... and may the Lord give to everyone according to his truth and his truth ...
26 Samuel 23:XNUMX
26 Samuel 23:XNUMX
Historical science against pseudoscience. This is the last material on the subject of our annals. Surely under this material, as in the comments to the previous article, statements will again appear in the spirit, they say, "the Germans wrote them to us." One wants to exclaim: until! But I decided to do it differently. It's better. Since there is absolutely nothing in the texts of the annals to hurt our honor and dignity, I decided to rewrite one of the annalistic texts myself - in the same language, in the same words. This is an example of what could be done with the texts if you want to defame us. True, I have not seen such texts.
They will tell me: what about the notorious “Calling ...” However, if you read it carefully, it will become clear: there is nothing reprehensible there either. In Russia there is an institution of reign, and, therefore, an early feudal state. There are cities ... And now a foreigner is invited to the place of the prince, and ... that's all. And from this someone made a whole theory? That is, a circumstance, which is not worth mentioning, is so insignificant, for some it serves as a source of "theory". It’s funny if it weren’t so sad. But, however, now we will talk about something else. About how it would be possible to change the text of the story about the same Battle of the Ice, if the "malicious German academics" would want to do this.
The most detailed and detailed story about the Battle of the Ice is in the Novgorod 1st annals of the elder edifice - and here we rewrite it ...
“In the summer of 6750. Go prince Oleksandr from Novgorodtsi and with his brother Andrei and from Nizovtsi to the Chyadsky land on Nemtsi and all the way to Pskov. And drive out Prince Pskov, seized Nemtsi and Chyud, and, having fettered, sweat to Novgorod, and you will go to Chyud. And as if being on the earth, let the regiment go into prosperity, and Domash Tverdislavich and Kerbet were in the runway, and I sat down Nemtsi and Chyud at the bridge, and lost one. And you killed that Nemtsi Domash, the brother of a posadnik, and beat him with him, and you took him with your hands, and you resorted to the prince in pursuit of the prince. And God forbid them for many of their sins. The prince, however, climbed up to the lake, while Nemtsi and Chyud went about them. Having seen Nemtsi and Chyud, Prince Oleksandr and Novgorodtsi, and having set up a regiment on Chyudskoye Lake, on Uzmen, at Voronya Kameni. And Oleksandr grabbed the fear and the speech of God help thy servants before the brothers of your holy cross. And we flew that one to the regiment Nemtsi and Chyud, and the spirit-filled warrior erupted in a pig through the regiment. And God and Saint Sophia and the holy martyrs Boris and Gleb, even for the sake of Novgorod, Prince Oleksandr could not help but were great sinners and people like him. And the padeh was one and the same, and the Nemtsi had 50 deliberate governors of Novgorodtsi, and the prince Oleksandr himself and his death with him who had escaped and had come to Novgorod and shut up and were in sorrow. And with a month of April 5, the memory of the holy martyr Claudius, the praise of the Holy Virgin, and the Sabbath. ”
It turned out well, right ?! This is how the “Germans” should be written. And they?..
And now we continue the story about what our most famous chronicles are. The most important thing is their content, which is different in each annals. Which, again, could not be reproduced by any “counterfeiters”. Even our people are able to get confused in the peculiarities of language and content, styles and manner of presentation, and for foreigners all these subtleties and nuances are a solid filkin letter. Moreover, even for a lot of money they would not be able to find people in Russia who could do this work with their souls. No, they would have taken the money from foreigners, of course, but they would have done the work somehow. We often do it for ourselves somehow, and to try for unchristians, and they will do it anyway - and this is the opinion we have always had with regard to foreigners! In addition, there are simply a lot of subtleties in the content of the annals.
Here, for example, how things were in Novgorod, where the boyar party won. We read the record of the Novgorod First Annals about the expulsion of Vsevolod Mstislavich in 1136 - and what do we see? The real indictment against this prince. But this is just one article from a whole set. Because after 1136, all annals were revised. Before that, it was conducted under the auspices of Vsevolod and his father, Mstislav the Great. Even its very name, “Russian temporary”, was remade into “Sofia temporary”, to emphasize that this chronicle is kept at the Cathedral of St. Sophia in Novgorod. Anything to emphasize the independence of Novgorod with respect to Kiev, and the fact that he can elect the princes and drive them away of his own free will. That is, they just overlooked one article, right? It turns out so!
In each annals, the political idea was often expressed very specifically. So, in the arch of 1200, compiled at the end of the construction of a stone wall to protect the Vydubychi Monastery from erosion of its foundation by the Dnieper waters, Abbot Moses praised the Kiev prince Rurik Rostislavich, who had given money to her. According to the customs of that time, the abbot addresses him to the prince: “Accept our rudeness scripture, as a gift of words to praise the virtues of your reign.” And the "sovereign power" shines "more than (more) celestial stars", and "not only in the Russian ends of knowledge, but also far away in the sea, for throughout the whole earth passed the glory of Christ-loving deeds", and "kyan" (that is Kiev), "are now standing on the wall" and "fun in their souls enters." That is, when necessary, they wrote to the princes anything, including blatant flattery. But how can this be "faked" in relation to the construction of this wall? Rewrite the chronicle and indicate that he did not build it? So here she is ... And if he built, then well done anyway!
Interestingly, the annals were an official document. When the Novgorodians, for example, concluded a "series", that is, the most ordinary contract with the new prince, they always reminded him of the "Yaroslavlich Letters" and the rights that belonged to them and were recorded just in the Novgorod chronicles. The Russian princes carried the chronicles with them to the Horde and there, according to them, they proved to which of them what was supposed to be. So, Prince Yuri, the son of Dmitry Donskoy, who reigned in Zvenigorod, proved his right to reign in Moscow “with chroniclers and old lists, and with his father’s spiritual (will)”. Well, people who could "speak the annals", that is, they knew the content of the annals very well, were at a premium.
Tolstoy list of Sofia's first annals. Meeting of the Manuscript Division of the Russian National Library
Moreover, it is very important that the annals involuntarily give us valuable information about everyday life, and sometimes they help us to understand the spiritual world of people so far away from us. For example, it is believed that the role of women at that time was belittled. But here is the deed of Volyn prince Vladimir Vasilkovich, who was the nephew of prince Daniil of Galich. His testament. He was mortally ill, he understood that the end was not far off, and he wrote a will concerning his wife and stepdaughter. Note that in Russia there was such a custom: the princess, after the death of her husband, was usually tonsured a nun. But what do we read in the letter of Prince Vladimir?
The letter first lists those cities and villages that he gave to the princess “by his stomach,” that is, by death. And at the very end, he writes: “If he wants to go to the blueberries, let him go, if he does not want to go, but how she likes. I can’t stand up to see who will repair (do) on my stomach. ” Although Vladimir appointed a guardian to his stepdaughter, he nevertheless ordered: “Do not give her in captivity to anyone”. Here you have the tradition, here you have the disenfranchised women in Russia.
Everything is published today - take it and read it!
There was another feature of the chronicles, which at the same time makes them difficult for understanding and forgery. The fact is that chroniclers used to insert excerpts from other people's works, moreover, of various genres. These are the teachings, and sermons, and the lives of the saints, and historical tales. Whoever liked what he inserted, sometimes having some kind of plan, or even simply “wanting to show his education”. That is why the annals - this is really a huge and diverse encyclopedia of ancient Russian life. That's just taken to study it skillfully. “If you want to find out everything, read the chronicler of the old Rostov,” wrote Suzdal Bishop Simon at the beginning of the XNUMXth century in his essay “Kiev Pechersky Patericon”.
"Chronicler of Choice" on the columns. Moscow chronicler of the XVII century. on the columns. Meeting of the Manuscript Division of the Russian National Library
It happens (although this is uncharacteristic) that the chroniclers report in the text the details of their personal life: "That same summer they put me in the priest." Such a clarifying record about himself was made by the priest of one of the Novgorod churches Herman Voyota (Vojata - abbreviated from the pagan name Voeslav).
Found in the annals of the text and completely common expressions, and often about princes. “But he lied,” it is written about the prince in a Pskov annals.
Well, and, of course, samples of oral folk art are found all the time in them. When, for example, a Novgorod chronicler tells how one of the posadniks was removed from his post, he writes this way: “Whoever digs a hole under another will fall into it himself.” "Fall", but not "fall." Then they said just that.
Tver Chronicle Collection. Stroevsky list. Collection of M. P. Pogodin, No. 1414. L. 14. Collection of the Manuscript Department of the Russian National Library
Writing chronicle texts was hard work, and rewriting them even harder. And the monks' scribes then made posts in the fields (!) In which they complained about their fate: “Oh, oh, I’m hurting my head, I can’t write.” Or: "A dashing feather, they can not help writing." About a lot of mistakes made by inattention, you can not talk!
A very long and very unusual in content postscript was made by the monk Lavrentiy, at the end of his work:
“The merchant rejoices having made a bribe, and the bailiff, helmsman, has come, and he has come to his fatherland; the book writer is also happy, having reached the end of books. Likewise, the thin, unworthy and many-sinful servant of God, Laurentius of mine ... And now, gentlemen, fathers and brothers, where (if) where he described or rewritten, or did not finish, read (read), correcting God by dividing (for God's sake), and not damn it, the books (because) the books are shabby, and the mind is young, has not reached. ”
In order for the young mind to “reach” everything that needs to be reached, one must begin by reading the complete collection of Russian annals published by us long ago. Their texts are both in print and in digital form. Studying them requires a lot of work, but the result will not be long in coming. Daring itself helps fate!