Military Review

Ckr gabriel

25


Israel began to develop anti-ship missiles just 6 after the proclamation of the independence of the state. In the 1954 year, Raphael (at that time he was called the 3 Institute) started developing an anti-ship missile called the G-25 designed to replace coastal barreled artillery. Subsequently, the rocket was adapted for launching from the Dakota transport aircraft, and the operator controlling the rocket with the help of a joystick was placed shoulder to shoulder with the pilot. The range of the rocket was limited to the operator’s direct line of sight and was no more than 20 kilometers. It is noteworthy that this rocket was also offered to the ground forces, but the command did not express interest, citing the fact that the minimum range in 6 km was too long for the ground forces, as the maximum range "exceeds the requirements of the ground forces."

Ckr gabriel

Test launch of the PKR G-25 in the Negev desert in the 1958 year.


The Navy gladly accepted this missile, giving it the name "Luz". Another noteworthy point: this rocket was first tested on 18 on May 1959 on board the destroyer Eilat, which later became a victim of Soviet-made anti-ship missiles. During the tests revealed the main drawback of the rocket. The relatively dense smoke of the cruise missile engine and the gases of the steering devices significantly hampered the optical guidance of the missile operator to the target. This mainly influenced the accuracy of pointing in altitude, so sometimes the rocket did not reach the target or passed over it. In the Navy, a group was specially created to create electric steering devices.

In August 1962, Egypt tested a ground-to-ground rocket created by German scientists who have received shelter in the country of the pyramids. The fact of the test was seriously alarmed by the Israeli leadership, instructing Rafael to urgently engage in the development of ground-to-ground missiles. Rafael threw all his forces into this project, postponing the further development of the Luz PKR. As a result, the development of RCC "Luz" passed to the concern Aviation Israel Industry (Israel Aircraft Industry, IAI). IAI was supposed to set up production of the Luz rocket launcher, but as a result received a crude missile. In order to complete the development of the rocket in the IAI, a group of engineers was created which was headed by engineer Uri Even Tov (אורי אבן טוב) who had transferred from Rafael for these purposes. He changed the concept of the rocket by dividing the guidance system into two components; one was a radio altimeter, and the other was a semi-active radar homing head. The first allowed the rocket to approach the target at a minimum height, the second provided maximum secrecy of use (GOS did not radiate anything), which fully justified itself in the battles with Egypt and Syria. On the other hand, such a guidance system limits the firing range and does not allow for horizontal shooting.

Since IAI was a closer company to the Ministry of Defense, despite the delay in the project, there were no problems with its financing. The development was successfully completed in the 1969 year, when at the Haifa anti-missile boat carried out from the side of the missile boat, Gabriel successfully hit a target that simulates an enemy missile boat. Immediately after these tests, the Israeli Navy adopted the Gabriel PKR.

By the Doomsday War, the Gabriel PKR was in service with most BMS Israel missile boats. During the war, about 50 missiles were fired, half of which hit their targets (more here).

Thus, the range of the RCC Gabriel Mk1 was about 20 km (according to some sources 25 km). It was equipped with a semi-active homing head (GOS), significantly limiting the combat capabilities of the boat, since its radar boats had to be in active mode and highlight the target until the moment of its defeat. On the other hand, it spurred the Israelis to create and actively use progressive EW tools and develop tactics for the use of RPC. So, they were launched only after all the missiles launched by the enemy were disoriented and were removed from the combat course by passive jamming.

By the 1972 year, the Gabriel Mk2 RCC was developed with an increased range of 36 km, which was achieved by increasing the size and quality of the cruising solid-fuel engine. The missile guidance system has not changed, and also limited the combat capabilities of the boats. The rocket was put into service in the 1976 year. In Taiwan, the RCC Gabriel Mc2 was produced under the name Hsiung Feng 1, and in South Africa under the name Skerpioen (scorpion).

In 1978, the model presented the RCC model Gabriel Mk3 A / S. It has undergone significant changes and could also be used from the F-4 "Fantom", A-4 "Sky Hawk", С2 "Kfir", "Sea Scan". It has a range of 60 (according to other 80 sources) km, and the active radar seeker allows you to use it in the "shot-and-forget" mode.


Gabriel Mk 3 anti-ship missiles of surface-surface classes (I) with 6 starting engine and air-surface (II)


The rocket has a normal aerodynamic configuration. The case consists of three main compartments. The first contains a guidance system, including an inertial navigation system and a homing head, in the second there is a power source, in the third there is a semi-invasive combat unit designed to hit targets of various classes and equipped with a time delay fuse. The 4 cruciform wing and the 5 propulsion system are located in the middle part of the fuselage, the 7 cruciform steering wheels and the 8 actuators are located in the stern section. The rocket has a small effective scattering surface (EPR).

Active X-band radar noise-resistant GOS with fast frequency tuning is capable of operating in the mode of active interference on the ship station, thus significantly reducing the effectiveness of the missile defense system of the attacked ship.

Gabriel MKZ A / S start-up with a carrier aircraft is performed in the altitude range 90-9000 meters, at speeds of 400-650 km / h at low altitudes and 650-750 km / h at large ones.


The range of heights and speeds of the aircraft carrier during the launch of Gabriel Mk3 A / S rockets


Targeting can be done in two modes: autonomous and with correction of the inertial navigation system on the march segment of the trajectory. The first is used when launching missiles from attack aircraft (fighter-bombers), and the second from basic patrol aircraft equipped with on-board radar capable of simultaneously accompanying several targets (aircraft "Sea Scan").


Gabriel Mc3 A / S rocket flight path in two planes


When firing in the first mode, the bearing and the distance to the 5 target, determined using on-board radar or received from other aircraft, are entered into the onboard computer missiles simultaneously with the current information about the speed and spatial position of the carrier at the moment of launch. After launch, the rocket is lowered in the 2 segment to the height of 20 m, after which it performs a horizontal flight under the control of a radio altimeter. To ensure gentle descent, the pitch angle is controlled according to a program previously entered into the memory of the calculator.


Gabriel Mk3 A / S


Guidance missiles in the horizontal plane on the march plot 3 provided inertial navigation system and onboard computers. After entering the 4 search zone, the active homing unit is turned on at the pre-programmed point, and the 7 target is detected and captured. In the 8 homing area, the flight altitude, depending on the sea state, is 1.5, 2.5 or 4.0 meters. The current bearing and distance to the target are continuously introduced into the inertial system from the GOS, the flight path is corrected by shifting the control surfaces.

The main control mode of the Gabriel MCR A / S RCC is offline mode. Targeting in this case is carried out in three ways.
The first method is automatic data entry from the aircraft radar. When an aircraft carrier enters the range of the missile, the target designation data entry is stopped and the flashing indicator informs the pilot about the possibility of launching the missile.

The second method involves receiving data from external intelligence tools, such as another aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle.
The third method is the simplest, the calculated values ​​of the bearing and distance to the target are entered into the onboard computer of the rocket manually through the fire control panel. In addition, for the timely activation of the GOS, the pilot sets one of the calculated ranges of the missile's flight range: short-range (up to 20 km), medium (20 — 40 km) and long-range (over 40 km).

To reduce the search zone (i.e., increase the time spent by the GOS in the secretive mode), when targeting Gabriel MK 3 rockets, an inertial system can be corrected on the cruise trajectory. In this case, the aircraft continues to accompany the target after the launch of the rocket and corrects the trajectory of its flight along the radio command line. Correction of the 6 error of the inertial system reduces the possibility of evasion of the target, moreover, it is possible, with massive opposition, to include an active homing vessel in the immediate vicinity of the attacked ship.

The Gabriel MKZ shipborne missile can also be used in the radio command mode with a radar target illumination, like in the early versions of the missile.

The Gabriel Mk3 missile has been in service with the Israeli Navy since 1982 (some sources claim it was not adopted).

History with the Gabriel Mk4 RCC is secret, but according to some reports it is equipped with a turbojet engine and has a range of 200 km. The number of missiles produced and commissioned is also not reported.


Gabriel Mk5


A further development of the Gabriel PKP is the Gabriel Mk5 PKR, currently being developed by the IAI concern. This extreme anti-ship missile of the Gabriel line is intended to become the main anti-ship armament of the Israeli Navy ships. In size, it will correspond to an Exocet and Harpoon type ASM. It is assumed that Gabriel Mk5 will have higher rates than most modern anti-ship missiles, especially when used in coastal waters and in overcoming advanced means of anti-missile (soft-kill and hard-kill) adversary.

Probably, the new version will be based on an earlier version, replacing Gabriel Mk2 in the Navy. The existence of such a rocket (we are talking about Gabriel Mk4) has never been officially confirmed, however, the fact that, unlike most other users, Israel has not updated its Harpoon RCC (RGM-84D) before the Block II configuration (RGM- 84L).

Hints of Gabriel Mk4's existence appeared in the early 2000s, when the IAI took part in an international tender to equip new Singapore Naval frigates. fleet. As a result, Singapore opted for Harpoon missiles.

Gabriel Mk5 will use an advanced, active GOS, supported by a modern control system designed to optimize the overall combat effectiveness of the anti-ship missiles. The rocket will have a significantly increased ability to distinguish and select targets, especially in coastal waters, as a rule, overloaded with sea transport, as well as in the context of creating extensive and complex signals of false targets. Like most advanced anti-ship missiles, Gabriel Mk5 will be able to overcome the enemy's missile defense system, whether it is a means of functional decommissioning, or means of fire destruction. It is being developed taking into account modern actions to disrupt the operation of the enemy EW facilities, the use of advanced baits and active jamming.

Gabriel Mk5 is expected to become an integral part of the new complex of offensive and defensive systems currently being developed by the IAI concern. This new weapon system will also include the Barak-8 long-range air defense missile system, a multi-mode integrated combat control system and the Elta (IAI) EL / M-2248 MF-STAR multi-purpose shipborne radar, which the Elta claims is superior in performance to the SPY-1 AEGIS radar .

According to IAI, RCC Gabriel Mk5 will be able to overcome the limitations of existing missiles:
overcome the problems of selectivity (distinction and choice of targets) in loaded coastal waters;
copes with a rapidly changing tactical environment;
cope with a number of coastal targets;
overcomes near dipole reflectors, false targets and active interference;
overcomes the means of fire destruction of the enemy (hard-kill defense).



Gabriel RCCs were exported to a dozen third world countries. The experience of combat use is indicated above.

Tactical and technical characteristics of RCC Gabriel
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  1. Svistoplyaskov
    Svistoplyaskov 31 July 2012 10: 06
    +5
    Already appeared in the Caspian Sea thanks to Azerbaijani-Israeli friendship or cooperation!
    1. Ataturk
      Ataturk 31 July 2012 10: 53
      +8
      Want peace, get ready for war! How else? If you don’t feed your army, they will force you to feed someone else’s.
      1. Svistoplyaskov
        Svistoplyaskov 31 July 2012 10: 55
        +4
        It is logical! But why Israeli ???
        1. Ataturk
          Ataturk 31 July 2012 13: 15
          +5
          Quote: Whistling
          But why Israeli ???


          Israeli technology has not proven itself well + EMBARGO on offensive weapons acts on Azerbaijan. And here they are selling and also not a bad weapon. Why not buy? And then Russia agreed and bought from Russia.
          Considering that the Iranian division of the Caspian does not fit into any framework, and all the more so, they decided to launch their submarines into the Caspian, so they bought it so that they would not have raspberries! Helicopters were also purchased from Russia to detect such submarines.
    2. the gray wolf
      the gray wolf 31 July 2012 13: 01
      +5
      if Russia would sell, probably would buy from you.
      1. Ataturk
        Ataturk 31 July 2012 13: 11
        +4
        Quote: Boz Qurd
        if Russia would sell, probably would buy from you.


        Russia sold and we bought. Part has already been delivered to Azerbaijan.



        Question against whom? I think you won’t have to think much.
        1. the gray wolf
          the gray wolf 31 July 2012 13: 18
          +3
          well the better for us good
          1. Ataturk
            Ataturk 31 July 2012 13: 30
            +5
            Quote: Boz Qurd
            well the better for us


            Certainly wink
            Azerbaijan plans to purchase Corvettes. Already prepared for the tender. Two such corvettes and Iran’s plans for a 2% division of the Caspian can be buried. Air intrusion is also not possible. The S-20 is the favorite and just wait for the PHANTS to demolish them. And besides, our air fleet is no longer far from Lochowski.

            1. the gray wolf
              the gray wolf 31 July 2012 13: 35
              +3
              Certainly for the farmers, a good present is Uranus, but Gabriel will catch up with them. wassat
              1. Ataturk
                Ataturk 31 July 2012 13: 38
                +4
                Quote: Boz Qurd
                certainly for farmers a good present Uranus, yes Gabriel


                They already understood what kind of crap they got into by starting a policy of double standards to lead like the west. What is sown is what they will reap.

                They also spoke of the Muslim brotherhood. By the way, their Foreign Ministry is already flying to us in full sail. We find out what they want.
                1. the gray wolf
                  the gray wolf 31 July 2012 13: 43
                  0
                  and don’t care what they’re going to, so that they don’t say farces this is a two-faced nation (there is another such nation similar to them and related to them, since it was resettled from there) they have been hostile to us for centuries, there is no sense in believing them. You can talk to them, but you need to keep a club in your bosom.
                  1. Ataturk
                    Ataturk 31 July 2012 13: 47
                    +4
                    Quote: Boz Qurd
                    and don’t care what they’re going,

                    Quote: Boz Qurd
                    it is a two-faced nation

                    +1

                    Quote: Boz Qurd
                    there is another such nation similar to them and related to them

                    and they do not hide it? They directly told our officials that we have the same blood with them, only faith is different. For this reason, their ambassador says one thing to us, and there is another.


                    Quote: Boz Qurd
                    there is no point in believing them.

                    Of course !!!!


                    They already understood what kind of crap they got into by starting a policy of double standards to lead like the west. What is sown is what they will reap.

                    The prosperity of Azerbaijan is like a bone in the throat to their friends. They need a weak Azerbaijan. And they are also enraged by the fact that their imperial conceit and imperial voice on the significance of them in the region are extinguished in full. Not only that, starting from without starting point, they began to drag Russia along European courts, and they want to do a lot, not a lot, twice as much as what they themselves had to give. But that’s not all, they decided to put everyone on a brush like a racket ... each oil tanker that passes through the Persian Gulf will pay a lot of 10% of their income. I myself counted this almost 1 billion dollars tawans. In short, they lost fear either ... or I know to die so die with music. They also speak when attacking them, and not ashamed to say so, they will first hit Turkey and then Qatar and everyone else. They did not list us ... along the way they know that 30 million Azerbaijanis are not a joke. Little then they will not seem.
                    1. the gray wolf
                      the gray wolf 31 July 2012 13: 59
                      0
                      Quote: Ataturk
                      30 million Azerbaijanis is not a joke. Little then they do not seem.
                      we need to help our people there, we can do it morally and financially, and when the time comes with Kalash, RPG, the border with them is big, a couple of tens of thousands of Kalash can slip through. Farce time passed when they stopped reckoning with us. angry
                      1. Ataturk
                        Ataturk 31 July 2012 14: 27
                        0
                        Quote: Boz Qurd
                        we need our help there, so far we can morally and financially


                        people are starving there. They steal bread from bottles. Food has risen in price.

                        Quote: Boz Qurd
                        Farce time passed when they stopped reckoning with us.

                        absolutely true.
                2. Pimply
                  Pimply 31 July 2012 14: 06
                  +7
                  A policy of double standards is conducted by all countries without exception. She is a politician
                  1. the gray wolf
                    the gray wolf 31 July 2012 14: 11
                    +2
                    Eugene, they don’t have double standards in relation to us, they openly declare to us that we are enemies, and we do not consider them friends.
                    1. Ataturk
                      Ataturk 31 July 2012 14: 34
                      +3
                      Quote: Boz Qurd
                      they don’t have double standards for us, they openly declare to us that we are enemies


                      My friend, they show by their actions that they are enemies to us. Yes, and sometimes words are released. But the fact that they are enemies to us is 100%. They occupied our lands, they killed us and they support our enemies. Friend of my enemy, my enemy! They say one thing about the brotherhood of Islam, although they are Muslims like a ballerina from me.
                    2. Pimply
                      Pimply 31 July 2012 14: 42
                      +1
                      I do not argue with this
                  2. Ataturk
                    Ataturk 31 July 2012 14: 31
                    +2
                    Quote: Pimply
                    A policy of double standards is conducted by all countries without exception.

                    I do not agree.

                    I don’t think that the USA is pursuing a policy of double standards towards Israel or England. Others may be, but not both.
                    I do not think that the policy of Turkey towards Azerbaijan also has the roots of double standards.

                    I don’t think that Europeans have a double policy towards their own.

                    Double politics is conducted in relation to competitors and potential enemies.
                    1. Pimply
                      Pimply 31 July 2012 14: 45
                      +2
                      Any country pursues a policy of double standards to one degree or another. It can be almost imperceptible, but it can be explicit. A double standard is, for example, calling the same phenomenon terrorists or a liberation movement, depending on the need, a militant or a rebel. This is the most striking example. Scout Spy, etc. And absolutely everyone sins with this.
  2. 755962
    755962 31 July 2012 11: 57
    +1
    Dear Professor, Thank you for publishing the article. But everything is vague about the 5th modification. Can it be used from underwater carriers, and can it be equipped with special ammunition like "Popeye"?
    1. Pimply
      Pimply 31 July 2012 12: 45
      +3
      And this is a big question. Which, it seems, will remain a mystery for the coming years 20. For example, the same Tammuz was classified 15 or 20
    2. Professor
      31 July 2012 13: 02
      +7
      Who will tell us ... negative That will be a naval battle in the Mediterranean then we will find out. By the way, Israel is still hiding the nomenclature of electronic warfare equipment used in the 1973 year in Latakiye.

      PS
      Article written solely at your request.
      1. Ataturk
        Ataturk 31 July 2012 13: 26
        +2
        Quote: Professor
        Who will tell us ... There will be a naval battle in the Mediterranean then we will find out.


        There are no submarines in the Syrian Navy. Syria has 2 small anti-submarine ships of project 159, 3 minesweepers of project 1258, 1 minesweeper of project 266. 3 medium landing ships of project 771

        Israel has
        Ships of the Israeli Navy


        submarine type "Dolphin" AHI "Dolphin"


        Corvette type Saar 5


        missile boat type "Saar-4,5" AHI "Hets"


        patrol boat type "Super Yard"




        Submarines "Dolphin" were built in Germany in Kiel. Work on the project began back in 1986, but due to the high cost of work it was frozen (according to some reports, the cost of building one submarine was 300-350 million dollars). Construction continued only in 1994. The design of these boats is close to the German type 212. In 2006, Israel ordered the construction of two more submarines of this type in Germany, and on May 5, 2011, negotiations were concluded between Israel and Germany on the construction of the sixth submarine of this type.

        Corvettes of the Saar-5 type were built in the USA at the Ingols shipyards. It was originally planned to order 4 units of these ships, but for financial reasons they were limited to three. Work on the ships was completed in 1997. The main purpose of the ship is the flagship of the squadron of missile boats, providing them with air defense and anti-aircraft defense, as well as target designation using an onboard helicopter. At the beginning of 2004, it was reported that Israel ordered the construction of another 5 ships of this type.

        Missile boats of the Saar-4,5 type currently make up the bulk of the naval composition. Prior to this type, older Reshef boats were modified. Currently, there are 8 boats of this type in the Navy.
        [
        Missile boats of the Saar-4 type were built in Israel. The Israeli Navy received 10 ships of this type. They were also built for South Africa and Greece. Boats of this type took part in the wars of 1973 and 1982, as well as in anti-terrorist operations. Currently, there are 2 boats left in service, which are likely to be decommissioned later. 4 boats were sold in Chile, 2 - Sri Lanka.

        Patrol boats "Dabur" were built at shipyards in the USA and Israel. In total, the Navy included 34 boats of this type. In addition, 27 boats for sale were built (deliveries went to Argentina, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Fiji, Chile). Currently, boats are considered obsolete and are being replaced by newer boats of the Super Yard type.

        Patrol boats "Super Yard" - a newer version of the boat "Dabur", currently in the Navy there are 13 such boats. Also built for export (supplies to Eritrea, India and Sri Lanka).

        Shaldag patrol boats were ordered in 2002, the first boat was handed over to the Navy at the end of 2003. The characteristics of this boat are almost identical to those of Super Yard type boats.

        Nachshol patrol boats were purchased in South Africa in 1998. Based in Eilat, their main task is to patrol territorial waters.


        ANSWER IS OBVIOUS. Nothing good Syria sea battle does not promise! This is only Israel. And not only Israel will attack Syria.
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 31 July 2012 14: 10
          +2
          Something you are fixated on Syria. There are potentially several more opponents. There is Turkey, there is Egypt. The latter is more than likely.
          1. Ataturk
            Ataturk 31 July 2012 14: 29
            -1
            Quote: Pimply
            There are potentially several more opponents. There is Turkey, there is Egypt.

            in PEN-DO-SII do not think so. They are interested in 2 countries Syria and Iran.
            Why did the Turks become enemies? Who are they enemies? Israel or the USA?
            1. Pimply
              Pimply 31 July 2012 14: 52
              +3
              The states care much more about countries. At the moment, the Syrians and Iran are more concerned, because they directly threaten US interests in the region.

              Turks? Well, if only because Erdogan is diligently trying to transfer the country from the secular path, from Ataturk Turkey, to the tracks of Islam. And in parallel - to again become a regional leader. His party is Islamist, neo-Ottoman. So they are spinning in full. To win the sympathy of the majority of the Islamic world is very simple - it is necessary to spoil relations with Israel, which Erdogan has been doing very diligently and effectively in recent years 6.

              The secular elite of the army, which constantly overthrew the Islamists, was neutralized, now its people are at the head of the army and the gendarmerie. Three factors stop Turkey. NATO, States, IDF. But in the end, there is an option that Turkey will spit on everything, and try to finally leave the West to the East. She is already taking these steps after she was made clear that Turkey will not enter the EU
        2. Professor
          31 July 2012 14: 11
          +7
          Are you not considering the Egyptian Navy? And Iran is already trying to swim in the Mediterranean.
          By the way, Israel has more submarines than you wrote.
          1. Ataturk
            Ataturk 31 July 2012 14: 29
            0
            Quote: Professor
            By the way, Israel has more submarines than you wrote.

            I do not exclude it, but this is data for 2008. For 4 years I think they bought a lot of things.
            1. Pimply
              Pimply 31 July 2012 14: 46
              +1
              there were three boats on the 2008. There are four now, in 2013, 5, in 2016, 6.
              1. Bledonene2012
                Bledonene2012 24 October 2013 15: 39
                0
                If so, in 2016 I will be the 5th.