French Foreign Legion in World War I and II

French Foreign Legion in World War I and II

"Legionnaires in battle." Painting by E. Ponomaryov, a former Russian paratrooper, legionnaire, illustrator Kepi Blanc Magazine


Article "Dogs of War" of the French Foreign Legion " we talked about stories the emergence of this military unit, its military path. We ended the story by pointing to the beginning of World War I. Now it's time to find out the continuation of this story.

Foreign Legion during the First World War


At the beginning of World War I, military personnel of the Foreign Legion were divided into two parts. Soldiers of German descent (and there were many) remained in Algeria. Among them could be a German writer and philosopher Ernst Junger, who ran away from home at the beginning of the XNUMXth century to enlist in the Legion, but returned home in exchange for a promise to travel to Kilimanjaro and ended up fighting in the German army.

All other legionnaires (soldiers of other nationalities) were transferred to Europe.

At the same time, well-known emigrants living in France called on their compatriots to join the French army ("Call of Canudo", on behalf of the first Italian writer to take such an initiative; Riccoto Canudo himself also went to the front, was wounded and awarded the Legion of Honor) .


Riccoto Canudo

The appeal of Canudo was heard: 42883 volunteers of 52 nationalities responded to the call, more than six thousand of whom died in battle. As you probably already guessed, they all ended up in the Foreign Legion. Only citizens of this country could apply for service in other formations of the French army.

Among the new volunteers of the legion was the American poet Alan Seeger, whose poem “Rendezvous with Death” was often quoted by John Kennedy:
With death, I'm on a rendezvous
Here on a wounded hill ...
Spring day has passed
In a burning night town -
And faithful to duty, I go
Last time for a rendezvous.

He died in one of the battles in France on July 4, 1916.


Alan Seager in the form of a legionnaire

As part of the First Regiment of the Foreign Legion, the poet Blaise Sandrar (Frederic-Louis Sauze), who lost his right hand, went to the front, and Francois Faber - Luxembourg cyclist, winner of the Tour de France race in 1909 (rose to the rank of corporal, died 9 May 1915).

Guillaume Apollinaire also appeared at World War I, who was arrested in September 1911 on suspicion of complicity in the theft of the Mona Lisa from the Louvre. He received French citizenship on March 10, 1916, and on March 17 was wounded by a shell fragment in the head, after which he was demobilized.

He served in the army and Henri Barbusse, but as a French citizen, in the usual regiment.


Parisians read posters announcing mobilization, 1914

Of the other celebrities who fought in the Foreign Legion during World War I, mention should be made of Louis Honore Charles Grimaldi, who began his service in Algeria in 1898, quit in 1908, but returned to duty and rose to the rank of brigadier general. In 1922, he became Prince of Monaco, ascending the throne under the name of Louis II.


Philippe de Laszlo. Portrait of Prince of Monaco Louis II, 1928

About the Moroccan division (its motto: “Without fear and pity!”), Which included units of the Foreign Legion (as well as zouaves, tyiraliers and squadrons of odors), Henri Barbus wrote in the novel “Fire”:

“On difficult days, the Moroccan division was always sent forward.”


Joseph Joffre, Commander-in-Chief of the French Army, awards a soldier of the Moroccan Division, 1915. In the front row there are four tyiraliers and a legionnaire

The Moroccan division entered the fray on August 28, 1914. The first battle on the Marne was the first big battle of the legionnaires in that war, part of its units were brought to the front line by Paris taxi. At the positions of Mandemann (Mondement-Montgivroux), the loss of the legion amounted to half the personnel.


Soldiers of the Foreign Legion, October 1914, Bayonne, southwestern France

In May 1915, the legionnaires took part in the Second Battle of Artois, in September - they fought in Champagne. At the same time, legionnaire formations fought in Gallipoli during the Allied Dardanelles operation.


Legionnaires in Gallipoli, 1915

In July 1916, the legionnaires suffered heavy losses in the Battle of the Somme, where, incidentally, was widely used aviation (500 Allied planes versus 300 German) and first appeared on the battlefield Tanks.


British tank at the Somme

In April 1917, the legionnaires of the Moroccan brigade took part in the so-called Nivelles offensive (Nivelles' meat grinder), in which the French tanks unsuccessfully made their debut: of the 128 vehicles that went on the attack on April 16, only 10 returned.


French tank Schneider CA-1, April 1917

On August 20, 1917, during the battle of Verdun, the Moroccan division was again thrown into the battle as the last reserve: after two days of fighting, it managed to throw off the advancing German units. Losses of “Moroccans” accounted for up to 60% of the personnel.


Review of the combat regiment of the Foreign Legion, November 1918

In June 1925, this memorial sign was erected in the town of Givenchy-en-Goel:


In 1917, Raul Salan, the future gentleman of 36 military orders and medals, one of the most famous generals of the French army, was in the service of the Foreign Legion. For attempting to organize a military coup, he will be sentenced in absentia by the de Gaulle government to death in 1961 and to life imprisonment in 1962, amnestied in 1968 and buried with military honors in June 1984. In the following articles of the cycle we will constantly recall him.

At the beginning of 1918, the so-called “Russian Legion of Honor” was included in the Moroccan division, which included the future Marshal of the Soviet Union R. Ya. Malinovsky (this was described in the article “The most successful Russian“ legionnaire ”. Rodion Malinovsky »).

In August of that year (1918), one of the companies of the French Foreign Legion was in Arkhangelsk as part of the occupying forces of the Entente. On its basis, a battalion was created (three infantry companies and one machine gun, 17 officers and 325 privates and sergeants), 75% of the troops of which were Russian. On October 14, 1919, this battalion was evacuated from Arkhangelsk. Some of the Russian legionnaires transferred to the White Guard detachments, others were transferred to the First Foreign Regiment, and then to the First Cavalry (armored cavalry) regiment.

Then the French battalion of the Foreign Legion was created in Arkhangelsk, numbering about 300 people.

Interbellum The fighting of the units of the Foreign Legion in the interwar period



Legionnaire in full combat gear. 1920 year


Soldiers of the French Foreign Legion arriving in Paris for the Bastille Day parade. July 13, 1939

The period between two world wars can be called peaceful only in quotation marks. From 1920 to 1935, France waged war in Morocco, expanding its territory in this country.

Many people learned about this war only from the film "Legionnaire", shot in the USA in 1998. The protagonist of this picture, professional boxer Alain Lefebvre, without losing the “bought” fight, was forced to hide from the bosses of the Marseillean mafia in the Foreign Legion - and ended up in Morocco, on the Reef War (which was briefly described in the article “Zouaves. New and unusual military units of France ").


Jean-Claude Van Damme as Alain Lefebvre, The Legionnaire, 1998

Another film about the Reef War - “Legionnaires” (“Go Forward or Die”) was shot in Britain in 1977 by the American director Dick Richards, known in Russia mainly as the producer of the film “Tootsie” (second place in the top 5 comedies with dressing men into women).

In this film, Richards, in my opinion, is still a little nostalgic about the “white man’s burden” and the lost opportunity “day and night, day and night” to go around Africa. In the story, Major William Foster (American), a veteran of the fighting in Morocco and World War I, was sent as the head of a legionnaire detachment to the vicinity of Erfoud, but not to fight, but practically with a humanitarian mission - to protect a group of French archaeologists from the "bloodthirsty Berbers". The purpose of the expedition is to find the 3-thousand-year-old tomb of the "Angel of the Desert" - a local saint, and "evacuate the golden sarcophagus and other valuables to the Louvre" (practically the "tomb raider" Lara Croft in a white cap). Foster is also an old acquaintance of the rebel leader Abd al-Krim (he was also described in the above article Zouaves. New and unusual military units of France ”) Earlier, he promised Abd-al-Krim not to touch the tomb, but this time when meeting with him he says: they’ll dig a little here, rob the grave and leave back, do not pay attention. But for some reason, Abd al-Krim al-Khattabi did not like this proposal.


Shot from the film "Legionnaires". This is how Abd al-Krim stops Foster for negotiations.

Foster’s detachment, in addition to him, contains only three decent people: “Russian Ivan” (a former guard of the imperial family), a refined French musician and somehow a young man from an English aristocratic family who fell into the legion. The rest are almost entirely criminals and German prisoners of war. Serving in the legion is shown in the film without a romantic flair: exhausting training, skirmishes with the Berbers, suicide of an unstable musician, abduction of an aristocrat whose body was found with traces of torture, death in the battle between Ivan and Foster.

Images from the film "Legionnaires":



In one of the two versions of the film's finale, the last surviving hero (a former thief specializing in theft of jewels) tells the recruits of the legion:

“Some of you will want to quit. Others will try to escape. Not a single person before me has succeeded. If the desert does not reach you, the Arabs will do it. If you are not finished by the Arabs, the Legion will do it. If the Legion does not finish you, I will. And I don’t know which is worse. "

But in the American film “Morocco” (1930), life in this French colony is shown to be much more “beautiful”, and a cute legionnaire (played by Gary Cooper) easily discourages pop singing (Marlene Dietrich) from some rich, but not romantic "civilian".


Marlene Dietrich and Gary Cooper in the movie Morocco, 1930

The Danish Prince Oge, Earl of Rosenborg, took part in the Reef War, who, with the permission of the King of Denmark, entered the Foreign Legion with the rank of captain in 1922. He was then wounded in the leg, received the "Military Cross of Foreign Theaters of War", and then the Order of the Legion of Honor. He rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel and died of pleurisy in the Moroccan city of Taza on September 19, 1940.


Prince Aage of Rosenborg

Fighting in Syria


From 1925 to 1927 The foreign legion also fought in Syria, where he had to participate in the suppression of rebellions of Druze tribes.

Syria and Lebanon, which were previously part of the Ottoman Empire, the French received on the basis of the First World War. According to officials of the French Republic, one can get an idea of ​​their attitude towards the new colony. Prime Minister Georges Legy declared in 1920:

"We have come to Syria forever."

And General Henry Joseph Gouraud (served in the colonial forces since 1894 in Mali, Chad, Mauritania and Morocco, commanded the colonial corps and the French corps in the Dardanelles during World War I), inspecting the Al-Ayubi Mosque (“Honor of the Faith”) in Damascus said:

“We're back, Saladin!”

Thus, the French quite seriously considered themselves as heirs to the crusaders.

Druze lived in the south and southeast of Syria - in the province, which the French called Jebel Druz. Unable to make concessions from the colonial authorities, on July 16, 1925, they destroyed 200 French soldiers at Al-Qarya. Then, on August 3, they defeated the already quite serious three-thousandth corps, which included artillery units and several Reno FT tanks. In the fight against French tanks, the Druze applied a bold and innovative method: they jumped onto the armor and pulled out the crew - so they managed to capture 5 tanks.

Other Syrians, making sure that it was possible to fight the French successfully, also did not stand aside: even the suburb of Damascus - Guta rebelled. In Damascus, fights began in which the French used artillery and aircraft. As a result, they still had to leave the almost ruined city. In September, a large military detachment of General Gamelin (the future commander of the French army in the short-lived campaign of 1940) was surrounded, almost blocked, near Sueida, and an uprising began in October 4 in Hama.

The French achieved their first successes only in 1926, when they brought the size of their army group to 100 thousand people. The basis of these forces was the units of the Foreign Legion and the Tyrael (including Senegalese).

The First Armored Cavalry Regiment of the Legion and the Circassian “Light Squadrons of the Levant” played an important role in suppressing this uprising. “Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion”.

One of his poems was dedicated to the events in Syria by the Cossack poet Nikolai Turoverov, who became a legionnaire, it was quoted in the above article (“It doesn’t matter in which country to sweep away the popular ground”).

The aforementioned Raul Salan, who returned to the legion after studying at Saint-Cyr, also fought in Syria.

Foreign Legion on the Western Front during the Second World War


The generation of the French, who entered the war with Germany in 1940, was already too different from their fathers who defeated Germany in the Great War of the beginning of this century. Heroes died at Marne, near Verdun and Somme. The new French preferred to surrender and did not particularly suffer in the German "European Union" - neither in the part of France occupied by the Germans, nor even in the territory controlled by the government of the resort town of Vichy.


German officers in a cafe on the street of occupied Paris, July 1940


Actress and singer Sarah Leander autographs German soldiers on the streets of occupied Paris, 1941


Children at the entrance to a play park in occupied Paris. The inscription on the plate: "Game Park. Reserved for children. Jews (entrance) is prohibited. " Paris, France, 1942


The French welcome the head of the collaborationist government of Vichy Henri Philippe Petain


Milice française of the collaborationist government of Vichy and the French, arrested on suspicion of involvement in partisans

France capitulated so quickly that the five regiments of the Foreign Legion, who were on the Western Front, did not have time to clearly prove themselves.

Divided legion


The first armored cavalry foreign regiment, which became part of the Division of Division Intelligence 97, after the Compiegne Armistice was returned to Africa, where its troops were sent to the reserve. This regiment was again formed only in 1943 - already as a combat unit of "Free France".

Other parts of the legion were completely divided into two parts, one of which was subordinate to the Vichy government, the other, the smaller, of the “Free France” de Gaulle. In the already mentioned 13th brigade (see article “Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion”), evacuated from Dunkirk to England, a meeting of officers was held, at which only 28 officers decided to obey de Gaulle. The rest (there were 31 of them) chose the side of Marshal Petain and, together with part of their subordinates, they were sent to the territory of France controlled by him.


Government-controlled Vichy Foreign Legion Battalion, Syria

Among those who chose “Free France” was the former Georgian prince, captain Dmitry Amilahvari (who served in the Legion since 1926), who received from de Gaulle the rank of lieutenant colonel and the post of battalion commander. The Gaullist formations of this brigade initially fought against Italians in the territories of Gabon and Cameroon, and then in Ethiopia.


Dmitry Amilahvari


Soldier of the 13th half-brigade of the Foreign Legion, 1940, Libya

In the summer of 1941, the Amilahwari battalion in the Middle East engaged in battle with Vichy military units, among which were parts of the Foreign Legion. So, during the siege of Palmyra, the 15th company of the legion appeared in the enemy garrison, consisting mainly of Germans and ... Russians.

A romantic story is told about this episode of World War II: Amid the stubborn resistance of the enemy for the whole 12 days, Amilahvari supposedly suggested that only legionnaires could fight like that. He ordered the musicians to perform the Le Boudin march in front of the city walls. Palmira picked up the motive, after which the 15th company ceased resistance: some of the soldiers went over to de Gaulle's side, others were sent to the territory controlled by the Vichy government.

"Le Boudin"


But what is “Le Boudin” and why did the song about it become a cult among legionnaires?

The literal translation of "Le Boudin" is "blood sausage." However, in fact, this is the slang name of the tent, which, being pulled over the racks (their legionaries also carried with them), served as a shelter from the African sun. Also, legionnaires sometimes added part of the equipment to it. It was worn in backpacks (or under a belt). Therefore, the correct translation of this word in this case is “rolling”.

Excerpt from the song "Le Boudin":
Here it is, our faithful roll, our roll, our roll,
For Alsatians, for Swiss, Lorraine!
For the Belgians no more, for the Belgians no more
These are loafers and bedmakers!
We are brisk guys
We are rogues
We are unusual people ...
During our campaigns in distant lands
Face to face with fever and fire
Forget with our adversity
And death, which often does not forget about us,
We, the Legion!

This song in a traditional arrangement can be heard in the film “Legionnaire” already mentioned in this article.


Figurine "Legionnaire", 1863, boudin - in the backpack on the right, awning racks are attached to it


Le Boudin under the belt of the French legionnaires

But let us return to Dmitry Amilakhvari, who was soon appointed commander of the 13th semi-brigade, thus becoming the most senior officer of the legion among immigrants from the Russian Empire (Zinovy ​​Peshkov, for example, in the legion only commanded a battalion).

In late May and early June 1942, the 13th semi-brigade fought against the army of Rommel at Bir-Hakeim.


Legionnaire with a French rifle MAS-3, Bir Hakeima, Libya


Legionnaires of the 13th half-brigade of the Foreign Legion near Bir Hakeim, Libya

And on November 24, 1942, D. Amilahvari died during the inspection of enemy positions.

An exception


In 1941, the 13th semi-brigade that remained loyal to de Gaulle as an ambulance driver was Englishwoman Susan Travers, who was destined to become the only female legionnaire in the history of the French Foreign Legion.


Susan Travers, Musee de l'Ordre de la Liberation

At first she was a friend of the above-mentioned Dmitry Amilahvari, then - a personal driver (and also a “girlfriend”) of Colonel Koenig, the future Minister of Defense of France, who on June 6, 1984 also received the posthumous rank of Marshal.


The French general Marie-Pierre Koenig

But after receiving the general rank, Koenig broke up with her and returned to his wife (de Gaulle did not approve of the “immorality”, as did the Soviet party organizers). Travers then, according to the memoirs of colleagues, fell into a depression, but did not leave the army. At the end of the war she became a self-propelled gun driver - and was injured when she was blown up with her car in a mine. She was officially accepted to the Foreign Legion only in August 1945, to the post of adjutant chief in the logistics department. She served for some time in Vietnam, but in 1947, at the age of 38, she married and quit the legion due to pregnancy. In 1995, after the death of her husband, she ended up in a Paris retirement home, where she died in December 2003.

Bonaparte's heir


After the outbreak of hostilities in 1940, under the name of Louis Blanchard, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte entered the Foreign Legion, who, until the end of his life (1997), called himself Emperor Napoleon VI. He was forced to take a different name because in France there was a law on the expulsion of members of the royal and imperial families (repealed in 1950). After the defeat of France, he participated in the Resistance movement and ended the war as part of the Alpine division.


Louis Jerome Victor Emmanuel Leopold Maria Napoleon

The fate of the legionnaires


The units of the 13th semi-brigade that fought on the side of Free France were an exception to the rule — all other parts of the legion remained loyal to the Petain government. Those of them who were in North Africa, according to the order of Admiral Darlan (deputy Petain and commander of the Vichy army), along with other French units surrendered to the Americans during Operation Torch (Torch) in November 1942. And in 1943, the First Armored Cavalry Foreign Regiment was re-formed in Tunisia - already as a combat unit of Free France.


The First Armored Cavalry Regiment of the French Foreign Legion, September 1943

Raul Salan in the 1940 campaign took part in the rank of major - he commanded one of the battalions of the Foreign Legion. After the surrender of France, he ended up at the headquarters of the colonial forces of the Vichy government and even received from Petain the rank of lieutenant colonel and the order of the Gallic Franciscus he established (this is an ax considered to be national weapons galls).


Badge of the Order of the Gallic Francisco

Perhaps you will be interested to know that among the persons awarded this “collaborationist” order were also the Lumiere brothers, the Prince of Monaco Louis II mentioned above, the French army commander in chief from May 19, 1940 Maxim Weygand, the future prime ministers of France Antoine Pine and Maurice Couve de Murville, future president of François Mitterrand.

Let us return to Salan, who came over to de Gaulle's side and already in September 1941 he became the head of the 2nd Bureau of the Army Headquarters in French West Africa, later, in 1943, he became the chief of staff of the French troops in North Africa.

May 30, 1944 Raul Salan was appointed commander of the 6th Senegalese regiment, December 25 - was appointed the head of the 9th colonial division.


Raul Salan, commander of the 6th regiment of Senegalese riflemen: his regiment is tyraller, and the cap is white, legionnaire

Salan also participated in the landing of the Allied forces in Provence. He ended the war with the rank of brigadier general - and already in October 1945 he went to Indochina. But this will be discussed later.

After the war ended, all the legionnaires reunited - because, as already mentioned in the first article, their “fatherland” was the legion (one of the mottos is “Legion is our Fatherland”). And trouble-free soldiers for "dirty work" are necessary for politicians of any country.

Even former Wehrmacht soldiers, especially those who were natives of Alsace, were accepted into the ranks of legionnaires. So, in the Third Parachute Battalion of the Foreign Legion, which ceased to exist in Dienbienf (more on that later in another article), 55% of the troops were Germans. An exception was made only for persons who served in the SS units. However, until 1947 these warriors were also accepted: the French themselves cautiously admit that there could be from 70 to 80 people. Historian Ekard Michels in “Germans in the Foreign Legion. 1870-1965 "wrote about this:

“Control did not mean at all that the candidate would fundamentally receive a turn from the gate precisely because of his membership in the SS. The control measures were more likely to reassure the French and international public, and were not strictly applied in each case. ”

The same author claims that back in August 1944, some surrendered Ukrainians who served in the Waffen-SS formations were taken into the 13th semi-brigade of the Legion, and in 1945, French volunteers from the Charlemagne SS division were captured in some parts of the legion.

Former Czech legionnaires M. Faber and K. Peaks in their memoirs book The Black Battalion (it was also published in the USSR in 1960) tell the shocking story of a meeting in Vietnam in one unit of the legion of their compatriot Vaclav Maly and German officer Wolf, who took part in the murder of the family of his new colleague. In one of the battles, Maly saved the life of his commander, Lieutenant Wolf, and even became his batman. From the open-minded Wolf Small and learned about the death of his family. Together they went to the jungle, where the German killed this Czech as well in a kind of duel. It is difficult to say whether it was in reality or we have before us a model of legionnaire folklore. But, as they say, you won’t erase a word from someone else’s book.

The fighting of the Foreign Legion during the Second World War in Indochina


In Indochina during the years of World War II there was the Fifth Regiment of the Foreign Legion. This region was not yet a “hot spot” and service in this regiment was considered almost a resort. Mentioned in the article “Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion” the former colonel of the Russian imperial army F. Eliseev, the company commander of the Fifth Regiment, later described his colleagues in this way:

“Here, a 30-year-old legionary with five years of service was considered a" boy. " The average age of the legionnaire was over 40 years. Many were 50 years old or older. Of course, people of this age, worn out by physically long service in tropical countries and abnormal life (constant drinking and easy availability of native women) - these legionnaires, for the most part, have already lost their physical strength and endurance and did not differ in great moral stability. ”

At the same time, he writes:

"In the Foreign Legion, discipline was especially strict and prohibited any bickering with officers of the legion."

So the "moral instability", apparently, manifested itself only in relation to the local population.

The calm and measured life of the legionnaires of this regiment was overshadowed by only one incident that occurred on March 9, 1931 in the North Vietnamese city of Yenbai, when Major Lambett's subordinates clashed with locals shouting insulting slogans during a show dedicated to the centenary of the legion: it was shot 6 people, after which the city revolted. This poorly organized introduction was suppressed - brutally and quickly.

After the outbreak of World War II, the fifth regiment had to fight a little with the troops of Thailand, which for some time was an ally of Japan. But on September 22, 1940, an agreement was concluded between France and Japan on the deployment of Japanese troops in northern Vietnam. At the same time, one of the battalions of the fifth regiment surrendered and was disarmed, the first case of surrender of such a large division of the legion in its history. This shame will be redeemed in March 1945. Then the Japanese demanded the disarmament of all French troops (the so-called Japanese coup on March 9, 1945). French troops (about 15 thousand people) surrendered to the Japanese. But the fifth regiment of the legion refused to disarm. After Major General Alessandry, the commander of the 2nd Tonkin Brigade (numbering 5700), ordered his subordinates to surrender their weapons, the Vietnamese tyrallers left the location of their units - and many of them later joined the detachments of Vietnam. But three battalions of legionnaires moved to the Chinese border.


The retreat of the fifth regiment's legionaries to the Chinese border

300 people died along the way, 300 were captured, but 700 people were able to break into China. F. Eliseev, quoted above, served in the second battalion of this regiment - on April 2, 1945 he was shell-shocked and captured. Another Russian officer of the legion, the commander of the 6th company of the fifth regiment, Captain V. Komarov, died during this campaign (April 1, 1945).


Fedor Eliseev in the form of a Foreign Legion

Eliseev was lucky: the Japanese then simply finished off many wounded legionnaires so as not to bother with their treatment. Eliseev wrote about his stay in captivity later:

“In general, I feel the contempt and hatred with which the Japanese people treat us in large numbers. We are for them people not only of a different race, but also of a "lower" race, which illegally claims to be a higher position and which should be completely destroyed. "

But he writes differently about the Chinese:

“I accidentally met two colonels of the Chinese army Chiang Kai-shek. One is the General Staff, the other is the head of the entire artillery of the army. Upon learning that I was a “Russian and White Army,” I was treated exceptionally sympathetically, as to my closest neighbor in the state and idea. ”

Less fortunate were those legionnaires who found themselves in the fortified Langshon district, whose garrison numbered 4 thousand people — parts of the Foreign Legion and the Tonkin tyrants. 544 soldiers of the Legion were killed here (387 of them were shot after they surrendered) and 1832 Vietnamese (103 people were shot), the rest were captured.

The next article will tell about the participation of the Foreign Legion in the First Indochina War, the battles of the French troops with the armies of Vietnam and the disaster at Dienbienf.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 May 2020 06: 21 New
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    +19
    Thank you very much Valery, I read it with pleasure !!!
    1. Civil 10 May 2020 12: 03 New
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      +5
      I never understood this noise around the Foreign Legion, I read a lot, I didn’t notice any special merits.
  2. 3x3zsave 10 May 2020 07: 00 New
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    Join Vlad!
    1. VLR
      VLR 10 May 2020 07: 10 New
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      Thanks for the first positive feedback. smile
      And there are articles ahead about the Foreign Legion in Vietnam and the Algerian War, about OAS and Delta - these, in my opinion, are the most successful in the cycle.
      Yes, and about “Leopard” (“Bonit”), “Serval”, “Mante” and other operations, it will probably be interesting to read.
      1. 3x3zsave 10 May 2020 07: 17 New
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        positive reviews
        "- And what else can they be ?!" (WITH)
      2. d ^ Amir 10 May 2020 08: 10 New
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        thank you very much, very interesting ... but the legionnaires did not meet with the Soviet army ???
        1. VLR
          VLR 10 May 2020 08: 17 New
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          On the contrary, former tsarist, Soviet, and modern Russian servicemen fell into the Foreign Legion. There is no turning back. Although, it is possible that some intelligence services that returned to Russia showed interest as a source of information. But, probably, only to the very first ones - they have already learned everything that is needed.
          I heard that there was an idea to create a military unit in Russia on the principle of the Foreign Legion - from soldiers and officers of the CIS armies: several years of immaculate service in exchange for Russian citizenship. In principle, it is quite possible, but, for some reason, was not implemented.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. d ^ Amir 10 May 2020 08: 24 New
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            it was General Lebed who proposed, after Khasavyurt, the Russian legion ... they were afraid that they would receive a new Bonaparte and the proposal did not pass
          3. 3x3zsave 10 May 2020 09: 11 New
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            In principle, it is quite possible, but, for some reason, was not implemented.
            Because, to mere mortal returnees it is more difficult to obtain Russian citizenship than the American green card.
            I had a story ...
          4. ccsr 10 May 2020 12: 46 New
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            Quote: VlR
            I heard that there was an idea to create a military unit in Russia on the principle of the Foreign Legion - from soldiers and officers of the CIS armies: several years of immaculate service in exchange for Russian citizenship.

            There was no such idea - no one was going to do such parts with us, but limited themselves to a simplified acquisition of Russian citizenship by those who served in the Russian army from CIS citizens:
            In general, the process of obtaining Russian citizenship through military service looks like this: First you need to enlist in the Russian army under a contract; After this, you need to obtain a temporary residence permit (RVP); After 3 years of service after receiving the PRT, you can apply for citizenship;

            Source: https://migrant.lameroid.ru/2015/09/russian-army.html
            Quote: VlR
            In principle, it is quite possible, but, for some reason, was not implemented.

            This is fundamentally impossible, because our military history has taught us that they can die only for their homeland, and mercenarism is only a way to solve their problems for people in difficult situations. Do not confuse the service of the Swiss in the Vatican with the service in units where military personnel can incur real combat losses - this is still different matter.
            1. VLR
              VLR 10 May 2020 14: 45 New
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              This is what they implemented. Or - tried to implement? I don’t know if it has taken root. And the idea of ​​creating precisely a “legion” that could be used in “hot spots” instead of their “conscripts” and then not very numerous contractors, really, was during the First Chechen War and after - when the dissatisfaction with the losses in society was very strong.
              1. ccsr 10 May 2020 17: 37 New
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                Quote: VlR
                And the idea of ​​creating precisely a “legion” that could be used in “hot spots” instead of its “conscripts” and then still not very numerous contractors, really, was during the First Chechen

                There wasn’t such a thing, I left the army in 1996, and believe me, I know you better than you were in Moscow at that time. And no normal commander would want to have units in his battle formations that the enemy could outbid - I am sure of that.
                Quote: VlR
                when dissatisfaction with losses in society was very strong.

                Most of all, the professional military was outraged by the fact that they were tied hands, and they were not given the opportunity to destroy all that rabble with powerful air strikes and missile strikes. I’m sure that from Grozny the gangs would have fled like cockroaches if our drunk president hadn’t acted like that prostitute on the panel and had not banned the use of aviation.
            2. cat Rusich 10 May 2020 22: 07 New
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              Under Peter 1, foreigners were hired to serve in the army in droves and appointed to command posts. Under Narva, this misfired, but overall the mass service of the “Germans” continued on. After the formation of the Wehrmacht ROA and other parts of the punitive, the reliability of any "nationality" is in question. Major General D. Dudaev fought in Afghanistan (in 1988-89) for the USSR (he was awarded the Order of the BKZ), on October 27, 1991 he became president of the Chechen Republic of Chechen Republic and the first decree declared independence from the USSR, and in 1994 he was already at war against Russia. In the old days, the Swiss were considered one of the best mercenaries.
              1. VLR
                VLR 10 May 2020 23: 53 New
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                In Narva, some coward and alarmist shouted: "The Germans betrayed!"
                And Russian soldiers began to kill foreign officers (their commanders) - right during the battle. Those had to literally run under the protection of the Swedes.
                And, yes, the regiments of the "foreign system" of pre-Petrine P
                Russia, the best and most reliable, consisted precisely of foreign mercenaries.
              2. ccsr 11 May 2020 11: 30 New
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                Quote: cat Rusich
                Under Peter 1, foreigners were hired to serve in the army in droves and appointed to command posts.

                This was the practice of those times when there were few people trained in military affairs and the regular army was just formed by Peter I. We must not forget that foreign officers were given noble titles and citizenship - this fundamentally distinguishes them from modern soldiers of the Foreign Legion.
                Quote: cat Rusich
                After the formation of the Wehrmacht ROA and other parts of the punitive, the reliability of any "nationality" is in question.

                Nevertheless, the ROA was in secondary areas, and even the Germans did not trust them.
                Quote: cat Rusich
                Major General D. Dudaev fought in Afghanistan (in 1988-89) for the USSR (awarded the Order of the BKZ), on October 27, 1991 he became president of the Chechen Republic of Chechen Republic and the first decree declared independence from the USSR,

                And how is he different from Vlasov?
                Quote: cat Rusich
                In the old days, the Swiss were considered one of the best mercenaries.

                They are still considered so. But this is more a decorative unit than a fighting one, where daily losses can be calculated as the number of all papal guards. Therefore, their devotion has not yet been verified by the war in Afghanistan or Chechnya, for example.
            3. Krasnodar 10 May 2020 22: 23 New
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              Quote: ccsr
              ] our military history has taught us that they can die only for their homeland, and mercenarism is only a way to solve their problems for people in difficult situations. Do not confuse the service of the Swiss in the Vatican with the service in units where military personnel can suffer real combat losses - this is still different matter.

              Today, mercenaries are the most professional fighters. The compulsory appeal did not save France and Germany from defeat in the second and first world wars, respectively, like the USSR from millions of prisoners of war in 1941.
              1. ccsr 11 May 2020 11: 41 New
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                Quote: Krasnodar
                Today, mercenaries are the most professional fighters.

                But doesn’t it bother you that they never trust the most sophisticated equipment and weapons? They will learn to run and shoot with light weapons quickly, the only question is whether they want to die for money when they are forced to carry out combat missions with heavy losses. It is not in vain that those who served in the IL warn of difficulties and that not everything is as beautiful there as it is seen during the parades in France.
                Quote: Krasnodar
                The compulsory appeal did not save France and Germany from defeat in the second and first world wars, respectively, like the USSR from millions of prisoners of war in 1941.

                For mass wars, you will not find so many mercenaries - this is obvious. By the way, why didn’t Israel create the Foreign Legion at its place, because they are thrown enough money from different countries? Since you consider them such great professionals, why are they not in Israel, and you call women without replacing them with mercenaries?
                1. Krasnodar 11 May 2020 12: 34 New
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                  1) In Vietnam, they died, in the trenches of the First World War, too - there was that meat grinder on the Somme
                  2) Israel itself makes good money laughing GDP is five times less than Russian, and people are less than 15 times.
                  In the IDF, mercenaries fought in the first Arab-Israeli. Mostly pilots. Now nobody needs it - part of the Legion type will cost the country more than roughly equal training for the same infantryman or conscript sapper who, after three years of service, still make a reserve once a year up to 35 years.
                  But the whole tsimes is different - the Legion is needed by states leading long-term databases far beyond the borders of their country - France, Russia, the USA. In addition to regular military personnel, the latter have massively used PMCs.
                  1. ccsr 11 May 2020 13: 07 New
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                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    1) In Vietnam, they died, in the trenches of the First World War, too - there was that meat grinder on the Somme

                    What makes you think that legionnaires pay money for beautiful eyes? French shopkeepers know how to count their money, which is why those who are less valued are allowed to spend.
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    GDP is five times less than Russian, and people are less than 15 times.

                    You still tell us what Americans are fed.
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    In the IDF, mercenaries fought in the first Arab-Israeli.

                    Jewish mostly. Well, why aren’t they right now and women are urgently urged?
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    But the whole tsimes is different - the Legion is needed by states leading long-term databases far beyond the borders of their country - France, Russia, the USA.

                    So Israel has long been waging war on foreign territory, according to a UN resolution of 1947 - why are there no mercenaries? But Russia does not need legionnaires at all - we rely on our own strengths. Yes, and we have volunteers - in Yugoslavia and the Donbass our people fought, so we do not need legionnaires.
                    1. Krasnodar 11 May 2020 13: 39 New
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                      1) That's right - you just said that you would not go to die in bulk for money - you did.
                      2) Money from the Americans - for the return of Sinai to Egypt. Egypt also receives money from the Americans for maintaining the Sinai in the demilitarized zone, and Jordan for maintaining the loyalty of power to the Anglo-Saxons)).
                      3) lol Anglo-Saxon. Jews who came from South Africa and the States, etc. still threw their loot in the "common fund". Now they are not there, because they brought up their rather good aviation, where there is a lot of secrecy - not all locals are allowed.
                      4) a) Women - to optimize logistics
                      b) Volunteer feminists
                      d) Patriots
                      5) laughing This "alien territory" was 15 minutes away from me - not a few hours in the summer
                      6) I don’t know about Yugoslavia, I heard different things about Donbass)).
        2. Legionista 10 May 2020 12: 42 New
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          With the permission of the Author (since the question was asked of him), I will allow myself a small clarification - the 13 semi-brigade I.L. (13 DBLE) was originally created to participate in the so-called "Winter War", and could, theoretically, oppose the Red Army on the side of the Finns, as part of the French-British expeditionary force.
          1. VLR
            VLR 10 May 2020 13: 28 New
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            Yes, I spoke about this in the article "Russian Volunteers of the Foreign Legion", wrote that I did not have time - "God saved the war against the homeland."
            1. Legionista 10 May 2020 14: 29 New
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              Your articles, in my personal opinion, can serve as a model for presenting information. Very informative, with a lot of facts. Without propaganda (both in favor and against IL) With respect hi
      3. Legionista 10 May 2020 11: 25 New
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        Thanks to the author! A lot of interesting and detailed facts.
        1. VLR
          VLR 10 May 2020 11: 56 New
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          I am glad that I liked it, your opinion on this topic is especially valuable.
      4. Krasnodar 10 May 2020 22: 17 New
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        Why this article was placed on Armament. I was waiting for her in the story section:
  3. gorenina91 10 May 2020 07: 17 New
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    -Reading about the French Foreign Legion is very interesting ...- many thanks to the author ....
    -But, the more you learn about this "Foreign Legion", the more you begin to make sure that there is little sense from this army ... as from a real military armed combat formation-it was not enough ... -Something more and more looks fake ...- all of his fighting ... -some kind of zouaves, Morrocans, tyiraliers, spahi squadrons and so on ... -Probably during the WWII these zouaves somehow excelled, but then they just became exotic. .. -Well, still General Franco used armed Moroccans in the civil war against the Republicans ... -And there are these " arrokany "The big difference as a punitive unit to carry out actions against the civilian population ...- increasingly robbed, raped, burned and destroyed ... -Then even Frank himself with great difficulty, drove all the savages back" stall "...
    -Yes, and in Vietnam, this French Foreign Legion did not show any special heroism ...- More and more Japanese surrendered ...
    -Yes and in general ...- went WWII; France was occupied by the Germans, and this "heroic" French Foreign Legion remained practically out of work ... -And his confrontation with the Rommel corps in Africa is perhaps a small episode of the military operations of this legion against German troops ...
    1. ccsr 10 May 2020 12: 52 New
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      Quote: gorenina91
      -But, the more you learn about this "Foreign Legion", the more you begin to make sure that the army is of particular use

      This is precisely how we related to this structure in Soviet times, but not so much in their moral qualities as in their weapons and place of application, because we knew how they were used and against whom. The size of the legion in the armed forces of France speaks for itself - the French also understand that this structure has too limited application.
      1. VLR
        VLR 10 May 2020 13: 33 New
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        In the penultimate article of the cycle, I write about the place of the Foreign Legion in the modern French army, and the circle of its goals and objectives. Until I get ahead of myself.
  4. Pvi1206 10 May 2020 07: 23 New
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    dexterous Frenchmen have found a way to rake the heat with the wrong hands ... this is the essence of this legion ...
  5. Ravil_Asnafovich 10 May 2020 08: 15 New
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    Thanks for the article, in Africa, for example, they are engaged in lawlessness in Serro-Lyon.
  6. Usher 10 May 2020 08: 30 New
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    These legionnaires holy naivete straight. Their "valor" is some kind of stretched owl on the globe.
  7. Pavel57 10 May 2020 08: 37 New
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    A lot of interesting facts.
  8. Driver d 10 May 2020 12: 00 New
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    There is a friend, a former border guard who served in the Legion, lives in France. A couple of times a year she comes to Kiev to visit her mother. He hates blacks most of all, tells them to kill a person just to spit. He got carried away and works in an organization that studies the origin of man, in all seriousness he proved that Asians came from reptilians, only they have green markers in their blood ...
    1. Legionista 10 May 2020 12: 51 New
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      I’m not sure that such an attitude towards people with a different skin color is “a heavy burden of service in the Legion”. Most likely, this is the general level of culture of your friend, which, as a rule, is laid in the family and school))
      1. Driver d 10 May 2020 14: 36 New
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        This is just after serving in the Legion ...
        And so an excellent student in college and a superman in combat training, no one wants to spar him with him, after the first test round ...
        1. Krasnodar 10 May 2020 22: 26 New
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          Of those who in sparring thrashes with all the dope? )) Well, from there and the green markers in the blood of Asians
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Catfish 10 May 2020 15: 05 New
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    I also read with interest and got a whole bunch of new information. For which Valery and thanks! good
    Regarding the debut of "Schneider" in the "Nevel meat grinder" I found this flto:

    True, such catastrophic losses of tanks were only in the second detachment, the first detachment lost relatively few vehicles - 39 out of 128.
    However, the French made a very quick conclusion from the disaster, and the next tank, the Reno F-17, became the trendsetter of tank fashion for the whole world and for all subsequent years, right up to the present day.
  11. Operator 10 May 2020 15: 20 New
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    In a series of articles on the site of the super-duper IL looms what a dummy, suitable only to drive blacks in the Sahara bully
  12. Catfish 10 May 2020 15: 26 New
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    Former Czech legionaries M. Faber and K. Peaks in their memoirs book The Black Battalion (which was also published in the USSR in 1960) tell the shocking story of a meeting in Vietnam in one unit of the legion of their compatriot Vaclav Maly and German officer Wolf, who took part in the murder of the family of his new colleague.

    In the GDR under the same name a film was made about this story, I saw it, but I did not know that the film was made from a book. All names and the place of action are fully consistent, only at the very end of the film, both German and Czech go to reconnaissance in the jungle, holding weapons on their chests so that the trunks are directed at each other, and this is where the film ends.
    1. VLR
      VLR 10 May 2020 17: 49 New
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      I have not heard about this film.
      Perhaps our filmmakers cut the final scene? In order not to "aggravate" - again the "German fascist" killed the "good Czech" and he had nothing for it. But the GDR sheep are allies. There was a precedent: they cut the “wrong” ending of the French film “Farewell to the policeman” - in the Soviet version, the “werewolf in uniform” comes out of the jail onto an empty street - and that’s all. And in the original, it turns out, then his accomplice in a car met him.
      1. Catfish 10 May 2020 18: 49 New
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        Hello Valery.
        Actually, I don’t think that they cut it out, as far as I remember, a rather slender plot, the Germans were able to make good-quality films.
        The picture begins with the fact that at the Paris airport there is a crowd of people meeting a plane from Vietnam, among them an elderly woman. The plane landed, taxied to the train station and people in various clothes began to leave it, the people rushed to meet and hugs and kisses began.
        The woman stopped one big corporal (the monkey was sitting on his shoulder) and asked if he had met there, in Vietnam, a guy named Wenceslas from Pylznya. The corporal froze and ... immediately his memories of this war went on the screen. In short, the whole film is the memories of this corporal. Yes, and in the final scene, when the Czech and the German gathered to go together, the corporal, who knew everything about them, picked up the machine gun and took a step forward. Lieutenant Wolf turned around, shook his head negatively and calmly said: "No, corporal, we can handle it ourselves." Following these words, the couple moved into the burning village and their silhouettes disappeared into smoke. This is where the memories end.
        Then, again, the airport in France, the corporal looks at the woman and answers: "No, I have not met him," turns and goes to the station. A woman begins to ask this question to everyone, and one of the characters unfamiliar in the film suddenly stops and says: “The one you are asking about hasn’t met, but there was Lieutenant Wolf from Pylzna.” The woman freezes like a stone.
        Yes, and on the shoulder of the corporal was a monkey previously owned by the son of this woman.
        According to the film, it turns out that both are gone. Therefore, I do not think that they cut it out.
  13. Mihail2019 10 May 2020 21: 04 New
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    And why all this "nonsense" on Victory Day? And before and after it ?!
    That the French Foreign Legion is all so cool and heroic ?! - strongly doubt it .. Pontov too much for a really "cool" ..
    What do the French have to do with the Victory over Germany in 1945 ?! So it is necessary to belittle the merits of the Soviet Union less, then yours can be seen without a magnifying glass.
    And then - Paris passed, Berlin did not take, but - in the winners!
    "In which we have" Foreign Legion! ".
    That's it - a very 'Strange Legion!'.
  14. Mihail2019 10 May 2020 21: 13 New
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    What am I writing about: on Victory Day (both before and after it) - to write, in fact, about mercenaries whose purpose and essence are their own skin, not even a bad manners - but personal "confusion." Type Solzhenitsyn.
    Not the time! And - no place!
    1. 3x3zsave 10 May 2020 21: 57 New
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      What am I writing about:
      You write to nothing. Just express your hamster sniff.
    2. Krasnodar 10 May 2020 22: 30 New
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      They are a very combat fighting unit)).
      1. Ryazan87 11 May 2020 11: 56 New
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        I am surprised at the few characters that are so bombed by the Legion. One broadcasts that if the legionnaires do not have heavy armored vehicles and tactical nuclear weapons, then this, they say, is nonsense, "we in the GSVG were not at all afraid of them." The second - "mercenaries, everything is bought, traitors, whether the business conscripts of 18 years are morally stable." Just a misunderstanding or so trololo. The Legion is a well-trained, light combat infantry with combat experience that can carry out a number of specific combat missions.
        1. Krasnodar 11 May 2020 12: 37 New
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          With a good, as I heard, PT-shkoy. In the next article, we need to ask Mr. Legionista about the fire support companies.
          1. Ryazan87 11 May 2020 13: 42 New
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            It’s just how ignored is the fact that ordinary motorized riflemen (if the commander isn’t quite right and the equipment fell apart) in a head-on collision will grind any landing and special forces.
            Well, there is, for example, in the 2nd Parachute Regiment of the Legion Company, which specializes in mining operations. Her fighters are trained in downhill skiing with weapons and using climbing equipment, have the appropriate qualifications and experience. Of course, if you abandon this company to stop the tank breakthrough, well, the results will be predictable. But you can nail nails with a microscope ...
            1. ccsr 11 May 2020 18: 02 New
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              Quote: Ryazanets87
              It’s just how ignored is the fact that ordinary motorized riflemen (if the commander isn’t quite right and the equipment fell apart) in a head-on collision will grind any landing and special forces.

              Indeed, motorized rifle units due to their armament in a direct collision will defeat the units of the airborne forces and special forces. But there is a nuance - according to NATO standards, the localization and destruction of one group of special forces requires at least a battalion of ground forces, and this is the distraction of 400-600 people to capture 6-12 people, which is not equivalent from a military point of view.
              Quote: Ryazanets87
              in the 2 Parachute Airborne Regiment of the Legion of the Company, which specializes in mining operations.

              This is too little to be of any use to her. But the point is not in the company, but in the fact that its use will be effective when it acts in the interests of a large group of ground forces, which means at least military operations using several divisions of the armed forces. When the calculation is for divisions, then it is necessary to automatically connect aviation, fleet, etc. And it turns out that the role of the actions of such a company against the general background will be insignificant - it can be used as an intelligence unit, and not as a combat unit.
              Quote: Ryazanets87
              Of course, if you abandon this company to stop the tank breakthrough, well, the results will be predictable.

              Of course, no one will do this - and we had an army company SpN for these tasks was not intended.
        2. Legionista 11 May 2020 16: 41 New
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          Quote: Ryazanets87
          The Legion is a well-trained, light combat infantry with combat experience that can carry out a number of specific combat missions.

          You gave an accurate and concise description. good
  15. Avior 10 May 2020 22: 45 New
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    The article did not clarify with the Moroccan division.
    Was she a member of the Foreign Legion?
    What is the meaning of the phrase that some units of the Foreign Legion were part of the division? What kind of parts are these and why did they enter the division?
    What was the structure of the Foreign Legion?
    One gets the impression that the article refers to the word legionnaire as a synonym for a fighter of the Foreign Legion.
    But is it really so?
    1. VLR
      VLR 10 May 2020 23: 20 New
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      About the evolution of the legion and its structure at that time I wrote in the first article - "Dogs of War of the Foreign Legion".
      But in 1914, in addition to the already existing old units of the legion, new marching regiments and battalions were formed.
      Look at the beginning of the article: I am writing that more than 42 thousand people of 52 nationalities (including citizens of the Russian Empire) then joined the Foreign Legion. According to French laws, they could serve only in the legion .. Thus, during the First World War, the number of troops of the legion was the maximum for the entire time of its existence. Legionnaires (Legion military personnel) fought almost everywhere - on the Western Front, and on Thessaloniki, and in Gallipoli. I already wrote about this in previous articles of the cycle when I talked about Russian legionnaires. Some units of the Foreign Legion were part of the Moroccan Division (along with other colonial troops - zouaves, tyrelers, spag). The Moroccan division, one of the most famous and combat-ready in the French army of that time, played a significant role in many of the most important battles of that war, which is why I paid special attention to it. About the modern structure of the Foreign Legion - in one of the following articles.
      1. Avior 11 May 2020 02: 32 New
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        I read.
        . According to French law, they could only serve in the legion.

        In my opinion, this thesis cannot be considered evidence at all.
        And I did not see other confirmations.
        And if it’s clear with Peshkov, then with Malinowski questions.
  16. iouris 10 May 2020 23: 04 New
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    Well, shaw, a Frenchman, did foreign legionaries greatly help you in 1940? according to Dienbienf? in Algeria?
    The French did not participate in World War II. Or participated, but partially. Mostly on the side of Hitler.
    1. VLR
      VLR 10 May 2020 23: 34 New
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      Do not hurry.
      About Vietnam and Dienbienf - the next article, about Algeria - in two, I think, you will learn a lot.
      Both the defeat in Vietnam and the withdrawal from Algeria should be blamed on the legionnaires as a last resort. They fought for Algeria to the last, but de Gaulle decided in his own way - which they still have not forgiven him.
  17. Ryazan87 10 May 2020 23: 40 New
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    former colonel of the Russian imperial army F. Eliseev, company commander of the Fifth Regiment

    A small remark - Colonel Fedor Eliseev was already in the Armed Forces of the South of Russia, at 27 years old (April 1919). He simply has an excellent collection of memoirs, especially "Cossacks on the Caucasian Front (1914-1917)."
  18. Sigoulin Andrei 12 May 2020 00: 01 New
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    “The commander of the 6th regiment of Senegalese riflemen Raul Salan: his regiment is Tyralir, and the cap is white, legionnaire” ... The cap is gray-general.
    1. VLR
      VLR 12 May 2020 10: 45 New
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      Well, in this photo everything is gray
  19. saygon66 15 May 2020 00: 57 New
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    - It was worth noting that the bearded men in the picture are sappers of the Foreign Legion. By tradition, they lead the formation in parades ...
    “And there will be an article about what the Legion built in the places where he served?” An interesting story would turn out ...