Military Review

Scientists have announced the creation of a prototype quantum radar. EW systems can become useless

163
Scientists have announced the creation of a prototype quantum radar. EW systems can become useless

In the section “Let's talk about science”, a topic on the work of scientists of the Institute of Science and Technology of Austria is proposed for discussion. An international group of researchers composed of Johannes Fink (Austria), David Vitali (Italy), Sabir Barzanyeh and others announced the invention of a new prototype of the so-called quantum radar. Scientists call their invention the successful integration of quantum mechanics into human life.


The basis of the prototype quantum radar is quantum entanglement. In simple terms, quantum entanglement refers to the connectedness (interdependence) of the states of elementary particles. Moreover, the coherence of states manifests itself even if the particles are spaced apart at an impressive distance (beyond, as physicists say, interactions known to date).

As a detection method, “entangled” (related to each other) quanta of the microwave range are used. Using this method, you can detect various objects even in the so-called "noisy" (thermal) environments, where conventional radars are either powerless or simply fail. At the same time, the prototype of quantum radar has an additional important plus - extremely low power consumption.

Scientists describe the principle of work as follows: instead of using ordinary microwaves, we “confuse” two groups of photons (microwave quanta). One group is “signal”, the other is “single”. The first group goes to where the desired object can be located, the other is investigated in an isolated state. When reflected from the object, “signal” photons lose their confusion with the so-called “idle” ones, but some correlation is still preserved. As a result, it allows you to get information about what kind of object has become a reflector for the "signal" group.

The main problem is being solved


It consists in the fact that low temperatures are needed to create entangled microwave quanta.

Sabir Barzanyeh:

Using quantum entanglement created a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero (-273,14 ° C), we were able to detect objects with low reflectivity even at room temperature.

An important advantage over conventional radars: high sensitivity at a low power level (able to work in the background (thermal) noise).

With the development of such a system, it is able to withstand (at least in theory) any existing electronic warfare systems. EW systems can become useless. The reason is that the quantum radar, so to speak, is tuned to receive “signal” quanta (photons), and it simply ignores the rest. For efficiency, promising electronic warfare systems will have to “deceive” the quantum radar, “clone” the very intricate quanta that are used. But after how much time this can be possible, if possible (from the point of view of quantum physics) in general, is an open question.

Sabir Barzanyeh:

It will be interesting to see the future consequences of this study, especially for short-range microwave sensors.

So far, research on the detection of objects is carried out at ultra-short (in terms of the macrocosm) distances.
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  1. Lord of the Sith
    Lord of the Sith 12 May 2020 19: 51 New
    31
    It’s clear that now with a radar you need to carry a mega refrigerator))
    And about "electronic warfare systems can become useless" is still the grandmother said in two. There's a threaded bolt for every tricky ass)
    1. PN
      PN 12 May 2020 19: 57 New
      17
      The first to capture the North Pole will put a radar there. Something like this... )))
      1. Lord of the Sith
        Lord of the Sith 12 May 2020 20: 03 New
        19
        It remains only at the North Pole to find a place where it will be several thousandths of a degree above absolute zero (-273,14 ° C) laughing
        1. DMB_95
          DMB_95 12 May 2020 20: 10 New
          +5
          Quote: Lord of the Sith
          It remains only at the North Pole to find a place where it will be several thousandths of a degree above absolute zero (-273,14 ° C) laughing

          Liquid nitrogen in the hospital is the first thing that came to mind.
          1. Lord of the Sith
            Lord of the Sith 12 May 2020 20: 12 New
            51
            And the radar officer laughing
            1. Shurik70
              Shurik70 13 May 2020 08: 36 New
              +4
              And how many meters in the atmosphere can a quantum entangled photon fly?
              The slightest obstacle, in the form of air molecules, and he loses his entanglement.
              In space, such a radar is useful.
              And in the atmosphere is unlikely.
          2. greshnik80
            greshnik80 12 May 2020 20: 22 New
            +9
            Nitrogen will not be enough. Have to use liquid hydrogen.
            1. DMB_95
              DMB_95 12 May 2020 20: 33 New
              0
              Quote: greshnik80
              Nitrogen will not be enough. Have to use liquid hydrogen.

              Yes, no one will say right now - what they will use there, even if they know.
            2. Kuroneko
              Kuroneko 13 May 2020 04: 54 New
              +2
              Quote: greshnik80
              Nitrogen will not be enough. Have to use liquid hydrogen.

              Quote: DMB_95
              Liquid nitrogen in the hospital is the first thing that came to mind.

              No. Helium-3 (which is very difficult to do on Earth, but which is supposed to be a lot on the Moon) is needed to obtain such extremely low temperatures.
              1. missuris
                missuris 13 May 2020 10: 02 New
                +2
                like helium-3 is needed only for thermonuclear fusion, and for -273 any liquid helium is suitable
                1. Kuroneko
                  Kuroneko 13 May 2020 10: 09 New
                  +2
                  Quote: missuris
                  like helium-3 is needed only for thermonuclear fusion, and for -273 any liquid helium is suitable

                  No no. Thermonuclear is a very distant sight. In fact, the main benefit of helium-3 so far is precisely in achieving almost absolute zero.
                  Quantum computers only work at temperatures close to absolute zero (–273,14 ° C) in order to avoid the destruction of qubits (the smallest units for storing information in a quantum computer). For this, companies use liquid helium (namely the helium-3 isotope), which does not harden at extremely low temperatures.

                  Read more at RBC:
                  https://www.rbc.ru/trends/innovation/5e26d8f89a794772a3f4e2a4

                  And here is the very principle of obtaining ultra-low temperatures: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilution refrigerator
                  I just need it extremely close to absolute zero temperature. Literally above him a few millikelvins (i.e. thousandths of kelvin), which can only be obtained by dissolving helium-3 in helium-4. Because the qubit is able to work without errors only with ideal thermal death - i.e. absolute zero. Even some crumbs above this temperature are already beginning to introduce errors into his work. And their number increases hyperbolic even within the limits of heat one kelvin above zero.
          3. ANB
            ANB 12 May 2020 21: 36 New
            +7
            The boiling point of nitrogen is 195,8. Too warm.
      2. Interlocutor
        Interlocutor 12 May 2020 22: 03 New
        +1
        Well, why is the North Pole. Enough northern latitudes. Then congratulations. We have already won. Something like this. wink
        1. Starover_Z
          Starover_Z 12 May 2020 23: 45 New
          0
          Quote: Interlocutor
          Well, why is the North Pole. Enough northern latitudes. Then congratulations. We have already won. Something like this. wink

          In space, it is profitable to suspend such radars; there is a good MINUS. Orient to the territory and relative to the Sun and observe it whatever you want.
          1. nikon7717
            nikon7717 13 May 2020 00: 12 New
            +3
            The radar has an emitter that generates photon quanta, and photons possess both the properties of particles (photoelectric effect) and waves (diffraction, rainbow). Therefore, at a great distance it will be possible to distort, reflect the signal, until they understand that there is a cloud or an airplane. Have to work hard for a long time.
          2. KCA
            KCA 13 May 2020 07: 35 New
            +1
            In space, as it were, there is no minus, nor plus, the vacuum is not a conductor of heat at all
      3. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 13 May 2020 04: 31 New
        +1
        Quote: PN
        The first to capture the North Pole will put a radar there. Something like this... )))

        No. hi Read carefully. repeat We need a pole of cold, and we already have it. repeat
    2. DMB_95
      DMB_95 12 May 2020 20: 05 New
      10
      Quote: Lord of the Sith
      It’s clear that now with a radar you need to carry a mega refrigerator))
      And about "electronic warfare systems can become useless" is still the grandmother said in two. There's a threaded bolt for every tricky ass)

      But Kalash does not lose anything, even becomes more relevant))
    3. demo
      demo 12 May 2020 21: 22 New
      +7
      All right.
      Let this "fancy" radar detect the object.
      The object must be influenced - destroyed.
      Destruction is carried out by missiles, which, by definition, cannot have such a radar.
      And on which the effect of electronic warfare is very much affected.
      Then why all this fuss?
      Although!
      The idea is cool !!!!!
    4. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 12 May 2020 22: 14 New
      +2
      Quote: Lord of the Sith
      There is a threaded bolt for every tricky ass)

      And for every threaded bolt there is a bum with nooks and crannies.
      The eternal struggle of armor and shell.
      1. Salavatsky Ministry of Emergency Situations
        +2
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        And for every threaded bolt there is a bum with nooks and crannies.

        And for every ass with back streets there is a bolt with a detailed map of back streets smile
    5. Wolverine
      Wolverine 13 May 2020 15: 59 New
      0
      Quote: Lord of the Sith
      It’s clear that now with a radar you need to carry a mega refrigerator))
      And about "electronic warfare systems can become useless" is still the grandmother said in two. There's a threaded bolt for every tricky ass)


      Exactly, the announcement of the quantum radar has been rated as "loudly farted" so far, work and work, everything is done quietly and efficiently here.
    6. remal
      remal 13 May 2020 22: 33 New
      0
      Thermal imagers also cool. The most comfortable conditions will be in space, you can also attach to the airship, there is helium, superconducting engines, everything. Lasers from space to pump energy))
  2. Pete mitchell
    Pete mitchell 12 May 2020 19: 55 New
    12
    Not clear, but great ...
    1. Grognag
      Grognag 12 May 2020 21: 07 New
      +4
      How that dude in memes is not clear, but very interesting
      1. Pete mitchell
        Pete mitchell 12 May 2020 22: 14 New
        +4
        Quote: Grognag
        that dude in memes is not clear x

        Well, if we are talking about the same meme, then he turned 15 years ago: Spilberg, two million dollars, it is not clear ...
    2. novel66
      novel66 12 May 2020 22: 00 New
      +4
      healthy tramp! hi not great yet
      1. Pete mitchell
        Pete mitchell 12 May 2020 22: 12 New
        +4
        Novel hi I don’t agree with you: for the time being it is incomprehensible and cool. That's when it becomes clear, then someone will not great
        1. novel66
          novel66 12 May 2020 22: 20 New
          +4
          uh no! when it is clear and reaches the consumer - it will be great! so that the sergeant understands !!!
          1. Pete mitchell
            Pete mitchell 12 May 2020 23: 10 New
            +4
            Quote: Pete Mitchell
            Not clear, but great ...
    3. I think logically ... occasionally
      I think logically ... occasionally 13 May 2020 08: 18 New
      +6
      "Not clear, but great ..."
      Not only did you fail to understand this, but Albert Einstein himself. He and Niels Bohr have debated this topic for years. Einstein died in 1955 and did not "get it" into the theory proposed by Bohr. The theory seemed wild. For example, you look at an electron - it is a particle. As soon as you turn away, he is a wave. Or you divide the photon into two parts. They scatter at the speed of light, naturally. You can imagine how far the two parts will be, say in a thousand years. So, if you stop one of the parts spin up, then the second part will immediately stop spin down. Brad, isn't it? So there were scientists (in the USA, the University of Berkeley, in France, in the early 70s) who tried to prove that Niels Bohr's theory was wrong and crazy. They built very expensive and very accurate installations. It turned out that Bohr was right. Many scientists with a weak mentality could not stand the stress and stopped studying quantum physics. Meanwhile, the theory of semiconductors was developed on Bohr's theory, and then diodes, transistors, microcircuits were created. ALL current electronics are based on the Theory of Niels Bohr. He is the greatest scientist of the 20th century, with Einstein in second place.
      1. dauria
        dauria 13 May 2020 13: 35 New
        +1
        ALL current electronics are based on Niels Bohr's Theory

        Heisenberg with Schrödinger doesn’t count? wink A lot of them. Both before and after. Including Einstein.
        An old joke from physicists.
        -Teacher, an electron flies through one slot. How does he know that there is another open slot nearby?
        - Shut up and just count the result according to the formula.
        This is the essence of modern quantum physics. laughing
        1. I think logically ... occasionally
          I think logically ... occasionally 13 May 2020 19: 11 New
          +2
          Heisenberg and Schrödinger were followers and successors of the development of Bohr's theory. By the way, Schrödinger was shocked and quit studying quantum mechanics and went into biology after it turned out that a cat can be both alive and dead at the same time. Heisenberg "just" created a mathematical model linking the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. By the way, a side effect of the Heisenberg model was the conclusion that energy arises and disappears in a vacuum. Later, Dirac proved that particles of matter and antimatter appear in a vacuum, which, in turn, proved the emergence of the Universe from Nothing.
  3. APASUS
    APASUS 12 May 2020 19: 59 New
    +4
    I understand that the end of the era of invisible aircraft?
    1. Ilya098
      Ilya098 12 May 2020 20: 03 New
      11
      I understand that the end of the era of invisible aircraft?

      https://rg.ru/2020/01/19/my-vidim-vse-rossijskaia-rls-smogla-obnaruzhit-f-35-u-granic-irana.html
      It seems she did not even start)
    2. eklmn
      eklmn 12 May 2020 20: 09 New
      0
      Seeing a plane is not enough - you still need to be able to direct a rocket.
      Those radars that see an F-35 airplane for 3000 km cannot launch a rocket onto the airplane.
      1. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara 12 May 2020 20: 30 New
        -5
        Quote: eklmn
        Seeing a plane is not enough - you still need to be able to direct a rocket.
        Those radars that see an F-35 airplane for 3000 km cannot launch a rocket onto the airplane.

        Rather, the only thing they can do is indicate that somewhere there is some kind of object
        1. Grognag
          Grognag 12 May 2020 21: 08 New
          +5
          All radars are so arranged that they can only say that there’s some kind of object
          1. Vol4ara
            Vol4ara 13 May 2020 10: 53 New
            0
            Quote: Grognag
            All radars are so arranged that they can only say that there’s some kind of object

            No, some work in the same range, and can specify coordinates with an accuracy of a centimeter, while others can only indicate the presence of an object with a monstrous error, without indicating direction and speed and not indicating in principle what kind of object
            1. Grognag
              Grognag 14 May 2020 20: 40 New
              0
              What does the range have to do with it, I meant that in one survey the radar can only detect that there is an object somewhere and not one radar can determine the speed and direction in one survey
      2. Ilya098
        Ilya098 12 May 2020 20: 49 New
        +9
        “The station is an important link in the strategic containment system, the most important link and cornerstone in the system of reconnaissance and warning of an aerospace attack,” quoted Lieutenant General Andrei Demin, commander of the 1st Air Defense Forces of the Russian Aerospace Forces, press Ministry of Defense service.

        The task of the "Container" is to detect the target in advance. And other complexes should deal with destruction or escort.
        The future creator of the s-400 in 1964 defended his Ph.D. thesis on the results of research in the field of diffraction by weakly scattering (so-called "black") bodies, which are subtle air targets. These studies were a kind of anticipation of future invisible targets. Having a deep understanding of this problem, already at the post of general designer, he will solve the problem of effectively intercepting these targets and will declare that there are no invisible targets for modern air defense systems, created at Almaz.

        https://vpk-news.ru/articles/1785
      3. Interlocutor
        Interlocutor 12 May 2020 22: 06 New
        +2
        I agree. Surely I can’t bring missiles. But who said that they could not bring invisible planes together and their planes? And to bring their planes to the bridgehead - an ambush ...
      4. Ka-52
        Ka-52 13 May 2020 06: 23 New
        +2
        Seeing a plane is not enough - you still need to be able to direct a rocket.

        stupid thing. a detection system is much more important than a lesion system. Remaining undetected for the radar, enemy planes can come so close that the reaction time of the Air Defense Object may simply not be enough. In addition, aircraft with modern air-to-surface weapons no longer have to enter the air defense coverage area. And for pre-detected air targets, it’s not necessary to use only air defense missiles, you can also send interceptors
      5. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 13 May 2020 12: 40 New
        0
        If for 3000 km the reflected signal arrives at the operator’s receiver, then why doesn’t the same signal arrive at the receiver of the rocket launched at the target?
    3. V.I.P.
      V.I.P. 12 May 2020 20: 55 New
      0
      And EW stations))))
  4. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 12 May 2020 20: 00 New
    +4
    the eternal confrontation between "projectile and armor" ... well, well ... the new technology does not stand still either ... well, there will be quantum-electronic counteraction within the framework of the EW)) ... there are methods of counteraction for every challenge. ..
    1. Pavlik K.
      Pavlik K. 12 May 2020 23: 04 New
      +1
      Absolutely. Dissolve-absorb-reflect-distort the quantum field of the "signal group" and hello! I am sure they are already solving the problem ...
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Indifferent
    Indifferent 12 May 2020 20: 02 New
    +9
    I don’t understand whether scientists have become idiots, or whether the author confused God's gift with fried eggs? After all, photons have quantum entanglement. And these are particles of light. Thus, the target will have to be illuminated with a laser beam to be detected. And what does this have to do with entanglement? After all, the target is already detected by optical designators and the same lasers. These are on our fighters just to detect invisible people and in the face of electronic warfare. Someone went with their brains! Either I, or "scientists". Apparently the Austrian with the company of the same "aces from science" is not aware of how modern goals are discovered and thinks that he has invented something important, but in reality a bicycle or something very similar to it.
    1. Svetlana
      Svetlana 12 May 2020 20: 45 New
      +4
      Remember the Strugatsky brothers, where in "Monday starts on Saturday" it was noticed that journalists do not understand and cannot describe what is at the forefront of science.
      1. novel66
        novel66 12 May 2020 22: 05 New
        +7
        because scientists cannot explain them in simple words
        1. Lord of the Sith
          Lord of the Sith 12 May 2020 23: 30 New
          +2
          It is interesting to listen to the adaptation of transcendental apperception, discrete mathematics and matanalysis for a six-year-old peanut for example))
      2. DominickS
        DominickS 14 May 2020 17: 50 New
        0
        Absolutely right.
    2. Peter is not the first
      Peter is not the first 12 May 2020 20: 46 New
      +2
      The Austrians and Italians suggested this for medical research, not for the search for "invisibles". And already in the article, or rather, in the source of information for this article, conclusions are drawn in a completely different plane.
      https://m.lenta.ru/news/2020/05/12/quantum/
    3. Undecim
      Undecim 12 May 2020 21: 07 New
      +1
      I don’t understand, either scientists became idiots, or did the author confuse God's gift with fried eggs?
      The author is not that confused, he has no idea about it. This invention to the discovery of aircraft and other purposes in general has nothing to do. It is intended for medical purposes (biomedical scanners) and security system scanners.
      Therefore, your panting about "aces from science" is completely out of topic.
    4. Artyom1979
      Artyom1979 12 May 2020 22: 54 New
      +3
      This photon is a particle of electromagnetic radiation, any, including radio waves, energy is simply different.
    5. Pandiurin
      Pandiurin 12 May 2020 22: 57 New
      +1
      “I don’t understand whether scientists have become idiots, or whether the author has confused God's gift with scrambled eggs? ...”

      The article describes not a valid type of weapon, but only a theory of a new type, and much more wound than the rofar, which no one has seen either.

      The point is that if the "photonic electronic warfare" simulates reflected photons, then the receiver will theoretically be able to distinguish the false generated photons. they will not correspond in quantum entanglement to the originally emitted entangled photons.
    6. UserGun
      UserGun 13 May 2020 00: 27 New
      0
      Quote: indifferent
      And these are particles of light


      You have outdated information.

      "Phón (from ancient Greek φῶς, genus. Pad. Φωτός," light ") is an elementary particle, electromagnetic radiation quantum (in the narrow sense - light) in the form of transverse electromagnetic waves and a carrier of electromagnetic interaction. It is a massless particle that can exist in a vacuum only moving at the speed of light. "

      X-rays are also transferred by photons, if you did not know))) Yes, it doesn’t matter what kind of radiation. The main quantum of energy.
    7. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 13 May 2020 10: 41 New
      0
      Quote: indifferent
      After all, photons have quantum entanglement. And these are particles of light

      A photon is a quantum of electromagnetic radiation. In the entire range, i.e. not only visible light, but also radio, and x-rays, and gamma.
  6. MrFox
    MrFox 12 May 2020 20: 04 New
    +8
    In 10 years, this radar will overcome a range of 1 millimeter. Then the electronic warfare systems should definitely alert
    1. Gray brother
      Gray brother 12 May 2020 21: 09 New
      +2
      Quote: MrFox
      In 10 years, this radar will overcome a range of 1 millimeter.

      First you have to catch the Schrodinger cat.
      1. vadimtt
        vadimtt 13 May 2020 09: 04 New
        0
        In a dark room, where before that they tried to catch a black cat, who was not there.
        But sooner or later, quantum coding will get to the radar, so that the pulse trains do not fake all kinds of electronic warfare laughing
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother 13 May 2020 09: 16 New
          0
          Quote: vadimtt
          which was not there.

          The cat was there, but was in superposition.
  7. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 12 May 2020 20: 06 New
    +5
    Read. Sense caught weakly. But I understood one thing - all these are laboratory experiments, and up to practical use as cancer to Shanghai. EW will still exist.
    1. donavi49
      donavi49 12 May 2020 20: 19 New
      +7
      The meaning is generally elementary:
      there is an observable fact (already 100 years) - related particles (there can be a lot of them) mirror each other’s changes, at any distance (in theory, if we launch another galaxy, a connected photon, we can remove information from the remaining in the laboratory, and even violate fundamental laws, that is, the answer will come faster than the speed of light, which is impossible in current physics). How - that's who understands the mechanism, will receive the Nobel Prize and the title of the new Einstein.

      Using this observed fact, you can create a machine that will shoot photons, and the laboratory complex to analyze the state of the control group, then calculate the range, direction, taking into account the speed of light. Well, etc.

      On paper, the idea has been around for 20 years. However, in practice, in fact, today, no one knows how it works. There are only theories, and not one of them yet seems to be finalized or dominant.

      Well, making a compact product, again, is still very difficult.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 12 May 2020 20: 37 New
        +8
        "On paper, the idea has been around for 20 years. However, in practice, in fact, for today" ////
        ----
        The Chinese received quantum communication in space. Not radar, but communication - quantum -
        between satellite and earth. They generally made great progress in this direction.
        In Europe (Switzerland, Germany) they are persistently engaged in quantum communication in optical cables.
        Americans and Canadians - quantum computers.
        In Israel, an interesting experiment was made with multiple tangled pairs with
        "the domino principle". Where the "grandfather" turns out to be "younger" than the "grandson". laughing
        In general - a completely crazy area of ​​science, where common sense,
        speed and time do not work, as we are used to.
      2. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 14 May 2020 16: 00 New
        +1
        It's actually even easier. There are simply no reliable results. This whole hat rests solely on the statements of the authors of the experiments. And this is fortunately, because the vision of a selsyn motor the size of a star is already a movie so-so, but imagine a larger scale ... If you can confuse a couple of photons, why not confuse one half of the Universe with the other, and there it is a stone's throw to the idea of ​​a god who controls this very universe, "confusing" it from himself.
        All this madness blooms because we know nothing about the substance. The existing theory of its structure is clearly incorrect. If we knew some secrets of the substance, we could change it. And our only "successes" in this direction lie in the fact that we beat atom on atom with the greatest force available to us (well, so we think) and as if children pounding bottles with a hammer, fascinatedly watching the fragments.
        And so, in order to tirelessly patch holes in our obviously crooked theory, we come up with either dark matter or quantum theory. That's about to work! Almost now! Literally half a step! How many years do we hear these peppy cries? More precisely - how many decades? And what? Semiconductors do not need to be involved in this plague. But get reliable macro results ...
    2. cniza
      cniza 12 May 2020 20: 47 New
      +4
      Quote: KVU-NSVD
      Read. Sense caught weakly. But I understood one thing - all these are laboratory experiments, and up to practical use as cancer to Shanghai. EW will still exist.



      It goes without saying that a quantum "electronic warfare" will appear ...
      1. UserGun
        UserGun 13 May 2020 00: 38 New
        0
        Well, from the point of view of modern quantum physics, this is impossible. For example, communication based on quantum physics is not subject to hacking.
  8. knn54
    knn54 12 May 2020 20: 07 New
    0
    In general, the radar generates a pair of interconnected photons, one of which remains the control, and the second is released into the space, where it is reflected from the target. When the reflected photon returns, it correlates with the control one and is converted into an image on the operator’s screen.
    Here looms a couple of interesting points:
    -identification of the target by physical characteristics-external data;
    - almost impossible to detect.
    1. bairat
      bairat 12 May 2020 20: 32 New
      +3
      Perhaps you do not need to wait for the photon to return. The fact of its interaction with the object is important, this will cause a change in the state of its control counterpart, the rest is a matter of technology.
      A low temperature is needed to slow down the control photon.
    2. fider
      fider 14 May 2020 07: 40 New
      0
      knn54
      Vobschem + Generally = GENERAL laughing mathematics, you know, and no physics.
  9. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 12 May 2020 20: 07 New
    +3
    Another nonsense, British scientists, it seems, moved to Austria. And the illustration of the note is very impressive. The girls-designers tried.
    successful integration of quantum mechanics into human life

    Quantum mechanics has been successfully integrated into human life even in the zero-generation night-vision devices of WWII. And then more.
    1. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 13 May 2020 16: 10 New
      -1
      If we accept that quantum mechanics reflects reality, then it is integrated into life from the moment of conception, because otherwise, the fetus would have crumbled into elementary particles, but since something tells me that quantummem has approximately the same relation to reality as a shamanic dance to cause rain, then ...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 13 May 2020 18: 35 New
        +1
        Try to calculate an elementary transistor or a tunnel diode without quantum solid state physics. If it works out, I will agree with the "shamanic dance".
        1. Arthur 85
          Arthur 85 13 May 2020 20: 03 New
          -1
          Cascade to calculate or what? Or the thickness of the pH transition?
          By the way, I read it in one article and was stunned myself: like a "hole", that is. valence vacancy can be a carrier of a positive charge? If the impurity atom is neutral? .. And could not find the answer. Can you tell me?
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 13 May 2020 20: 25 New
            +2
            The depth of the potential hole at least. An electron in a substance cannot possess any energy. He has the so-called. quantized (discrete) energy levels. But there is one substance and another substance. There are conductors in which charge carriers are like flies in an outhouse. Even there is such a term - electronic gas. If you attach an electric field to the conductor, they will rush against it (the charge is negative). There are insulators - there the width of the forbidden zone is huge! You apply an electric field to the insulator, but the current does not flow. All electrons sit at their atoms. Both of them have been used since the middle of the year before last (when Faraday understood how to strengthen the magnetic field from a turn with current, he came up with a solenoid, but he found the wire with insulation only in the hat salon). The conductor is needed so that current flows through it, and the insulator is needed so that the current goes where it is directed. And there were substances that were medium in conductivity and medium in insulating properties. Neither this, nor this - not a candle to God, not a damn poker. But when they began to study them (from nothing to do), it turned out that something could also be learned from them. For example, the carrier itself will not go into the conduction band until it receives activation energy (an external photon, for example). He switched, became some kind of conductor, you can fix this charge, which appeared due to the internal photoelectric effect, as it happens in CCD matrices. Well, etc.
            Now about the neutral impurity. It all depends on its valency. There are donor impurities that donate excess electrons to the conduction band, and there are acceptor ones that pick them up from there, positively charged vacancies called holes appear in the conduction band. Impurity semiconductors have a low activation energy, which means they are very sensitive, which is good for a thermal imager, for example. It’s within the framework of zone theory that I analyze everything. And at the core is quantum mechanics. It began in the first third of the last century with an explanation of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom; this spectrum was no longer explained. Well then, let's go-go ...
            1. Arthur 85
              Arthur 85 13 May 2020 20: 45 New
              -1
              Yes, that's all, excuse me, I know. Well, didn’t I know about the wire - an interesting detail. But this does not explain in any way why, by introducing a trivalent impurity into a tetravalent semiconductor, we create an excess of positive charges (holes)? Why suddenly, if both substances are initially neutral (contain the same number of protons and electrons)?
              By the way, the quantum theory, as far as I remember, was born rather from an attempt to explain why an electron in an orbit / orbital does not emit. It turned out to be very simple: if it is not necessary for it to radiate, we introduce the postulate that it does not radiate, and the first quantum number, business! (it's a pity, when I solved the problems, I didn't know that it was possible this way: "I postulate that the answer is 43" wink )
              Slightly reminds, excuse me, the explanation of the development of the disease by the instillation of an evil spirit ...
              And to explain why the transistor still works began to try later, after its discovery / invention. So far unsuccessfully, as far as I understand.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 13 May 2020 22: 47 New
                +1
                It is in the form of a mono-compound indium, or else who is there, neutral. And how to put it in the form of impurities in germanium, for example, here in such a lattice the fight for electrons begins, or pushing away excess (now I don't remember, he is a donor, or an acceptor) or theft of electrons from neighbors with the formation of vacancies - holes. About quantum physics. Bohr simply postulated such a medical fact: well, it doesn't emit an electron in a stationary orbit, that's all. And classical electrodynamics requires that it radiates. It means that you shouldn't climb into a row of pork with a pork snout. I had to invent new mathematics and electrodynamics. So psi-functions (a kind of unfinished probability density), and other miracles in a potential well with operators of quantum mechanics were developed a little later. Then the table was explained to them. DI. Mendeleev, with all these shells, s, p, d, f ... And the line spectra were also explained, not only hydrogen (after all, what is good about it - it allows an analytical solution). About your thesis: "I postulate that the answer is like this!" This is only possible for artists - "I am an artist, I see it this way!" And here - a natural phenomenon. With fig electrodynamics of macro and microworld should be the same? So it is not the same. Just think for yourself - the whole analysis of infinitesimal, differential and integral calculus, invented by Newton and Leibniz, is based on the continuity of the real series of numbers. It's a classic. Divide the segment in half, but inside it is still an infinite set of numbers, no matter how we split it. And a lot of theorems on continuity, etc. These are mathematicians, they can do that. They have abstract science. Mathematics is only a tool for physicists. Take a real piece, metal. As long as there is a decent number of atoms in the chopped off part, then all these theorems on continuity can be applied, and mathematics too. And the properties of the severed part and the remaining stub remain the same. But now you have reached the size of an atom. There is an atom on the left in the piece, but not on the right. There is no continuity, no continuum. That's it, the classical mathematics is over, we need the mathematics of the microworld. And they came up with it. There was still a lot to be explained - wave-particle dualism, and so on.
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 13 May 2020 22: 54 New
                +1
                And to explain why the transistor still works began to try later, after its discovery / invention. So far unsuccessfully, as far as I understand.

                Wrong understand. This semiconductor diode in the early 20s was empirically groped (nitrous oxide, selenium, and something else, I do not remember). Everything was with the triode after the theory was created, Bloch wrote his equation about the electron in the crystal lattice at the beginning of the 30s, and the transistor (when they learned how to influence the transition) is 1947, then it will not work in bare empirics.
              3. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 22 May 2020 20: 39 New
                +2
                More than a week has passed, realized how electronic or hole conductivity appears? It seems that the concept of valency is not yet understood. Just think, why are these two electrically neutral oxygen atoms combined into an O2 molecule? And all because of the completion of electronic shells to a closed form. And atomic oxygen is formed only in high-temperature plasma, for example, behind the shock wave of a warhead at its entrance into the dense layers of the atmosphere.
                And about quantum mechanics. Imagine you need to open closed doors. And you open them with the key that you made (they did about 50 years - this is classical electrodynamics). Suddenly I came across a door that does not open with this key (spectrum of a hydrogen atom). Well, he does not fit in any way. There is a spectrum, electrons spin stationary, and do not fall on the nucleus, as classical electrodynamics tells them to. I had to make a new key (a new tool - quantum mechanics). She explained everything, at least with this question. Like this.
                1. Arthur 85
                  Arthur 85 22 May 2020 21: 16 New
                  -1
                  To be honest, I was busy. I well know how the "hole" conduction is described in the textbook (there are no questions for electronic questions). But there is still no answer: how is an excess of positive charges formed when mixing a tetravalent semiconductor and a trivalent impurity (which are both neutral)? Why would you? That is, empty valence generates a positive charge?
                  Regarding valency, and "electron clouds" um ... Why two oxygen atoms combine, I honestly do not know. I suspect no one knows. Hydrogen somehow tried to calculate (H2), proceeding from the Coulomb law. It seems to have worked out. But already starting with helium - there is a problem of three bodies, it is not solved. However, helium did not seem to master Boron either, so it's not a shame. But at least I was not delirious, with the "alignment of clouds and energy", but quite classical electrodynamics. Anyway. Nobody needs it anyway.
                  Atomic oxygen, it must be assumed, immediately reacts with the metal of the warhead, or when it cools down a little, it again combines in O2.
                  And what is the secret of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom? Does it emit at certain frequencies? But cats are born cats, but this does not surprise anyone (joke).
                  Quantum mechanics, it seems, does not explain anything. Do you really believe that a particle can be "smeared" in space? That the binding energy of quarks in terms of electron-volt mass can be many times greater than what they supposedly consist of? That nucleons, exchanging a meson, of some kind of devil are suddenly attracted? Don't you think this is nonsense?
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 22 May 2020 22: 26 New
                    +1
                    Andrey, in order.
                    Why two atoms of oxygen (and hydrogen) unite already knew Mendeleev by the end of the XIX century. Calculation of a hydrogen molecule by electrical interaction will not give anything due to the neutrality of atoms. How did you manage to calculate it? Where did the three-body task come from helium - this is not clear to me. As for Niels Bohr, he did not calculate the structure of atoms, everything was formed in the 30-40s of the last century, by theorists like von Heisenberg, Dirac, Pauli, Schrödinger, Bloch, etc. The mystery of the spectra (including hydrogen) was that in the planetary model of the atom, which Rutherford presented on the basis of his experiments, the lifetime of any atoms should be no more than picoseconds, the electrons emitted, fell onto the nucleus and the atom ceased to exist. However, this was not observed in nature; they brazenly continued to exist. I had to look for a new explanation, again based on experiments. The probabilistic description of the microworld did not come from the fact that there was nothing more to do, but from experimental data, for example, from experiments on electron diffraction. What does faith have to do with it? This is not faith, this is knowledge. We will not talk about the essence of nuclear forces (nucleon interaction), we must first understand at the atomic level. Take a look at the nature of the chemical bond between elements — there are several types of them; it is realized in different compounds of atoms (electrically neutral!). Now about radiation. Electromagnetic radiation occurs when an electric charge is accelerated. This was formulated in the second half of the XNUMXth century. The same, incidentally, explains thermal radiation - temperature is the degree of trembling of atoms and molecules. Twitch, but the outer shell does not have time. it shakes separately, a pulsating dipole moment arises, well, etc. At low temperatures - this is the IR range, higher - more, in accordance with Wien's law. But! Luminescent glow is not thermal. It is there that transitions occur from the upper energy levels to the lower ones with the emission of light (how to drive electrons to the upper level is a separate issue). And during luminescence, electrons randomly run from top to bottom. And in the laser, they first managed to collect the electrons at the top, and then bring them all down together - a completely different light source.
                    Atomic oxygen reacts not with the "warhead metal", but with an ablative coating that protects the warhead, the technology has been developed since the 50s of the last century. The problem was with reusable coating, both on Buran and on the Shuttle, and it was also solved in the last century.
                    1. Arthur 85
                      Arthur 85 24 May 2020 11: 12 New
                      -1
                      I calculated two hydrogen atoms, forgetting the quantmech, representing them as a system of four point charges (two pluses and two minuses.) I set myself the task: if three of them (two nuclei and an electron) are on the same straight line, then how many degrees can be rotated with respect to this axis the third, at a given distance between the nuclei, so that a chemical bond appears (that is, so that the total attractive force is greater than the repulsive force). And you know what happened. Without any electronic shells.
                      And helium is already irreducible to such a system, there are two electrons, and the problem of three bodies arises.
                      I know that an electron in orbit should emit, but does not emit. But Bohr did NOT answer this question. He postulated that there are stationary states (orbitals) where the electron does not radiate. In my opinion this is called "faith."
                      Electron diffraction is due to dualism. Probability has nothing to do with it. Although, maybe there is another explanation. Honestly, I didn’t think about it ...
                      Excuse me, what is the outer shell not keeping up with? Atom, or physical body? I didn’t seem to argue with the fact that when the electron accelerates “down”, a quantum is emitted (by the way, how is it absorbed?) After all, we need to find the same atom (well, or with the same difference between the electronic levels, but unexcited. can half a quantum be absorbed?
                      As for the BB shell, I got excited, but atomic oxygen is generally an aggressive substance.
                      1. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 24 May 2020 11: 24 New
                        -1
                        That is, not the third, of course, but the fourth how much can be rotated ...
                      2. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 24 May 2020 11: 51 New
                        +1
                        I calculated two hydrogen atoms, forgetting the quantmech, representing them as a system of four point charges (two pluses and two minuses.) I set myself the task: if three of them (two nuclei and an electron) are on the same straight line, then how many degrees can be rotated relative to this axis the third, at a given distance between the nuclei, so that a chemical bond occurs (that is, so that the total attractive force is greater than the repulsive force).

                        And what is the size of the molecule?
                        He postulated that there are stationary states (orbitals) where the electron does not radiate. In my opinion this is called "faith."

                        This is called reality. It is reality (nature) that physics studies. It has nothing to do with faith. Do you believe that you are typing text, or are you really typing it?
                        Naturally, diffraction phenomena are wave phenomena. So, since the electrons on the target in the experiments can be released individually, this is exactly how one of the experiments on their diffraction was done (I don’t remember the authors). The detector also recorded diffracted electrons individually. The distribution over the detector was described by a probabilistic law. And, after a considerable time, the diffraction pattern turned out to be the same as that from the diffraction of simultaneously emitted electrons.
                        Now about radiation. The mass of an electron is 1000 times less than the mass of a proton (the nucleus of a hydrogen atom). When the molecules vibrate in the crystal lattice (or when they collide in the gas phase of the substance), the electron cloud will receive an acceleration of 1000 times more than the core. And all this will continue as long as there is temperature in the body. This is the nature of thermal radiation.
                        And about your calculations - do your electrons rotate, or are stationary, as in the Thomson model?
                      3. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 24 May 2020 18: 24 New
                        0
                        The size of the molecule I took from the directory. It was just interesting to calculate (this was 15 years ago) is it possible in principle the existence of a hydrogen molecule? It turned out - perhaps, with a certain range of positions of the electrons at the moment of the occurrence of such a bond (that is, the approach of atoms due to thermal motion). Electrons, of course, rotate. For simplicity, I believed that they rotate in the same plane and in one direction. If not in the same plane, then the "range of angles" will be less. (But in principle, over time, they will occupy the most energetically advantageous position). But helium may not be so: that is, two electrons can rotate in different planes. It was very difficult to consider this, and I quit ... I was interested in the principle itself: is it possible to explain the existence of a chemical bond without resorting to quantum theory. Can. The rest was of little interest to me. It would be necessary to count to the end: assuming the electron positions are equally probable, knowing the number of atom collisions per second at a given temperature - calculate the rate of a chemical reaction combining atomic hydrogen into molecular ... And if it corresponds to the experimental one, then the quantum theory, well, you understand ... However, laziness. I’m going for 15 years. If, in fact, he’s right, then it still will not change anything. They don’t pass the LHC on the colorimeter, right?
                        I won’t talk about diffraction, I feel with my heart that something is very wrong there, but I didn’t dig it.
                        By the way, about electron accelerations. Doesn't e-gas affect itself? I once wondered: how will two parallel electron beams from two cathodes at the same speed affect each other? The question is not so stupid: conductors in which current flows in one direction are attracted. But from the point of view of the theory of relativity, electrons from different beams are at rest relative to each other. And must push. I found some sort of translated, almost Indian site in a couple of hours of searching. Perforce, you begin to believe in the conspiracy. From the Higgs boson, everyone is interested. But for some reason, such a fundamental question is not.
                      4. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 24 May 2020 18: 47 New
                        0
                        In order. You took a reference atomic size of 10-10m (one angstrom) and calculated the circular orbit of an electron in the field of two protons and another electron? According to the pendant?
                        About diffraction - here, as in politics, you don't need to feel with your heart. It was already in 1996 - "vote with your heart". This vital blood pump should not be used off-label.
                        Regarding the electricity course, I can advise 2 books - the good old university Kalashnikov "Electricity", where everything is well written, do not be afraid that it is fat - to understand a thin book, you need to read 2 thick ones. And the second - from the series "Berkeley Physics Course" - Purcell, "Electricity and Magnetism". The question that magnetism is a relativistic effect is well dealt with there. Parallel beams (either electrons or protons) will be repelled, since the electrical interaction is much stronger than the magnetic one. And if you have two conductors with current, then they are electrically neutral (how many electrons came to one end, so much left the other, and the accumulation of charge is possible only in a capacitor, and a two-wire line, of course, has some capacity, but small, and it will manifest itself only with alternating current at high frequencies), therefore, only the magnetic effect appears.
                      5. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 25 May 2020 06: 58 New
                        0
                        Yes, I already have information about the conductors, I have not been looking for it for a long time.
                        About the relativism of magnetism, is it not about the fact that it is impossible to determine (according to TO) whether the charge is at rest or "rides"? And therefore, the electric field is always electromagnetic?
                        According to the calculations. From the reference book I took data on the diameter of the hydrogen atom, and the interatomic distance. My "teachers" were good. Cooper, for example. When it is necessary, it has classical interactions, when it is not necessary, it is relativistic.
                        So again. There are two protons. There are two electrons. In one plane. Electrons rotate in one direction. If both atoms flock to each other with “muzzles” or “backs” (that is, the azimuth of both electrons is 0 or 180), then the atoms will immediately fly apart and there will be no molecule. If one electron is between the protons (azimuth 0), the second electron is “behind” one of the protons (azimuth 180), then the attractive force is maximum. Question: how many degrees should that second be rejected so that the molecule “does not take place”?
                        It is considered according to the law of Coulomb and the Pythagorean theorem.
                        That is, I do not claim to be 100% right. There may simply be other explanations. So maybe other effects have explanations less divorced from human experience than this strange pile of postulates, called the quantummech?
                      6. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 25 May 2020 08: 40 New
                        0
                        that is, the azimuth of both electrons is 0 or 180

                        Is that a spin?
                      7. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 28 May 2020 06: 55 New
                        0
                        No, this is the position of the electron relative to the straight line passing through the centers of atoms.
                        However, I thought for a couple of days, and realized how this can be linked to the "overlapping of electron clouds." Of course, there are no "clouds" in the world, this is nonsense. But the position of the two electrons relative to each other is important - because while the atoms, due to thermal motion, will vibrate about a certain average interatomic distance, the electron itself will wind a hundred revolutions. And in this sense, in fact, we can talk about the overlap of the orbits and the probability of the position of the electron.
                        Which of course, God forbid, does not mean that the elementary particle is immediately in different places.
                      8. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 28 May 2020 08: 34 New
                        0
                        And your electron does not emit during this rotation?
                      9. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 28 May 2020 08: 45 New
                        0
                        No. True, I have not yet figured out why)) But it's just not interesting to postulate ... And by the way, why does the electron jump to the lower electronic level? What does quantme say about this? Something tells me that the answer is somewhere out there ...
                      10. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 28 May 2020 09: 02 New
                        0
                        It jumps only when, due to previous reasons (shock excitation — temperature, optical — absorption of a quantum of light — optical pumping of a laser, chemical excitation — due to a reaction, etc.) it is at the upper level and there is room to fall, there is a lower . Luminescence is when they fall randomly. Laser radiation is when everything is together. But for a laser, you must at least have three levels, or better, like four helium neonics. It is necessary to get away from the equilibrium Boltzmann population of levels, when the number of electrons from above and below is distributed exponentially with a negative exponent. That is, create the so-called. inverse population. And a resonator is also needed to amplify the radiation.
                      11. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 28 May 2020 22: 40 New
                        0
                        Um. You directly interested me in these lasers. That is, the radiation can be changed regardless of the typical distribution? And is it not just energy pumping? ..
                        To be honest, I heard that the electron "falls" to the lower level spontaneously. That is, he flew and flew, but thought: "I will emit a quantum." And then the laser gathered them for a rally, and said: well, let's emit everything with a single-mode beam!
                        For some reason, it seems to me that science either has to honestly admit: there is space, there is an electric charge, there is mass, and we do not understand, and we will never understand that this is not our mind’s business, or give clear definitions of those through simpler ones categories. And since this is impossible, see above.
                        By the way, in my opinion, quarks are such a clumsy attempt to express the unknowable. How children think that, behold, a little man sits in my head and looks at the world through my eyes. And this little man is "I".
                      12. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 29 May 2020 08: 39 New
                        0
                        Once again: a quark is an abstract concept, since in principle it is unobservable. Just like a coordinate grid, it does not exist in nature. But it greatly helps with specific solutions to problems. And why - the unknowable? After all, the quark theory made it possible to predict new elementary particles - omega minus hyperon, for example. Creating a systematics of the elements of nature - this is knowledge. No need here about the unknowable.
                        Regarding emissions. There is a continuous spectrum - this is thermal (bremsstrahlung) radiation, since there the electrons emit by themselves due to acceleration (deceleration). There is a continuous X-ray spectrum, they are scanned in an X-ray room, and there is a line, it appears when electrons are knocked out of the inner shells, and then the upper ones are poured there, radiating X-rays. And with external transitions, the maximum energy that can be achieved is the UV range (Balmer series). This is about transitions in general. Now on. There are spontaneous transitions, and there are induced ones. They did not immediately think of them - only with their help it was possible to explain the equilibrium states. There are states, but without an induced transition, it was not possible to explain. They provide a simultaneous collapse.
                      13. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 1 June 2020 07: 53 New
                        0
                        I read about lasers. Yes, to blame, I forgot about the induced radiation. I have not opened textbooks for a long time. However, after reading the student story and others, I still did not receive an answer. Why is this induced radiation happening, and not just like that, but precisely at the same frequency and in the same direction ... Strange.
                      14. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 1 June 2020 08: 56 New
                        0
                        But why are there equilibrium states between radiation and matter? A medical fact, as Ostap Bender said. The frequency of stimulated emission is indeed the same, since downward transitions go from the same levels. And one direction is cut out by a resonator, which amplifies this stimulated emission. Those frequencies (modes) that do not fall on the mirrors go away and are not amplified. Therefore, the divergence is so small - because of the resonator.
                      15. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 1 June 2020 11: 00 New
                        0
                        No no no
                        https://studopedia.ru/10_267003_vinuzhdennoe-izluchenie.html
                        The fact of the matter is that it is originally. I read it myself - I did not believe it, but it is written in several sources. And, of course, no reason is given. And yet, it is written that Einstein shrewdly predicted this (I doubt something from here).
                        In general, thanks, I will think a lot.
                      16. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 1 June 2020 19: 17 New
                        0
                        The link to Trofimova’s textbook is for the poor. Savelyev - this is still no matter where it goes. The necessity of the existence of stimulated emission is indeed predicted by Einstein from the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium. I have not digitized this part of the course; I will send it as I digitize. As for the direction, I have strong doubts - for example, in a gas laser, the excited molecules are in thermal motion, should they radiate in the same direction? In which? So about the direction - nonsense. Let them try to get laser radiation without a resonator. Moreover, their excitement can be shock. The frequency is really the same, since the levels are the same. With polarization, too, everything is in order - this is from the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium. In general, when an active medium is excited, a lot of garbage occurs there, since there are many levels. Good and different. But the resonator does not amplify everything, but what is needed.
                      17. Arthur 85
                        Arthur 85 2 June 2020 07: 01 New
                        0
                        Thermodynamic equilibrium is in the sense that the number of "up" transitions is somewhere equal to the number of "down" transitions? Well, in the absence of a heater / refrigerator, it's obvious.
                        I also strongly doubted the direction, but I thought about it and agreed: if the secondary radiation flew wherever God sent, then the efficiency of such a laser would be very small. And so, the beam flying between the mirrors "collects" the secondary quanta.
                        As for Einstein, if it doesn’t make it difficult, actually throw a link where he predicted it (not the stimulated emission itself, but that it will be identical to the primary one). And then somehow all of his creative heritage makes me want to shrug, as when considering paintings by abstract artists. Unless, besides the photoelectric effect equation, they say that he stole it somewhere.
                      18. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 2 June 2020 08: 24 New
                        0
                        Thermodynamic equilibrium is the equality of temperatures, but what temperature is is a non-trivial question. We can say that this is what the thermometer shows, but what exactly it shows which thermometer and when - requires a separate consideration. Einstein’s coefficients will be sent later.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 22 May 2020 22: 33 New
    +1
    how is an excess of positive charges formed when a tetravalent semiconductor and a trivalent impurity (which are both neutral) are mixed?

    On the contrary, positive charges will be with a tetravalent impurity and a trivalent semiconductor, the impurity will peel the semiconductor in one place or another - the process is dynamic.
    1. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 24 May 2020 11: 15 New
      -1
      As far as I remember, a 4-valent semiconductor, impurities can be 3 and 5. The semiconductor type depends on it - N or P.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 23 May 2020 10: 10 New
    +1
    And more on the little things. Here quarks have a fractional electric charge, and are fundamentally unobservable. Like wildness. But actually not. There are such things as abstract concepts, but you use coordinates when you hammer a flight mission into a rocket, and where are these coordinates on the surface of the Earth? Are there grooves with inscriptions dug up - such and such a parallel, such and such a meridian? There is no coordinate grid on Earth, but its introduction greatly helps. So with quarks.
  • health
    health 12 May 2020 20: 10 New
    0
    Come on!
    Highly intelligent (high-tech) reconnaissance systems are like a master glass-blower, blowing out masterpiece vases, piece pieces, being exiled as best they can.
    EW (exaggerating very much) - a drunk man with a hammer, who crumbles all these masterpieces into small fragments.
    Jammed, jammed and everything will be jammed. EW is not going anywhere. We sigh freely with a full chest.
    1. sabakina
      sabakina 12 May 2020 20: 41 New
      +4
      And they say there are still some neutrinos ... wink
  • divanka2021
    divanka2021 12 May 2020 20: 10 New
    -13
    all these technologies left over from the scoop will of course gradually become obsolete
    1. awdrgy
      awdrgy 12 May 2020 21: 56 New
      0
      Naturally, only 50 years left to wait)
  • radiootdel4
    radiootdel4 12 May 2020 20: 18 New
    +2
    tuned to receive "signal" quanta (photons), and he simply ignores the rest
    - Thank you for explaining everything clearly and simply. I propose to adjust the light bulb and turn it on, and let the reptile choke on these tuned photons.
    True, there is a problem, judging by the operating temperature of the quantum radar, the bulb will have to be turned on in outer space near Pluto, so to speak, at distant approaches ...)
  • Shahno
    Shahno 12 May 2020 20: 24 New
    +2
    // When reflected from the object, “signal” photons lose their confusion with the so-called “idle” ones, but some correlation is still preserved //
    Wow that's a real bonus laughing
    The campaign found a quantum for which our great Jewish scientist was sad all his life ...
    1. sabakina
      sabakina 12 May 2020 20: 49 New
      +2
      Quote: Shahno
      The campaign found a quantum for which our great Jewish scientist was sad all his life ...
      Einstein?
  • eklmn
    eklmn 12 May 2020 20: 26 New
    0
    Quantum radar for boat and yacht owners - here's the movie. You can clearly see how it works.
    https://youtu.be/_Pqpu_WanQg?t=1
  • rocket757
    rocket757 12 May 2020 20: 37 New
    0
    With the accumulation of scientific knowledge, new ones are created of everything and everything. let's see what they get.
  • Shahno
    Shahno 12 May 2020 20: 40 New
    0
    I am certainly happy for these scientists. Here, while the theory says bad. As soon as there is a deviation from the parameters described by us, that is, interaction with the object-mirror, unfortunately these are already objects of the macrocosm ...
    A quantum computer, as it were, does not contact these objects in its core. Only at the exit ...
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 13 May 2020 04: 25 New
      0
      Quote: Shahno
      I'm certainly happy for these scientists

      Well it is clear ! Scientists want to eat too! Is that how they used to say? Zampolit mouth opened - the production process started! The zampolit mouth closed - the work stopped and the workplace was cleaned! It seems that the "final product of the production process" is absent, but the people were busy with "business" ... the working day has passed honestly! So the scientists ... will stop "madness" - everyone will forget about them and stop feeding!
  • Undecim
    Undecim 12 May 2020 20: 41 New
    +5
    Let's talk about science without understanding anything in this science.
    It consists in the fact that low temperatures are needed to create entangled microwave quanta.
    Low temperatures are not needed to obtain entangled quanta. An entangled quantum generator has already been created that can be integrated into the chip. This is an annular microresonator, a ring of special material, with a diameter of 20 micrometers, a width of 500 nanometers and a thickness of 220 nanometers, which is created in a silicon substrate. A laser beam is fed through a fiber into the microcavity ring, where photons moving in a circle acquire the property of quantum entanglement and leave the device in a given direction.
    In this case, the phrase: “Using the entanglement created a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero (-273,14 ° C), we were able to detect objects with low reflectivity at room temperature,” the scientist is not talking about the conditions for obtaining quantum entanglement, but about radiation energy.
    According to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, any body with a temperature above absolute zero emits energy. The higher the temperature, the higher the energy. Therefore, "a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero (-273,14 ° C)" means very low radiation energy.
    Nevertheless, authors who are far from topics should not be involved in this heading. Although the site with all the topics - "close to absolute zero" lately.
    1. really
      really 12 May 2020 21: 29 New
      +1
      I apologize, can you independently understand and explain this? drinks
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 12 May 2020 21: 58 New
        0
        What exactly to understand and explain?
        1. really
          really 12 May 2020 22: 01 New
          +1
          A person who freely understands what the conversation is about is rare and educated. lol
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 12 May 2020 22: 21 New
            +1
            A person who freely understands the question of quantum entanglement and the practical application of this physical phenomenon is not only rare, it is very rare. For free understanding, we need knowledge of theoretical physics of such depth that it’s even scary to imagine. And to understand the essence of the debate between Einstein and Bohr on the principles of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, with which, in fact, the study of quantum entanglement began, only true celestials can.
            Therefore, I do not pretend to "free understanding" of deep theoretical questions. But on the basis of the high school physics course and publications in the thematic press, you can understand the essence of practical application.
            1. really
              really 12 May 2020 22: 31 New
              +1
              That's why I asked, surprised at the explanation. hi
  • cniza
    cniza 12 May 2020 20: 44 New
    +2
    Scientists have announced the creation of a prototype quantum radar. EW systems can become useless


    Nobody screams about such things on the air ...
  • BARKAS
    BARKAS 12 May 2020 20: 47 New
    -1
    To begin with, let a 3D scanner do something there, you will see whether there are prospects or just a theory.
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 12 May 2020 20: 47 New
    +1
    Another "world's first" quantum radar. This is an old mulka that popular magazines peck at.

    The first Chinese quantum radar was developed back in 2016 by the Laboratory of technology of intellectual perception (Electronics Technology Group Corporation, a defense and electronic company). The system was able to detect the target at a distance of 100 kilometers in real conditions.
    1. Operator
      Operator 12 May 2020 21: 38 New
      +1
      "Chinese quantum radar (and the first one)" - you made my day laughing
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 12 May 2020 21: 44 New
        -1
        Good. The text should look like this:
        The "world's first" quantum radar was developed back in 2016 in China by the Electronics Technology Group Corporation, a defense and electronics firm. The system was able to detect a target at a distance of 100 kilometers in real conditions.

        hi
        1. Operator
          Operator 12 May 2020 21: 57 New
          0
          Advertising is the engine of trade, not science laughing

          In order for a laboratory emitter to become a radar, it needs to learn how to illuminate entire sectors of the airspace, and not to emit a single confused photon per hour on a teaspoon.
  • Shahno
    Shahno 12 May 2020 20: 54 New
    0
    Quote: sabakina
    Quote: Shahno
    The campaign found a quantum for which our great Jewish scientist was sad all his life ...
    Einstein?

    So Yes....
  • Shahno
    Shahno 12 May 2020 21: 12 New
    -1
    Quote: Gray Brother
    Quote: MrFox
    In 10 years, this radar will overcome a range of 1 millimeter.

    First you have to catch the Schrodinger cat.

    Philosophers connected laughing
  • vkd.dvk
    vkd.dvk 12 May 2020 21: 52 New
    +1
    "So far, research on the detection of objects is being carried out at ultra close (from the point of view of the macrocosm) distances."

    With an increase in the distance between the "antenna" of the radar and the object under study, the uncertainties in the behavior of the reflected signal quanta will increase, which will cancel out the results being built.
  • vkd.dvk
    vkd.dvk 12 May 2020 21: 59 New
    +1
    Quote: greshnik80
    Nitrogen will not be enough. Have to use liquid hydrogen.

    Helium. He will be thinner.
  • Ostap 1924
    Ostap 1924 12 May 2020 22: 11 New
    -1
    They confused their heads, they are now beginning to confuse us. In general, what will be of this radar with visibility and distance measurement? And the need to direct where the proposed facility is located? Is this, the approximate location of the object must first be detected, and then using the latest radar to explore? Right kanatchikova cottage some sort
  • anten
    anten 12 May 2020 22: 23 New
    -1
    We need to transfer the theme of the fight against viruses from the scientific field of medicine to the military sector, physicists. Scientists have entered the wilds of the structure, penetration, and function of the virus in the victim’s cell. Researchers need, at least, to compare viruses with, for example, UAVs, flying and bombing under the influence of electronic signals from the control panel from the command post. Without these signals, the UAV is just a piece of iron. So are viruses that have no brains, no muscles, no wings, no skeleton. They, these nanorobots, are controlled by the one who created them, i.e. God, Creator or Superintellect. If you remotely disable the enemy UAV there are no problems, knowing the guidance system and frequency of this flying device, then there is a hassle with viruses in humans. In one article, the key phrase is this: "... When the number of signal peptides (and hence the cells captured by viruses) reached a critical level, all viruses, as on command, ceased active division and lurked ...". Not as if by command, but by command, either wired in the program of their behavior, firmware, or with direct external influence by some signal system, which the researchers have yet to discover and study. If a person decrypts these commands, programs, the contact and virus management system from the Creator's “command post”, then people will not need to hide from viruses, breathe through masks and respirators, sitting at home. It will be enough to press the “button”, and “cut off” the piece of iron - the virus, immobilize and do useful work, and not stick around with a microscope, even an electronic one, for years, spoiling precious vision and wasting time.
    1. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 13 May 2020 16: 02 New
      +1
      Lord Jesus Christ !!! Viruses do not share! Read what a signal peptide is, then write nonsense! Virologists couch. Go to church, apologize for pride.
  • Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 12 May 2020 22: 46 New
    +1
    Russian scientists with ROFAR, have begun to catch up already
  • sledak
    sledak 12 May 2020 23: 15 New
    +1
    "One group is" signal ", the other is" idle ". The first group is directed to where the desired object can be located, the other is investigated in an isolated state. When reflected from an object, the" signal "photons lose their entanglement with the so-called" blank ", but some correlation still persists. "

    Also a discovery for me, so we have prisoners with accomplices in the wild communicate (some correlation still persists).

    Hmm, it turns out that we at the FSIN physics are no worse than the Austrians drinks
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 12 May 2020 23: 43 New
    +3
    The Chinese conducted a quantum teleportation experiment a year ago.

    Everything, everyone is now kirdyk.)))))

    and "Electronic warfare systems can become useless" in 200 years ...
  • vkd.dvk
    vkd.dvk 12 May 2020 23: 47 New
    +1
    Quote: Ostap 1924
    They confused their heads, they are now beginning to confuse us. In general, what will be of this radar with visibility and distance measurement? And the need to direct where the proposed facility is located? Is this, the approximate location of the object must first be detected, and then using the latest radar to explore? Right kanatchikova cottage some sort

    Does railguns not remind? Not by the iron itself, but by an idea?
  • sanya
    sanya 12 May 2020 23: 51 New
    +1
    And what range will such a thing have?
    1. aries2200
      aries2200 13 May 2020 10: 56 New
      0
      TWO MOLECULES ..............
  • garik77
    garik77 13 May 2020 01: 56 New
    +1
    Quote: greshnik80
    Nitrogen will not be enough. Have to use liquid hydrogen.

    And it is not enough. There is only liquid helium. And supercooled.
  • shinobi
    shinobi 13 May 2020 02: 02 New
    0
    And how much will the cooling system of such a device weigh? The miniature refrigerators for liquid helium are not so small. And the fact that they used liquid helium to get zero was modestly silent. All loud statements, an attempt to squeeze money out of the military for further research.
    PS: The more complex the device, the higher the probability of failure
  • sleeve
    sleeve 13 May 2020 04: 45 New
    +1
    The description is more suitable for the concept, rather than the prototype. The idea is good, but based on theory. But even if everything turns out to be so rosy, including energy consumption and the alleged solution of structural difficulties, counteraction is possible in simple ways. Much simpler than the indicated effect of ghost quanta.
  • Peter Tverdokhlebov
    Peter Tverdokhlebov 13 May 2020 04: 56 New
    0
    The electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion also does not interfere with a quantum radar?
  • Graz
    Graz 13 May 2020 05: 46 New
    0
    I mean that if there are those who confuse quanta. then you need to find those who unravel
  • regdan
    regdan 13 May 2020 06: 49 New
    -1
    Well done. Now the khubins, khubins and other hahbmns are useless.
  • grandfather_Kostya
    grandfather_Kostya 13 May 2020 09: 05 New
    0
    This development will be a "paper boat" for a very long time. Military industrialists can breathe freely.
  • aries2200
    aries2200 13 May 2020 10: 56 New
    0
    another "ETERNAL ENGINE" .....................
  • vkd.dvk
    vkd.dvk 13 May 2020 11: 50 New
    -1
    Quote: anten
    We need to transfer the theme of the fight against viruses from the scientific field of medicine to the military sector, physicists. Scientists have entered the wilds of the structure, penetration, and function of the virus in the victim’s cell. Researchers need, at least, to compare viruses with, for example, UAVs, flying and bombing under the influence of electronic signals from the control panel from the command post. Without these signals, the UAV is just a piece of iron. So are viruses that have no brains, no muscles, no wings, no skeleton. They, these nanorobots, are controlled by the one who created them, i.e. God, Creator or Superintellect. If you remotely disable the enemy UAV there are no problems, knowing the guidance system and frequency of this flying device, then there is a hassle with viruses in humans. In one article, the key phrase is this: "... When the number of signal peptides (and hence the cells captured by viruses) reached a critical level, all viruses, as on command, ceased active division and lurked ...". Not as if by command, but by command, either wired in the program of their behavior, firmware, or with direct external influence by some signal system, which the researchers have yet to discover and study. If a person decrypts these commands, programs, the contact and virus management system from the Creator's “command post”, then people will not need to hide from viruses, breathe through masks and respirators, sitting at home. It will be enough to press the “button”, and “cut off” the piece of iron - the virus, immobilize and do useful work, and not stick around with a microscope, even an electronic one, for years, spoiling precious vision and wasting time.

    Bullshit. Take a closer look at your thoughts - UAV was created by man, and the virus is God, Superintelligence.
    A person has no chance here. Any simplest virus is infinitely more complex than any most complex human product.
    1. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 13 May 2020 15: 57 New
      +1
      The virus is much simpler than desktop personalization.
  • Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 13 May 2020 15: 56 New
    -1
    There are only a few questions left to clarify: does "quantum entanglement" exist, does quantum theory have anything to do with reality, and how temperature can affect the state of a photon (and where did they see temperature, say, in space)?
  • vkd.dvk
    vkd.dvk 13 May 2020 16: 31 New
    0
    Quote: Arthur 85
    The virus is much simpler than desktop personalization.

    Goodbye to you. You- did not attend school.
  • KOLORADO73
    KOLORADO73 13 May 2020 16: 58 New
    0
    Turn on Scorpions Wind of Change and Still loving you!
  • Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 13 May 2020 17: 33 New
    0
    Quote: I think logically ... occasionally
    "Not clear, but great ..."
    Not only did you fail to understand this, but Albert Einstein himself. He and Niels Bohr have debated this topic for years. Einstein died in 1955 and did not "get it" into the theory proposed by Bohr. The theory seemed wild. For example, you look at an electron - it is a particle. As soon as you turn away, he is a wave. Or you divide the photon into two parts. They scatter at the speed of light, naturally. You can imagine how far the two parts will be, say in a thousand years. So, if you stop one of the parts spin up, then the second part will immediately stop spin down. Brad, isn't it? So there were scientists (in the USA, the University of Berkeley, in France, in the early 70s) who tried to prove that Niels Bohr's theory was wrong and crazy. They built very expensive and very accurate installations. It turned out that Bohr was right. Many scientists with a weak mentality could not stand the stress and stopped studying quantum physics. Meanwhile, the theory of semiconductors was developed on Bohr's theory, and then diodes, transistors, microcircuits were created. ALL current electronics are based on the Theory of Niels Bohr. He is the greatest scientist of the 20th century, with Einstein in second place.



    Einstein generally stole everything from his wife. Miserable plagiarist ...
  • Wasilii
    Wasilii 13 May 2020 19: 26 New
    0
    Strange finish winked winked winked Here, either, the thermal background and this is a thermal imager, or electronic warfare and this is a VHF or HF radar. Because both that and another at the same time somehow do not fit. The fact that electronic warfare equipment doesn’t interfere with the thermal imager, well, we had somehow guessed this before. But Sabir Berzeneh’s comment at least clarifies something: in all likelihood, we are talking about an active infrared quantum radar. Range, km five - ten. True, the laser locator works at the same range and the REB does not take it, and it costs a penny, and its power consumption is meager. But alright, so be it for the sake of progress, let this be.
  • Andrey Popov
    Andrey Popov 13 May 2020 19: 26 New
    0
    First of all, this radar will do away with the concept of "stealth", as I understand it.
  • bang
    bang 13 May 2020 21: 46 New
    0
    It's time for electronic warfare to train stealth infantry, which, before an air raid under cover of darkness, will replace "theirs" photons with "friendly" ones in the enemy refrigerator)
  • remal
    remal 13 May 2020 22: 36 New
    0
    We have something similar underway on the topic of photonic radars. This topic needs a "Manhattan project", the very same ITMO can do this, they are now building a whole city for a new campus.
  • Muddy Seeing ORACLE
    Muddy Seeing ORACLE 13 May 2020 23: 11 New
    0
    I think that the "shield" will be the quantum generators of phantoms of any objects, thereby starting quantum radars on false phantom targets ...
  • Gora66
    Gora66 13 May 2020 23: 16 New
    0
    The author believes that electronic warfare is only for the fight against radar?