Military Review

MiG-15 - the best fighter of the Korean War

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The MiG-15 (according to the NATO classification Fagot, the MiG-XNUMHUTI version - Midget) is the first mass Soviet fighter that was designed by the Mikoyan and Gurevich design bureau at the end of the 15 of the last century. Is the most massive jet combat aircraft in stories aviation. The fighter made its first flight on December 30, 1947, the first production aircraft took to the air exactly one year later on December 30, 1948. The first combat units that were armed with the MiG-15 were formed in 1949. In total, 11 fighters of all modifications were built in the USSR. They were quite widely exported to China, the DPRK and the Warsaw Treaty countries, as well as to a number of countries in the Middle East (Syria, Egypt). In total, taking into account the aircraft that were produced under license in Czechoslovakia and Poland, the total number of fighter aircraft released reached 073 15 pieces.


History of creation

The RD-10 and RD-20 jet engines mastered at one time by the Soviet industry to the year 1947 completely exhausted their capabilities. There is an urgent need for new engines. At the same time, in the West at the end of 40-ies, centrifugal compressor motors, also called the Whittle turbine, were considered the best engines. The power plant of this type was fairly reliable, simple and undemanding to operate, and although these engines could not develop high thrust, this scheme became popular in aviation in many countries for several years.

It was decided to start the design of the new Soviet jet fighter for these engines. To this end, at the end of 1946, a delegation was sent to England, which in those years was considered the leader of the world jet engine industry, which included chief designers: the engine V. Y. Klimov, the aircraft designer A. I. Mikoyan and the leading specialist in aviation Materials Science S. T. Kishkin. The Soviet delegation acquired in the UK the most advanced at that time turbojet engines from Rolls-Royce: Nin-I with 2040 kgf and Nin-II with 2270 kgf and 1590 kgf . Already in February, the USSR received Dervent-V X-machines (total 1947 units) as well as Ning-I engines (30 units) in February, and 20 Nin-II engines were received in November 1947.
MiG-15 - the best fighter of the Korean War

In the future, the novelties of the English engine-building were successfully enough copied and put into mass production. "Ning-I" and "Ning-II" received, respectively, the indices RD-45 and RD-45F, and "Dervent-V" was named RD-500. The preparation of serial production of these engines in the USSR began in May 1947 of the year. At the same time, the specialists of the OKB Plant No. 45, which was engaged in the RD-45 engines, analyzed materials, removed the drawings and spent on long-term tests in the amount of 6 “Nin” engines, including the second version 2 engine.

The emergence in the USSR of new engines made it possible to begin designing fighter jets belonging to the new generation. Already 11 March 1947, the Council of Ministers of the USSR signed a decree on the plans of an experienced aircraft for the current year. Within the framework of this plan, the design team, headed by A. I. Mikoyan, was approved by the task of creating a front-line jet fighter with an airtight cabin. The plane was planned to build in 2-x copies and submit for state tests in December 1947 year. In fact, work on the new fighter in the OKB-155 A. I. Mikoyan began in January 1947 year.

The projected fighter received the name and 310 and factory code "C". The first prototype of the machine, with the designation C-1, was admitted to the 19 flight test of December 1947. After carrying out ground test procedures, the aircraft, piloted by test pilot VN Yuganov, took off on December 30 of the year 1947. Already in the first stage of testing a new aircraft showed excellent results. In this regard, the 15 March 1948, the fighter, which received the designation MiG-15 and was equipped with an RD-45 engine, was launched into a series. The construction of the aircraft was carried out at the plant №.1 them. Stalin. In the spring of 1949 of the year, military trials of the new front-line fighter began at the Kubinka air base in the 29 Guards Aviation Regiment near Moscow. Trials continued from May 20 to September 15, with 20 aircraft participating in them.

Description of the design of the MiG-15

The front-line jet fighter MiG-15 was a mid-wing fighter with a swept wing and tail unit, the design of the aircraft was all-metal. The fuselage of the aircraft had a circular cross section and type - semi-monocoque. The tail part of the fuselage was detachable, using internal flanges to install and carry out comprehensive engine maintenance. In the nose of the fuselage was the engine air intake, which on both sides covered the cockpit.

The wing of the fighter was single-sided and had an oblique transverse beam, which formed a triangular niche for the retractable landing gear. The wing of the aircraft consisted of detachable 2-x consoles, which docked directly with the fuselage of the machine. Through the fuselage were the power beams of the frames, which were a continuation of the power beams of the wing and spar.

The wing of the aircraft had ailerons with sliding flaps on rail carriages and internal aerodynamic compensation. The flaps could deviate on landing to 55 °, on takeoff - to 20 °. 4 aerodynamic ridges were placed on top of the wing, which prevented the flow of air along the wing and the flow in the end of the wing during flight with high angles of attack. The fighter's plumage was cruciform, the stabilizer and the keel were two-spar. The rudder consisted of 2-x parts located under and above the stabilizer.

The chassis of the fighter was a three-wheeled, with a nose strut and lever wheel suspension. Release and cleaning of the chassis, as well as 2-x brake flaps in the rear fuselage were made using the hydraulic system. The brakes had the wheels of the main chassis, the brake system was pneumatic. The management of the fighter was tough and consisted of rocking chairs and rods. On the latest versions of the MiG-15, the boosters were introduced into the aircraft control system. The power plant of the machine consisted of a single RD-45F engine with a centrifugal compressor. The maximum engine thrust was 2270 kgf. On the version of the MiG-15 bis fighter, a more powerful VK-1 engine was used.

The armament of the aircraft was cannon and included the 37-mm gun NS-37, as well as the 2-x 23-mm gun HC-23. All guns were in the lower part of the aircraft fuselage. To facilitate the reloading process, the guns were mounted on a special removable carriage, which could be lowered down using a winch. Under the wing of a fighter, 2 additional fuel tanks or 2 bombs could be hung.

Combat use of vehicles in Korea

The pause in the combat use of fighters after World War II lasted only 5 years. Historians have not yet had time to finish their writings on past battles, as new air battles unfolded in the skies over Korea. Many experts called these hostilities a kind of training ground for running in new military equipment. It was in this war for the first time in the air that jet fighters and fighter bombers fully tested their capabilities. Particular importance was given to the confrontation of the American “Sabra” F-86 and the Soviet MiG-15.
The main opponents of the Korean War are the MiG-15 and Saber "F-86

During the 3 years of fighting in the skies over Korea, Soviet internationalist pilots from the 64 Fighter Air Corps conducted 1 872 air combat, in which they were able to shoot down 1 106 American aircraft of them around 650 "Sabre". At the same time MiG losses were only 335 aircraft.

Both the American Saber and the Soviet MiG-15 were the first generation of fighter jets, both of which were slightly different in their combat capabilities. The Soviet fighter was much lighter on the 2,5, but the Saber compensated for the extra weight with a more heavy-duty engine. The speed of the aircraft on the ground and the thrust-to-weight ratio was almost identical. At the same time, the F-86 maneuvered better at low altitudes, while the MiG-15 gained an advantage in climb and acceleration at high altitude. The American could also stay in the air for a longer time due to the "extra" 1,5 tons of fuel. The main battles fighters fought on transonic flight mode.

Different approaches for fighters were noted only in armament. The MiG-15 had a much larger second salvo due to the cannon armament, which was represented by two 23-mm and one 37-mm cannon. In turn, the Sabers were armed only with 6-s 12,7-mm machine guns (at the very end of the war, versions with 4-s 20-mm guns appeared). In general, the analysis of the “questionnaire” data of the machines did not allow an inexperienced expert to make a choice in favor of a potential winner. It was possible to resolve all doubts only in practice.

Already the first air battles demonstrated that, contrary to many forecasts, technical progress practically did not change the content and form of air combat. He retained all the laws and traditions of the past, remaining group, maneuverable and neighbor. All this was due to the fact that there was no revolution in the armament of the aircraft. On board the new jet fighters, guns and machine guns from piston fighters - active participants in the last war. That is why the "lethal" distance for attacks remained almost the same. The relative weakness of a one-time volley, as during World War II, forced it to be compensated for by the number of fighter jets involved in the attack.

At the same time, the MiG-15 was created for air combat and fully corresponded to its intended purpose. The designers of the machines were able to preserve the ideas that were characteristic of the MiG-1 and MiG-3 aircraft: the speed of the machine, the height and the climb rate, which allowed the fighter pilot to focus on conducting a pronounced offensive battle. One of the strengths of the fighter was its higher damaging potential, which gave him a tangible gain in the main stage of the battle - the attack. However, to win, it was necessary to accumulate a positional and informational advantage in the previous stages of the air battle.

Straight flight, which combined the oncoming rapprochement with the target with the attack, became available to fighters only 30 years later - after the appearance of medium-range missiles and radars on airplanes. MiG-15 combined approach with a goal along with a steep maneuver and entering the rear hemisphere. In the event that the Saber was noticed by a Soviet fighter at a distance, he sought to impose on him a maneuverable battle (especially at low altitudes), which was unprofitable for the MiG-15.

Although the Soviet fighter somewhat lost the F-86 in horizontal maneuvering, it was not so tangible to completely abandon it if necessary. The activity of effective defense was directly associated with the flying of a couple of pilots and the implementation in battle of the principle of “shield and sword”. When one of the aircraft carried out the attack, and the second was engaged in a cover. Experience and practice have shown that the MiG-15 pair, which is consistently and inextricably operating, is almost invulnerable in a close-combat maneuver. Also, the experience that Soviet fighter pilots, including regimental commanders, gained during World War II played a role. The construction of the bookcase and the principles of group fighting still worked in the skies of Korea.

Performance characteristics of the MiG-15:
Dimensions: wingspan - 10,08 m., Length - 10,10 m., Height - 3,17 m.
Wing area - 20,6 square. m
Aircraft weight, kg
- empty - 3 149;
- normal takeoff - 4 806;
Engine type - 1 TRD RD-45F, maximum thrust 2270 kgf.
Maximum ground speed is 1 047 km / h, at height - 1 031 km / h.
Practical range - 1 310 km.
Practical ceiling - 15 200 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1X37-mm gun NS-37 (40 cartridges per barrel) and 2x23-mm gun HC-23 (80 cartridges per barrel).

Information sources:
- http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/mig15.html
- http://www.opoccuu.com/mig-15.htm
- http://www.airforce.ru/history/localwars/localwar1.htm
- http://en.wikipedia.org/
Educational film. Film Department of the Civil Code of the Research Institute of the Air Force of the USSR Armed Forces, 1949 year.
Screenwriter and director V. Povarov
Digitized and published by the Wings of Russia studio in 2007



Corkscrew MiG aircraft with a swept wing (1953 g.)

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  1. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 31 July 2012 08: 40
    24
    A good fighter, a real warhorse.
    On this machine, our aces lucidly explained to the mattresses what they would do with them and in what form if they would slip into the sky of the USSR.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 31 July 2012 08: 52
      16
      I agree with Sergey on all 100

      Throughout the war, we shot down 1300 American aircraft, including about 200 B-29s, that is, about a third of the total fleet. At that time, they were the only means of delivering atomic bombs. It is possible that the B-29 vulnerability revealed in the Korean War forced the United States to abandon plans to attack the USSR in 1953. But officially, the Americans never recognized these losses. We lost only 330 cars and 135 pilots.


      On October 6, 1951, the best ace of the Korean War, the commander of the 196th Fighter Aviation Regiment, Colonel Pepeliaev, damaged Saber, whose pilot could not eject, apparently due to a breakdown of the ejection seat. As a result, the plane made an emergency landing on the ebb of the Korean Gulf. The operation of pulling the plane ashore, loading its parts onto vehicles and delivering it to Moscow was very difficult, since the Americans at some stage detected the work. But everything ended well, the "live" Saber was brought in for study by Soviet military specialists.

      As always, the Americans went their own way, a completely intact, "living" plane came to the Americans after the end of hostilities, on September 21, 1953, when one of the DPRK Air Force pilots, Lieutenant No Geum Sok, flew to the South on it. This was facilitated by the $ 100 promised by the Americans.
      1. VAF
        VAF 31 July 2012 10: 31
        +1
        Quote: Vadivak
        I agree with Sergey on all 100



        Vadim, but I agree with you, for all 1000%! +! drinks

        MiG-15 is the first Soviet mass jet fighter. Its design began in 1946, the first prototype I-310 (S-01) made its first flight on December 30, 1947.The first production aircraft took off for the first time on December 30, 1948, the first aircraft entered the unit in the winter of 1948-1949. ., and the first combat units were formed in 1949. The aircraft was built at eight Russian factories. The first prototype C-01 was equipped with a Rolls-Royce Nene I (21,9 kN) engine purchased in Great Britain, and the Rolls-Royce Nene II engine (02 kN, 03 kgf) on prototype C-22,3 and C-2270 aircraft. ... The serial MiG-15 is equipped with the RD-45F turbojet engine, which is a copy of the Nin II engine.

        The MiG-15bis (SD) is an improved serial version, characterized by the installation of the VK-1 engine instead of the RD-45F, the HP-23 guns instead of the NS-23, a slightly modified glider design and improved equipment. The first flight of the prototype took place in September 1949, mass production began in 1950.

        11 MiG-073 aircraft were built in the USSR. They were widely exported to the Warsaw Treaty countries, China, North Korea and other developing countries, in particular to the countries of the Middle East (Egypt, Syria). The production of single-seat versions of the MiG-15 under license was organized in Czechoslovakia by the company Aero under the designation S15 / S102 (103 aircraft) and in Poland under the designation Lim-1473 / Lim-1 (approximately 2 aircraft), the two-seater version in Czechoslovakia under the designation CS1000 ( 102 aircraft). Thus, in all manufacturing countries, about 2012 MiG-15560 aircraft were built in total.

        The first MiG-15s are equipped with an ASP-1N gyroscopic automatic rifle scope with an optical range finder, and the MiG-15bis has an ASP-ZN sight that provides a range of aimed fire from 180 to 800 m with target sizes of 10 to 35 m (ASP-1N) or from 7 to 45 m (ASP-ZN). All aircraft modifications use the S-13 photo machine gun mounted at the top of the nose of the fuselage. On the MiG-15, in addition there is an AFA-IM camera.

        The flight and navigation equipment on the MiG-15bis included a fly-by-wire gyromagnetic compass DGMK-Z, a KUS-1200 combined speed indicator, a VAR-75 variometer, a VD-15 altimeter, an M-46 type indicator, an AGK-47 combined artificial horizon, a radio compass with a marker RPKO-10M. Instead of RPKO-10, some MiG-15bis aircraft use OSP-48 blind landing equipment, installed for the first time on a Soviet fighter and including an automatic radio compass ARK-5 "Amur", a low-altitude radio altimeter RV-2 "Crystal" and a marker radio MRP-48 "Chrysanthemum". The OSP-48 system was also installed on the MiG-15UTI in the ST-2 modification, where it was located in the bow compartment instead of the NR-23 cannon and was used to train pilots in instrument landing. The MiG-15bis is also equipped with the Barium M radar transponder of the state ownership identification system. The MiG-15 is equipped with the RSI-6K HF receiving and transmitting radio station, which in the later MiG-15bis was replaced by the RSIU-3 Klen & station. Since 1952, a rear-view periscope TS-15 or TS-25 was installed in the MiG-27bis cockpit. The MiG-15Sbis armament included only one NR-23 cannon, instead of the other two guns, an AFAB-40 camera was installed.

        The pause in the combat use of fighters after the Second World War lasted only five years. Before historians had time to complete their writings on past battles, new ones broke out in the sky of distant Korea. An account was opened of large-scale local wars that shocked the world regularly in each subsequent decade.

        Many experts call these wars a kind of testing grounds for new military equipment. In relation to the Korean War that began in November 1950, this definition was fully applicable. For the first time they tested their combat capabilities by jet fighters, reconnaissance aircraft, fighter-bombers. Particular importance was attached to the confrontation between the Soviet MiG-15 and the American Saber F-86.

        During the three years of the Korean War, the internationalist pilots of 64 IAK (Fighter Aviation Corps) conducted 1.872 air battles, shot down 1.106 American-made aircraft, of which 650 Sabers. The losses of MiGs were 335 aircraft.



        The MiG-15 and Saber are representatives of the first generation of jet fighters, which differed little in their combat capabilities. Our plane was two and a half tons lighter (takeoff weight 5.044 kg), but the "heaviness" of the Saber was compensated for by the higher engine thrust (4.090 kg versus 2.700 kg for the MiG). Their thrust-to-weight ratio was practically the same - 0,54 and 0,53, as well as the maximum speed at the ground - 1.100 km / h. At high altitudes, the MiG-15 gained an advantage in acceleration and climb rate, while the Saber maneuvered better at low altitude. He could also stay in the air for a longer time, having 1,5 tons of "excess" fuel.

        The installation of jet engines on airplanes and the implementation of the latest achievements in aerodynamics in their design made the transonic range of flight speeds "operational". The fighters have invaded the stratosphere (the practical ceiling of the Saber is 12.000 m, and the MiG-15 is 15.000 m).

        Different approaches were evident only in armament. The MiG15 had one 37 mm and two 23 mm cannons, the Saber had six 12,7 mm machine guns (at the end of the war, the Sabers appeared with four 20 mm cannons). In general, the analysis of the "personal" data did not allow even a sophisticated expert to determine a potential winner. Only practice could give the answer.

        The very first battles showed that contrary to forecasts, technological progress did not fundamentally change the forms and contents of armed confrontation in the air. The battle has preserved all the traditions and patterns of the past. He remained close, maneuverable, group.

        This was largely due to the fact that the armament of the fighters practically did not undergo qualitative changes. Machine guns and cannons from piston fighters - participants in the Second World War - migrated aboard jet aircraft. Therefore, the "lethal" range and the area of ​​possible attacks have hardly changed. The relative weakness of a single salvo forced, as before, to compensate for it by the number of "trunks" of the aircraft participating in the attack.

        Three times Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Kozhedub, who commanded a division in the Korean War, wrote: “The main thing is to master the technique of piloting and shooting perfectly. If the pilot’s attention is not absorbed in the process of controlling the aircraft, then he can correctly perform a maneuver, quickly approach the enemy, accurately aim and defeat him. "

        The MiG-15 was created for air combat, that is, it was fully consistent with its intended purpose. The designers kept the ideas embodied in the MiG-1 and MiG-3 on the plane: speed - rate of climb - height, which allowed the pilot to focus on a pronounced offensive battle. Our internationalist pilots had no doubt that they were fighting on the best fighter in the world.

        One of the strengths of the MiG-15 "was its higher destructive potential, which allowed it to win at the main stage of the battle - attack. However, to win, it was required to accumulate informational and positional advantage in the previous stages.

        The pilot (leader of the group) could seize the initiative and begin to dictate his terms to the Sabram, if he was the first to receive information about the enemy. The time reserve was used to draw up a battle plan (conception), take an advantageous starting position, and rebuild the battle formation. Here the pilot was assisted by a ground command post, which had early warning technology. Before establishing close eye contact with the Sabers, the combat crew of the command post informed the pilot about the situation and the location of all the detected "targets". The MiG-15, having a somewhat large excess of thrust (especially at high altitudes), could quickly shorten the distance and approach the enemy faster than the Saber. Concealment was ensured by the camouflage of the aircraft ("under the terrain" - from above, "under the sky" - from below). Tactical requirements obliged to skillfully use the sun and clouds, to vary the density of aircraft formations in the air.

        A straight-line flight, combining an oncoming rendezvous with an attack, became possible only thirty years later, after the fighters were equipped with radars and medium-range missiles. The MiG-15 combined approach with a sharp maneuver into the enemy's rear hemisphere. If the "Saber" noticed the MiG at a safe distance, then it tried to impose a maneuverable battle (especially at low altitudes) on it, which was unprofitable for our fighter.

        Although the MiG-15 was somewhat inferior to the Saber in the horizontal maneuver, but not enough to abandon it if necessary. The activeness of the defense was associated with the flight of the pair and the implementation of the tactical (organizational) principle of "sword" and "shield". The function of the first is an attack, the second is a cover. Experience has shown that an inseparable and coordinated pair of MiG-15 aircraft is invulnerable in close maneuvering combat.
      2. Ramses_IV
        Ramses_IV 3 August 2012 07: 25
        0
        And the Americans also changed their minds about attacking due to the fact that the USSR had an effective C-50 in the beginning of the 25's, which could repel a mass attack of the same B-29 against Moscow.
    2. VAF
      VAF 31 July 2012 11: 47
      +9
      Quote: Sakhalininets
      On this machine, our aces lucidly explained to the mattresses what they would do with them and in what form if they would slip into the sky of the USSR.


      Very correctly said, +! drinks

      1. 755962
        755962 31 July 2012 12: 15
        +9



        Each of the countries always wanted to study the weapons of its adversary. Sometimes these were purchases, but more often trophies.

        MiG - 15 was rightly considered the best aircraft of its time. In 1949, MIG-15 began to be produced at once at several plants: Moscow, Novosibirsk, Kuibyshev. Issued under license in Poland, Czechoslovakia, China. Below is a map where this beautiful aircraft was in service. Almost half the world.
        Lightweight, reliable, maneuverable and, importantly, as simple as felt boots. It could be repaired in the field. The MiG-15 is a Kalashnikov assault rifle, only in the sky. Armament - two 23 mm rapid-fire guns and one 37 mm. In a second, the MiG-15 sent 11 kilograms of death to the enemy. For example, Mig’s opponent in the Korean War was the F-86 Saber, but its armament was much weaker. According to the Fling Revue magazine, in order to bring down one MiG, six Saber machine guns of 12,7 mm caliber had to use 1024 rounds. In 1950, Stalin decided to help the Korean Communists. The communist north, fought with the capitalist south. Amerikosi actively helped the southerners, and why not help the northerners. Generally sent our pilots on the MiG-15 to fight in the sky of Korea. Only ordered to be encrypted. The identification marks on the airplanes are Chinese, talks on the radio, only in Korean. But as? And when to learn these languages ​​... The pilot on a separate piece of paper twisted to his knee, Korean phrases and used in flight for negotiations. But in real combat, there’s no time to read languages. Our pilots were mainly expressed in obscene language. This is how the USSR’s participation in the Korean War was revealed.
  2. black_eagle
    black_eagle 31 July 2012 08: 50
    +3
    Losses of such machines were up to the division per year, 150 units, but what can you do? This is the first swallow, it was just trained to fly on jet aircraft, there was no normal training, Sparka and she was with one control kit! Nothing Koreans still fly like that, although in so many years the machine can be brought to perfection!
    1. VAF
      VAF 31 July 2012 11: 55
      +8
      Quote: black_eagle
      This is the first swallow, it was just trained to fly on jet aircraft, there was no normal training, Sparka and she was with one control kit!


      This is where such ... incorrect information ??? request

      UTI MiG-15, I-312 "ST-1"

      The serial MiG-15 No. 104015 with the RD-45F engine was converted into the first prototype of a training aircraft. "ST-1" differed from the serial MiG-15 mainly in armament, a double cabin, dual control and other changes associated with its new appointment.

      The second cabin, for the instructor, was installed by reducing the first fuselage fuel tank. Both cabins were equipped with a full range of appliances and ejection seats. The lantern of the front cockpit was tilted to the side, and the lantern of the instructor's cabin slid backwards, when ejecting both parts of the lantern had to be reset. In this case, the bailout took place in two stages, at first the instructor was bailout, and then the trained pilot.



      The armament of I-312 was simplified and consisted of one NR-23 gun with 80 rounds of ammunition and a UBK-E machine gun with 150 rounds of ammunition. In the front cockpit was an ASP-1N sight. Also, the aircraft was equipped with wing bomb racks for hanging 50 kg and 100 kg bombs.

      In May 1949, the modification of the serial MiG-15 at the experimental plant of the Mikoyan Design Bureau was completed, after which factory tests were carried out from May 23 to August 20. The flights were carried out by I.T. Ivashchenko, K.K. Kokkinaki and A.N. Chernoburov. On August 27, the plane was sent to the State Aviation Research Institute of the Air Force for state tests, which were discontinued on September 22 due to identified defects. For a more complete assessment of the I-312, in October he was sent to the Kubinka air base, where he flew until April 1, 1950, after which he was returned to the Mikoyan Design Bureau for revision. After eliminating them, on May 17 control tests began, which were completed in just 8 days.

      The shortcomings of the MiG-15UTI generally corresponded to the shortcomings identified in the MiG-15, however, the aircraft also had all the advantages of a basic model. In addition, the new aircraft met the requirements of the military for a training fighter and was recommended for adoption and to launch in serial production.

      UTI MiG-15 "ST-2"

      To train pilots in low visibility conditions and at night, the Air Force needed a training aircraft with the appropriate equipment. In view of this need, the Mikoyan Design Bureau began developing a new standard for a serial training aircraft. In accordance with MAP order No. 266 of April 13, 1950, the experimental ST-1 was equipped with an OSP-48 blind landing system. A place for new equipment was obtained by removing the HP-23 gun and reducing the first fuel tank. The modified aircraft received the designation "ST-2."

      An additional KI-2 compass, a filter in the cabin’s pressurization system, and a new link to the UBK-E machine gun belt were installed on the ST-11. The ASP-1N sight was replaced with an ASP-3N sight.

      August 4, test pilot A.N. Chernoburov made its first flight on a modified MiG-15UTI. Soon, the “ST-2” passed state tests at the Air Force Research Institute of Civil Aviation and was adopted as a new benchmark for the MiG-15UTI.

      Last Sunday, June 24, 2012, in Vyazma at the Dvoevka airfield, after a rather long stop, the UTI MiG-15 aircraft was again lifted into the air.



      The aircraft was piloted by the honored test pilot Ildus Khasanovich Kiramov.



      The flight lasted 23 minutes, four circles, passages were made over the strip, coups, barrels and other elements of aerobatics.



      The aircraft is announced to participate in the air show in Zhukovsky, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Russian Air Force.

      1. black_eagle
        black_eagle 31 July 2012 13: 41
        +4
        Sorry! I mixed up with the MiG-15STK, before I just did not read about the performance characteristics and modifications of this model airplane, this is my gap, I will catch up))))))
        1. VAF
          VAF 31 July 2012 14: 21
          +4
          Quote: black_eagle

          Sorry! I mixed up with the MiG-15STK


          OK, +! drinks
  3. Jipo
    Jipo 31 July 2012 09: 48
    +5
    I watched the dock somehow. Sebra’s film against Mig, there the Americans gave other figures. True, at the final stage of the war, only Chinese and Korean pilots took part in the battles and their training was much worse, but their losses were very large. However, the Americans are still those dreamers.
    1. Nester
      Nester 31 July 2012 10: 20
      +5
      I read a lot of literature and memoirs about the war in the Korean sky. The number of downed planes is really too different. As I understand it, there are nuances. The Americans considered a plane shot down, which received several hits (I don’t remember how many), according to the film camera. And this did not mean the downing of an airplane. Yes, he got out of the battle, but often he successfully landed. And in our country, the fact of the downing should be recorded by ground-based KNI. From the film it was difficult to understand something, because According to the pilots, it turned on at the moment of pressing the trigger, and the fact of the downed plane was no longer removed, because the pilot let go of the trigger (not always, of course), because they shot in short bursts. Plus, when instead of front-line aviation, purebred fighters, our command decided to hone the skills of air defense pilots - our losses increased. And their planes sometimes crashed into the sea, and there it was not possible to record the fact of the downing.
      1. Roman 3671
        Roman 3671 31 July 2012 10: 33
        +3
        "MIGI" AGAINST "SAIBERS" AND "SUPER FORTRESSES"

        The 64th Jacob took part in hostilities from November 1950 to July 1953. The combat structure of the corps, which Belov was successively commanded by Major General Aviation (Hero of the Soviet Union from 10.10.1951/8/14) G. Lobov and Hero of the Soviet Union Lieutenant General Aviation S. Slyusarev, was not permanent. It consisted of two or three IADs, one or three separate night IAPs, two anti-aircraft artillery divisions, one anti-aircraft searchlight regiment, one aviation technical division and other support units. The change of units and formations occurred, as a rule, after 26-15 months of their stay in the theater of operations. The average total number of personnel of the corps was 11 thousand people. The armament initially had MiG-9, Yak-15 and La-11 fighters. Later they were replaced by more modern MiG-1 bis and La-1952. As of November 64, 441, for example, the 321th aircraft included 303 pilots and 15 aircraft (18 MiG-11 bis and XNUMX-La-XNUMX).

        Soviet pilots were dressed in Chinese military uniforms, had Chinese pseudonyms, and their planes were marked with the North Korean Air Force. Based at the airfields of northeastern China (Mukden, Anshan, Andong, Miaogou and Dapu), the corps had a combat mission of covering "from enemy air strikes from the air: bridges, ferries, hydroelectric power stations, airfields, as well as rear and communications facilities of the Korean-Chinese troops in North Korea to the Pyongyang-Genzan line. " At the same time, the 64th IAC was supposed to be ready to repel, in cooperation with units of Chinese aviation, possible enemy strikes against the main administrative and industrial centers of Northeast China in the Mukden direction. Proceeding from this, as well as considerations of secrecy, the area of ​​military operations of the Soviet aviation in North Korea was limited not only by the 37th parallel, but also by the coastline. This to a large extent, according to the corps pilots, made it difficult to fully use the combat capabilities of the MiG-15 fighters in air battles. The space in which the 64th IAC operated was nicknamed by the Americans "Alley of MiGs". They were openly afraid to fly here.

        In the early stages of the war, when Soviet pilots were fighting mainly against American bombers, including the strategic B-29 Super Fortresses, and attack aircraft, due to the small number and unpreparedness of the North Korean and Chinese aviation, they had to rely only on their own seeps and their MiGs. ". Flight technical data of fighters

        The MiG-15 and MiG-15 bis, according to the estimates of competent Western experts, exceeded the similar characteristics of enemy aircraft, with the exception of the F-86 Sabers, which appeared in Korea in December 1950. However, in comparison with them, the MiGs had better climb rates , thrust-to-weight ratio and ceiling, however, were somewhat inferior in maneuverability and range. Their maximum flight speeds were approximately equal.

        The MiG-15 had powerful weapons, consisting of two

        23 mm and one 37 mm guns. It was these advantages that the Soviet aces skillfully used in the skies of Korea and China.

        According to the reports of the 64th IAC command to Moscow, from November 1950 to January 1952 Soviet pilots shot down 564 enemy aircraft, while losing 34 of their comrades and 71 aircraft. The overall ratio of Soviet to American losses was 1: 7,9. As a result of these battles, 16 pilots received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. At the same time, the pilots of the 50th IAC conducted more than 64 air battles in the composition from the regiment-division to the corps. On June 15, 1951, Guards Major Serafim Subbotin from the 324th division three times Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel Ivan Kozhedub, distinguished himself. On this day, Subbotin made the first jet air ram, sending his MiG-15 with a failed engine to the American Saber.

        From December 1951, the first two Chinese jet air divisions appeared in the skies of Korea, and from March 1952, the first North Korean IAD. Together with the 64th corps, they entered the United Air Force. Then the Chinese, North Korean and Soviet pilots fought together. That is why the Americans often considered all the MiGs they shot down belonged to the USSR. Meanwhile, the Soviet aces continued to have the advantage in aerial combat. According to archival documents of the corps, the ratio of Soviet and American losses in 1952 was 1: 2,2.

        The following year, 1953, by July 27, the loss ratio of the Soviet Air Force and the United States Air Force in Korea was 1: 1,9. Until the end of the war, six more Soviet pilots became Heroes.

        RESULTS OF BATTLES IN THE "ALLEY OF MIGS"

        In general, as emphasized by the command of the 64th Iak in the final report to the General Staff of the Soviet Army for the war, "active and intense combat operations of the corps fighters from the beginning of hostilities in Korea until the conclusion of the armistice, despite the clear superiority in the US Air Force, did not gave them the opportunity to destroy the main covered objects and inflicted significant losses on the enemy in all types of aviation. " The total ratio of losses of the parties during the war was 1: 3,4 in favor of the Soviet Air Force.

        According to the General Staff of the SA, the pilots of the 64th IAC made 64 sorties during the hostilities, participated in 300 air battles (1872 pilots fired on the enemy) and shot down 6462 planes of the UN troops (including 1106 Saber "). Another 651 enemy aircraft (including 153 Sabers) were shot down by the corps antiaircraft artillery fire. At the same time, the Chinese and North Korean aviation (OVA) made 40 sorties, participated in 22 air battles and shot down 300 UN aircraft (including 366 Sabers).

        According to other data cited in the historical form of the 64th Jacob, Soviet pilots made 63 sorties, participated in 229 air battles. 1790 enemy aircraft were shot down, including fighter aircraft - 1309 and 1097 enemy vehicles - by anti-aircraft artillery fire. As a result of air battles, the Soviet side captured and then transferred to the Chinese and North Koreans 212 American pilots, including the famous aces - the commander

        The 531st air wing Colonel Arnold, the commander of the 4th fighter air wing Lieutenant Colonel Makhurin, the air squadron commanders of the 51-, 58- and 33rd air wings Lieutenant Colonels Heller, Witt, Major Richardson and others. The loss of the Soviet side was 142 officers (including 126 pilots ), 133 sergeants and soldiers (almost all of them are buried in the Russian cemetery in Port Arthur), 335 aircraft, 6 guns and one searchlight. The United Air Army (PRC and DPRK) lost 126 pilots and 231 aircraft.

        The data of the Soviet side diverge significantly from Western sources. According to them, in the confrontation

        "MiGs" and "Sabers" ratio was approximately 1: 1,5 in favor of the Russian-made MiG-15.

        During the Korean War, 51 Soviet pilots became ace, scoring five or more victories. They entered a glorious page in the military annals of Russian aviation. Among them: Captain N. Sutyagin - 22 shot down enemy aircraft, Colonel E. Pepelyaev -19, Major D. Oskin and Captain L. Schukin - 15 each, Captain S. Kramarenko - 13. By 12 fights won by Lieutenant Colonel A. Smorchkov, Majors K. Sheberstov and M. Ponomarev, 11 each with Major S. Bakhaev, captains Milaushkin and G. Ohai, 10 each with captains Suchkov and D. Samoilov. The results of American pilots are more modest. The most successful of them were: Captain J. McConnell - 16 destroyed planes, Captain J. Jabara - 15, Captain M. Fernandez - 14 (plus 1 in the group), Major J. Davis, Colonel R. Biker - 13. Another 8 Americans have 10 to 14 fights won. And only 40 pilots became aces.

        In total, alternating alternately, during the Korean War, 12 Soviet fighter aviation divisions (26 regiments), 4 anti-aircraft artillery divisions (10 regiments), 2 separate (night) fighter aviation regiments, 2 anti-aircraft searchlight regiments, 2 technical aviation received combat experience divisions and other support units from the Air Force and Air Defense of the Soviet Army and 2 fighter aviation regiments of the Air Force of the Navy. For the successful completion of the government assignment, orders and medals in the USSR were awarded to 3504 troops of the 64th Jacob. As part of the corps, 57 Heroes of the Soviet Union fought in the skies of Korea and China, 22 of which received this high rank in 1951-1953.

        In addition to the permanent personnel, in the 64th Jacob underwent an internship and were on a business trip and other servicemen of the Soviet Army, representing the General Staff, the central apparatus of the Ministry of the Armed Forces, types of armed forces and military branches. In total, about 40 thousand Soviet troops took part in the Korean War.

        The bloodshed in Korea ended on July 27, 1953 with the signing of an armistice agreement in Panmenzhong. The 38th parallel once again divided the country into two conflicting parts. Neither the North, nor the South have managed to achieve "unification of the homeland" by military means on their own terms. The confrontation dragged on for almost half a century.
      2. black_eagle
        black_eagle 31 July 2012 11: 31
        0
        Well, as far as I remember, I really read a long time ago that the data that I cited were not about losses in Korea, but on the territory of the USSR during exercises, not in combat conditions
  4. Poppy
    Poppy 31 July 2012 09: 49
    +3
    Beautiful plane
  5. Tirpitz
    Tirpitz 31 July 2012 09: 51
    +4
    The bookcase construction and group combat principles still worked in the sky of Korea.

    And this bookcase was developed by A. Pokryshkin, Assistant WWII and three times a hero.
  6. Svistoplyaskov
    Svistoplyaskov 31 July 2012 10: 12
    +2
    The personification of the best light jet fighter!
  7. Roman 3671
    Roman 3671 31 July 2012 10: 19
    +5
    The Americans still believe that the losses of the F-86 Saber and the MiG-15 are 1 to 10, and the ratio of forces in the theater of operations was 1 to 10, that is, the Saber accounted for 10 MiG-15s. True, in Vietnam, the ratio of losses in wave battles, according to American sources, was even more than 1 American aircraft per 14 Vietnamese MiGs. But they are far from the Israeli Air Force, there in 1982 in the first Lebanese war 81 Syrian aircraft were shot down with no losses at all.
    Korea Air War statistics for various sources


    Data from: USA / USSR

    Total loss of UN 2837 aircraft
    Combat losses of UN 1097 + 271 * aircraft
    Combat Loss F86 Saber 103? Haha! / 651 + 181 *
    Combat Loss B29 Superfortress 17/69
    Combat Loss F84 Thunderjet 18/186 + 27 *
    Combat Loss F80 Shooting Star 15/117 + 30 *
    Combat Loss F51 Mustang 12/28 + 12 *
    Combat Loss G.8 Meteor 5/28 + 7 *
    Saved American pilots (interesting to compare with the loss of aircraft
    - how many planes need to be lost in battles, what would be of the surviving pilots
    able to save more than a thousand people.) 1000 ++
    Saber Wins 810
    MiG losses from B29 16/0
    MiG losses from Sabers 792
    MiG losses 885/335 + 231 *
    Battle losses of others
    communist aircraft 69
    Non-lethal losses
    Communist aircraft 1800 / ~ 10 +? *
    * The first figure is about the USSR, the second is about the Joint Air Army of China and North Korea
    Some aerial fights
    The first "fully reactive" victory. On November 1, 1950, a meeting of the MiG-15 and F80 units took place. At the same time, the pilot Khominykh shot down one Shooting Star with an attack from the sun. The Americans concealed the fact of the loss, which they made it a rule to do in the future. Many of the downed American aircraft were reported as "lost for non-combat reasons."

    April 12, 1951 48 V29 under the guise of fighters raided a bridge over the river. Yalujiang. They were met by 36 Soviet MiG-15s. In the battle 9 bombers were shot down. The Americans said that 3 B29s were lost and 7 were damaged, and out of 64.-72 attackers 9 MiGs were shot down, plus 6 probably shot down and 4 more damaged. In fact, all MiGs returned to the airfield.
    September 12, 1951 80 MiGs intercepted about 150 F80s, engaged in an attack between Anzhu and Pyongyang. 15 Shutting Star were shot down, 3 Soviet cars were damaged.
    "Black Tuesday". October 30, 1951 21 Super Fortresses, under cover of about 200 F86 and F84 raids on Namsi airfield, were intercepted by 44 MiGs. 12 В29 and 4 F84s were shot down, 1 MiG-15 was lost in battle with the F86. The rest of the B29s were damaged, but managed to escape. Soviet aircraft were forbidden to cross the coastline. The Americans admitted the loss of 8 bombers.
    Source: http: //www.wio.ru/korea/korearus.htm
  8. Evgan
    Evgan 31 July 2012 10: 40
    +1
    Very well about the air war in Korea is written in "The Year of the Dead Snake" by Anisimov. Although it is an alternative history, there is much that is close to reality in the description of equipment and battles.
  9. Roman 3671
    Roman 3671 31 July 2012 10: 42
    +5
    Someone knocks, but someone thinks



    In air battles over the territory of China and North Korea, Soviet pilots shot down more than 1300 enemy aircraft. In addition, several hundred more cars were hit, some of which crashed before reaching their airfields, crashed during landing or were decommissioned as being beyond repair. During the war, we lost 345 "moments". In most cases, Soviet pilots safely ejected after treatment, and more often just a physical examination, returned to the combat system.

    In an effort to somehow save the honor of the uniform and the pretty shaky prestige of the US Air Force, the Americans published data on their losses and the alleged losses of enemy aircraft in the war in Korea. An article on this subject notes: “According to rough estimates, the U.S. Air Force lost about 2000 aircraft during the Korean War (in addition, Navy and Marine Corps aircraft lost more than 1200 aircraft), and the loss of ground forces amounted to several hundred light aircraft. Less than half of these total losses were incurred directly during the hostilities, the remaining aircraft were decommissioned due to material defects, accidents and other causes. ”

    The authors of the publication determined our damage (naturally, DPRK and PRC aviation planes also entered here) in about 2000 combat vehicles. And then a stunning conclusion follows directly: “Based on our own experience, we can assume that, according to conservative estimates, the enemy lost at least 400 more aircraft during their passage to their bases (here it’s appropriate to ask: why not a similar link in relation to US aviation? After all, she had to follow much further to her bases, and she made flights ten times more.). In addition, based on the experience of the Second World War, it can be assumed that the enemy lost an additional 1400 aircraft as a result of accidents and catastrophes during combat training (again, where are your losses?), As a result of equipment failures and for other reasons. ”

    Americans admit that the war in Korea cost them 4000 aircraft. And in this data. have to doubt, given the manipulation of the calculus. But even leaving these 4000 aircraft on the conscience of the authors of the calculations, you involuntarily ask yourself the question: how could more than half of these losses be non-combat? American pilots were highly trained. Their annual raid was much higher than in the air forces of any of the countries of the world, including almost double the air raids of Soviet pilots. The materiel of US aviation was also at a high technical level.

    I can say with confidence that the non-combat losses of Soviet aviation amounted to no more than 10 aircraft. Even assuming that the OVA aviation lost twice as much as the Soviet one, our total non-combat losses did not exceed 30 aircraft. You must be a major "specialist" to turn them into a huge number - about 1800.

    But what about the stunning non-combat losses of US aviation, which are staggering in scale, given the high flight skills of pilots, the reliability of aircraft, and the good equipment of airfields? What is behind all this? Apparently, without suspecting it, the Americans talk about something when analyzing the work of their emergency services.

    Aviation and astronautics No. 2, 1991
    1. Rowicz
      Rowicz 31 July 2012 11: 43
      +2
      Apparently the Yankes consider the downed planes according to the "Luftwaffe" method - hit means shot down wink
      1. black_eagle
        black_eagle 31 July 2012 16: 40
        +1
        Or how in the same "Luftwaffe" they believed in the word, flew in, said that he shot down, you got a plus sign and put
  10. Roman 3671
    Roman 3671 31 July 2012 12: 08
    +6
    Zampini Diego, Seydov Igor
    Evgeny Pepelyaev: the best of the best in the Korean sky

    For fifty long years, it was believed that the "best of the best" pilots who ever climbed the Korean skies was Joseph McConnell (USA, 16 wins). However, since 1994, it became known about three Soviet pilots who achieved more victories than the American mentioned. These are: Nikolay Sutyagin (22 wins), Evgeny Pepelyaev (19) and Lev Shchukin (17). One way or another, a detailed analysis of the data shows that, nevertheless, Evgeny Georgievich Pepelyaev was an unsurpassed pilot during the Korean War.

    The hero of our story, Yevgeny Pepelyaev, was born in 1918 near Irkutsk in the family of a driver. Like many Soviet children in the early 1930s, Zhenya was passionately in love with aviation, and when the Pepeliaev family moved to Odessa in 1937, he and his older brother Konstantin enrolled in a local flying club, where they also received military training. Around this time, Eugene met his future wife - the beautiful Maya Konstantinovna Fayerman.

    The future ace spent most of the Great Patriotic War on a long business trip in the Far East (Nikolai Sutyagin was in a similar situation). The loss of his older brother who died in battle fell to his lot. Only once, in 1943, Eugene managed to get into the army, where he took part in reconnaissance missions as part of the 162nd IAP. Once, the Yak-7 piloted by Pepelyaev was attacked by fascist fighters. Despite the injuries sustained, Eugene managed to escape from his pursuers and return to base. He had a chance to take part in the short Soviet-Japanese war of 1945, where he stormed and bombed Japanese troops, never having met a single enemy aircraft.

    At first glance, you cannot say that this simple officer has a glorious future. But, one way or another, his outstanding flying abilities, as well as his unique commanding talent did not go unnoticed, and the pilot was sent to study at the Air Force Academy. In 1947, a wedding was held with Maya and, at the same time, the appointment of the deputy commander of the 196th IAP (324th IAD). Two years later, this unit was re-equipped with the latest MiG-15 jet aircraft. Soon, Lieutenant Colonel Pepelyaev masterfully mastered the management of this machine - just in time for his appointment as regiment commander, which followed in October 1950. And in January 1951 a business trip to China followed.

    First victories

    Before embarking on sorties, Eugene had to engage in organizational activities related to a large number of staff work and the preparation of various documents.

    Having done away with the bureaucracy, the pilot began to make up for lost time during the Great Patriotic War, showing extreme determination in battle. May 20, 1951 36 MiG-15 (196th IAP) entered into battle with 28 Sabers (335th and 336th combat squadrons of fighters - / hereinafter - BEI /). Pepeliaev, who piloted the MiG-15 N0715368, finally had the opportunity to show his outstanding abilities as a pilot and gunner. It was in this battle that he opened his battle account:

    Lieutenant Colonel E.G. Pepelyaev "[May 20, 1951, at about 15: 08-15: 09 Beijing time during an air battle with a group of Sabers F-86] fired at the F-86 aircraft from a range of 500-600 m At the moment of firing, I saw shells hit and their explosions on the right plane, after which the plane made a right turn from the left bank. "

    The shells not only hit the right plane of the Saber, but also caught the ammunition load of the aircraft (F-86A N49-1080, piloted by Captain Milton Nelson, 335th BEI), which led to the explosion of cartridge boxes of 12,7mm M23 machine guns. God only knows how Nelson managed to reach Suwon in his riddled Saber, where the plane was immediately scrapped. The results of this "meeting" were summed up by the US Air Force, which declared its "absolute victory" in the form of three MiGs allegedly shot down by Captain D. Jabara. The real state of affairs is this: on that day, the 196th IAP lost only one MiG (piloted by Senior Lieutenant Viktor Nazarkin), which actually became the fourth victim of Jabara. At the expense of the victories of the Soviet regiment, there were two American aircraft: the first was shot down by Evgeny Pepeliaev, and the second (F-86A No49-1313, piloted by Captain Max Weill) - by Captain Nikolai Kirisov.

    On July 11, 1951, Pepeliaev led a group of 26 MiG-15s to the aid of the 176th GIAP, which took a battle with superior enemy forces (a group of F-86 and F-80 aircraft). Having reached an advantageous position for the strike, Evgeny, who was already piloting the MiG-15bis N1315325, opened fire from the NR-23. The distance between him and the driven Saber was about 500-600 meters. As Evgeny Georgievich himself recalls:

    Lieutenant Colonel E.G. Pepelyaev: "In this very battle I was chasing the Saber and there was a moment when it slowed down the maneuver, I made a turn under it and opened fire. Pieces of plating flew from the right plane of the Saber and it turned sharply to the right. One of my pilots said: “Ready!” I did not pursue the falling plane, as the battle continued. I remember very well that I thought with great pleasure how I would later show my pilots shooting a film gun so that they could learn how to shoot. .. <...> Knowing that the wingman was covering me and the flight of Captain V.A.Nazarkin was still behind me, I started the attack. But Nazarkin’s flight could not provide it. Later, the flight commander explained that he had lost our pair in the sun, maybe And so, I don't know. The Americans, taking advantage of this, immediately took my wingman into circulation and soon shot him down. We could not even bury Larionov - his plane fell into the Yellow Sea. And immediately there was a turn at my "moment." enters from the right, and Nazarkin is silent. I realized that there would be no help Udet, there is no time for aerial victory, and from a height of seven or eight thousand threw the car into a tailspin. Cloudy below, the upper edge of a thousand by three. I was walking, and the "saber" was going in a spiral above me, but the pilot lacks skill, it cannot reach me. He flew into the cloud, pulled out the plane, as they say, at the very water and to his airfield ... "

    This time the prey of the Soviet pilot was the F-86A N49-1297 (396th BEI), driven by a pilot named Reeves, who managed to return to Suwon, but the plane was badly damaged and crashed during landing. Reeves only miraculously received no scratches, while two days later, his plane was decommissioned as irreparable. As always, the US Air Force announced that this was the result of an "accident."

    As a result of this battle, the plane of Senior Lieutenant Ivan Larionov, led by Pepeliaev, was shot down. This became a kind of "revenge" by Milton Nelson, who became the very first victim of Eugene only 52 days earlier: Larionov's MiG was shot down by him. At the same time, Pepelyaev's MiG was attacked by First Lieutenant Alonso Walter, who damaged the Pepelyaevsky MiG and, seeing that it fell into an allegedly uncontrollable spin, and calmed down on it.
    One way or another, the Story of Evgeny Georgievich puts everything in its place: the first lieutenant was misled, for the Russian pilot knew how to break into a tailspin and then calmly get out of it. The trick worked.

    Ten days later, Pepelyaev with a dozen master pilots intercepted, as it seemed to them, F-94 aircraft, marching in combat order. According to Lt. Col. Pepelyaev:
    Lieutenant Colonel E.G. Pepeliaev. “Once I shot down an F-94 on a bend, knocked off the tail unit. During the day they flew, there was fog, our airfield was closed. And they flew almost as far as Mukden. The Corps Commander, Colonel Belov, chickened out. I sat in readiness <...> We took off only when on the way back this group had already passed our airfield. We caught up with eight F-94s when they were already approaching the coastline. In fact, I no longer had the right to attack, since they were already over the Yellow Sea. I handed over to the captain Bocachu, so that he attacked the front four, and aimed at the rear link. Attacked in the climb. F-94 gave one from below - chips flew, then I did not follow him anymore. I went up, I look, the other turns to the left. who was on a bend, beat off the tail unit, so much so that all these pieces flew into my plane. I still pressed my head so that it would not be torn off. But, the wreckage did not touch my plane. The F-94 group crumbled, and my pilots, each attacked his target. It was already over the Yellow Sea, so I yes l command to end the fight. Everything could have been different if I had been given permission to fly half an hour earlier <...> "
    In fact, the pilots mistook the Grumman F94F Panther aircraft (9th Naval Squadron of the US Navy) for "F-311". As a result of the battle, the Soviet side announced six downed aircraft. At least four Panthers fell victim to the Soviet pilots. One of the two declared victories by Pepelyaev is absolutely reliable: F9F-2B # 123464, piloted by Major Richard Bell (the pilot was captured). Chinese soldiers also found the smoking remains of another "Grumman" (serial number 109I405116), as well as the body of the pilot - it was the "prey" of Captain Boris Abakumov. The two remaining aircraft were credited to Andrey Pupko. After this battle, Pepeliaev was awarded the rank of colonel ...
    1. Roman 3671
      Roman 3671 31 July 2012 12: 10
      +5
      The hunt for the Sabers.

      On October 6 at 9:51 am, Evgeny led ten MiG-15bis of his unit into battle. In the air, they met with 16 enemy aircraft (F-86A and F-86E). This happened near the city of Anju in the region of the Cheongchonggang River. Pepeliaev and his new wingman, Senior Lieutenant Alexander Ryzhkov, immediately carried out a frontal attack. This time they were opposed by the pilots of the 336th BEI "Green Flight". From a distance of 500 meters, Pepeliaev opened fire on the leading enemy aircraft. The sight of the red runs forced the enemy to turn sharply to the left and then go into a dive. At that time, two more American planes, piloted by Captains Arthur O'Connor and Gill Garrett, arrived at the scene of the battle. O'Connor opened fire and slightly damaged Pepeliaev's plane, but Yevgeny still managed to turn the circumstances in his favor:
      Colonel E.G. Pepelyaev "... As I remember everything now - I remember that battle, I was then hit by his host, ripped out such a piece of the air intake ... I had a pre-war number in my arsenal, when my friends and I fought, all sorts of options On the frontal ones, when they try to follow each other's tail, I had the following option: when I meet, I designate a combat turn in one direction, and then shift the plane to the other and follow the enemy. And it turns out that when he leaves the combat turn At the moment of divergence, the Sabers went up to the right, and I stretched a little along the horizon and began a combat turn towards the Sabers, but as soon as I got a pitch of 40-50® , from the right combat turn I went to the left and turned out to be higher behind and slightly to the right of the driven Saber. He was in front of me - a little more than a hundred meters. I gave the handle away from me and tried to catch him. But the aiming mark was always higher than the Saber, and even negative overload pulls m me from the cockpit. Then I - once! - rolled over so that the overload pressed against the seat - it is better to aim. As soon as I rolled over, he did the same, but I already put an aiming mark on his flashlight and from a distance of 130 meters, slightly to the right, almost 0/4, opened fire, a 37-mm shell hit exactly behind the flashlight. The gap - and the Saber went to the ground. I didn't follow him - after such a hit there was nothing to chase. "
      In order to land the seriously damaged F-86A No49-1319, Gill Garrett had to use all his skill. The pilot landed on the coast of the Yellow Sea, from where he was evacuated by an SA-16 seaplane. I must say that O'Connor bravely covered his wingman, but was intercepted by four MiG-15bis (176th GIAP). The leader of the four, Major Konstantin Sheberstov, seriously damaged the F-86E # 50-671, piloted by O'Connor. With a broken hydraulic system, the American still managed to reach the positions of the UN troops, where he urgently ejected. A few hours later, Pepeliaev shot down another Saber (F-86A No. 49-1267, 334th BEI). This victory was the fifth in the pilot's account, who from that moment became deservedly considered an ace. The Americans, following their traditional practice, attributed this loss to "engine failure."

      A little later, Garrett's Saber was found, which shot down Pepeliaev. A special group, led by engineer V.A.Kazankin, divided the aircraft fuselage into two parts, which - no irony of fate - were loaded onto American-made Studebaker trucks. Further, these machines had a long journey: all the following night they were unsuccessfully trying to destroy the American light bombers B-26. The next morning they crossed Yalujiang and made a two-day stop in Antunga, where the Soviet pilots, among whom was Pepeliaev, were finally able to get a good look at their air enemy. In the end, the Saber was transported to TsAGI, where the latest American fighter was subjected to a thorough study by designers and engineers. Evgeny Pepelyaev, who has already won five victories, became the "seventh Soviet ace" in the Korean sky.

      Ten days later, on October 16, the pilots of the 196th IAP flew to the rescue of their colleagues - novice Chinese pilots, who got involved in a battle with the Americans. In this air battle, Pepeliaev practically point-blank (from a distance of 80-100 meters) damaged the F-86A aircraft No 49-1147, (pilot - First Lieutenant Nicholas Kotek, 336th BEI). Over South Korean territory, the American was forced to leave the Saber, which had damaged fuel tanks. On October 28, Evgeny announced another Saber, but this time the pilot was really mistaken: according to official data, the US Air Force suffered no losses that day.
      1. Roman 3671
        Roman 3671 31 July 2012 12: 13
        +4
        Strip of luck

        November 8, 1951 for Yevgeny Pepelyaev again came a good period: on that day, the pilot destroyed two American aircraft. At 12:40, Pepelyaev, who personally led twenty MiGs at an altitude of 7000 meters above Pyeongwon, noticed four Sabers F-86, who did not even suspect the presence of Soviet pilots in the air. Evgeny could not miss such an opportunity: a turn at close range (from a distance of 150 meters) and F-86A No 49-1338 (334th BEI, pilot - Captain Charles Pratt, missing) simply exploded in the air.

        Colonel EG Pepelyaev: “I shot down this Saber so that it fell apart in the air. Crumbled from shell explosions. First, pieces of skin flew off the right plane, and then the tail and wing flew off.” Saber abruptly turned to the right and down, one of my pilots said: “That's great!” I answered: “Look how you have to shoot down!”

        On the evening of the same day, the pilots of the 324th IAD intercepted one RF-80 during its reconnaissance flight. The plane was accompanied by "Shooting Stars" and "Sabers". Pepeliaev riddled the RF-80A, which was piloted by the capital Dennis Hill. The American somehow managed to reach the Yellow Sea, where he ejected. Then Evgeny attacked the Saber F-86A of First Lieutenant David Freeland (336th BEI), however, after the pilot pressed the trigger, it turned out that the ammunition had run out. In this situation, a slave came to the aid of Pepelyaev - Senior Lieutenant Alexander Dmitrievich Ryzhkov, who masterfully shot down an American (Freeland ejected and was later successfully evacuated). Of course, according to the US Air Force, there was only one aircraft in the world that had an "engine failure", more ... In this battle, another US aircraft was shot down: F-80S (pilot Jerome Walk). This time luck smiled at Konstantin Sheberstov (176th GIAP). The Soviet side also had losses: Alexei Trabin, who had recently arrived at the 196th IAP, was killed. His plane was shot down by William Wisner, who had fifteen aerial victories in World War II and five declared victories in Korea.)

        Almost three weeks passed and on November 27 Pepeliaev was shot down by Rafael Du Breil, who was missing. The next day, November 80, in a matter of minutes, the Soviet ace replenished his air victories with two more: F-28A No. 86-49 of the first lieutenant Al Reiser and F-1166E No. 86-50 of the first lieutenant Dayton Ragland (both pilots from the 673th BEI). As a result of the battle, Reiser managed to reach Suwon on his plane, but Ragland was less fortunate: he was forced to leave the plane and was captured. Well, a kind of settling accounts: after all, just a few minutes before his failure, Ragland shot down the plane of Senior Lieutenant Alfey Dostoevsky.

        The next day, Pepelyaev actually turned F-86A No. 48-301 into a pile of scrap metal: the plane barely reached the base at Kimpo.

        The streak of the Soviet ace peaked on December 1, 1951. On that day, over Pyongyang, he shot down F-80C No. 49-855 of First Lieutenant Thomas Mounts (35th Combat Bomber Squadron of the 8th Combat Bomber Wing), who was captured. Pepeliaev piloted the MiG-15bis NЊ 1815399 "Red 899". In that battle, one of the pilots, Viktor Muravyov, shot down the second Shooting Star: William Womack's F-80S (the 35th BEB / combat squadron of bombers /, the pilot was killed).

        The beginning of January 1952 was marked for the 196th IAP by fierce air battles against the Sabers. Of the four "Sabers", declared on the account of Eugene, in fact, only two were shot down. On January 7, 1952, at 8:38 am, eighteen MiG-15 bis took off from Antung and headed south. Nine minutes later, the planes were already over Anju, where a fierce battle began with forty Sabers from the 51st BKI. At an altitude of 9000 meters, Pepeliaev took an advantageous position from the side of the sun, from where he dived at full speed on the Sabers group. A burst of cannons at a distance of 230 meters from the victim was quite enough for the F-86E No 50-651 (25th BEI) to catch fire and eventually explode. Fortunately, the pilot who piloted it, First Lieutenant Charles E. Stahl, was able to leave the plane before its explosion, however, some time after his landing, he was captured by the Chinese. The overall result of the air meeting with the Sabers is a draw, since one of the Americans, Captain John Head, managed to shoot down Captain Boris Abakumov's MiG. The next day was a continuation of the air duel: and again Pepeliaev seriously damaged the F-86E No 51-2742 (25th BEI), whose pilot was ejected. The last victory of the Soviet ace over the "Saber", not finding documentary confirmation from the Americans, fell on the 11th. Four days later, Eugene for the last time went up to the Korean sky with a combat mission, and on January 20, the 196th IAP returned to his homeland.

        A little later, on April 22, Nikolai Shvernik, who was at that time the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, handed Colonel Pepelyaev the Golden Star. This award indicated that its owner also receives the well-deserved title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

        Unbeatable Korean War Ace

        So, we see that of the declared nineteen aircraft, the loss of fifteen is documented in the archives of the US Air Force and Navy. Comparing the data of the parties on the pilots who won more than 16 victories (D. McConnell, N. Sutyagin and L. Schukin), we can conclude that the number of real victories in an American reaches thirteen, in Sutyagin - thirteen out of twenty two [according to the author articles by Diego Zampini], and Shchukin’s - eleven (of the declared seventeen). Of the nineteen declared total number of real victories of Yevgeny Pepelyaev is fifteen. So it turns out that it was Evgeny Pepelyaev who was an unsurpassed ace during the Korean War:

        Table N® 1: Declared and real air victories of Evgeny Georgievich Pepelyaev (commander of the 196th IAP 324th IAD)

        date
        Aircraft
        Type of shot down aircraft
        Pilot
        Air Force Unit

        20.05.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 0715368
        F-86A No. 49-1080
        Milton Nelson (*)
        335th BEI US Air Force

        11.07.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 49-1297
        Reeves (*)
        336th BEI, US Air Force

        21.07.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F9F-2B No. 123464
        Richard Bell (Captured)
        311st VME, Marine Corps, US Navy

        21.07.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F9F
        unknown pilot
        Marine Corps, US Navy (**)

        6.10.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 49-1319
        Gill Garrett
        336th BEI, US Air Force

        6.10.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 49-1267
        Unknown pilot
        334th BEI, US Air Force

        16.10.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 49-1147
        Nicholas Kotek (*)
        336th BEI, US Air Force

        28.10.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86
        unknown pilot
        US Air Force (**)

        8.11.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 49-1338
        Charles Pratt (missing)
        334th BEI, US Air Force

        8.11.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        RF-80A No?
        Dennis Hill (*)
        15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, US Air Force

        27.11.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-80C No. 49-531
        Rafael Dubriel (missing)
        35th BEB, U.S. Air Force

        28.11.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 49-1166
        Al Reiser (*)
        4th Air Defense Forces, US Air Force

        28.11.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86E No. 50-673
        Dayton Regland (captured)
        336th BEI, US Air Force

        29.11.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86A No. 48-301
        Unknown pilot
        334th BEI, US Air Force

        1.12.1951
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1815399
        F-80C No. 49-855
        Thomas Mounts (Captured)
        35th BEB, U.S. Air Force

        6.011952
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86
        unknown pilot
        US Air Force (**)

        7.01.1952
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86E No. 50-651
        Charles Steel (captured)
        25th BEI, US Air Force

        8.01.1952
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86E No. 51-2742
        Unknown pilot
        25th BEI, US Air Force

        11.01.1952
        MiG-15bis NЊ 1315325
        F-86
        unknown pilot
        US Air Force (**)
        (*) = American sources attribute the loss of this aircraft to other reasons than the downing of the MiG-15.
        (**) = Declared victories that are not documented.

        After the war, in 1954 Pepelyaev entered the Academy of the General Staff of the Air Force, which he graduated in 1958. The pilot continued to perform the duties of commander in various units, and also mastered the MiG-19 and Su-9. During one of the flights, he was injured, due to which he could no longer pilot fighter jets. That was in 1965. After that, Pepelyaev moved to TsAGI as chief engineer, where he worked until his retirement in 1986. At the time of this writing (2009), Eugene Georgievich is 91 years old. He lives in Moscow with his wife Maya, daughter Elena and granddaughter.
  11. SIT
    SIT 31 July 2012 12: 32
    +3
    At the cottage of Marshal Batitsky near Moscow there were 3 understaffed MIG 15. They sent us there to clean the pond. Of course, I climbed into the cab to sit at the control knob. My height is 187cm. I probably would not have been taken into fighter aircraft on such an aircraft. Knees did not know where to go. After many years, the cemetery in Texas also climbed into Saber. There is more space in the cockpit and sitting quite comfortably even with my legs. That's just the MIG can get a bunch of holes from the 50 caliber machine guns that stood on Sabre, and reach the airfield. What will remain of Saber if I slam it into even just one 37mm shell from the MIG I can’t imagine. He certainly will not be able to fly, and the pilot will only have time to eject.
  12. bairat
    bairat 31 July 2012 12: 59
    0
    I read somewhere that the pilots of both sides behaved in a gentlemanly manner; the pilots who jumped with a parachute did not finish. Against the Germans, it was in the order of things.
    1. Roman 3671
      Roman 3671 31 July 2012 18: 00
      +3
      Wrong you bairat thought about Americans. Too good. Let us give the floor to eyewitnesses: "Evgeny Pepelyaev says: I personally have never pursued or finished off aircraft that were knocked out and damaged in battle. I was content that the target was hit, that my pilots saw it.
      If a crashed plane gets out of the situation it’s in, then let it live, and thank God.
      ... Americans rarely showed such chivalry.
      If they had the opportunity to finish off a wounded MiG, they rarely refused it. There were cases when, like Hitler's aces, US Air Force pilots shot Soviet and Chinese paratroopers. Pepelyaev considered this an unforgivable meanness.
      - So they shot Obraztsov. His plane was hit, he jumped out. And he was shot when he descended by parachute ...
      There were several such cases. Our guys knew about it, but even out of a sense of revenge they did not reach such baseness. I have never fired at American pilots descending on parachutes, although there was such a possibility. I have not seen or heard any of ours do this. This is despicable. "That's it.
  13. wulf66
    wulf66 31 July 2012 13: 24
    +2
    Where are the so-called "our" filmmakers? Why aren't films made about these events? Apparently Western funds do not allocate money for this ...
    1. Nester
      Nester 31 July 2012 13: 47
      +4
      What are you! The whole conscious world will CONDEMN and WILL BE SORRY that Russia supports belligerent North Korea with such a film. And how to shoot, because there our flyers will bring down the brave, invincible Americans! But what about the reboot, Hilary asks?
  14. hauptmannzimermann
    hauptmannzimermann 31 July 2012 14: 00
    0
    Photo of the Somali Mig and its Chinese "relative". Hargeisa airfield. hi
  15. wow
    wow 31 July 2012 19: 16
    +3
    My dad started on this machine his career as a fighter pilot in the mid-50s of the last century. By the way, he is still alive and well. Reviews about the aircraft, on its part, are the most flattering.
  16. mind1954
    mind1954 1 August 2012 00: 20
    +1
    BEAUTY! I look at a wooden model painted with silver
    made in TsAGI!
    Thanks for the article and the photos!
  17. Wolkin
    Wolkin 4 August 2012 18: 32
    0
    Books:
    Igor Seydov, Yuri Sutyagin "Thunderstorm of the Sabers" Moscow "Yauza" "Eskimo" 2006
    Evgeny Pepelyaev "Migi" vs. "Sabers" Moscow "Yauza" "Eskimo" 2006
    I recommend to read.
    I personally saw Sutyagin. When he served in 16 VA. Often visited us at the airport. I even greeted my hand a couple of times. Very sociable person. But then I did not know that it was the best jet aircraft. Of course, he was ashamed to ask for what the Hero received. From the environment they said - for Korea. No more questions were asked, then it was not accepted. I found out who he was only after 2000. When an article about him caught my eye. Here is such a sad story
  18. gizma
    gizma 22 February 2013 12: 08
    0
    Detailed drawings of Mig-15 for building a model copy http://avia-master.com/detailed-drawings-of-planes-for-creation-of-models/685-mi
    g-15.html
  19. murriou
    murriou 7 October 2016 09: 35
    0
    Quote: JIPO
    However, the Americans are still those dreamers.

    They are very arrogant liars. They live by Goebbels' precepts.
    For them it does not matter how it really was - it is only important how they want to present it.
    Honor, conscience, shame - for them these are all empty words.
  20. dsu05
    dsu05 13 February 2018 17: 35
    0
    In the 1960-80s in the pioneer camp Orlyonok on the Black Sea
    there were 2-3 MiG-15 aircraft (one of them was UTI-15, plus MiG-21, Yak-18 and Be-6),
    now costs the L-400.
  21. evgenii67
    evgenii67 30 January 2019 15: 30
    0
    1. The war in Korea. Koreans have modern SOVIET EQUIPMENT, the pilots are introduced to the MiG-15 fighter. The Korean pilot asks: what is this RED BUTTON? Instructor: press only in an emergency. Air battle. Two American Sabers F-86 hang on the tail. nowhere to go. The Korean decides to press the RED BUTTON. the Russian IVAN crawls out behind the armchair of the regiment and says to the Korean: move fast-eyed.

    2. USSR. Military airfield. Test over the heavy atomic bomb. All military officials gathered, the general headed. Attached this bomb to the external suspension of the Tu-95. The Tu-95 prepares for flight, accelerates along the take-off, and here it breaks the mount and the bomb starts to jump on the concrete. All who were present fell into the ditch, one general both stood and stood watching through binoculars. After a couple of minutes, the people begin to rise from the ditch, brush off the dirt. One of them asks the general why he did not jump with everyone? To which the general replied: A SENSE?