. Yes?
                  Total. Taking into account dilution, your estimated amount can be increased by an order of magnitude (18-20 times). It turns out that all the reprocessed fuel is covered by 1/10 of the USA, if they hadn’t received a severe shortage of uranium supplies for fuel elements, the price would have jumped several times, and so they received for free lighting and a bunch of buns.
                  See deeper.
                  1. Cube123 15 May 2020 08: 04 New
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                    Quote: nikon7717
                    You wrote in your calculations about $ 50 billion.

                    Firstly, these are not my calculations. I have provided links to sources of calculations.

                    Quote: nikon7717
                    Total. Taking into account dilution, your estimated amount can be increased by an order of magnitude (18-20 times).

                    И reduce by another 30 timesbecause reactor uranium is 30 times cheaper than weapons-grade.

                    Quote: nikon7717
                    See deeper.

                    In a real economy, the price of a product is not what the Seller wants to receive, but what the Buyer is willing to pay.
              2. Nastia makarova 14 May 2020 12: 57 New
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                from the deal won very cool
          2. depressant 13 May 2020 13: 30 New
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            The first time I hear about a uranium deal. It remains only to shrug and gloomily add "Oh, wow!"
            This is the robbery of the millennium. Out of the blue.
            And you involuntarily ask yourself the question: what was really behind the destruction of the USSR? What a terrible secret? Well, really a wretched opportunity to build personal palaces and save up bills. I can not believe it! Indeed, even a stupid one understands that either you are a representative of the highest authority of a great country, a proud person whom not only his own people respects, but all of humanity, including the heads of all states, - a person whose name will be written in history in gold letters forever; or you are a lackey squalor with all your billions, which can both come and go overnight. I don’t understand anything!
            1. tihonmarine 13 May 2020 14: 03 New
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              Quote: depressant
              The first time I hear about a uranium deal.

              IN 21.11.2013/XNUMX/XNUMX
              https://topwar.ru/36255-afera-tysyacheletiya-zavershilas-poslednyaya-partiya-nashego-urana-ushla-za-okean.html
            2. Cube123 13 May 2020 14: 03 New
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              Quote: depressant
              Indeed, even a stupid one understands that either you are a representative of the highest authority of a great country, a proud person whom not only his own people respects, but all of humanity, including the heads of all states, - a person whose name will be written in history in gold letters forever; either you lackey squalor with all its billions, which can both come and go overnight. I don’t understand anything!

              And the answer is simple. The extreme old age of the members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (half of those elected at the 26th Congress (1981) did not live up to the 27th (1986)) because of which "lame squalor" came to power. After what they have done, people with honor launch a bullet in their forehead. And this one is making commercials for Pizza Hut and Louis Vuitton suitcases.
              1. ABM
                ABM 13 May 2020 20: 43 New
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                You voiced this verdict of the USSR: hundreds of thousands of people for decades produced goods unnecessary to anyone - it’s good that the Americans took away at least $ 12 billion at the cost of stopping their program to create the same fuel!
                1. EvilLion 14 May 2020 08: 50 New
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                  Any weapon is an unnecessary product for anyone. If it is not needed. But then it will be too late.
              2. tihonmarine 14 May 2020 09: 19 New
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                Quote: Cube123
                And this one is making commercials for Pizza Hut and Louis Vuitton suitcases.

                In the world, there are two such Chaldeans Humpback and Obama who act in commercials.
            3. ABM
              ABM 13 May 2020 20: 38 New
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              Why do you personally need uranium ?! Though enriched, even low enriched ?! In such quantity especially? For the combat effectiveness of the armed forces, the current (START 3) and future (at least three times as large) reserves will be enough. WHO TO SELL URANIUM ?! Iran will buy, but sanctions are more serious here than the Crimean ones.
            4. EvilLion 14 May 2020 08: 51 New
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              Yes, rob so that now you have to be able to sit without your own industry. And RosAtom actually has complete control over the global nuclear market.
            5. Pilat2009 20 May 2020 09: 13 New
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              Quote: depressant
              The first time I hear about a uranium deal. It remains only to shrug and gloomily add "Oh, wow!"
              This is the robbery of the millennium. Out of the blue.
              And you involuntarily ask yourself the question: what was really behind the destruction of the USSR? What a terrible secret? Well, really a wretched opportunity to build personal palaces and save up bills. I can not believe it! Indeed, even a stupid one understands that either you are a representative of the highest authority of a great country, a proud person whom not only his own people respects, but all of humanity, including the heads of all states, - a person whose name will be written in history in gold letters forever; or you are a lackey squalor with all your billions, which can both come and go overnight. I don’t understand anything!

              Millennium robbery? When it was necessary to reduce 500 START missiles? We built up this uranium for 100 years ahead. In 100 years it will lose its properties. And thanks to this deal they killed their industry
          3. EvilLion 14 May 2020 08: 49 New
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            The result - the complete destruction of American nuclear energy, the total dominance of Rosatom in this market, Russia’s saving a ton of money on the storage and disposal of all these warheads. To consider weapons-grade plutonium as wealth is the same as to consider as such warehouses of shells that have been lying for 25 years, were not needed, well, we are taking them away for disposal.

            Typically, the United States itself warned of the consequences, but the HEU-LEU deal was specifically removed from dumping restrictions.
          4. Alexey RA 14 May 2020 14: 06 New
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            Quote: tihonmarine
            "Deal of Mountain - Chernomyrdin": the true goals of our American "partners"
            In 2012, the last shipment of uranium was sent, which was sent to the United States on the basis of a Russian-American agreement concluded 20 years ago, providing for the delivery to America of 500 metric tons of uranium, which Russia undertook to extract from its nuclear weapons and which America intended to use as fuel for work of nuclear power plants.
            This uranium deal was rather actively discussed in the 1990s, but today this topic turned out to be “behind the scenes” of discussions of the key problems of our life. This is an act of the largest robbery of Russia, not only in its recent history, but also in the entire history of the country. Russia lost the Cold War to the West, primarily to the United States. Lost to a large extent due to the treacherous policies of our leaders. The same tops continued to surrender the country in the 1990s. “Uranium deal” - the consent of our treacherous elite to pay tribute to the winner in the form of weapons-grade uranium.

            The HEU-LEU treaty is a betrayal of the American state. With his signature on him, the traitor Gore opened the American market for cheap Russian uranium - just at the moment when work was planned to modernize American enrichment facilities. smile
            Simply put, American effective managers at the sight of cheap uranium (first dose - free) lost all abilities for long-term planning - and for the sake of increasing profits with their own hands they killed the whole link of the full atomic cycle - the American enrichment industry - by drastically reducing orders for American LEU. All plans for expanding capacities and mass transfer to centrifuges went to dust. What to do when the quota for Russian LEU is over - managers didn’t have a headache about this.
            The Hor-Chernomyrdin Treaty is a nuclear strike on the American nuclear complex. smile
        2. EvilLion 14 May 2020 08: 43 New
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          Any state has debts, so what?
  2. Kars 13 May 2020 10: 52 New
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    Duty to Bosnia and Georgia)))
    1. depressant 13 May 2020 11: 59 New
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      In front of Qatar and China - I can’t understand this. The author of the article should have explained this. Will have to search the Internet.
  3. Kars 13 May 2020 10: 52 New
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    Quote: Kars
    Duty to Bosnia and Georgia)))
  4. Kars 13 May 2020 10: 52 New
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    Quote: Kars
    Quote: Kars
    Duty to Bosnia and Herzegovina)))
  5. rocket757 13 May 2020 10: 58 New
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    So, this way, but this page of history turned over!
    Then what?
    And then you need to do ... think carefully and only for the good of your country.
    That's all, there’s nothing to pick up further.
    1. 210ox 13 May 2020 11: 05 New
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      And then to act with debtors, and especially with those stubborn ones who demanded these debts from us accordingly and uncompromisingly. Alas, these are "partners ©" Mother is their foot.
      1. rocket757 13 May 2020 11: 11 New
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        Debt has to be repaid, since it’s really debts! But the way they were “asked” to be returned can / should be borne in mind for the future!
        Pencil, notebook and .... write everything down, then, just in case.
    2. 72jora72 13 May 2020 11: 19 New
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      So, this way, but this page of history turned over!
      Then what?
      My parents never returned the money burned in the year 91, but they worked all their life in the North.
      1. Insurgent 13 May 2020 11: 40 New
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        Quote: 72jora72
        My parents never returned the money burned in the year 91, but they worked all their life in the North.

        Actually, populist attempts to return USSR deposits were made several times in the “Square”, but all this was so clumsyly organized, without financial support, that it didn’t go further than “demonstration actions”.
        Personally, I was not able to get the so-called "Yulkina thousand", and the contribution on several savings books of 17 full-fledged Soviet rubles, as a result of "over-banking" turned into 000, with a small thousand hryvnias ...

        Well, those, along with the outskirts, "Tu-tu" into the abyss in the 2014th ...
      2. rocket757 13 May 2020 11: 46 New
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        No one was returned from us. You can be sad about that, but we can’t change it yet.
        1. Nyrobsky 13 May 2020 17: 51 New
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          Quote: rocket757
          No one was returned from us. You can be sad about that, but we can’t change it yet.

          They returned it, but a very symbolic amount, about 1 x 1. Only if before 10 thousand were money, now 10 thousand is almost nothing. If the savings book is preserved, then you need to go to the nearest Sberbank and present it for repayment. They will give money and breaking this financial rarity with a hole punch they will return it back. At least my wife and I did. hi
          1. rocket757 13 May 2020 19: 25 New
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            Well, Mom keeps everything, I would just throw it away .....
        2. Pilat2009 20 May 2020 09: 24 New
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          Quote: rocket757
          No one was returned from us. You can be sad about that, but we can’t change it yet.

          I received 10 years ago 2500 of the stored 8000
      3. tihonmarine 13 May 2020 15: 42 New
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        Quote: 72jora72
        My parents never returned the money burned in the year 91, but they worked all their life in the North.

        A lot of "burned out" people. One country left, and the new "forgave everyone their debts." From Gorbotogo and Elzen you will not ask.
        1. AUL
          AUL 13 May 2020 18: 41 New
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          Quote: tihonmarine
          From Gorbotogo and Elzen you will not ask.

          And what, after Yeltsin, we did not "restructure" anyone’s debts? wink
          1. tihonmarine 14 May 2020 08: 19 New
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            Quote: AUL
            And what, after Yeltsin, we did not "restructure" anyone’s debts?

            I don’t live in Russia now, and I don’t know which of the Russians was restructured, but this is what the West and other friends know that they have restructured, and even a lot. The capitalist, the capitalist will not be gouged out.
  6. alone 13 May 2020 11: 03 New
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    Well, to blame other states for the fact that Russia writes off debts to them, it’s illogical .. These countries do not write off their debts to the Russian Federation themselves ..
    1. rocket757 13 May 2020 11: 12 New
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      That's right, it's a lot of work .... but you can write off for the benefit of yourself. You can do that too.
      Our soul is wide, kind, but we must always think for later.
      1. alone 13 May 2020 11: 15 New
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        Quote: rocket757
        That's right, it's a lot of work .... but you can write off for the benefit of yourself. You can do that too.
        Our soul is wide, kind, but we must always think for later.

        Well, what can I say ... You know better ... But you can forgive debts only to those who have some sense .. Often it turns out that they did not have time to forgive them a debt, so they immediately ask for more laughing
        1. rocket757 13 May 2020 11: 31 New
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          I am not an expert, I simply express my vision of the problem.
          A real assessment of the events can give one who is in the subject.
          1. alone 13 May 2020 11: 34 New
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            Quote: rocket757
            I am not an expert, I simply express my vision of the problem.
            A real assessment of the events can give one who is in the subject.

            Certainly ... hi
            1. depressant 13 May 2020 12: 49 New
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              Right. Now I rummaged around on the Internet, experts say that the external debts of the USSR are a dark forest. Well, it’s clear that before the war, the country occupied industrialization in Germany, did not manage to pay off due to the outbreak of war with ... Germany. During the war, 100 tons of gold were sent to London at the expense of sharply increased deliveries of medical equipment, food, civil and military equipment. This turned out to be not enough, they owed more than $ 700 billion, but in 2006 they paid off. It would seem good.
              But here is a $ 500 billion corporate debt.
              Where did he come from? Suppose you are an "effective" manager at an enterprise with state participation. The share of state profits goes to the state budget. Your profit share is converted to dollars and withdraw abroad to your personal offshore account. And so from year to year. But you need to spend money regularly to maintain and develop production, you are a manager, the state entrusted you with managing the company. And then, in order not to spend your hard-earned money, you borrow abroad, in currency. Further, paying out of income only a percentage of the loan. Then comes the moment when you need to pay off the loan body. Really from accumulations? A personal offshore account is holy and inviolable. Let the state help! It has a share. And it helps. At the expense of the entire population of the country. Otherwise, bankruptcy, people at your enterprise will lose their jobs, in a word, blackmail. That's how corporate debt goes to the state. Somehow I can understand it.
              But to understand the Soviet duty to Qatar or China? Unless there were supplies of goods that the USSR did not manage to pay due to the collapse. What did you get from Qatar? Is it really oil?
              1. unaha 13 May 2020 12: 58 New
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                Privatization of profits and nationalization of losses.
                Not Qatar, Kuwait. Borrowed.
                1. depressant 13 May 2020 13: 01 New
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                  Yes, Kuwait. Sorry ))
                  1. Hypatius 13 May 2020 16: 15 New
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                    I remember the news about the loan from Kuwait, for which Gorbi publicly thanked and carried some more blizzard. Gorby, like a blessed man, was rushing around the world and asking for money for perestroika. Kuwait has given a billion, whose fate is immediately lost. As well, and 2 thousand tons of gold and clouds of other assets of the USSR. The unbridled deriban, which cannot be explained by official tales. Either the USSR fed half the world and had mountains of reserves, then all of a sudden they spent everything on sneakers and chicken legs. To believe such nonsense, you need to finish HSE twice.
      2. Nyrobsky 13 May 2020 17: 58 New
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        Quote: rocket757
        That's right, it's a lot of work .... but you can write off for the benefit of yourself. You can do that too.
        Our soul is wide, kind, but we must always think for later.

        In the case of the DPRK, 10 of the 9 billion debt formed before the USSR were written off, and one billion was registered as Russian investment in their energy complex. Where they will raise this billion is Un's problem, but the fact that part of the debt, which had almost no chance of returning, was transformed into a real project involving Russia. But this is perhaps an isolated case.
        1. rocket757 13 May 2020 19: 30 New
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          For power, for the ordinary, yes! But, in this muddy climb without a CONDUCTOR, I won’t even think about it.
          The boom is that "the giraffe is big, he will figure it out himself."
      3. tihonmarine 14 May 2020 08: 21 New
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        Quote: rocket757
        That's right, it's a lot of work .... but you can write off for the benefit of yourself. You can do that too.

        Of course I would like to, but Russia will not be allowed to do this. She can pay (and should) and cannot demand a refund (will not).
        1. rocket757 14 May 2020 08: 30 New
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          Clinically, any “lesson” can / should go to good use!
          I just want to add that not every time "repetition is a mother of learning"!
          This is a rake, until the theme of "not giving Russia debts" becomes dangerous for the health of those who want to do it.
  7. tatra 13 May 2020 11: 14 New
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    Firstly, the enemies of the Communists captured the USSR already in their anti-Soviet Perestroika. So all the debts that their "Liberator" Gorbachev collects are the debts of the enemies of the USSR. And before him, the external debt of the USSR amounted to 16 billion dollars. Secondly, the author got something wrong.
    In 1997, Russia joined the Paris Club, an association of creditor countries created in 1956 to discuss and resolve the debt problems of sovereign states *. When joining the club, Russia had about $ 150 billion in assets that owed it, as the successor to the USSR, developing countries, primarily Ethiopia, Mozambique, Yemen, Vietnam, Algeria, as well as other countries in Africa and Asia.

    In addition, Russia has become obligated to write off debts to countries belonging to the category of "poor" and "developing". . As a result, after joining the Paris Club, it turned out that Russia could claim less than $ 8 billion, which is slightly more than 5% of the total receivables of the USSR.
    1. Nasrat 13 May 2020 11: 33 New
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      Quote: tatra
      ... the enemies of the communists captured the USSR already in their anti-Soviet Perestroika.

      wassat
      Enemies of the Communists captured the USSR !!!! wassat wassat

      Enemies of the Communists captured the USSR ..... - while not one Communist died! It turns out 20 million surrendered the army of communists of the USSR (and the reserve Komsomol was still !!!) ?! This has not happened in history !!!
      1. tatra 13 May 2020 11: 36 New
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        Ha, and to whom did the communists surrender? After all, your "ideology", the enemies of the Communists - that you "have nothing to do" with responsibility for your capture of the USSR, you "have nothing to do" with what you had after the destruction of the USSR.
        1. Nasrat 13 May 2020 11: 42 New
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          Quote: tatra
          Ha, and to whom did the communists surrender? After all, your "ideology", the enemies of the Communists - that you "have nothing to do" with responsibility for your capture of the USSR, you "have nothing to do" with what you had after the destruction of the USSR.


          What kind of communists are such that pros empire?
          The fact that the enemies of the people are not asleep - we realized that the Communists dozed off !!! And the Communists should be blamed for not saving the country, they were in power - there is demand from them !!
          1. tatra 13 May 2020 11: 46 New
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            You are a person with the classic mentality of the enemies of the Communists, who justify the crimes of some people, blaming the crimes of some people on others. One of the main qualities of the enemies of the Communists, with whom they seriously imagined that more than the Communists and their supporters are worthy to own the country, is their complete lack of a sense of responsibility.
            1. Nasrat 13 May 2020 11: 51 New
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              Quote: tatra
              You are a person with the classic mentality of the enemies of the Communists, who justify the crimes of some people, blaming the crimes of some people on others. One of the main qualities of the enemies of the Communists, with whom they seriously imagined that more than the Communists and their supporters are worthy to own the country, is their complete lack of a sense of responsibility.

              Yes, I’m an enemy of the Communists, precisely because the Communists destroyed the empire, plundered the people and the public heritage in the 90s - if you look at the leadership of all enterprises, banks, deposits, research institutes, medical institutions and so on, so on, then they were headed overwhelmingly - Communists - they became masters of life in the 90s. And if there is an enemy of the people, then it’s the Communists - they have clearly shown themselves during the division of the USSR and continue to show themselves now
              1. ccsr 13 May 2020 11: 58 New
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                Quote: Nasr
                Yes, I’m an enemy of the Communists,

                Don't you suffer from the fact that you still use the fruits of their labors? Can you put at least one carnation to the monument to Lenin, so as not to pass for Ivan who does not remember kinship?
                1. Nasrat 13 May 2020 12: 01 New
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                  Quote: ccsr
                  Quote: Nasr
                  Yes, I’m an enemy of the Communists,

                  Don't you suffer from the fact that you still use the fruits of their labors? Can you put at least one carnation to the monument to Lenin, so as not to pass for Ivan who does not remember kinship?

                  I pay tribute to the communists who defended their homeland with arms in their hands, and how the communists plundered and ruined the country in 90 ......
                  1. tatra 13 May 2020 20: 01 New
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                    Only now, starting in 1991, NOT the Communists, but YOU, the enemies of the Communists, 30 years after the capture of the USSR, boasting like all of you "and now it’s better than in the USSR under the Communists", because YOU HAVE MUCH MUCH.
                2. tatra 13 May 2020 12: 05 New
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                  The enemies of the Communists, always under the USSR, and after the capture of the USSR, parasitizing and parasitizing due to the labor of others, completely lack a sense of gratitude. They have not the slightest gratitude either to the Soviet power, or to their "Liberator" Gorbachev, nor to their post-Soviet power. And by mentality they are people-AGAINST. If you now hang out a poll about the attitude towards the Soviet power and their Yeltsin-Pupin’s, then supporters of the USSR will vote FOR Soviet power, and the enemies of the Communists will selflessly rush to anger AGAINST the Soviet power. And there will be no one for their Yeltsin-Putin power, in which they all "are better now than in the USSR under the Communists."
                  1. Nasrat 13 May 2020 12: 15 New
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                    Gorbachev is flesh and flesh a communist, raised by the communists who promoted him up the ranks by the communists - so it didn’t get you to separate Gorbachev from the communists
              2. tatra 13 May 2020 11: 59 New
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                Thanks for the proof of my words. The ideology of the enemies of the Communists after the capture of the USSR is an excuse for the criminals and crimes of some people, these are slanderous accusations of the crimes of other people. And in such a worldview, they seriously imagined that they were worthy to own the country.
                1. Nasrat 13 May 2020 12: 07 New
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                  Quote: tatra
                  .... they still seriously imagined that they deserve to own the country.

                  So the country is now owned by communists and Komsomol members, or is there a list to give you?
                  And the Communists even now choose some kind of millionaires and money bags as leaders ...
                  therefore, they would be ashamed to praise the Communists of the early 70s and to this day, the more so ascribe the name of the Communist to themselves, against the background of the Communists who died for their country!
                  The name communist - you need to earn it !!! How do you personally deserve this name? That's when you deserve this name, then the people themselves will call you Communists!
                  And now you are impostors, eager for power, at the expense of your name - a communist. Ugh on you!
                  1. unaha 13 May 2020 13: 02 New
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                    Do not bother ... In my opinion, "tatra" sophisticatedly mocks the same "communists", well, everyone else at the same time)))
                  2. tatra 13 May 2020 20: 05 New
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                    You, the enemies of the Communists, starting with YOUR anti-Soviet Perestroika, plant anti-Soviet / anti-communist propaganda on the territory of the USSR, justify the crimes of the external and internal enemies of the Communists, demolish the monuments erected by the Communists, and erect your anti-Soviet "heroes". . So WHO do you call Communists?
                  3. Krasnoyarsk 13 May 2020 22: 57 New
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                    Quote: Nasr
                    The name communist - you need to earn it !!!

                    Spiridonych, something brought you into such a jungle that you yourself did not understand where exactly. This is just the case when you can safely say - grief from the mind. Or maybe crazy?
                    A communist is a person who shares (professes) the ideology of communism. That's it, period. Ideology is not "deserved", it is studied and accepted by the soul and heart. Or do not accept, like you.
                    So, spit better on yourself, for your pleasure. negative
              3. NordUral 14 May 2020 23: 31 New
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                By the 91st there were no communists upstairs; they painted themselves for us as communists. And it went from the end of the 50s.
      2. Krasnoyarsk 13 May 2020 15: 07 New
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        Quote: Nasr
        Enemies of the Communists captured the USSR !!!!

        In order to understand this, one must have brains.
        When cancer cells settle in the body, has the body ever come out victorious?
        1. tatra 13 May 2020 20: 07 New
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          You, like all enemies of the communists, are not capable of perceiving either yourself or reality adequately.
    2. Alexey RA 15 May 2020 10: 04 New
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      Quote: tatra
      Firstly, the enemies of the Communists captured the USSR already in their anti-Soviet Perestroika.

      No enemies of the communists, communist enemies captured the USSR.

      Do you even remember who was in the lead in the collapse of the USSR?
      Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU, first secretary of the Moscow City Committee of the CPSU, member of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR.
      Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU, member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR.
      Member of the CPSU Central Committee, member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR.
      Member of the CPSU Central Committee, member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.
  8. Vladimir_2U 13 May 2020 11: 15 New
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    The late Soviet period is sadness and shame. (((
  9. APASUS 13 May 2020 11: 17 New
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    The only difference is how the West forgives debts and how we do.
  10. apro 13 May 2020 11: 37 New
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    To consider the obligations of the USSR. After its destruction. An interesting occupation ... all the real and fictitious debts of the USSR, the destroyers accepted in recognition of their Western partners. This is a completely political step. It has nothing to do with it. They have neither legal nor practical.
  11. Avior 13 May 2020 11: 40 New
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    With such a tempting offer, everyone agreed, except Kiev. The Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada flatly refused to ratify the “zero option” twice. By the way, Viktor Yanukovych was also his ardent opponent, whom our country eventually sheltered after the shameful flight from its own country. The question remains open to this day ...

    Strong author. smile
    He left the reader perplexed - why did they, including Yanukovych, refuse that Russia repay debts for them?
    And the casket just opens - Ukraine offered to divide debts and assets between the former republics according to the earlier agreement on the division in the respective shares.
    But before that, conduct an independent audit of the debts and assets of the USSR, so that it was clear what to divide by agreement. What Russia categorically refused.
    Interestingly, the day will come when, after reading the article on VO, you don’t have to surf the Internet and clarify for yourself the obscurity in the article.
    I'd love to
  12. prior 13 May 2020 11: 51 New
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    The debts of the USSR should be recounted.
    For exiting the USSR republics of the former USSR must pay.
    For the exit of Eastern European countries from the Warsaw Pact must pay.
    They must pay for the exit of Eastern European countries from the CMEA organization.
    Here is a methodology for calculating debts should be taken as a basis.
    Freedom costs money.
    Otherwise, everything is backward, in socialism, in the CMEA, in the Warsaw Pact.
    There is no normal mustachioed forester on them.
  13. Gardamir 13 May 2020 11: 54 New
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    "Russia" paid off its debts.
    "Russia" forgave those who should.
    But for some reason, "Russia" forgets about its citizens.
  14. itis 13 May 2020 12: 00 New
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    and do not raise this topic. for all these USSR it is Moscow.
  15. ccsr 13 May 2020 12: 07 New
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    Everything is correctly stated in the article, there is no arguing with this. True words of regret
    It is a pity that this cannot be said in any way about the repayment of amounts by foreign states to Russia itself, is the successor of the Soviet Union.
    not entirely accurate, if only from the point of view that Russia got almost all the foreign property of the former USSR, and with its reasonable use, we could compensate for the debts of some countries, but crooks who came to power did not do this. As an example, our huge property in the former German Democratic Republic, which the cunning Germans appropriated to themselves, and it belonged to us as being built to ensure the life of the group of troops and our missions from the budget of the USSR. Well, we must remember that the mansions of the embassies in the vast majority went to Russia after our post-Soviet republics refused to pay their debts. And these also represent certain values, and they must be taken into account in the overall balance.
  16. pytar 13 May 2020 12: 16 New
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    Why did Russia pay off debts for the USSR?
    In 1991, a memorandum was signed between the republics of the USSR, according to which all 12 countries, except the Baltic states, agreed to pay off the debts of the Soviet Union in proportion. But already in 1993, RF expressed desiree to incur the entire amount of the debt of the republics, in return for refusing claims on the assets of the USSR. The republics agreed to such a "zero option." After that, Russia became the sole and full heir to the Soviet Union. And all foreign assets of the USSR were at stake: gold and foreign exchange reserves, movable and immovable property outside the territory of the countries of the former Socialist camp, as well as investments and debts of other countries. At that time, the sum of all the assets of the former USSR was estimated, according to various sources, from $ 120-150 billion! It is safe to say that the idea was really interesting. To take on debts under 97 billion, and in the end to receive from 120-150 billion $ is a brilliant solution. And then, such a decision seemed an extremely clever move. But alas, almost $ 100 billion of this amount is the obligations of poor countries to the USSR, which in the end were almost completely forgiven ... Debt forgiveness is not a new practice in international financial relations. Typically, this method makes it possible to obtain preferences in trade, thus indirectly recouping the losses of the lender.
    As for the calculations between the socialist countries that are members of the CMEA, they were conducted in the so-called "transferable rubles". The PR was not convertible in Western currencies, although it had an official gold content of 0,987412 grams of pure gold, which in most cases brought its conversion cost to the official exchange rates of national currencies of the socialist countries to the dollar. There was also a case of repayment of debt obligations of social countries to creditors through transfers / sales / physical gold. Transfer went through Soviet banks on the London Stock Exchange. The CMEA system based on non-market relations had major flaws, mainly due to the lack of flexibility.
  17. NordUral 13 May 2020 12: 35 New
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    5 - 150 - about 500 (paid) - and again $ 500 yards on the neck of the people!
    The country has been robbed, like our people.
    1. NordUral 14 May 2020 23: 12 New
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      Memory failed. Not 500 paid the state debt.

      Yes, if you look at the statistics of government debt (public external debt), then yes it fell from 138 billion dollars in 1999 to 51,3 billion dollars in June 2019, but there is one big BUT. Here there is a classical substitution of concepts, external debt is roughly the duty of the government, and total external debt is the debt of all citizens, private and public organizations (different Gazprom and Rosneft), regional governments, all of them, and this debt is much more important and over the years, he not only did not decline, he more than doubled.

      Source: https://cont.ws/@ardjyna/1469434
      They differ somewhat in different ways.
      And the result of the activities of Gorbachev-Yeltsin-Putin on our neck.
  18. iouris 13 May 2020 14: 25 New
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    Not "Russia", but the population of the Russian Federation.
  19. A. Privalov 13 May 2020 14: 51 New
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    We realized!
    In September, Russia’s 2000 was written off $ 9,53 billion from Vietnam’s $ 11,03 billion.
    In 2001, Russia wrote off Ethiopia $ 4,8 billion (out of $ 6 billion).
    In 2003, Russia wrote off $ 11,1 billion to Mongolia.
    In 2003, Russia wrote off Laos $ 960 million debt to Laos.
    In 2004, Russia completely wrote off the balance of Nicaragua's debt of $ 344 million.

    In 2004, Russia wrote off $ 9,5-9,8 billion of debt to Iraq (a total of $ 10,5 billion).
    In 2005, Russia wrote off $ 9,782 billion (out of $ 13,4 billion) of debt to the USSR to Syria.
    In the same year, Russia wrote off Ethiopia $ 1,104 billion (of $ 1,268 billion) of the debt remaining after 2001.

    In 2006, Russia wrote off Algeria $ 4,7 billion in debt to the USSR.
    In 2007, Russia wrote off $ 11,1 billion of debt to Afghanistan.
    In the same year, Russia wrote off $ 4,5 billion of debt to Libya. Libya then had a gold reserve of about 143-156 tons. Some financial experts estimated Libya's gold and foreign exchange reserves at 200 billion. At that time, Libya produced oil (in the amount of about 1.6 million barrels per day) with an average price of a barrel of Brent oil from $ 100 to $ 110.

    In 2008, Russia wrote off $ 12 billion to Iraq (out of $ 12,9 billion). Moreover, it was already a new debt, for loans obtained after the forgiveness of the previous debt in 2004.

    In 2010, Russia wrote off $ 891 million of debt to Afghanistan, after which the entire amount of Afghan debts written off by Russia reached $ 12 billion. In the same year, American scientists and the military discovered huge deposits of mineral resources in Afghanistan - one of the largest in the world, tentatively estimated at $ 1 trillion Among them are huge deposits of iron ore, copper, cobalt, gold and lithium.

    In 2010, Russia wrote off $ 180 million of debt to Mongolia.
    In 2012, Russia wrote off $ 11 billion of debt to the DPRK.
    In 2014, Russia wrote off $ 31,7 billion (or 90% of $ 35,2 billion) of debt to the USSR to Cuba. The remaining 10% of the debt (about $ 3,5 billion) will be repaid by Cuba over the next ten years in equal semi-annual payments. It should be noted - this write-off has become the largest in the entire history of Russia. Prior to this, the biggest write-off of debt was to write off $ 12 billion at a time to Iraq.


    In 2019, it was announced that the total accumulated amount of debt cancellations from 1991 to 2019 in favor of African countries from Russia amounted to more than $ 20 billion.
    In total, if we consider only large loans that exceed $ 1 billion, it turns out that Russia has written off about $ 20 billion over 140 years.
    1. NordUral 14 May 2020 23: 27 New
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      In 2010, Russia wrote off $ 180 million of debt to Mongolia.

      Mongolia can be written off and even needed. In memory of Mongolia's support in World War II.
  20. bandabas 13 May 2020 18: 12 New
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    And from their citizens continue to tear three skins. One word is Lilliputians.
  21. strelokmira 15 May 2020 15: 52 New
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    Thus, the financial obligations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were fully repaid by our country.

    Only here it is not to the citizens of the Russian Federation, the debts on deposits are still not paid off and most likely will not be