Military Review

The circumstances of the Soviet raid in northern Afghanistan in 1929

39

J. Z. Surits


In 1919, Afghanistan became the first state with which the RSFSR established diplomatic relations and in which the first Soviet embassy was opened. It was headed by J. Z. Surits [1].

The first military attache of the Soviet state was also appointed here: in August 1919, B. N. Ivanov became him [2]. In December 1919, he was replaced by E. M. Ricks [3], who described the activities of his predecessor as follows:

“Military attaché B. Ivanov, despite all the difficulties, actively collected the necessary information in Kabul. At his disposal was a large sum of gold and silver. Subsequently, he recalled: “Such an amount (as in the document. - Yu.T.) gave me the opportunity to conduct reconnaissance, despite the special isolation measures taken against us. Soldiers (Afghan. - Yu.T.) fought which of them to go with me, because the guards received five from me, for which they allowed us to do anything ... ”[4].

However, not everything went as smoothly as B. Ivanov described. He asked the emir three times (Amanullah Khan. - P.G.) allow him to travel to the Pashtun tribal zone, but was refused every time. In October 1919, military advisers led by Ivanov were forced to leave Kabul, without having fulfilled their main task - the conclusion of a military treaty with Amanulla against England ”[5].

The circumstances of the Soviet raid in northern Afghanistan in 1929

Amanullah Khan

Only in 1926 was Plenipotentiary L.N. Stark [6] signed the Pagman (summer residence of the Afghan kings) Treaty of Neutrality and Mutual Non-aggression [7].

The results of the 4th (intelligence) headquarters of the Red Army Headquarters for the Eastern countries by the end of the 20s can be judged by the report of the head of the 3rd (Information and Statistics) Division A.M. Nikonov [8] at a meeting of intelligence officers of military districts in 1927:

“Countries of the East. Huge material has been accumulated in these countries, which has only been partially processed and is constantly updated with new materials. Based on available materials, the countries of the East can be adequately covered ... ”[9].

A direct confirmation of the effective work of military intelligence at that time was the successful invasion of the territory of Afghanistan in April-May 1929 by Soviet troops to restore the throne in 1926, which became the king of Amanullah Khan, overthrown as a result of the anti-government uprising of 1928-1929. led by the "son of a water-carrier" Bachai-Sakao, which was supported by Great Britain. [10]


Bachai-Sakao

Y. Tikhonov writes about the reasons for the overthrow of Amanullah Khan:

“The Soviet military attaché in Kabul I. Rink [11] was ... straightforward when describing the causes of the rebellion in Afghanistan:“ Amanullah Khan’s self-confidence, his clumsy foreign policy, reassessment of his forces and insufficiently deep understanding of the driving forces of his country created an atmosphere in Afghanistan, which was the slightest push to cause an uprising in any region of southern Afghanistan. Almost all sections of the population turned out to be against Amanullah Khan and his reforms ”[12]” [13].


It is noteworthy that, returning in 1928 from a tour of European countries, "Amanullah went to the USSR from Turkey, accompanied by a representative of the Intelligence Agency, a former military attaché in Kabul Rink ..." [14].

The OGPU also recommended for the first time supporting Bachai-Sakao due to the fact that the agents of the Foreign Department of the OGPU (foreign intelligence) reported the precarious situation of Amanullah Khan. "Appearance in the local (Afghan. - P.G.) the Chekists took almost with optimism the political horizon of the figure from the bottom (Bachai Sakao). They even repeatedly proposed to recognize the new ruler and help him ”[15]. Soon, however, it became known that the Basmachis sided with the opponents of Amanullah Khan, whom the Kurbashi complained about good neighborly relations with the Soviet Union. [16] They had a chance in the future, with the support of the new Afghan authorities, to implement their plans to tear Turkestan from the USSR. [17]

V. Korgun writes that, making a decision on the invasion of Afghanistan, Stalin and the Soviet command intended to get ahead of the upcoming invasion of the Basmach detachments Ibrahim-bek [18] on Soviet territory and prevent the implementation of the plans of the Basmach leader, which envisaged the creation of Central Asia independent of Moscow from Turkestan . [19] However, as you can see, the basmachi in this game were on the sidelines.


Ibrahim Bek

A detachment of Soviet troops disguised by the Afghans under the command of former military attache in Kabul, commander V. Primakov [20], acting under the guise of a Turkish officer Rakhim Bey [21], with support aviation On April 15, 1929, he invaded Termez into Afghanistan and occupied the cities of Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh and Tash-Kurgan with battle: “The capture of Mazar-i-Sharif was so unexpected and sudden that the Afghan government only found out about it a week later” [22] .


V.M. Primakov

In the second half of May, Primakov was recalled to Moscow, and the brigade commander A.I. assumed command of the detachment. Cherepanov [23], acting under the pseudonym Ali Avzal Khan [24].


A. I. Cherepanov

On May 23, Amanullah Khan, deciding to end the struggle, left Afghanistan forever. Upon learning of this, Stalin immediately ordered the withdrawal of the Soviet contingent. In addition, “the British ultimatum influenced this decision. The MacDonald government [25], having received detailed reports on the actions of the Soviet detachment in northern Afghanistan, warned that if the USSR did not withdraw its units from Afghan territory, then it would also be forced to send troops into Afghanistan. The Kremlin, on the verge of restoring diplomatic relations with Great Britain [26], decided not to complicate the situation ”[27].

And the British themselves, according to Y. Tikhonov, did their best to keep “their” border tribes from helping Amanullah Khan, but this was mainly limited. Even Intelligence officers were forced to admit:

“The participation of England, objectively interested in the triumph of the Afghan reaction, can only be regarded as an auxiliary moment, concomitant with the goals of the feudal lords and the clergy” [28].

It is noteworthy that by that time the already well-known Colonel Lawrence of Arabia [29], to whom Primakov devoted several pages to his book “Afghanistan on Fire”, took the most active part here:

“Lawrence is one of the most famous and dangerous agents of British intelligence. <...>
This specialist in the establishment of royal houses in the East and in the organization of civil strife in Muslim countries ... again needed the secret service of the British General Staff and was called to India. The Afghan War of Independence [30] and the new situation on the northwestern border of India drew the attention of the English General Staff to the problem of Indian defense, to the possibility of organizing the invasion of the British armies in Soviet Turkestan.

The invaluable experience of Lawrence, a connoisseur of Muslim countries fluent in Arabic, Turkish and Persian, was necessary in this tangled knot of contradictions, which was tied to the northwestern border of India. <...>

Lawrence’s experienced hand ... made connections, and when the time came, these campaigning communications began to take effect: the mullah’s agitation fanned the fermentation in Afghanistan ... ”[31].



T.-E. Lawrence

In January 1929, Bachai-Sakao was proclaimed king of Afghanistan under the name Habibullah Ghazi. He abolished the progressive reforms of Amanullah Khan. However, after the entry of troops of Mohammed Nadir into Kabul in October 1929, Bachai-Sakao was ousted from the throne and executed on November 2, 1929.


M. Nadir

After Nadir Shah came to power, a peculiar military-political cooperation developed between the USSR and Afghanistan, when the Afghan authorities turned a blind eye to the raids of Soviet armed groups in the northern regions of the country against the Basmachis [32]. “The defeat of the Basmach detachments in the northern provinces contributed to the strengthening of the power of Nadir Shah, who had support only in the Pashtun tribes that controlled the provinces south and southeast of the Hindu Kush” [33]. As a result, in 1931, the USSR concluded a new Treaty on Neutrality and Mutual Non-Aggression with Nadir Shah, which was extended until 1985 [34].

Thus, Soviet diplomacy and military intelligence in Afghanistan in the 1920s and 30s contributed to the establishment of a peaceful life and the strengthening of Soviet power in Central Asia.

Here we can draw an analogy with the current anti-terrorist struggle in Syria, that is, on the far approaches to the borders of Russia.

Notes

[1] Surits, Yakov Zakharovich (1882–1952) - statesman, diplomat. He graduated from the philosophy department of the University of Heidelberg. Deputy plenipotentiary representative in Denmark (1918–1919), plenipotentiary representative in Afghanistan (1919–1921), member of the Turkestan Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and authorized representative of the People’s Commissariat for Turkestan and Central Asia (1921–1922), plenipotentiary representative in Norway (1922–1923), Turkey (1923–1934 ), Germany (1934–1937), France (1937–1940), adviser to the central apparatus of the NKID / Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1940–1946), ambassador to Brazil (1946–1947).
[2] Ivanov, Boris Nikolaevich (1887–1938) - scout. He graduated from the University of Paris (1913), Alexander Military School (1915). Member of the First World War and Civil War. Military attaché in Afghanistan (1919), resident of military intelligence in Bulgaria (1921–1924), employee of the Foreign Department of the OGPU (1924–1927). Later - in NPO and NKVD.
[3] Ricks, Eduard Martynovich (1880 -?) - military diplomat. He graduated from the Kazan Military School (1901). Being in Turkestan, Y.Z. Suricam as a Farsi translator. Military Attache in Afghanistan (1919), in the same place the first secretary of the embassy (1-1924), in the same place the adviser to the embassy (1930-1930), deputy. Head of the 1935st East Department of the NKID (1–1935).
[4] Report of Comrade Ivanov on the first Soviet embassy of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet and Turkestan Republics in Afghanistan in 1919 // RGVA. F. 25895, op. 2, d. 110, l. 8 (about).
[5] Tikhonov Yu.N. Afghan war of Stalin. The battle for Central Asia. M., 2008, p. 43–44.
[6] Stark, Leonid Nikolaevich (1889–1937) - revolutionary, diplomat. Since 1920 - NKID employee: adviser to the embassy in Georgia (1920), envoy to Estonia (1923–1924), Afghanistan (1924–1936), authorized by the NKID of the USSR to the SNK of the Transcaucasian SFSR (1936–1937).
[7] See: Documents of the foreign policy of the USSR. T. IX. M., 1964.
[8] Nikonov, Alexander Matveevich (1893–1937) - intelligence scientist. He graduated from the Ensign School in Peterhof (1916), Advanced training courses for the highest command of the Military Academy of the Red Army. M.V. Frunze (1927). Member of the First World War and Civil War. In Razvedupra since 1921: teacher Vostfaka VA Red Army named after M.V. Frunze (1926–1929), deputy beg. RU (1934-1937). The author of works on military geography.
[9] RGVA. F. 25895, op. 1, d. 834, l. 127.
[10] Agabekov G.S. GPU: Notes chekista. Berlin, 1930, p. 177.
[11] Rink, Ivan Alexandrovich (real name - Janis Rinks; 1886–1938) - commander, diplomat. He graduated from the Vilnius Military School (1910), the Higher Academic Courses at the Military Academy of the Red Army (1923). Member of the First World War and Civil War. Rev. English in the East Division of the VA Red Army (1922), Military Attache in Afghanistan (1924–1926; 1928–1930), Japan (1932–1937), early Vostfaka VA RKKA them. M.V. Frunze (1931–1932). (Note.P.G.).
[12] RGASPI. F. 62, op. 2, d. 1342, l. 176.
[13] Tikhonov Yu.N., with. 180.
[14] Agabekov G.S., with. 176.
[15] Boyko V.S. Soviet-Afghan military expedition to Afghanistan in 1929 // Asia and Africa today. 2001, No. 7, p. 34.
[16] For the reasons for the Basmach movement, see: Tukhachevsky M.N. The fight against counter-revolutionary uprising // War and Revolution. 1926, book 9, p. 6-7.
[17] Panin S.B. Soviet Russia and Afghanistan. 1919-1929. M. — Irkutsk, 1998, p. 204.
[18] Ibrahim Bek (1889–1931) is one of the most prominent leaders of Basmachism. For more details see: Gusterin P. History Ibrahim Bek. Basmachstvo one kurbashi from his words. Saarbrücken, 2014.
[19] Korgun V.G. History of Afghanistan. XX century. M., 2004, p. 201.
[20] Primakov, Vitaly Markovich (1897–1937) - reconnaissance diplomat, military leader. He graduated from the Higher academic courses at the Military Academy of the Red Army (1923). Member of the Civil War. Military Advisor in China (1926–1927). Military attaché in Afghanistan (1927–1928), Japan (1928–1930). Since 1930 - in command positions. The author of memoirs.
[21] According to some sources, Ragib Bey.
[22] Agabekov G.S., with. 180. See: Apothecary P. First blood. Primakov storms Mazar-i-Sharif // Motherland. 1999, No. 2.
[23] Cherepanov, Alexander Ivanovich (1895–1984) - reconnaissance diplomat, military leader. He graduated from the Military Academy of the Red Army (1923). Member of the First World War, Civil and World War II. Military adviser in China (1923-1927, 1938-1939), Bulgaria (1947-1948). He held a number of command, staff and teaching posts. The author of memoirs.
[24] Cherepanov Alexander Ivanovich. Biography // Website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (http://encyclopedia.mil.ru/encyclopedia/heroes/USSR/[email protected]).
[25] MacDonald, James Ramsey (1866–1937) - British statesman and politician, one of the founders and leaders of the Labor Party. Prime Minister (1924; 1929-1931). The MacDonald government in 1924 established diplomatic relations with the USSR. (Note.P.G.).
[26] After a series of provocations against Soviet institutions, on May 27, 1927, the British government notified the USSR government of the severance of diplomatic relations. (Note.P.G.).
[27] Korgun V.G., with. 204 – 205.
[28] Information “On the events in Afghanistan” by the chief of the 7th department of the headquarters of the Central Asian military district Sokolsky dated 25.12.1928/62/2 // RGASPI. F. 1342, op. 159, d. XNUMX, l. XNUMX (quoted from the book: Tikhonov Yu.N., with. 180‒181).
[29] Lawrence, Thomas Edward (1888–1935) - British intelligence officer. By education - an archaeologist. In 1914-1919 and 1922-1935 - in the service of the British army, conducted intelligence work in Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Palestine and Syria: employee of the British Bureau for Arab Affairs in Cairo (1916-1919), adviser for Arab affairs in the Ministry of the Colonies (1921-1922). In 1925-1929 performed tasks in Karachi, Peshawar and on the Indo-Afghan border, where he was engaged in subversive activities against Afghanistan and the USSR. Cm.: Liddell Garth B.-G. Colonel Lawrence. M., 1939.
[30] We are talking about the Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919). (Note.P.G.).
[31] Primakov V.M. Afghanistan is on fire. M., 1929, p. 134–138. Lawrence’s activities in Afghanistan also see: Boyagi E. The history of espionage. T. 1. M., 2003, p. 296-300.
[32] Apothecary P., with. 20 – 21.
[33] Okorokov A. Secret wars of the Soviet Union. M., 2008, p. 136.
[34] The history of foreign policy of the USSR. T. 2.M., 1981, p. 686, 702.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 4 May 2020 05: 14 New
    +5
    A direct confirmation of the effective work of military intelligence at that time was the successful invasion of Afghanistan in April – May 1929 by Soviet troops to restore the throne in 1926, which became the king of Amanullah Khan, overthrown as a result of the anti-government uprising of 1928–1929. led by the "son of a water-carrier" Bachai-Sakao, which was supported by Great Britain.
    Here is the irony of fate.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 May 2020 08: 02 New
      -9
      Quote: svp67
      Here is the irony of fate.

      You hint at the support of the "workers and peasants" ....king against ... a peasant?
      Yeah real perdimonocle! yes

      So no wonder: all of them deceitful mantras about the inadmissibility of wars, aggressions, about peace, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, the inadmissibility of secret treaties, freedom, etc. thrown out immediately after seizing power.

      The article is very interesting and indicative in this regard. Thanks to the author!

      The list of reds mentioned in the article is also interesting:
      Ivanov, Boris Nikolaevich (1887–1938)
      [3] Ricks, Eduard Martynovich (1880 - 1937)
      [8] Nikonov, Alexander Matveevich (1893–1937)
      [11] Rink, Ivan Alexandrovich (real name - Janis Rinks; 1886–1938)
      [20] Primakov, Vitaly Markovich (1897–1937)


      As a reward for the service received-1937! Correctly received! yes .
      1. Deniska999
        Deniska999 4 May 2020 08: 29 New
        +8
        And what is so outrageous in the 20s raid on Afghanistan?
        Accusations of lying ... Yes, this is politics, damn it, and all the romantic mantras about the inadmissibility of wars, etc. obviously not viable. You live in a fairy tale.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 May 2020 08: 36 New
          -14
          Quote: Deniska999
          Accusations of lying ... Yes, this is politics, damn it, and all the romantic mantras about the inadmissibility of wars, etc. obviously not viable

          yes, yes, but you forgot the main slogan of the Bolsheviks: " I'm not like that, I'm waiting for the tram! " yes lol
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 4 May 2020 06: 18 New
    +7
    Very interesting!!! I have never even heard of this operation, although I am keenly interested in the military history of the 20th century.
    Thanks to the author! These articles are interesting to read, not correspondence from the "Wiki" or the topic, pitted with holes!
    1. Pavel Gusterin
      4 May 2020 09: 14 New
      +6
      Please Nazarius!
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 May 2020 11: 16 New
      -8
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Very interesting!!! I never even heard about this operation

      This topic was already at VO in 2017: https://topwar.ru/121455-afganskiy-pohod-rkka-1929-goda.html
    3. knn54
      knn54 4 May 2020 17: 47 New
      +4
      In the literature V. Primakov was called the "Red Lawrence".
      He did not lose a single (60 total) battle, including in the Soviet-Polish war of 1920.
  3. CommanderDIVA
    CommanderDIVA 4 May 2020 06: 43 New
    +3
    Motorized maneuvering groups of the OGPU border troops took a direct part in the raids on the territory of Afghanistan, there is very little information about this, mainly in the archives of the security agencies
    1. rich
      rich 4 May 2020 15: 15 New
      +1
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Very interesting!!! I never even heard about this operation

      In the early morning of April 15, 1929, six aircraft equipped with machine guns crossed the Soviet-Afghan border in the Uzbek city of Termez and appeared over the Afghan border post of Patta Gissar. The garrison employees, not taking proper precautions, went out to look at the aircraft. Airplanes, having made two rounds of the deployed front, sank and fired machine guns at the Afghan border guards. Several bombs were destroyed that destroyed the barracks. Of the 50 Afghans who made up the garrison, only two survived. The whole operation lasted 10 minutes.
      Meanwhile, a detachment of V. M. Primakov, plunging into motor boats, cabins and barges, crossed Amu Darya and landed on the Afghan shore
      On April 16, Primakov’s detachment approached the city of Kelif. The garrison was given an ultimatum with a proposal to lay down their arms and go home. The Afghans rejected the demands of the Soviet side, but, after several gunfire and machine-gun fire, fled.
      On April 17, the city of Khanabad was taken, the defenders of which took refuge in the city of Mazar-e-Sharif.
      On the morning of April 22, Primakov’s detachment began shelling of Mazar-e-Sharif. Machine guns hit the defenders on the walls. Two hours after the start of the battle, the gunners brought the guns to the entrance to the citadel and, having launched a volley, broke the gates. The detachment burst into the city. Part of the remaining garrison fled to Tash-Kurgan, while others took refuge in the nearby fortress of Deidadi. Afghans lost about 3 thousand people in Mazar-e-Sharif. Losses of the spacecraft amounted to 4 people
      On the same day, Primakov sent a telegram to Tashkent, and from there a dispatch was sent to Moscow: “Mazar is busy with Wittmar’s squad”
      1. rich
        rich 4 May 2020 15: 26 New
        +1
        On May 5, to help Primakov’s detachment, a second Red Army detachment of 400 men was sent with 6 guns and 8 machine guns, under the command of a certain Zelim Khan — commander of the 8th Cavalry Brigade SAVO I.E. Petrov.
        a photo I.E. Petrov 1931

        The detachment was also dressed in Afghan uniform. On the way, he was confronted by a border outpost, which "in a matter of minutes was swept away" by the Red Army soldiers' machine-gun fire.
        May 6, 1929 on the positions of the Afghans, near Mazar-e-Sharif, SAVO aviation launched bombing and assault strikes.
        Within a two-day period, the Zelim Khan squadron, after a quick throw, went to Mazar-e-Sharif on May 7 and, together with the Primakov’s detachment, attacked the Afghans who had retreated to Deidadi.
        On May 8, after airstrikes and shelling, the garrison left the fortress, leaving it with 50 guns, 20 machine guns, a large number of small arms and ammunition.
        After a two-day rest, on May 10, Primakov’s combined detachment moved in several columns further south, towards Balkh and Tash-Kurgan.
        From the east, against the Primakov detachment, Ibrahim-bek advanced - 3 thousand sabers. Habibullah’s National Guard emerged from Kabul - 1500 sabers, under the command of Minister of War Seyid Hussein. On May 11, one of the columns of 350 people discovered a detachment of Ibrahim-bek. Immediately on the main line were eight guns. On the flanks, 200 meters from the road, two machine guns were installed. Sights were taken in advance. When approaching the Ibrahim-bey column at 500 meters, artillery opened fire. Three guns hit the columns in the head, three in the tail, and two in the center. Hidden machine guns were launched from the flanks. Ibrahimovites rushed in different directions. Many of them were killed by the Red Army during the chase. Half an hour after the start of the battle, a detachment of Seyid Hussein discovered the patrol westward.
        A participant in those events, platoon commander A. Valishev, left a detailed description of the battle picture:
        “A terrible battle lasted two hours ... The Basmachi fiercely resisted. Ivan Petrov's military ingenuity helped to win the battle. By his order three prisoners captured from the bek were sent to the enemy to inform the leader of the second gang about the results of the previous battle - 2500 were killed, 176 were captured and only three hundred warriors managed to escape. The warning worked: the Basmachians laid down their arms. Of course, if both detachments appeared simultaneously from opposite sides, then, having 10-12-fold superiority in manpower, they could crush the detachment ...
        Seyid Hussein, leaving his units, fled. "

        On May 12, Primakov’s detachment occupied Balkh, and the next day, not meeting any resistance, entered the city of Tash-Kurgan.
        1. gsev
          gsev 4 May 2020 18: 41 New
          -2
          Quote: Rich
          not meeting any resistance, entered the city of Tash-Kurgan.

          As far as I know, Primakov’s detachment fought hard battles. Moreover, reinforcements came to his opponents and resistance grew. By the end of the campaign, Primakov had consumed almost all of the shells and, for a new offensive, required the supply of shells, including chemical ones. Apparently, the Soviet leadership in 1929 quickly realized that it was difficult to achieve anything by military methods in Afghanistan and recalled the Primakov detachment.
          1. rich
            rich 4 May 2020 20: 16 New
            +5
            gsev (Gusev Vladimir):
            Quote: Rich
            not meeting any resistance, entered the city of Tash-Kurgan.

            As far as I know, Primakov’s detachment fought hard battles.

            Before writing rebuttals, let alone minuscules, you would first pay attention to the date indicated by me. May 12. laughing
            What you are writing about happened on May 22, when Amanullah Khan, suddenly stopping the struggle for the Afghan throne, fled with all his treasury and jewelry to India. On the same day, Seyid Hussein with a fresh division suddenly captured Tash-Kurgan, disrupting the communications of the Soviet detachment and Cherepanov was forced to turn around to recapture Tash-Kurgan.
            On the morning of May 25, after airstrikes and artillery bombardment, the detachment burst into the city, where violent street battles ensued. For two days (May 25 - 26), the city changed hands three times. As a result, Cherepanov’s detachment managed to leave the city behind them, while losing 10 commanders and Red Army soldiers and 74 Hazaras killed, 30 Red Army soldiers and 117 Hazaras wounded.
            But the author will tell about this in the continuation of the article. Therefore, I do not write anything.
            If you read this article carefully, you would understand that it tells only about the beginning of the Red Army’s entry into Afghanistan. Fighting is the topic of the next article in the series.
            \
            1. gsev
              gsev 4 May 2020 21: 00 New
              +1
              Quote: Rich
              especially minus

              I have never minus anyone here. Indeed, I did not understand that this was only the beginning of the story about the campaign and ran ahead.
              1. rich
                rich 4 May 2020 21: 06 New
                +2
                I did not understand that this is only the beginning of the campaign story and ran ahead

                It's okay, it happens to everyone. Moreover, we have not exchanged minuses
                Best regards
                Dmitriy
    2. rich
      rich 4 May 2020 15: 42 New
      +2
      Quote Commander
      Motorized maneuvering groups of the OGPU border troops took a direct part in the raids on the territory of Afghanistan, there is very little information about this, mainly in the archives of the security agencies

      Until 1946, only exclusively horse-drawn maneuver groups were in software.
      MMG as such only appeared in October 1981. Prior to this, such structures were called TPON PV (tactical unit of special purpose) of the Border troops of the KGB of the USSR.
      Since 2005, the units of the maneuver groups, previously called MMG and DShMG, have been called - Mobile Action Departments of the Border Service of the FSB of Russia (OMD PS of the FSB of Russia)
  4. Amateur
    Amateur 4 May 2020 07: 08 New
    +4
    Great, interesting article! Thank.
    1. Pavel Gusterin
      4 May 2020 09: 11 New
      +4
      Please, Victor!
      1. Amateur
        Amateur 4 May 2020 09: 14 New
        +5
        Write more. "Strange" articles about politics and extremely incompetent about some weapons systems are tired and are slowly starting to annoy. I want interesting reading. drinks
        1. Pavel Gusterin
          4 May 2020 15: 50 New
          +2
          Victor, if there was material support for VO, then I could do it every day according to the article, and on average once a quarter.
  5. Free wind
    Free wind 4 May 2020 07: 36 New
    0
    This Bochai-Sakao machine-gun belt with rhinestones embroidered or something, or rivets, like a horse harness. Something I’ve never seen. Ibrahim-bek, resembling the old Khotabych, the bay, who was friends with Volka. The RSFSR supplied to Afghanistan a lot of material resources, up to 30 years, although they themselves had few. Machine guns, rifles, ammunition. And 12 planes, all for free, that is, for nothing.
  6. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 4 May 2020 07: 58 New
    +4
    Very informative and professionally designed article! Thanks to the author.
    1. Pavel Gusterin
      4 May 2020 09: 15 New
      +4
      Please, Edward!
      1. rich
        rich 4 May 2020 15: 04 New
        +3
        Thanks for the interesting article, Pavel. good
        Let me add a little to your impressive list of illustrations for this article.
        Here is the most famous photo of 1929 of that campaign of 1929 - Crossing of the Red Army through the border river Dushanbinka.
        1. Pavel Gusterin
          4 May 2020 15: 11 New
          +2
          Please, Dmitry. I have not posted many illustrations, as in one article there can be no more than 8 of them.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 4 May 2020 11: 22 New
    +2
    While reading, several questions arose.
    "Son of a water-carrier" Bachai-Sakao, which was supported by Great Britain.
    Bachai-Sakao is a nickname, which is translated - the son of a water carrier.
    He really was the son of a water carrier, his name was Habibullah Kalakani. The thesis that Great Britain supported him is doubtful. On the one hand, the British police, Habibullah Kalakani, was well known as a petty Peshawar thief and thug. On the other hand, the British did not make any sense to support the revolt of the Sakavists, consistent fighters against the penetration into Afghanistan of any manifestations of Western civilization. When Habibullah Kalakani seized power, he cleared his residence of everything European, even of flowers planted in a Western manner.
    Exiled from the country, Amanullah Khan eventually found refuge in British India. The British really overthrew Habibullah Kalakani Nadir Khan very quickly in every possible way, providing bases, weapons, and instructors.
    The OGPU also for the first time recommended supporting Bachai-Sakao due to the fact that the agents of the Foreign Department of the OGPU (foreign intelligence) reported on the precarious situation of Amanullah Khan. “The appearance on the local (Afghan. - PG) political horizon of a figure from the bottom (Bachai Sakao) the Chekists took almost with optimism.
    There is some kind of inconsistency. How the OGPU could optimistically consider the figure of Bachai-Sakao, if he, an ethnic Tajik, actively participated in the Basmach movement under the leadership of Enver Pasha. Basmachi Bachai-Sakao provided full support. It is no accident that immediately after coming to power, he broke off the Treaty of Neutrality and Mutual Non-aggression with the RSFSR. Did the OGPU really not know about this?
  8. Octopus
    Octopus 4 May 2020 11: 28 New
    +1
    Many thanks to the author.

    Until today, he believed that Afghanistan was the only country that had a common border with the USSR, which the USSR did not attack under Comrade Stalin. This fact caused some bewilderment.

    Now I find out that, on the contrary, they started from him.

    So much more logical, very grateful.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 4 May 2020 14: 31 New
      +2
      which the USSR did not attack under Comrade Stalin,

      An attack is when they are fighting against the central government, and here the Basmachi bases raiding the Soviet Turkestan were ravaged. And the central government itself was glad to get rid of its field commanders, only there were no forces. A complete analogy with today's Syria.
      1. Octopus
        Octopus 4 May 2020 15: 17 New
        0
        OK, they provided fraternal international assistance to the Afghan people in the person of its advanced forces.
    2. Pavel Gusterin
      4 May 2020 15: 13 New
      0
      Please, dear Octopus.
  9. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 4 May 2020 15: 07 New
    +2
    It's not a bad article, although it seems to me that it would be worthwhile to devote a few lines to the general situation in Afghanistan and the adjacent territories, to describe the alignment of political forces - who followed which platforms, whose support they used, etc.
    In any case, I would be interested, because I am completely unaware of these circumstances, and it’s difficult for me to understand the motivation and goals of the participants in the political process.
    From what I understood.
    There was a legitimate monarch pro-European, and tried to maintain normal business relations with all neighbors, including Soviet Russia.
    He was overthrown. Who, why, with whose support - is unclear.
    In his place sat a fanatic retrograde, from the bottom, a supporter of the traditional fundamentalist values ​​that Britain did not suit, not Russia, and was overthrown and executed in less than a year. Again, it is not clear who overthrew and with whose support.
    The third ruler for the indicated short period turned out to be quite loyal to Russia and allowed the Russians to clear the northern regions of the country from the Basmachi, who interfered both with Russia and himself.
    Regrettably little is written about the raid in the title of the article, and, it seemed to me, also contradictory.
    successful invasion of Afghanistan in April – May 1929 by Soviet troops to restore the throne in 1926, which became the king of Amanullah Khan, overthrown as a result of the anti-government uprising of 1928–1929. led by the “son of a water-carrier” Bachai-Sakao, supported by Great Britain

    deciding on the invasion of Afghanistan, Stalin and the Soviet command intended to get ahead of the upcoming invasion of the Basmach detachments of Ibrahim-bek

    Still, the purpose of the campaign is to restore the rightful monarch on the throne or to secure one’s own borders “out of the blue”?
    For about a month, Soviet troops held several cities under their authority in Afghanistan. Where was Amanullah Khan at that time? Why, if the troops were put forward in his support, he did not join them, using the captured areas as a base for starting a power struggle? Or was he still with our troops in Mazar-e-Sharif, but this was not mentioned in the article?
    It is also unclear where did the troops from Nadir Shah come from, with whom he overthrew this, like his ... son of a water carrier, and who is he at all - this Nadir Shah, who immediately established constructive communication with Russia?
    In short, a lot of ambiguities. I am afraid, for their clarification, the author will have to write a new article.
    The only thing that is completely understandable is that each side pursued its own goals in this game. Britain - to create, at the expense of local fundamentalists, a center of tension on the Soviet borders, and Russia - to localize this center to the maximum. At the same time, Britain, as usual, acted with the wrong hands, Russia - with its own. And what happened in the end? .. It seems like the Basmachis were nailed, does Stalin win? smile
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 4 May 2020 16: 00 New
      +1
      And what happened in the end? .. It seems like the Basmachis were nailed, does Stalin win?

      Well, yes, I won.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 4 May 2020 17: 01 New
        +1
        Quote: Aviator_
        Well, yes, I won.

        Or didn’t he win?
        From the article it is completely incomprehensible what goals he set for himself. If you gain political control over Afghanistan, then he did not achieve this goal, which means he lost. Well, or, at best, a military draw with the British.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 4 May 2020 17: 34 New
          0
          The article is crude.
          And socialism in Afghanistan was already trying to build Taraki in Brezhnev’s time, inspired by the development of our Central Asian republics. He was very unlucky, then everything ended with a war of attrition. By the way, the last option with Najibullah was the most optimal, if not for the betrayal of EBN, Najibullah would still rule. And there wouldn’t be any drug trafficking from there. And in the 30s, Stalin undoubtedly won - in the 30s there was still nothing to demonstrate in the territory north of Amu-Darya, what political control was there.
    2. Doctor
      Doctor 4 May 2020 21: 10 New
      0
      Still, the purpose of the campaign is to restore the rightful monarch on the throne or to secure one’s own borders “out of the blue”?

      The goal is to put the enemy of England in power in Afghanistan.
      By the way, not only we had this idea.
      But comrade Molotov did not fall for laughing

      RECORD TALK OF THE PEOPLE'S COMMISSAR FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE USSR V. M. MOLOTOV WITH THE AMBASSADOR OF GERMANY TO THE USSR F. SCHULENBURG
      17th of December 1939
      Ow. top secret
      .
      3. Schulenburg declares that in connection with Comrade Molotov’s desire, expressed in a previous conversation, to obtain more specific information about the help the Soviet government needs to help transfer Schaefer to Tibet and Amanullah to Afghanistan, he can report the following:
      Ribbentrop sent his trusted man Mr. Kleist to Moscow to communicate with Shefer. They would like to send the latter together with one of the former ministers Amanullah to Moscow under other surnames.

      For Afghanistan, the plan is this: it is supposed to drop the current Afghan government, which is under British influence, put Amanullah and create a base for an attack on India. On Soviet territory on the Afghan border, create a corps of exiled Afghans, which will hit Afghanistan. It is assumed that the Afghan government will not call England for help, and therefore the matter will pass easily.

      Comrade Molotov asks: what should the role of the USSR be expressed in moving Shefer to Tibet? Schulenburg replies to this that the German government is asking for help in transporting with Schäfer about 30 people and weapons. The German government wants to know the opinion of the USSR government on the whole issue as a whole.

      Comrade Molotov remarks: in order to start the cause of the overthrow of the Afghan government, you need to have some perspective, you need to know how much this case has been prepared, what data are available for this, the chances of success, etc. Therefore, I would like to know if the German government has all of these data, especially since the German government already had the wrong information about Turkey when it stated that it was enough for the USSR to only indicate to Turkey the disadvantage of its agreement with England and France - how it would refuse this agreement. In fact, as we know, it turned out not quite so. “I do not reproach the German government,” Comrade Molotov further states, “since we acted not only on the basis of your information, but also on the basis of our information, I recall this nonetheless; "about Afghanistan, I have much less information, and in order to start such a thing, one must have all the chances, the prospect."

      Schulenburg concurs with this statement by Comrade Molotov and declares that he will invite the German government to return Mr. Kleist to Berlin due to insufficient information material.
  10. not main
    not main 5 May 2020 01: 01 New
    +1
    I don’t even know what to call it? But KomDiv Primakov carries four “rhombuses” on his buttonholes, and this is already CommandArm! And Cherepanov two rhombuses! this is ComDiv! Either the photos were taken later or ...
    1. Pavel Gusterin
      5 May 2020 02: 41 New
      +1
      Andrey, the titles are indicated at the time of the operation, and the photos are the ones closest to the time of the operation, but taken later.
      1. not main
        not main 5 May 2020 22: 34 New
        +1
        Thank! I have no more questions. I liked the article.
        1. Pavel Gusterin
          6 May 2020 13: 08 New
          +1
          You are welcome!