The most famous Russian "graduates" of the French Foreign Legion. Zinovy ​​Peshkov

The most famous Russian "graduates" of the French Foreign Legion. Zinovy ​​Peshkov

Now we will talk about the most famous natives of the Russian Empire among those who went through the harsh school of the French Foreign Legion. And first, let's talk about Zinovia Peshkov, whose life Louis Aragon called him one of the strangest biographies of this meaningless world.


Zinovy ​​(Yeshua-Zalman) Peshkov, the elder brother of the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Yakov Sverdlov, and godfather A.M. Gorky, rose to the rank of general of the French army and, among other awards, received the Military Cross with a palm branch and the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor. He was well acquainted with Charles de Gaulle and Henri Philippe Peten, met with V.I. Lenin, A. Lunacharsky, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse Dong. And such an outstanding career did not stop even the loss of his right hand in one of the fights in May 1915.

How Zalman Sverdlov became Zinoviy Peshkov and why he left Russia


The hero of our article was born in 1884 in Nizhny Novgorod in a large Jewish Orthodox family, his father (whose real name is Serdlin) was an engraver (according to some reports, even the owner of an engraving workshop).


Sverdlov brothers. Far left - Zalman, second right - Jacob

There is reason to believe that the elder Sverdlov collaborated with the revolutionaries - he made fake stamps and cliches for documents. His children, Zalman and Yakov (Yankel), were also opponents of the regime, and Zalman was even arrested in 1901 - a boy from the family of engravers used his father’s workshop to make leaflets written by Maxim Gorky (and ended up in the same cell with him, under his influence).


Zinovy ​​Peshkov before leaving Nizhny Novgorod


Yakov Sverdlov, photograph of 1904

Yakov (Yankel) Sverdlov was even more radical. The brothers often argued and quarreled, defending their point of view on the methods of revolutionary struggle and the future of Russia. It is time to recall the lines of the famous poem by I. Huberman:
Forever and not getting old
Everywhere and any time of the year
Lasts where two Jews converge
The debate about the fate of the Russian people.

Relations between the brothers were so strained that, according to some researchers, in 1902 Zalman not just left his house in Arzamas for Gorky. The fact is that then Zalman tried to recapture a certain girl from Jacob, and he decided to bring him to the police. Fortunately, his father learned about his intention, who warned his eldest son, and he, having forgotten about his feelings, went to the writer who agreed to accept him. And in the workshop of his father he was replaced by a relative - Enoch Yehuda, in Soviet times better known as Henry Yagoda.


The romantic young man Enoch Yehuda, the future head of the NKVD, the photograph was taken in 1912. In 1914, he married the niece of Zalman and Jacob Sverdlovy Ida Averbach

Zalman Sverdlov had good acting ability, which was even noted by V. Nemirovich-Danchenko, who visited Gorky: he was impressed by Zalman's reading of the role of Vaska Pepl (the character of the play “At the Bottom”). And Orthodoxy Zalman accepted for purely mercantile reasons - he, a Jew, was denied admission to the Moscow theater school. It is generally recognized that Zalman's godfather was Maxim Gorky. However, there is evidence that Gorky became the godfather of Zinovy ​​"in absentia" - at the time of his baptism, the writer might not have been in Arzamas anymore, and he was represented by another person. One way or another, Zinovy ​​officially took for himself the middle name and surname of Gorky, who often called him “spiritual son” in letters.

They talk about the father’s attitude to the baptism of his son in different ways. Some claim that he cursed him in some particularly terrible Jewish rite, others that he himself was soon baptized and married an Orthodox woman.

But back to our hero.

At that time, Zinovy ​​Peshkov was so close to the family of his godfather that he became a victim of an intra-family conflict: he was on the side of the first and official wife of the writer - Ekaterina Pavlovna, and the new, civil wife of Gorky, actress Maria Andreeva, reproached him for her revenge with dependency and accused him in parasitism.

In fairness, it must be said that Gorky himself at that time often half-jokingly called Zinovy ​​a slacker and a dope. Therefore, Andreeva's claims were most likely justified.


Ekaterina Peshkova, the first wife of M. Gorky


Gorky, his godson Zinovy ​​and son Maxim (whose mother is Ekaterina Peshkova)


Maria Andreeva, Gorky's common-law wife, member of the RSDLP since 1904 (Lenin called her “Comrade Phenomenon”). After the revolution, she was the commissioner of theaters and shows of the Union of Communes of the Northern Region and the commissioner of the expert commission of the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade in Petrograd, the head of the artistic and industrial department of the Soviet trade mission in Germany. She initiated the creation of the Bolshoi Drama Theater in Petrograd. Last position - Head of the Moscow House of Scientists

Such M. Andreev saw I. Repin in 1905:


As a result of this conflict, in 1904 it was no longer Zalman, but Zinovy ​​Alekseevich Peshkov who went to Canada, and then to the USA, where he changed his name and surname, temporarily becoming Nikolai Zavolzhsky.

But there is another version: Zinovy ​​could leave Russia in order to avoid mobilization to the front of the Russo-Japanese War.

Life in exile


The country of “great opportunities” and “advanced democracy” made the most unpleasant impression on him: despite all the efforts, success was not achieved.

He tried to make a living with literary work: having appeared in one of the American publishing houses, introduced himself as the son of Maxim Gorky (family, not godmother) and offered to publish his stories. Denouement of this stories It turned out to be unexpected: after paying a guest $ 200, the publisher threw his manuscript out of the window, explaining that both of them were done out of respect for his father, the great Russian writer.

Therefore, in March 1906, learning about Gorky’s arrival in the United States, Zinovy, having forgotten about the feud with Andreeva, came to him and began to act as an interpreter, having seen then many celebrities - from Mark Twain and Herbert Wells to Ernest Rutherford.


M. Gorky, M. Andreeva, and Z. Peshkov in a photograph published in The Washington Times on April 3, 1906. The caption reads “Gorky came to get the money to free Russia”

Gorky's popularity throughout the world was really great. In the 11th volume of Cambridge Contemporary History, published in 1904, in the section “Literature, Art, Thought” the names of four writers are named who “most fully express the mood of modernity”: Anatole France, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Hardy and Maxim Bitter. In the USA, at one of Gorky’s meetings with feminists, the ladies who wanted to shake his hand nearly fought in line.

But this trip of Gorky ended in scandal. Dissatisfied with the "left" views of the "guest" publishers of American newspapers unearthed the story of his separation from his first wife. The result was a series of publications that the writer who left his wife and children in Russia is now traveling around the United States with his mistress (recall that Andreeva was only Gorky's civil wife).

The New York World was the first to “shoot”, which posted two photographs on the front page on April 14, 1906. The first was signed: "Maxim Gorky, his wife and children."
The inscription below read:

"The so-called Madame Gorky, which is actually not Madame Gorky at all, but the Russian actress Andreeva, with whom he has lived since the moment of separation from his wife several years ago."


Photos of the New York World newspaper

In Puritan America of those years, this was a very serious compromising evidence, as a result, hotel owners began to refuse to populate such scandalous guests. The writer first had to live in one of the rooms of the house rented by socialist writers, and then take advantage of the hospitality of the sympathetic family Martin, who invited the outcasts to his estate (here he continued to receive guests and engage in literary work). The invitation to the White House was canceled, the administration of Barnard Women's College expressed "censure" to Professor John Dewey (a famous American philosopher of the first half of the twentieth century) for allowing minor students to meet with the "bigam". Even Mark Twain, one of the initiators of his invitation to the United States, refused ties with Gorky. Mark Twain stated then:

“If the law is respected in America, then custom is holy. Laws are written on paper, and customs are carved in stone. And from a foreigner visiting this country, they are expected to observe its customs. ”

That is, it turns out that the “democratic” America of those years lived not according to the laws, but “according to the concepts”.

But they met Gorky with these pictures:


The result was only worse: Gorky’s attitude towards the United States, initially quite benevolent, changed dramatically, the writer’s views became more radical. But he continued to be the idol of the left intelligentsia of the whole world. One of the answers to this insulting persecution was the famous story “The City of the Yellow Devil”.

Because of this scandal of money for the “needs of the revolution,” Gorky managed to collect less than he expected. But the sum of 10 thousand dollars was very impressive at that time: the US currency was then provided with gold, and at the turn of the 0,04837th-1,557514th centuries the gold content of one dollar was XNUMX ounces, that is XNUMX grams of gold.

On April 21, 2020, the price of an ounce of gold was $ 1688 per ounce, or 4052 rubles, 14 kopecks per gram. That is, one US dollar in 1906 would now cost about 6 rubles. Thus, if we exchange the money received by Gorky for gold, it would turn out that the writer had collected donations in the amount equivalent to the current 311 million 63 thousand rubles.


M. Gorky and M. Andreeva on a ship sailing from America, October 1906

At the end of 1906, Gorky and his godson broke up: the writer went to Capri Island, Zinovy ​​was hired as an assistant fireman on a merchant ship going to New Zealand, where he had long wanted to visit. He didn’t like it here either: he called the self-righteous inhabitants of Auckland “stupid rams” and “pathetic sheep,” confident that they live in the best country in the world.

As a result, he again came to Gorky and lived on Capri from 1907 about 1910. He met with V. Lenin, A. Lunacharsky, F. Dzerzhinsky, I. Repin, V. Veresaev, I. Bunin and many other famous and interesting people .


Zinovy ​​Peshkov in the background of the photograph, where Gorky and Lenin are present

Once again, Zinovy ​​had to leave the house of the writer because of a scandal over Maria Andreeva, who this time accused him of stealing money from the cash desk, which received numerous donations from liberal-minded representatives of the bourgeoisie (both Russian and foreign from among those called then "limousine socialists"). The offended Peshkov left Gorky for another writer known at that time - A. Amfiteatrov, becoming his secretary. Bitter communication with the godson did not interrupt: apparently, the charges of Andreeva did not seem convincing to him.

At this time, Peshkov married Lydia Burago, the daughter of a Cossack officer who gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth.

The life and fate of Elizabeth Peshkova


Elizaveta Peshkova received a good education, graduating from the department of Romance languages ​​of the University of Rome. In 1934, she married a Soviet diplomat I. Markov and left for the USSR. In 1935 she gave birth to a son, Alexander, and in 1936-1937. again she was in Rome, where her husband, being a career intelligence officer, was acting the 2nd secretary of the embassy. They were forced to leave Italy after the authorities accused I. Markov of espionage. They could not provide evidence of Markov's guilt, from which it can be concluded that Peshkov's son-in-law was a high-class professional. On February 17, 1938, in Moscow, Elizabeth gave birth to a second son, Alexei, and on March 31, she and Markov were arrested - already as Italian spies. After refusing to testify against her husband, Elizabeth was sent into exile for 10 years. In 1944, she was sought after by the former Soviet military attache in Rome, Nikolai Biyazi, who knew her from his work in Italy, who at that time was the director of the military institute of foreign languages. He secured the return of an old acquaintance from exile and provided her with a 2-room apartment and helped to find his sons. At his institute, she taught French and Italian, in 1946 she was even given the rank of lieutenant, and in 1947 she was appointed head of the Italian language department.


Elizaveta Zinovievna Peshkova-Markova in the form of a lieutenant, Moscow Institute of Military Translators

But after Biyazi’s dismissal, his ward was also dismissed, ordering her to leave Moscow. She worked as a French teacher in one of the villages of the Krasnodar Territory, and after rehabilitation, as a nurse and librarian and archivist of the Sochi Museum of Local Lore. In 1974, the Soviet authorities allowed her to visit her father’s grave in Paris, and in the same year Italian relatives found her: she then visited her half-sister Maria (Maria-Vera Fiaschi) 5 times, who was 11 years younger than her. The eldest son of Elizabeth became the captain of the marine corps of the Soviet Army, the youngest - a journalist.


Sons of Elizabeth and grandchildren of Zinovy ​​Peshkov: Alexey and Alexander

But now back to her father, Zinovy ​​Peshkov, who made yet another unsuccessful attempt to “conquer America”: working in the library of the University of Toronto, he invested all his money in a piece of land in Africa, but the deal turned out to be extremely unsuccessful. So I had to return to Capri - but not to Gorky, but to the Amphitheater.

Stars, as we see, Zinovy ​​Peshkov was not enough then, but everything changed with the beginning of World War I, when a 30-year-old man who had a reputation as a chronic loser finally found his place in life.

The beginning of military career


Succumbing to a general impulse, Zinovy ​​Peshkov reached Nice, where he enlisted in one of the infantry regiments. When the authorities learned that the rookie speaks five languages, Zinovy ​​was instructed to restore order in the regimental archive. After completing this assignment, he was awarded the rank of ordinary second class, but it turned out that he was admitted to this regiment by mistake - without French citizenship, Zinovy ​​could serve only in the Foreign Legion, to which he was transferred to the Second Regiment. By April 1, 1915 he rose to the rank of corporal, but on May 9 he was seriously wounded near Arras, having lost most of his right hand.

Former serkte6ar of Stalin B. Bazhenov claimed:

“When after some time the news came that he (Zinovy) had lost his hand in battle, the old Sverdlov was very worried:

"Which hand?"

And when it turned out that the right one, there was no limit to triumph: according to the formula of the Jewish ritual curse, when the father curses his son, he must lose his right hand. ”

On August 28, 1915, Marshal Joseph Joffre awarded Zinovy ​​Peshkov with a name weapons and with a military cross with a palm branch and, apparently, to finally get rid of it, he signed an order to confer upon him the rank of lieutenant. As a wounded legionnaire, Peshkov could now bother about obtaining French citizenship and the appointment of a military pension. Any other, probably, would have lived the rest of his life as an invalid, occasionally speaking to the audience at ceremonial meetings dedicated to the celebration of a date. But Zinovy ​​Peshkov was not "any." Healing the wound, he achieved return to military service.


Zinovy ​​Peshkov, June 1916

From June 22, 1916 he was engaged in staff work, and then went along the diplomatic line: he went to the United States, where he remained until the beginning of 1917. Upon returning to Paris, he received the rank of captain, the Order of the Legion of Honor ("for exceptional services to the allied countries") and French citizenship.

Diplomatic missions in Russia


In May of the same year, Peshkov, in the rank of a diplomatic officer of the third class, arrived in Petrograd as a representative of France at the Russian Ministry of War, which was then headed by A. Kerensky (from Kerensky Peshkov managed to receive the Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree). In Petrograd, Zinovy, after a long separation, met with Gorky.

There is evidence of a meeting between Peshkov and Yakov Sverdlov. According to one version, the brothers “did not recognize” each other at the meeting and did not shake hands. On the other hand, they secluded themselves in a room for a long time (from which they "came out with white faces"), the conversation obviously did not ask, and led to a final breakdown in relations. According to the third, on which J. Etinger insists, referring to the testimony of the half-brother of Jacob Sverdlov German, Zinovy ​​“in response to his brother’s attempt to embrace him, sharply pushed him away, declaring that he would conduct the conversation only in French.” The latest version seems to me the most believable.

And here is another brother of Zinovia, Benjamin, in 1918 returned to Russia covered by the civil war from prosperous America, where he worked in one of the banks. He served as Commissar of Railways, in 1926 he became a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council, then he was the head of the scientific and technical department of the Supreme Economic Council, secretary of the All-Union Association of Science and Technology and the director of the road research institute.

After the October Revolution, Zinovy ​​Peshkov returned to France for a short time, but returned to Russia in 1918 as the Entente "curator" Kolchak, who brought an act recognizing him as the "supreme ruler" of Russia. For this, the "Omsk ruler" awarded him the Order of St. Vladimir of the 3rd degree.

You may have heard a historical joke that from the Kolchak headquarters Z. Peshkov sent an insulting and threatening telegram to his brother Jacob, in which there were the words: “we will hang” (you and Lenin). How to relate to such messages?

It must be understood that Peshkov was not a private individual and, moreover, was not an officer of the white army. On the contrary, at that time he was a high-ranking French diplomat. The word “we” in his telegram addressed to the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviet Russia should not be read “I and Kolchak”, but “France and the countries of the Entente”. And this would mean recognition of the fact of France’s participation in the civil war in Russia on the side of the “whites” - exactly what this state has always denied and denies (like Great Britain, the USA, Japan), representing the presence of its troops in the territory of a foreign country as “humanitarian mission. " The Bolsheviks would publish this telegram in the newspapers and then at all conferences they would poke the French into it like a tattered cat in a pool made by it. And Peshkov would fly out of public service with a “black ticket”. But this man was never demented, and therefore did not send such a telegram (which, incidentally, no one had ever seen and never held in his hands).

Then Peshkov was part of the French mission at Wrangel and in Georgia led by the Mensheviks.

It should be said that Peshkov’s choice as a French emissary was not very successful: very many both at Kolchak’s headquarters and at Wrangel did not trust him and suspected of spying on the “Reds”.

On January 14, 1920, Zinovy ​​returned to military service for a short time, becoming captain of the 1st Armored Cavalry Regiment of the Foreign Legion, in which former White Guard officers served mainly, but on January 21, 1921 he again turned to diplomatic work.

In 1921, Peshkov briefly became the public secretary of the International Relief Commission, starving in Russia. But, according to numerous testimonies of people who knew him, he did not show any interest either in his family or in his abandoned homeland either then or later. The new job did not cause any particular enthusiasm: he stubbornly sought permission to return to military service. Finally, in 1922 he managed to get an appointment in Morocco.

Back in line


In 1925, Zinovy ​​Peshkov, as the commander of the battalion of the First Regiment of the Foreign Legion (40 of his soldiers were Russians), took part in the Reef War, injured in the left leg, the second Military Cross with a palm branch and earned a strange and funny nickname from his subordinates - Red Penguin . While in the hospital, he wrote the book “Sounds of the forge. Life in the Foreign Legion ”, which was published in 1926 in the USA, and in 1927 was published in France under the title“ Foreign Legion in Morocco ”.

In the preface to one of the editions of this book, A. Morois writes:

“A foreign legion is more than an army of the military, it is an institution. Conversations with Zinovy ​​Peshkov give the impression of the almost religious nature of this institution. Zinovy ​​Peshkov speaks of a legion with burning eyes, he is like an apostle of this religion. ”



Zinovy ​​Peshkov in the uniform of a major, 1926

From 1926 to 1937 Peshkov was again in the diplomatic service (from 1926 to 1930 - at the French Foreign Ministry, from 1930 to 1937 - in the mission of the High Commissioner in the Levant), and then returned to Morocco as commander of the 3rd battalion of the Second Infantry Regiment of the Foreign Legion. After the outbreak of World War II, he fought on the Western Front, and then told an unlikely story of fleeing from France about how he had taken a German officer hostage and demanded an airplane to Gibraltar. According to a more likely version, his connection was part of the troops loyal to the Vichy government. Not wanting to serve the “traitor Peten,” Peshkov resigned due to reaching the age limit for his rank, after which he calmly left for London.

At the end of 1941, he was a representative of de Gaulle in the colonies of South Africa, was engaged in the protection of allied transports, in 1943 - received the rank of general.


Zinovy ​​Peshkov in general uniform

French diplomat Zinovy ​​Peshkov


In April 1944, Peshkov finally switched to diplomatic work and was sent to the headquarters of Chiang Kai-shek, with whom he was destined to meet again in 1964 - on the island of Taiwan.

On September 2, 1945, Zinovy, as part of the French delegation, was aboard the battleship Missouri, where a pact on the surrender of Japan was signed.


Missouri Japanese delegation, September 2, 1945

From 1946 to 1949 Peshkov was in diplomatic work in Japan (in the rank of head of the French mission). In 1950, he retired, finally receiving the title of corps general. He completed his last major diplomatic mission in 1964, handing Mao Zedong an official document recognizing France as communist China.

November 27, 1966 he died in Paris and was buried in the cemetery of Saint-Genevieve-des-Bois. According to his will, an inscription was carved on the stove: "Zinovy ​​Peshkov, Legionnaire."


As we see, Zinovy ​​Peshkov attached great importance to his service in the Foreign Legion, was brave, had military awards, but he did not perform any special military feats in his life and was not a military diplomat, but most of his life. In the diplomatic field, he achieved the greatest success. In this regard, it is significantly inferior to many other Russian "volunteers" of the legion, for example, D. Amilakhvari and S. Andolenko. About S.P. Andolenko, who managed to rise to the rank of brigadier general and the posts of regiment commander and deputy inspector of the legion, was described in the article “Russian volunteers of the French Foreign Legion”. And we will talk about Dmitry Amilahvari in the article “The French Foreign Legion in the First and Second World Wars”.

Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, People’s Hero of Yugoslavia, Soviet Marshal who became the Minister of Defense of the USSR, was much more successful in the military field.

He will be described in the next article.
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

204 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. rich April 30 2020 05: 55 New
    • 15
    • 2
    +13
    According to his will, an inscription was carved on the stove: "Zinovy ​​Peshkov, Legionnaire."

    According to the will of the deceased, an Orthodox icon, a military cross with a palm branch, the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor and a portrait of Maxim Gorky were placed in his coffin.
    1. Looking for April 30 2020 15: 05 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Well, and cunning.
  2. rich April 30 2020 06: 01 New
    • 11
    • 1
    +10
    The hero of our article was born in 1884 in Nizhny Novgorod in a large orthodox Jewish family

    a photo House in Nizhny Novgorod, where Zinovy ​​and Jacob spent his childhood

    a photo. Gorky and the Sverdlov family
    1. Astra wild April 30 2020 19: 13 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      Did Gorky know the Sverdlovs well? ~
  3. rich April 30 2020 06: 05 New
    • 9
    • 2
    +7
    Brothers and sisters
    The younger brother is Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (1885-1919), one of the leaders of the Bolshevik party, chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee after the revolution.
    Brother - Veniamin Mikhailovich Sverdlov (1887-1939). Before the revolution, he left for the USA and opened a bank there. After the 1917 revolution, Yakov Sverdlov called his brother to Russia, where he was appointed People's Commissar of Railways. In 1938 he was arrested and then shot by the sentence of the All-Russian Military Council as a “Trotskyist”.
    Brother - Lev Mikhailovich Sverdlov (1893-1914).
    The sisters are Sofia (1882-1951) and Sarah (1890-1964).
    Brothers from the second marriage of his father - Herman and Alexander.
    Daughter- Elizaveta Zinovievna Markova-Peshkova, her mother is the daughter of a Cossack officer. She lived in Italy, married the second secretary of the USSR Embassy in Rome, senior lieutenant of state security Markov, with whom she left for the USSR in 1937. In 1938 her husband was shot. She sat in the camp, was released, taught Italian at the Military Institute of Foreign Languages, left for the Kuban and died in Sochi in 1990. From Markov had two sons born in 1935 and born in 1938
    1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 10: 50 New
      • 9
      • 0
      +9
      The younger brother is Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (1885-1919), one of the leaders of the Bolshevik party, chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee after the revolution.

      Dmitry, I could be wrong, but it seems that it was Sverdlov who introduced the fashion for a leather jacket, so beloved by the commissars. Although a leather jacket was in the army before that, it was for units of Russian armored vehicles of the WWI era. hi
      1. rich April 30 2020 11: 40 New
        • 12
        • 0
        +12
        Good morning, noble pan hi wink
        Interested in your comment. Got into the Internet. Now I can give information.
        Fashion appeared on her in the years 1877-1878 during the Russo-Turkish war, thanks to the princess Maria Fedorovna. The Red Cross patronized by her distributed them to the officers participating in this war. Wearing such jackets has become a fashionable sign of a database participant.
        In imperial Russia she was called "Swedish", and the first to be put on by officers of the Russian fleet. The first mention of leather jackets and raincoats is in the registers of uniforms of the 1860s. Sea wolves, however, did not like this type of clothing. Those who served in Vladivostok complained, for example, that the "Swedish" jackets from the "humid climate" were "overgrown with fungus" and even rotted.
        But on land, leather jackets became more and more popular.
        If in the 1910th century it was worn only by naval officers, then in the XNUMXs, "Swedish" jackets became an important element in the uniform of those parts that did the "dirty" technical work - engineering, automobile, aviation, aeronautics .. Motorists wore brown leather jackets with a low standing collar, and the pilots are double-breasted from a black husky with a turn-down cloth collar. In black leather, a helmet with glasses, aviators looked very impressive. They were the main mods of the Russian army.
        With the outbreak of World War I, leather jackets became popular with front-line soldiers. They were even worn by those ranks to whom jackets were not officially supposed, including sisters of mercy. Everything from guards cavalrymen to modest army doctors flaunted in black or brown leather jackets, and some also in plain leather riding breeches.

        But in 1917, many appreciated another quality of leather - it reliably hid the social origin of the owner. It was worn by workers, sailors, and officers. In revolutionary Petrograd, a leather jacket helped camouflage, some even saved lives.
        Having seized the tsarist army’s VI warehouses in the spring of 1918, Trotsky ordered Swedish jackets to be distributed to the commissars of Red Army detachments. From now on, they become the hallmark of the commissioners.
        His main propagandist for this was Leon Trotsky, the People’s Commissar of War and the Pre-War Council. He dressed the guards of his train from head to toe in red leather uniforms.

        So he is the legislator of the “commissar” fashion.
        Something like that
        link: https: //rg.ru/2017/05/02/rodina-kozhanka.html
        1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 12: 14 New
          • 10
          • 1
          +9
          Motorists wore brown leather with a low standing collar

          for armor plates caps were still issued.
          Here is the Austin of the 1st series (without the rear control post) Hellish. Pay attention, in the center - it seems, lady! But in a leather jacket!

          This armored car itself is also interesting. His photo seems to be left the most from the “Austins” of this series.
          In 1918, the car “pops up” as part of an echelon of rebelled Czechs who cleanse Penza from Soviet power. One tower is removed, the second machine gun is installed in the frontal sheet.

          Fig. A. Sheps, and the information is taken from the article of the esteemed V.O. Shpakovsky.
          https://topwar.ru/142372-o-tom-kak-chehoslovaki-penzu-brali.html

          Dmitry .. It seems to me that another good (exactly that good!) Author may appear on our site. In your face. soldier I am grateful to you! hi
          1. rich April 30 2020 12: 28 New
            • 9
            • 0
            +9
            Pay attention, in the center - it seems, lady! But in a leather jacket!

            Judging by the white apron, the sister of mercy.
            for armor plates caps were still issued.

            I didn’t know that! Thanks for the info.
            And I ignorantly sinned on the film "Turbine Days" where the commander of the armored division Strakhovich in a leather cap. Thought kinolap.
            1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 12: 38 New
              • 10
              • 0
              +10
              And I ignorantly sinned on the film "Turbine Days" where the commander of the armored division Strakhovich in a leather cap. Thought kinolap.

              No, a separate form was sewn. Also, the units received a separate emblem for epaulettes and other insignia - they consisted of the combined emblems of machine gunners and motorists.
              Emblems of the arms of the Russian army as of 1917:
              1-grenadiers. 2-artillery. 3- art warehouses and fire stockpiles. 4- artillery parks. 5th aviation. 6-balloonists. 7th general emblem of engineering troops. 8- pontoon units and detachments. 9-demolitions. 10-fort units. 11-min units. 12 engineering parks. 13 telegraph operators and telephone operators. 14-spark squads (radio communications). 15 sapper teams and companies of infantry regiments and divisions. 16 squads. 17 armored squads (armored car units). 18 machine gunners.19-gun armored squads. 20-scooters (cyclists). 21th militia.

              Also, for clarity, a similar emblem is clearly visible on this all-wheel drive armored car "Jeffery" model Victor Poplavko (two upper photos).
              1. rich April 30 2020 13: 04 New
                • 12
                • 0
                +12
                Thanks to you, today is my discovery day. If I had been asked yesterday whether there were metal emblems of the military branches in the Republic of Ingushetia, I would with 100% certainty answer no. And there it is.
                For 15 minutes, the second time you "kill" me. Yes, you yourself need to write articles with such knowledge. There will be interesting material. Few people know such things.
                Best regards
                Dmitriy
                1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 13: 19 New
                  • 9
                  • 0
                  +9
                  Thank you for your kind words, Dmitry, but you give out more informative comments than your humble servant! drinks
                  metal emblems of the military branches, I would answer with 100% certainty that no. And there it is.

                  in a number of photos they are viewed.
                  I can not vouch for reliability, but they are at auctions.

                  A special sign (emblem) on epaulettes and epaulettes of generals, headquarters and chief officers and epaulets of the lower ranks of the armored units of the Russian Imperial Army. Russian Empire, 1914-1917 Unknown workshop. Bronze, silvering, 11,43 g. Dimensions 43,5 × 32,4 mm. The safety is very good, the silvering is worn, the fastening is a "mustache" on about Art. sign lost. Rare.At the auction "Coins and Medals" No. 75, May 26, 2012, lot 268.
                  https://numismat.ru/au.shtml?au=-1&per=0&descr=&material=41&nominal=0&lottype=60&ordername=2&orderdirection=DESC&num=44&b=0&f=0&&page=0
                  Number 124. Lot 660.
                  It would be foolish if such a sign were not rare! drinks
                  For 15 minutes, the second time you "kill" me.

                  Just Kolomiyets is my book for the “cabinet of thoughtfulness”. wink Reread up and down! yes
                  Yes, you yourself need to write articles with such knowledge. There will be interesting material.

                  Thank you very much for your kind words. drinks Last thing:
                  https://topwar.ru/158768-petershtadt-broshennaja-igrushka-petra-iii.html
                  1. Ryazan87 April 30 2020 17: 15 New
                    • 6
                    • 0
                    +6
                    For example, engineering troops — namely, metal special signs — were most highly approved on May 20, 1911, order No. 228 of May 28, 1911 (although they appeared in isolated cases from the 1870s)

                    1. Grenadier sapper battalion.
                    2. Field and fortress sapper battalions (including telegraph companies of sapper battalions).
                    3. Mine parts.
                    4. Pontoon parts.
                    5. Aeronautical parts.
                    6. Telegraph units (excluding telegraph companies of combat engineer battalions).
                    7. Spark telegraph parts.
                    8. Siege engineering parks.
                    1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 17: 23 New
                      • 4
                      • 0
                      +4
                      For example, engineering troops are precisely metal special signs

                      Nikita, thank you very much for the addition. We are making the forum more informative! hi
                  2. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 19: 35 New
                    • 4
                    • 0
                    +4
                    Well, the already respected comrades have been "bogged down". Now I summarize. Nikolay, he will write and will write, because this lesson is addictive. Dmitry, everything is ahead of you!
                    1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 23: 56 New
                      • 3
                      • 1
                      +2
                      Now I summarize. Nikolay, he will write and will write, because this lesson is addictive.

                      Oh dear Anton! We will write.
                      As soon as inspiration arrives to us! hi
                      And so .. We chat on the site of our sweet ..
                      And in the comments we only draw strength ... what
                      Here is Dmitry-Rich! He said the words truthfully.
                      And it is NECESSARY to write .. And there is a theme .. It will turn out beautifully!
                      wink
                2. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 19: 24 New
                  • 6
                  • 0
                  +6
                  The owner of a cat dedicated to Amateras, he can! When we meet, I digest for another week information that has fallen into the brain of a poor jester.
          2. Okolotochny April 30 2020 14: 19 New
            • 5
            • 3
            +2
            One Jew introduced fashion, the second “glorified” her in a chanson: "Katim in the stagecoach. Schuher! Ahead of the leather!". Nikolay, by the way your countryman. good
          3. Astra wild April 30 2020 21: 52 New
            • 2
            • 1
            +1
            Nikolay, you are right: Dmitry "Rich" is an erudite person and may very well be an author on a site
            1. Pane Kohanku 1 May 2020 00: 02 New
              • 2
              • 1
              +1
              Nikolay, you are right: Dmitry "Rich" is an erudite person and may very well be an author on a site

              Vera, Dmitry has extremely informative comments. As I sometimes laugh, the comments under some articles are more informative in history than the articles themselves. wink
              Therefore - a note to Dmitry! soldier My friends, one thing pleases me - the company of "history buffs" is expanding, and these are good competent people. Moreover, we can maintain communication with each other. Nice, right word! drinks
        2. Looking for April 30 2020 15: 12 New
          • 2
          • 0
          +2
          but you don’t think that the “leather jacket” was popular simply because of its wear resistance and unpretentiousness to different weather conditions. And then the whole theory was “fanned”
          1. rich April 30 2020 15: 44 New
            • 7
            • 1
            +6
            her popularity was exclusively "clan". Not every mere mortal can afford. What are actually discussing.
        3. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 19: 12 New
          • 3
          • 1
          +2
          In black leather, a helmet with glasses, aviators looked very impressive
          And a white silk scarf !!! good "Death of schoolgirls" laughing
          1. Liam April 30 2020 22: 24 New
            • 2
            • 1
            +1
            The scarf was not for chic. For cleaning glasses from oil from the engine)
            1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 49 New
              • 3
              • 0
              +3
              I beg of you! I’ve been a bespectacled man for almost 40 years. Do not convince me that you can wipe the glasses with silk! Especially from oil.
              With the fact that "not for style," I agree. In the "dog dump" pilots washed their neck on the cloth of a uniform collar into the blood.
        4. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 19: 17 New
          • 3
          • 0
          +3
          From now on, they become the hallmark of the commissioners.
          Immortal phrase: "Who else wants a commissar body ?!" Weller, by the way, beat not bad.
          1. Catfish April 30 2020 21: 20 New
            • 4
            • 2
            +2

            Well. This is someone who wants to. laughing
            1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 21: 38 New
              • 2
              • 1
              +1
              S. King "The Revenge of the Interest-Maker" "Am I exploring the shadow, or the right of the haves?!?!?"
              1. Catfish April 30 2020 21: 52 New
                • 5
                • 1
                +4
                Well, if on King ...
                1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 06 New
                  • 3
                  • 0
                  +3
                  This is not King, this is Puzo.
                  1. Catfish April 30 2020 22: 09 New
                    • 4
                    • 1
                    +3
                    Who cares!? Not “Thompson” will be, so “Gatling”. All one ... wink
                    1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 30 New
                      • 1
                      • 0
                      +1
                      Uncle Kostya! Where is the gatling and where is the Corleone clan ??? You still remember Montteki and Capulet! Although, the movie "Romeo + Juliet", 1996. - very good!
                      1. Catfish April 30 2020 22: 46 New
                        • 4
                        • 1
                        +3
                        Where is the gatling ...?

                        In the same place as the Corleone clan in the States. And the mafia can think of anything. request
                      2. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 55 New
                        • 1
                        • 0
                        +1
                        Again, this is not a mafia. This is the future (former) governor of California, who bought the "Sherman", on which he drove in the Austrian army laughing
                      3. Catfish April 30 2020 23: 09 New
                        • 2
                        • 0
                        +2
                        Sherman in the Austrian army? But Schwartz didn’t get anything wrong?
                      4. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 23: 39 New
                        • 1
                        • 0
                        +1
                        Schwarzenegger is almost the same age as you. Why shouldn’t he ride a “Sherman” in the Austrian army?
                      5. Catfish April 30 2020 23: 44 New
                        • 2
                        • 0
                        +2
                        But I no longer drove a thirty-four contemporary of Sherman, and the Austrians, as I recall, immediately adopted the Leopard1.
                      6. 3x3zsave 1 May 2020 00: 03 New
                        • 1
                        • 0
                        +1
                        For what I bought .... Write to the Terminator, ask, what the heck is "Sherman"?
                      7. Olddetractor 4 May 2020 17: 48 New
                        • 1
                        • 0
                        +1

                        M47 Patton II, he bought in 2012 for about $ 1,4 million
                      8. 3x3zsave 4 May 2020 17: 52 New
                        • 1
                        • 0
                        +1
                        Thank you! hi The test "demobilization album" with Arnie came out! laughing
  • Astra wild April 30 2020 21: 57 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    My poet, do not misinterpret F. M. Dostoevsky.
    1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 10 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      My Beautiful Stranger, I relate to Fedor Mikhalych in much the same way as Harms to Lev Nikolaevich.
  • Astra wild April 30 2020 19: 23 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    Rich, I'm sorry I can only put 1+. You got a wonderful comment - addition.
    Comments-add-ons significantly broaden your horizons
    1. rich April 30 2020 21: 10 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      Yes, fully respected Astra Nikolai raised the topic, it became interesting to me. Googled and posted what I found
      1. Astra wild April 30 2020 21: 59 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        Try to write an article. A good author will be added to the site and there will be less gray
  • bober1982 April 30 2020 06: 15 New
    • 3
    • 12
    -9
    Zinovy ​​Peshkov, or simply Zina, of course adopted Orthodoxy fictitiously, and was Gorky's adoptive son, and not the godfather. Which gave rise to many obscene rumors about the relationship between the writer and the young man.
    1. rich April 30 2020 06: 35 New
      • 14
      • 0
      +14
      Zinovy ​​Peshkov, or simply Zina, of course, adopted Orthodoxy fictitiously

      An official came to examine the death of an elderly Parisian from the City Hall, who drew up the following document:
      “November 27, 1966, at 21:50, died living in Paris, 16th arrondissement, Loristena street, 107, a citizen of the Republic of Zinovy ​​Peshkov, Greek Orthodox, a parishioner of the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Western European parishes of the Russian tradition of the Moscow Patriarchate [/ b]. Ambassador, Knight of the Order of the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, military medal and the Cross of the war of 1914-18, born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, October 16, 1884 ... The protocol was drawn up on November 28 this year at 15 on the statement of Georges Landier ... who upon reading this act, he signed it with us, Maurice Tissier, a government official representing the mayor. ”
      1. bober1982 April 30 2020 06: 45 New
        • 1
        • 12
        -11
        And, after reading this piece of paper - the representatives of our Foreign Ministry immediately rushed to the funeral, so it turns out?
      2. Astra wild April 30 2020 22: 03 New
        • 1
        • 0
        +1
        Dmitry, perhaps, you know: what was Zinovy’s personal life like, did he still have children?
  • rich April 30 2020 06: 17 New
    • 17
    • 2
    +15
    The funeral of Nizhny Novgorod, who rose to the rank of general in France and had the status of ambassador and special envoy of the president, became one of the most magnificent and solemn mourning ceremonies in the entire post-war history of France. “On the day of the funeral, representatives of the diplomatic corps of many countries came to Paris, the Soviet delegation arrived,” recalled Edmond Charles-Roux.
    link: https: //warspot.ru/3134-frantsuzskiy-general-s-nizhegorodskim-aktsentom
    1. bober1982 April 30 2020 06: 20 New
      • 3
      • 12
      -9
      Evil tongues claimed that Zinovy ​​was a member of the Masonic lodge, and so the brothers came to take him on their last journey.
      1. rich April 30 2020 06: 23 New
        • 15
        • 1
        +14
        Good morning, Vladimir hi
        But it is difficult to suspect representatives of the Foreign Ministry of the Soviet Socialist Republic in massism. Most likely ordinary shop diplomatic etiquette
        1. bober1982 April 30 2020 06: 33 New
          • 2
          • 11
          -9
          Quote: Rich
          Good morning, Vladimir

          Good morning, Dmitriy!
          What I don’t know, I don’t know — about the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs
          By the way, Stalin put the whole Sverdlovskiy clan under a knife, fiercely hated it.
          Why would representatives of our Foreign Ministry attend the funeral of the French general, it is not clear.
          1. rich April 30 2020 09: 11 New
            • 18
            • 0
            +18
            By the way, Stalin put the whole Sverdlovskiy clan under a knife, fiercely hated it.

            Why are you writing this?
            I am not a fan of either Y. Sverdlov or Z. Peshkov. Just do not love, not true
            Here is the clan of Y. Sverdlov:
            Father - Michael (Moses) Izrailevich Sverdlov (d. In 1921)
            Mother - Elizabeth Solomonovna (d. In 1900)
            Brother - Peshkov, Zinovy ​​Alekseevich mind. in 1966)
            Brother - Lev Mikhailovich (d. In 1914)
            Brother - Veniamin Mikhailovich - was shot in 1938
            Sister - Sophia (d. In 1951)
            Sister - Sarah (d. In 1964)
            Brothers from his father’s second marriage - Herman (d. In 1954) and Alexander (d. In 1970)
            Wife - Sverdlova (nee Novgorodtseva) Klavdiya Timofeevna (d. In 1960)
            Son - Andrei Yakovlevich Sverdlov (d. In 1969) - the son of the Sverdlovs, Yakov Mikhailovich and Klavdiya Timofeevna. Three times - in 1935, 1937 and 1951 - he was arrested by the NKVD for "anti-Soviet" statements among young people, which did not prevent him from serving in the central office of the NKGB and the Ministry of State Security of the USSR.
            Daughter - Vera (d. In 2001)
            Niece - Ida Averbakh (Berry) - was shot on June 16, 1938.
            Grand-nephew - Heinrich Averbach (Berry) - son of Ida and Heinrich Berry (d. In 2003)
            The only repressed are the niece, the wife of Yagoda, and the Trotskyist brother. The rest died their deaths.
            What anyone can easily be convinced by typing in the internet a biography of Y. Sverdlov
            1. bober1982 April 30 2020 09: 18 New
              • 2
              • 10
              -8
              Quote: Rich
              Elizaveta Solomonovna (d. In 1900

              You, even Elizabeth (?) Solomonovna ranked among the Sverdlovs clan.
              Himself, Y. Sverdlov, was very lucky that he did not live up to the 30s, they would have shot him like an English spy.
              1. gsev April 30 2020 12: 55 New
                • 9
                • 2
                +7
                Quote: bober1982
                Ya. Sverdlov himself was very lucky

                History does not like the subjunctive mood, but Y. Sverdlov was an outstanding statesman of Russia. It was he who created the state apparatus of Soviet Russia with which it withstood intervention and civil war. What is only worth returning to Russia Ukraine from under the German and French occupation! The partisan war against the Germans, the liquidation of the German governor in Ukraine, the assassination attempts on the German puppet of the hetman are considered to be unsurpassed in effectiveness by the actions of partisans and underground workers. But Y. Sverdlov knew all the outstanding revolutionaries and appointed them to work in accordance with their abilities. I suppose, had he not died from the Spaniard, Stalin would have remained a petty politician of the 20s. The appointees of Stalin were not so vivid and independent politicians as the appointees of Y. Sverdlov.
                1. bober1982 April 30 2020 15: 32 New
                  • 1
                  • 6
                  -5
                  Quote: gsev
                  History does not like the subjunctive mood,

                  This is a vulgar and hackneyed stamp, you can not read further.
              2. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 30 2020 17: 35 New
                • 5
                • 0
                +5
                Quote: bober1982
                Quote: Rich
                Elizaveta Solomonovna (d. In 1900

                You, even Elizabeth (?) Solomonovna ranked among the Sverdlovs clan.
                Himself, Y. Sverdlov, was very lucky that he did not live up to the 30s, they would have shot him like an English spy.

                Interesting!
                The city of Sverdlovsk, quietly existed until the 90th year! Sverdlova street still remains in Yekaterinburg !!!
                As it does not agree with your conclusions !!! Under the knife !!!
                1. bober1982 April 30 2020 17: 47 New
                  • 1
                  • 6
                  -5
                  Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Interesting!

                  Not interesting, but amusing, both the article and most of the comments.
                  Stalin, together with Sverdlov, were in exile together, in the same hut, spitting on each other in a bowl with a stew, apparently on the basis of Marxist disagreements. Further, the two future leaders of the Soviet of Deputies went down the slope, that is, someone was the first to cut someone out, Stalin .
                  The city of Yekaterinburg is a difficult city, they voted for the collapse of the Union, Rossel - with his republic, the mayor (former) was chosen cool, the king was killed, the riots around the park, the snickering city and so on, and you are talking about some street named after the Satanist Sverdlov (in the city of demons)
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 30 2020 19: 57 New
                    • 9
                    • 1
                    +8
                    The city of Yekaterinburg is a difficult city, they voted for the collapse of the Union, Rossel - with his republic, the mayor (former) was chosen cool, the king was killed, the riots around the park, the snickering city and so on, and you are talking about some street named after the Satanist Sverdlov (in the city of demons)

                    All splashed out on the fan, or is there still malice on the medical duck?
                    There are no light cities in the Urals where you can earn a year or take two crops during the warm season, the seas coming in five hundred miles - so you won’t catch the gobies for breakfast and you won’t earn transit trade!
                    Mining cities were born in the fire of a hearth and under the blows of water hammers! Many were originally built as fortresses, most of them at the dawn of formation were in sieges, I am several times like Chebarkul and Chelyabinsk several times !!! No wonder the old name of the Urals is Stone! And it would be wonderful if the indigenous Uralians themselves did not have a stone heavy character !!!
                    The Ural Republic is a dark business! Moscow is used to sucking from the outskirts, but slipping into double standards of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan - all, but not at the expense of the golden-headed, but “we will raise the outskirts” !!! E. Rossel with his demarche, broke stereotypes and put an end to the parade of sovereignty of the Russian SSR !!! By the way, he first washed EBN and did not let the Urals and the Trans-Urals be robbed !!! Now you have an argument for accusing Yekaterinburg of the rich !!! Would it be better how industrial Orsk dies today? Or his neighbor Novotroitsk !!!?
                    By the way, Moscow is still true to its traditions, what was the purpose of sculpting the Urals in the Volga Federal District - in the form of the Perm Territory? Or how beautiful the capital took the military exhibition from Nizhny Tagil !!! Purely because of logistic considerations !!!
                    They chose the mayor, but they chose in spite of the united Russia, the oligarchs and the region !!! Many cities of Russia could brag of free and fair elections !!! Basically we see the reverse jumping on the hind legs !!! But people are light, kind and sensitive! They keep their nose in the wind and are ready to lick the toilet bowl that is pointed from the top! Moreover, as well as to fall to the cross of the cleric !!! Even let the iPhone of the latest model be mounted in it, rubies, diamonds and cast in 999 gold !!! Few people wanted to hear that instead of a park they wanted to put not only a church, but also a couple of business centers with a shopping complex !!! Apparently the word of God without rags from Guche and Cardin n comme il faut !!!
                    Well, the last. Human life is sacred, but Nicholas 2, who threw my Fatherland into the heat of war and revolution, I personally do not mind !!! If he showed even a fraction of the qualities of his predecessors, then my great-grandfather did not lose two siblings, and the second did not face a choice for whom and against whom! History does not have a syllable declension and perhaps you are right, the Urals are a little demons and devils, believing in a silver hoof, a jump and a golden snake, because without the application of unbending power and faith in ourselves, we cannot create the man-made wealth of the Stanovoi Range of Russia !!!
                    In fact, we are used to doing, not asking !!! Envy silently!
                    Sincerely, Gornozavodskaya Kote !!!
                    1. bober1982 April 30 2020 20: 13 New
                      • 0
                      • 7
                      -7
                      A very big comment, the demagogy of pure water - you just speak your teeth, this is obvious.
                      I studied in Chelyabinsk and Shadrinsk, these are my favorite cities, that is, I know the flight area very well (joke)
                      By the way, I have only three favorite cities, and these are Samara, San Francisco and Shadrinsk.
                      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      for without the application of unbending power and self-belief, one cannot create the man-made wealth of the Stanovoi Range of Russia !!!

                      Oh my god, what an ugly city - Yekaterinburg
                  2. Astra wild April 30 2020 20: 14 New
                    • 3
                    • 1
                    +2
                    "in one hut, they spat at each other in a bowl with a stew", but did YOU see this or did Stalin tell.?
                    They are not very nice to me, but I pay tribute to their mind. An intelligent person will not do this: at least from an elementary sense of personal security, where is the guarantee that the opponent has not added something harmful
                    1. bober1982 April 30 2020 20: 19 New
                      • 0
                      • 3
                      -3
                      Stalin, still calling his doggie, Yashka, was spiteful to his fellow party member, he was vindictive, and he was silently, intelligently (in Jewish) angry.
            2. Olgovich April 30 2020 09: 48 New
              • 7
              • 12
              -5
              Quote: Rich
              The only repressed are the niece, the wife of Yagoda, and the Trotskyist brother.

              No. not so: another niece, Ada Averbach, was shot.

              Ida's son, Henry Berry, also sat in the camps. then. naturally with family. ended up in ...Israel.

              So here we’ve built us bright life hereand left for her -there
              1. rich April 30 2020 10: 31 New
                • 7
                • 1
                +6
                Greetings Andrew hi

                But is Ida and Ada not the same person? Even he became interested. Please throw a reference to the distracted Ada Averbach
                The Internet does not give any links about Ada Averbakh. But the reference to Leopold Averbakh says that Leonid (Leiba) Isaakovich Averbakh and Sofya Mikhailovna (nee Sverdlova) had a son Leopold and a daughter Ida.
                1. Olgovich April 30 2020 11: 38 New
                  • 6
                  • 4
                  +2
                  Greetings, Dmitry! hi

                  Yes, I meant another shot nephew of Sverdlov by the name of Averbach. not specified by you.

                  And this yes Leopoldand not Ada: he wrote from memory, but remembered that two had been shot, not one. Confused names, to blame ...
                  1. rich April 30 2020 12: 01 New
                    • 7
                    • 1
                    +6
                    Mixed up names

                    Trifles with whom it does not happen
                    Knowing your meticulousness in historical facts, I immediately thought
                    Best regards
                    Dmitriy
                    1. Catfish April 30 2020 21: 33 New
                      • 4
                      • 3
                      +1
                      Good evening Dmitry! hi
                      I was not very interested in the Kremlin camarilla of the revolutionary period, but somehow it came to my mind that it was Yakov Sverdlov who gave the order to shoot the tsar’s family. Do you have any information? I don’t give a damn about the king-priest and his half, but I don’t like when children and women are killed.

                      You do not know which of these trinity so effectively "took care" of the royal family?
                      1. rich April 30 2020 23: 13 New
                        • 4
                        • 0
                        +4
                        it somehow surfaced from memory that it was precisely Yakov Sverdlov who gave the order for the execution of the royal family.

                        Good evening, Konstantin hi As far as I know, for the first time L. Trotsky launched this version from Mexico. Lev Davydych had a kind of strange “love” for Sverdlov. He blamed the dead man not only for this, but also for Sverdlov’s desire to make the CEC the supreme power in the republic, pushing aside both Lenin and SNK. In his letters to supporters, he called him “the black devil” and Andryusha Uralsky, who, with his ex-fighters, crushed not only the whole proletariat, but also all the “lumpen-criminal elements” of the Urals. I do not presume - I do not know. But here are a few facts:
                        1. Trotsky wrote that Sverdlov came to the revolution from the criminal world, falling into places of detention under the influence of the Bolsheviks. The archives of the Nizhny Novgorod region and the document funds of the office of the Nizhny Novgorod police chief and local gendarmerie, as well as all police stations, do not contain any evidence that Sverdlov himself, or someone of his relatives, went through any criminal cases, including theft and robbery.
                        2. Trotsky attributed to Sverdlov the authorship of the directive of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) Of January 24, 1919, "On the implementation of harsh punitive measures to suppress Cossack uprisings against Soviet power in the Don." As it turned out later, the author of this directive was none other than the future Mexican exile himself.
                        3. In 1905, Sverdlov organized the arrival from Ekaterinburg to revolutionary Moscow and St. Petersburg of the combatants of the groups E. S. Kadomtsev and F. F. Syromolotov, who created the fighting squads of the expropriators-militants in the Urals, where they armed and organized fighting squads of the working capitals, which served as an impetus to the first Russian revolution of 1905 and the expansion of Sverdlov's fame.
                        3. After the assassination attempt on Lenin on August 30, 1918, Sverdlov signed the appeal of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee on September 2 "on the transformation of the Soviet republic into a single military camp", supplemented by the Council of People's Commissars signed by Sverdlov on September 5, "Decree on Red Terror," which declared a massive red terror against all enemies of the Revolution .
                        4. While Lenin was being treated, Sverdlov ignored all decisions on the election of the interim acting chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and personally performed his functions, working in Lenin’s office and signing documents for him, and also held meetings of the Council of People's Commissars
                        5. Trotsky in his memoirs indicates the participation of Y. M. Sverdlov in the execution of the imperial family, referring to G.Z. Besedovsky. However, the reliability of the statements of L. D. Trotsky is disputed by a number of researchers. However, the fact is that at the beginning of July 1918 the Ural military commissar Philip Goloshchekin went to Moscow to Lenin and Sverdlov to decide on the fate of the tsar’s family. The results of his trip are still classified as secrecy.
                      2. Catfish April 30 2020 23: 18 New
                        • 4
                        • 1
                        +3
                        Thank you, Dmitry! hi It is clear that this case is muddy and is unlikely to be fully investigated.
            3. Krasnodar April 30 2020 14: 17 New
              • 6
              • 0
              +6
              Quote: Olgovich


              So here we’ve built us bright life hereand left for her -there

              Buna Zihua! )))
              You write the following - they broke firewood here, overthrowing the monarchy and shoveling the lives of millions, and themselves dumped in Israel. Everything is simpler - being infringed on their rights, they sought a way out in two political movements of the time, which promised equal rights to Jews:
              Communists and socialists who promised equality regardless of national origin;
              Zionists who believe that Jews will achieve equality only in their own country. Therefore, moving from one camp to another is quite natural. Moreover, Israel was founded by Jewish socialists. With the money of Jewish oligarchs, the truth - but that's another question laughing
              1. Olgovich April 30 2020 14: 22 New
                • 9
                • 2
                +7
                Quote: Krasnodar
                Buna Zihua! )))
                You write the following - they broke firewood here, overthrowing the monarchy and shoveling the lives of millions, and themselves dumped in Israel. Everything is simpler - being infringed on their rights, they sought a way out in two political movements of the time, which promised equal rights to Jews:

                Shalom!

                You write about the Jews, and I write about ALL the tops: the grandchildren of Stalin, Khrushchev, Andropov, Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Suslov, and live in the West, and not where their dads built a "bright life."
                1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 14: 37 New
                  • 6
                  • 0
                  +6
                  In the next generations, parents were not lost - they simply ruined the country, becoming quite gross capitalists))
                  1. Astra wild April 30 2020 20: 24 New
                    • 3
                    • 3
                    0
                    Colleague Krasnodar, please be attentive to the buddhas when you write: "Having become pretty big capitalists"
                    1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 20: 34 New
                      • 3
                      • 0
                      +3
                      Thanks, I will consider
                    2. Phil77 April 30 2020 20: 48 New
                      • 4
                      • 0
                      +4
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      Thanks, I will consider

                      I liked your answer !!!! good laughing good laughing
                  2. Okolotochny 1 May 2020 11: 38 New
                    • 2
                    • 0
                    +2
                    Yes, it happens like I write from the iPad, then he, an infection, happens to live his own life, he rewrites the words, the meaning is lost.
              2. Astra wild April 30 2020 20: 31 New
                • 3
                • 1
                +2
                Olgovich, in fairness: in the West are not the descendants of Brezhnev and Stalin
                For example, Brezhnev’s grandson lives in Moscow. The descendants of Stalin also live. So it’s not worth generalizing. Even if you want to
                1. Phil77 April 30 2020 20: 57 New
                  • 2
                  • 0
                  +2
                  Quote: Astra wild
                  For example, Brezhnev’s grandson lives in Moscow

                  Vera, what kind of grandson do you mean, Leonid or Andrey?
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                  2. Astra wild April 30 2020 22: 18 New
                    • 2
                    • 1
                    +1
                    Hockey Lion (Phil Esposito), I'm talking about Leonid. I saw on TV: there are similarities and considers himself a communist
                  3. Phil77 April 30 2020 22: 52 New
                    • 3
                    • 0
                    +3
                    He does not consider himself to be anyone. He is a businessman, he was married four times. Three children, he runs away from politics like hell from incense, he is satisfied with his life, self-sufficient.
              3. Olgovich 1 May 2020 06: 20 New
                • 4
                • 4
                0
                Quote: Astra wild
                Olgovich, in fairness: in the West are not the descendants of Brezhnev and Stalin

                And .... whose? belay lol
                such things can and KNOW:

                The daughter of Stalin's eldest son, Yakov Dzhugashvili, Galina, married a citizen Algeria and bore him a son, Selim.
                Great-grandson of Stalin, Vissarion Dzhugashvili lives in New York.
                Another generalissimo granddaughter, Chris Evans, also lives in the USA in Portland

                Great-grandchildren of Leonid Brezhnev Dmitry and Leonid graduated from Oxford University. One returned home, another stayed to live in England. Secretary General’s niece, daughter of his younger brother Jacob Lyubov Brezhnev, lives in California,




                Daughter of beloved daughter of Stalin, usa
                1. Astra wild 1 May 2020 06: 58 New
                  • 1
                  • 0
                  +1
                  I know about Chris Evans. Vissarion Dzhugashvili heard. About Lyubov Brezhnev did not know. Thanks I'll know
        2. The comment was deleted.
  • Krasnodar April 30 2020 14: 04 New
    • 4
    • 0
    +4
    Quote: bober1982
    Evil tongues claimed that Zinovy ​​was a member of the Masonic lodge, and so the brothers came to take him on their last journey.

    Quite possible. Freemasonry has always been a club consisting of three categories of people - talented, famous and rich. Some combined all three qualities laughing Masons were Pushkin, Kutuzov, Suvorov, Jabotinsky (this one was smeared from membership in the box, referring to extreme employment) and many other interesting people.
  • Olgovich April 30 2020 06: 21 New
    • 7
    • 13
    -6
    .
    Zalman tried to recapture a certain girl from Jacob, and he decided to bring him to the police. / And in the father’s workshop he was replaced by a relative - Enoch Yehuda, in Soviet times better known as Henry Yagoda.



    This is a snake ball!
    Romantic young man Enoch Yehuda, future head of the NKVD

    a romantic rubber part as well as a bunch of underwear were found at the romantic rank 1 commissar of the USSR state security.
    he called the inhabitants of Auckland "stupid sheep" and "miserable lambs"

    lamb reasoning. Yes..

    As we see, Zinovy ​​Peshkov attached great importance to his service in the Foreign Legion, was brave, had military awards, but he did not perform any special military feats in his life and was not a military diplomat, but most of his life.

    an extraordinary person, yes ... but it would be better if he and his whole family would live somewhere far away from Russia ....
    .
  • VLR
    VLR April 30 2020 06: 37 New
    • 14
    • 0
    +14
    By the way, look at the portraits of Ekaterina Peshkova and Maria Andreeva. In my opinion, they are very similar. I have heard that every man, in fact, all his life searches for the same woman. If it does not work out for the first time, he finds almost the same. Women too. In the good and funny American TV series Friends (based on which they made the terrible and unfunny Univer in Russia), this is played out when Rachel finds a copy of Ross and does not understand why everyone around is surprised at her choice.
    1. Olgovich April 30 2020 07: 19 New
      • 8
      • 5
      +3
      Quote: VlR
      By the way, look at the portraits of Ekaterina Peshkova and Maria Andreeva.

      also drew attention to this when reading the article.

      Quote: VlR
      I have heard that every man, in fact, all his life searches for the same woman.

      looking for one. but finds another .. recourse


      The article plus tells not only about Zalman, but also about the environment, which is certainly interesting. hi

      In development of the topic: In the 1930s, Heinrich Yagoda, a relative of Movshevichy Sverdlov. became close to Gorky who returned to the USSR from abroad. Yagoda became a friend of his family and .... slept with Nadezhda Peshkova (Timoshi) - the wife of Gorky's son, Maxim.

      It is unfortunate that Zalman, Yehuda and all their families with their brothers lived in Russia, and not in the West, where their descendants moved anyway ....
      1. vladcub April 30 2020 21: 37 New
        • 2
        • 1
        +1
        "slept with Nadezhda Peshkova" ,,, possibly poisoned: both A. M. Gorky and his son
        1. Olgovich 1 May 2020 06: 23 New
          • 1
          • 0
          +1
          Quote: vladcub
          possibly poisoned: both A. M. Gorky and his son

          What for?
    2. Krasnodar April 30 2020 14: 20 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      In my opinion, Kyuzak played a replacement for Ross laughing
      1. rich April 30 2020 15: 21 New
        • 6
        • 0
        +6
        By the way, Stalin hated the entire Sverdlovsk clan fiercely.

        The adopted son of Stalin, Artem Sergeyev, has a rather interesting line in the book "Conversations about Stalin"

        My father used to go around in his pajamas around the house .... but somehow fell ill and lay in bed, Vasily and I came to visit him and noticed a pale tattoo on his shoulder. Sailor? we asked. Joseph Vissarionovich answered no, and hid his hand under the covers: “From penal servitude, not from a great mind.” Did Lenin have one like that? Father cheered up and laughed muffledly: Well, where did he get this from? He was not even in jail. Here Camo and comrade Andrei never took off their shirts - they were all painted. And comrade Who is Andrey? Father looked at us both in amazement. - You need to know such things! Comrade Andrey is Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov. He spent twelve years in prisons and hard labor. That’s what you stop rushing about in the garden, but read books; I’ll personally select books for you and I’ll check what I’ve read ... "
        1. Astra wild April 30 2020 21: 01 New
          • 2
          • 0
          +2
          Dmitry (Rich), I will know your "Christian name". Thanks for the help: I’ll look on the Internet for this book.
    3. vladcub April 30 2020 21: 33 New
      • 1
      • 0
      +1
      "looking for one of the same woman" I had a neighbor: he translates either with Anya or with Tanya. They have similar looks and names are consonant
  • Legionista April 30 2020 10: 02 New
    • 8
    • 2
    +6
    Thanks to the author for the article! Today in I.L. celebrate Cameroon "CAMERONE". All who received on this day for breakfast in bed Budan and coffee with rum - Happy Holiday) drinks
    1. VLR
      VLR April 30 2020 10: 05 New
      • 10
      • 1
      +9
      "Everyone who received Budan and coffee with rum for breakfast on that day for breakfast"
      So, really? I’m thinking about mentioning this in the last article, or not taking risks. smile
      1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 10: 55 New
        • 9
        • 0
        +9
        "Everyone who received Budan and coffee with rum for breakfast on that day for breakfast"

        no, no, Valery, don’t leave the topic! stop In more detail - if the tradition is good, we must take it into service. And what is IL? is this an organization not banned in Russia?
        Ahhh, is that the Foreign Legion? Well, then Anton 3z3zsave will definitely adopt it! wink It remains to find the one who will be brought to him with rum (coffee can be crossed out). drinks
      2. Legionista April 30 2020 11: 34 New
        • 8
        • 0
        +8
        Truth). You are the Author, it is up to you to mention or not hi .
        1. VLR
          VLR April 30 2020 12: 03 New
          • 7
          • 0
          +7
          Simply, I thought - suddenly this is a tale that is told to simple-minded recruits, legionnaire folklore.
          1. Legionista April 30 2020 12: 42 New
            • 12
            • 0
            +12
            Good afternoon! If you are interested, I can describe how this happened in the late 90s in 2 REP. On the eve of the holiday, the corporals warn the young (and remind the old-timers) that they leave their bowlers in front of the bunks. In the morning, after lifting, it is forbidden to get out of bed until all sous - officiers go around all the legionnaires and feed them breakfast. Then the youngest legionary receives temporary comic powers. As a rule, this was expressed in attracting sergeants to morning cleaning. By lunchtime, “the day of self-government” was ending, and the youth “grabbed” everything from the sergeants). Officers, as a rule, did not participate in this.
            1. VLR
              VLR April 30 2020 12: 46 New
              • 7
              • 0
              +7
              Thank you very much for your reply
              1. Legionista April 30 2020 13: 18 New
                • 7
                • 0
                +7
                You are welcome! With respect hi
            2. Okolotochny April 30 2020 14: 27 New
              • 5
              • 1
              +4
              The SA also had something similar, 100 days before the Order (IMHO), but one day it was when the young "shouted" at the old-timers.
              1. saygon66 April 30 2020 22: 00 New
                • 2
                • 0
                +2
                - It was called: "Day dуhow "! wink
    2. Astra wild April 30 2020 20: 49 New
      • 1
      • 1
      0
      Sorry for the naivety of Cameroon - a state in Central Africa. And where does the legionnaires ?.
      Is Budan a confectionery?
      1. Legionista April 30 2020 21: 58 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        Good evening. Indeed, I involuntarily misled. The Cameron will be more correct. In the author's text, this episode was described (war in Mexico). Budan (le boudin) is a blood sausage.
        1. VLR
          VLR 1 May 2020 08: 18 New
          • 0
          • 0
          0
          And this sausage is served for breakfast?
          By the way, le boudin is a blanket or is it still an awning?
          1. Legionista 1 May 2020 11: 59 New
            • 2
            • 0
            +2
            Good afternoon. Yes, this sausage and coffee with rum (sugar free)). “Le boudin” is still an awning, in which sometimes, for convenience, a part of the uniform, etc. (paquetage) is added up. Something reminds us of our “rolling” overcoat.
            1. VLR
              VLR 1 May 2020 12: 44 New
              • 1
              • 0
              +1
              Thank. I will write about le boudin through one article.
              1. Legionista 1 May 2020 14: 03 New
                • 1
                • 0
                +1
                You are welcome! With respect hi
      2. VLR
        VLR April 30 2020 22: 06 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        Cameroon - in this case, a hacienda in Mexico, where a company of the Foreign Legion died in an unequal battle. The cult date, which became the official holiday of the legion. This is described in the article "Dogs of the War of the Foreign Legion". Take a look.
  • ccsr April 30 2020 10: 55 New
    • 6
    • 0
    +6
    Great stuff, read with interest. Of particular interest are notes like these:
    You may have heard a historical joke that from the Kolchak headquarters Z. Peshkov sent an insulting and threatening telegram to his brother Jacob, in which there were the words: “we will hang” (you and Lenin). How to relate to such messages?

    It must be taken with humor - after all, Zinovy ​​Peshkov was an adventurer of pure water, and his whole life has confirmed this.
  • Undecim April 30 2020 12: 03 New
    • 12
    • 4
    +8
    bober1982 and Olgovich staged a competition - who will pour more slops in their comments. Indeed, a vivid illustration of the proverb about famous swamp seekers.
    1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 20: 04 New
      • 4
      • 0
      +4
      Do not judge strictly, Viktor Nikolaevich. Everyone is looking for their compensation technology. Something too complacent today .... laughing
      1. Undecim April 30 2020 20: 14 New
        • 4
        • 2
        +2
        By compensatory technology do you mean rubber aggregates? Like, let's drink for love, and who can't - for friendship?
        1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 20: 32 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          Well, why so? I meant psychotechnics. Better to pour hatred of the Jews here than in real life. For here, “Krasnodar” is just spoiling, but in real life, “The Center of Simon Wiesenthal” can be a good hang.
          1. Undecim April 30 2020 20: 39 New
            • 4
            • 1
            +3
            And I thought compensatory behavior.
            1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 20: 44 New
              • 4
              • 0
              +4
              Well, Viktor Nikolayevich, I'm a romantic, and you are a techie. I grieve over the imperfection of mankind, you are trying to correct it. laughing
              1. Undecim April 30 2020 20: 47 New
                • 4
                • 0
                +4
                Yes, I am a realist and I understand that the correction will come only according to the folklore version. Therefore, I’m not trying, so, I am stating a fact.
                1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 21: 04 New
                  • 4
                  • 0
                  +4
                  Yes i am a realist
                  Here, Chesslovo, you and Albert “Krasnodar” stand each other! Realists, damn it! laughing One wanted to sell a kosher hawk to the Jews, the other tried to boil the Russian Orthodox Church water from the Jordan! You can still sell lingonberries to Sami ...
                  1. Undecim April 30 2020 21: 13 New
                    • 4
                    • 0
                    +4
                    The idea with the products was not mine, I do not need someone else's fame. I was just there, and as a realist, I immediately said that I doubt my success. It turned out to be right. The guys from the Chief Rabbinate quickly dotted the i. And there was no alternative control then.
                    1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 21: 18 New
                      • 4
                      • 0
                      +4
                      The idea with the products was not mine, I do not need someone else's fame.
                      I remember that it’s not yours, I don’t remember whose, not otherwise, the Greeks were pushing?
                      1. Undecim April 30 2020 21: 20 New
                        • 3
                        • 0
                        +3
                        No, the idea was a real Jew himself.
                      2. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 39 New
                        • 2
                        • 0
                        +2
                        Yeah. "Three Greeks smuggled into Odessa"
        2. vladcub April 30 2020 21: 27 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          I agree "Krasnodar" is his own guy and understands humor
    2. Catfish April 30 2020 21: 13 New
      • 5
      • 1
      +4
      Everyone is looking for their compensation technology.

      Here I am about the same. Our friend from the Legion still knocked me out to make a cup of coffee and pour rum there. I will insert a wick to insomnia. Coffee, however, is instant, but real rum. drinks
      Hi, tribe, how are you?
      1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 21: 22 New
        • 3
        • 1
        +2
        Yes, it’s somehow like that, Uncle Kostya ... We’ve already won the Polovtsians, the Pechenegs, and the radio, but there’s no happiness ...
        1. Catfish April 30 2020 21: 24 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          So join in. Coffee, rum or cognac, you are in St. Petersburg, I am in the village, and we will drink together. smile
          1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 21: 41 New
            • 3
            • 0
            +3
            Already communed. There are 20 more minutes left. To run off?
            1. Catfish April 30 2020 21: 47 New
              • 5
              • 0
              +5
              As you know, just be careful. Although, Nikolai, perhaps, otmazhet. smile drinks
              1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 21: 53 New
                • 4
                • 0
                +4
                He will not stop, he has been in stock for a long time, basically, I have other excuses, but this is a "low class, a bad game" ... And in general, even for a long time I did not spend the night in the department. Adventure, damn it!
                1. Catfish April 30 2020 22: 06 New
                  • 5
                  • 1
                  +4
                  As they say, even ahead, dear comrade. drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 15 New
                    • 2
                    • 0
                    +2
                    And that too. Stormy youth
                    1. Catfish April 30 2020 22: 22 New
                      • 3
                      • 0
                      +3
                      I don’t ask about the rest ...
                    2. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 22: 35 New
                      • 3
                      • 0
                      +3
                      These are the "wet fantasies" of your "Jamaican brotherhood." I just accidentally drove ashore, wash the car and walk the dog.
                    3. Catfish April 30 2020 22: 50 New
                      • 3
                      • 0
                      +3
                      I just accidentally drove ashore ...

                      Yeah, by chance ... We know these by chance. laughing The dogs themselves walked. good
                    4. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 23: 01 New
                      • 2
                      • 0
                      +2
                      It's not about me. This is about you, risky Jamaican guys! I always think, what if, above - Conchita Wurst ?!
                    5. Catfish April 30 2020 23: 10 New
                      • 2
                      • 0
                      +2
                      Well, "Jean came and debased everything ..." crying
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka April 30 2020 20: 05 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    WikNick I also could not resist and joined !!!
    1. Undecim April 30 2020 20: 12 New
      • 4
      • 1
      +3
      Somehow I can’t believe that these individuals can be reached, especially in Moldova.
  • akims April 30 2020 12: 14 New
    • 6
    • 0
    +6
    Forever and not getting old
    Everywhere and any time of the year
    Lasts where two Jews converge
    The debate about the fate of the Russian people.

    Now I look out the window at my neighbors: Misha and Dimasik, and I understand that nothing has changed ...
  • Krasnodar April 30 2020 13: 56 New
    • 8
    • 0
    +8
    according to the formula of the Jewish ritual curse, when the father curses his son, he must lose his right hand. ”

    This is not a curse laughing
    At a Jewish wedding ceremony, the groom swears that if I forget you Jerusalem, I will lose my right hand and my tongue will stick to my palate. I mean - if I give up my origin - the roots, religion of my ancestors, then a stroke or something like that will break me
    1. bober1982 April 30 2020 15: 44 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      And why a Jewess has the right to marry foreigner, and a Jew does not have the right to marry foreigner ?
      If they break it, they’ll kill everyone with kagal, I wonder why? Is it tolerant?
      Quote: Krasnodar
      At a Jewish marriage ceremony, the groom swears - if I forget you Jerusalem, I will lose my right hand and my tongue will stick to my palate

      This is very funny, cool ...., by the way, Zina didn’t have a right hand, lost.
      1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 16: 02 New
        • 5
        • 0
        +5
        A Jewess does not have the right to marry a foreigner - only if he has passed the giyur - the ceremony of transition to Judaism.
        You write about the "Rothschild rule" - girls can marry non-Jews, because our nationality is passed on to our mother. Not observed - the wedding of the last offspring with sister Paris Hilton, although she could have taken a giyur like Ivanka Trump.
        funny, cool ...

        So there, in memory of the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple, the groom breaks a glass with his foot)).
        1. bober1982 April 30 2020 16: 08 New
          • 1
          • 0
          +1
          Understood nothing
          1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 16: 24 New
            • 4
            • 0
            +4
            OK. Neither a Jew nor a Jewess can marry a Gentile.
            Wedding - contests with carrots and a bucket are really fun hi
            1. bober1982 April 30 2020 16: 36 New
              • 1
              • 1
              0
              Quote: Krasnodar
              really fun

              At a Russian wedding it’s also fun, sometimes it even comes to fights. I can’t stand a wedding, or it’s a wake.
              1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 16: 37 New
                • 5
                • 0
                +5
                laughing
                The taste and color
            2. vladcub April 30 2020 21: 21 New
              • 1
              • 0
              +1
              But not everyone respects this ban.
            3. bober1982 April 30 2020 22: 01 New
              • 1
              • 0
              +1
              Quote: Krasnodar
              a Jewess cannot marry a Gentile

              Why, was the marriage of a Jewess encouraged and encouraged a foreigner. As I understand it, children from such a marriage, Jews, are therefore encouraged. You are modestly silent about this. The wives of the Soviet leadership are entirely Jewish, and it was no accident (such conversations were, slipped)
              And if love is, and, a Jew fell in love with the Russian dyurochka, and he (the Jew) - and in a pile, his brotherhood, let's hollow, is that fair?
              1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 23: 37 New
                • 3
                • 0
                +3
                About the promotion of marriages of Jews with non-Jews - this is the fruit of the inflamed imagination of conspiracy theorists and adherents of the sect "Ya Va Fsem Venavaty", and about marriages with unworn girls - I live with a Greek woman, already 4 children, no one has bribed on a bale, even pork has not been banned lol
        2. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 20: 19 New
          • 5
          • 0
          +5
          So. Stop. Jewishness is first and foremost a religion. Or am I confusing something? Or is a convert a Jew regarded by the Orthodox as "cross" by Christians, "of course ours, but with a wormhole" ???
          1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 20: 33 New
            • 4
            • 0
            +4
            Hello Anton! Jewishness is a religion.
            A newly converted Jew is officially regarded as equal - moreover, comrades who have accepted a giyur, such as Rabbis Akiva or Herod the Great, can be religious authorities, kings, etc.
            But - inside the orthodox community such / such does not shine with a daughter of a rabbi, a “smart student” (a connoisseur of the Torah), etc. However, if a person, say, a billionaire and spends money on charity, then he can count on any post, marriage, and status of special respect among ultra-Orthodox laughing
            But, by and large, this is considered DuRaKom. According to Judaism, a non-Jew observing only 7 commandments finds himself in the "next (ideal) world." For a Jewish nee, this requires the observance of 613 commandments (after the destruction of the Temple, about 400). Not only that - he condemns himself to manifestations of anti-Semitism in his address, therefore, it looks like an eccentricity
            1. 3x3zsave April 30 2020 20: 40 New
              • 3
              • 0
              +3
              That is, the attitude of the British towards the Americans is by no means new, but American Jews, twice clowns?
              1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 20: 53 New
                • 5
                • 0
                +5
                Of course, not new,))
                As for Ivanka Trump - all this was perceived normally. Giyur for the sake of marriage with not the last guy in the country, from a family of billionaires.
                With American Jews, everything is much more interesting - one of the best hospitals in the United States, Mount Sinai, was opened in New York to serve the Jewish population, which many hospitals refused to take for WHITE, and to employ Jewish doctors, who are the bearers of democracy and equality did not arrange in their hospitals. The attitude towards Jewish doctors changed during the Civil War - the sensible organization of the reception of the wounded from the front was impressed by the establishment and the head of the hospital was appointed to lead the entire organization of treatment of Yankee front-line soldiers.
                In the 30s, the United States introduced a percentage rate for Jews entering Harvard and several other Ivy League universities - it was abolished by the beginning of WWII so that undesirable associations would not arise.
                McCarthyism also affected many Jews, but it is not unfounded here - very many adhered to pro-communist views, fell for the transfer of nuclear technology of the USSR, etc.
                So everything is very complicated there with the Jews)).
                1. Astra wild 1 May 2020 07: 48 New
                  • 2
                  • 0
                  +2
                  "caught on the transfer of nuclear technology" Are you about the Rosenberg spouses?
                  1. Krasnodar 1 May 2020 10: 22 New
                    • 3
                    • 0
                    +3
                    About them. The spouses Cohen were more distinguished, but they safely arrived in the USSR.
                2. Okolotochny 1 May 2020 11: 43 New
                  • 4
                  • 1
                  +3
                  Like, "Everything is not clear with us"?
                  1. Krasnodar 1 May 2020 12: 40 New
                    • 2
                    • 0
                    +2
                    Hi Aleksey! hi Who do we have? )))
                    The Jews, like the rest, are not all clear, the American Jews - especially
            2. vladcub April 30 2020 21: 18 New
              • 3
              • 0
              +3
              Albert, thank you for reporting unknown details from your culture.
              1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 21: 23 New
                • 3
                • 0
                +3
                Yes, you can ask me questions in PM - if interested)).
                1. Phil77 April 30 2020 21: 33 New
                  • 4
                  • 0
                  +4
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  Yes, you can ask me questions in PM - if interested

                  And so they recruit! laughing laughing laughing
                  1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 21: 40 New
                    • 3
                    • 0
                    +3
                    Well, yes - the next step will swear allegiance to Chabad Lubavitch in the portrait of Barbara Streisand yes
                    1. Phil77 April 30 2020 21: 47 New
                      • 4
                      • 0
                      +4
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      on the portrait of Barbara Streisand

                      What cruelty! For this step you need a lot of drinks! And not at all low alcohol! fool laughing
                      1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 21: 56 New
                        • 3
                        • 0
                        +3
                        Barbara Streisand - the first person to introduce herself when you don’t want to do everything fast fellow
                      2. Phil77 April 30 2020 22: 08 New
                        • 5
                        • 1
                        +4
                        * Firochka! I'm tired, can I go home?
                        -Dodik, stop whining. My husband will return only after a week. *
                      3. Krasnodar April 30 2020 22: 26 New
                        • 4
                        • 0
                        +4
                        - Hello, Sarah Lvovna? Is my Abram on you?
                        - Firochka, am I an easily accessible woman?
                        - Shaw, you can’t ask ??
                      4. Phil77 April 30 2020 22: 37 New
                        • 5
                        • 0
                        +5
                        Girlfriend:
                        -Men men say that they are not interested in me. And I need to fix my silicone!
                        - Lexicon, pussycat, lexicon.
                      5. Krasnodar April 30 2020 23: 38 New
                        • 4
                        • 0
                        +4
                        Men are bored with her. I want to sleep with her right away.
        3. Pane Kohanku 1 May 2020 00: 19 New
          • 4
          • 0
          +4
          Yes, you can ask me questions in PM - if interested)).

          yeah, shchazz! No, the details are in the studio! drinks otherwise Phil will know, but the others will not? wink Not fair! stop
          1. Krasnodar 1 May 2020 00: 22 New
            • 3
            • 0
            +3
            That I Own laughing
            Ok - ask on the general forum
            1. Pane Kohanku 1 May 2020 00: 24 New
              • 2
              • 0
              +2
              Ok - ask on the general forum

              only if within the framework of a general pleasant communication! I think we’ll have time to discuss a lot. drinks
              1. Krasnodar 1 May 2020 00: 27 New
                • 5
                • 0
                +5
                Question number one - is it possible to build communism in Israel
                Answer: It is possible. But why is such a small country such great happiness?
  • Looking for April 30 2020 15: 01 New
    • 2
    • 5
    -3
    Glory to Russian renegades of Jewish origin !!!
    1. Phil77 April 30 2020 22: 47 New
      • 5
      • 0
      +5
      In, damn it! But if the opposite? For example:
      - Glory to the Jews of Russian origin !!! laughing
      1. Krasnodar April 30 2020 23: 39 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        Petya CPSU, Dima Kalmykam!
        1. saygon66 1 May 2020 22: 42 New
          • 1
          • 0
          +1
          - "And the Glory of the CPSU is not a person at all ...." (C) wink
  • WayKheThuo April 30 2020 15: 08 New
    • 8
    • 1
    +7
    Thanks to the author for the article!
    Very interesting and informative.
    After reading to an even greater degree, you begin to understand that the expression “Everyone knows each other through six handshakes” is very close to the truth.
    Extremely surprised by this moment:

    According to a more probable version, his connection was part of the troops loyal to the Vichy government. Not wanting to serve the “traitor Peten,” Peshkov resigned due to reaching the age limit for his rank, after which he calmly left for London.


    I honestly did not understand at all. That is, the French army "lay down", the enemy came and occupied the country, and our GG "resigns" and goes, damn it, to London. What is characteristic is that he, a wholly-owned Jew, and still belonging to the defeated army, is not only not arrested, but also accepted the “resignation” and released abroad.
    It doesn’t fit in my head at all. It seems that we had a bloody war, and in France - solid little bittersweet and hahanki for coffee in the morning.
    Perhaps we should not be so upset that these people do not come to us on May 9th.
    And you probably don’t need to invite them.
    I think so.

    PS When reading about the fate of Elizabeth Peshkova, you understand why the Institute of Military Translators among the people was called the Institute of Blath and Communications named after Biyazi.
    1. Pane Kohanku April 30 2020 15: 44 New
      • 8
      • 0
      +8
      That is, the French army "lay down", the enemy came and occupied the country, and our GG "resigns" and goes, damn it, to London. What is characteristic is that he, a wholly-owned Jew, and still belonging to the defeated army, is not only not arrested, but also accepted the “resignation” and released abroad.
      It doesn’t fit in my head at all.

      The article says:
      According to a more probable version, his connection was part of the troops loyal to the Vichy government. Not wanting to serve the “traitor Peten,” Peshkov resigned due to reaching the age limit for his rank, after which he calmly left for London.
      Through the same Spain - quite real. They could not resist. He did not want to serve the traitor. To leave the partisan .. Jew with one hand? There were these partisans ... the cat cried, in comparison with our country. Made his optimal choice - went to serve in the "Free France". But a number of French pilots fought in the Normandy-Niemen, the same choice!
      I can be mistaken, but, as I understand it, the tin on the deportation of Jews to extermination camps there began the year in 1942. In our country, it began to be carried out by the Germans from the first days of the war - the execution of Jewish prisoners of war, executions of the Jewish population, etc. The French Holocaust appointed the main sadist Klaus Barbie. Or, as we used to distort his name in the French manner - Klaus Barbier.
      On the other hand, it seems that the Germans were deep in the drum who to kill in the USSR. It was simply prescribed to destroy some, but against the others there was freedom of action, including “intimidation actions”. And when one has a gun and the other does not, this gives rise to a situation of massacres, and we have such losses of civilians. hi
      1. Undecim April 30 2020 22: 54 New
        • 1
        • 0
        +1
        He was in Morocco at the time of surrender. Why did he go through Spain to London?
        1. Pane Kohanku 1 May 2020 00: 05 New
          • 1
          • 0
          +1
          He was in Morocco at the time of surrender. Why did he go through Spain to London?

          I missed something, Victor Nikolaevich. recourse I bow to you for clarification. yes Voice of Vertinsky: "In the banana-lemon Vyngapur ....." drinks (these words I sing every morning in the SOUL) yes
          1. Astra wild 1 May 2020 07: 40 New
            • 1
            • 2
            -1
            As far as I remember with Vertinsky: "in a banana-lemon SI
            Quote: Krasnodar
            About the promotion of marriages of Jews with non-Jews - this is the fruit of the inflamed imagination of conspiracy theorists and adherents of the sect "Ya Va Fsem Venavaty", and about marriages with unworn girls - I live with a Greek woman, already 4 children, no one has bribed on a bale, even pork has not been banned lol

            Perhaps for the sake of pork you screwed up from the "promised land"?
            1. ccsr 1 May 2020 19: 14 New
              • 1
              • 0
              +1
              Quote: Astra wild
              Perhaps for the sake of pork you screwed up from the "promised land"?

              Do not consider him a banal fittler - for romantic reasons he screwed. Apparently the film "My Big Greek Wedding" shocked his imagination so much that he realized that without a Greek woman, life would be wasted.
              1. Astra wild 4 May 2020 07: 23 New
                • 0
                • 1
                -1
                Then him +. For the sake of his beloved, he left an established life (I doubt that he was homeless in Israel) and left to start from zero
    2. Undecim April 30 2020 22: 53 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      I honestly did not understand at all.
      There is a proven way - if you do not understand, figure it out before gushing with matches.
      At the time of the surrender of France, Peshkov was in Morocco the commander of the 3rd battalion of the 2nd regiment of the legion. From Morocco you can get to London bypassing France, look around the globe.
      1. WayKheThuo April 30 2020 23: 00 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        There is a proven way - if you do not understand, figure it out before gushing with matches.

        And what, in fact, is wrong?
        By the way, the first one is not a “speech” but a note, the second one, what’s the matter to you and what, did it really hurt you?
        1. Undecim April 30 2020 23: 03 New
          • 1
          • 0
          +1
          Everything is written in Russian. There is nothing to add.
      2. ccsr 1 May 2020 19: 27 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        Quote: Undecim
        At the time of the surrender of France, Peshkov was in Morocco the commander of the 3rd battalion of the 2nd regiment of the legion.

        If we take into account that such articles often embellish the true picture of what is happening, then we can understand why there are inconsistencies in the description of the biography of such an outstanding adventurer as Z. Peshkov. Perhaps the author simply did not take into account that almost 100% of Peshkov was engaged in military intelligence during his work in embassies and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was a resident, and it is possible that special services not only from France could use him:
        From 1926 to 1937 Peshkov was again in the diplomatic service (from 1926 to 1930 - at the French Foreign Ministry,

        That is why he could be in London in some complicated way, and not only the French authorities helped him in this.
  • Trilobite Master April 30 2020 18: 08 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    Valery, thanks for the article. Although the topic is not very interesting to me, for some reason I read this material with great pleasure. hi
    Indeed, a man of extraordinary fate.
  • vladcub April 30 2020 21: 12 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    "so I didn’t send such a telegram", but not the fact that I didn’t dream of hanging my brother
  • Astra wild April 30 2020 22: 29 New
    • 2
    • 1
    +1
    [quote = Krasnodar] A Jewess does not have the right to marry a foreigner - only if he has passed the giyur - the ceremony of transition to Judaism.
    You write about the "Rothschild rule" - girls can marry non-Jews, because our nationality is passed on to our mother. Not observed - the wedding of the last offspring with sister Paris Hilton, although she could have taken a giyur like Ivanka Trump.
    [quote] funny, cool ... [/ quote]
    So there, in memory of the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple, the groom breaks a glass with his foot)). [/
    We have glasses for good luck, but why are you glasses?
  • Astra wild April 30 2020 22: 32 New
    • 2
    • 2
    0
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Yes, you can ask me questions in PM - if interested

    And so they recruit! laughing laughing laughing

    Mossad and their tentacles on the site extended?
    Joking
    1. Phil77 April 30 2020 22: 57 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      We’re joking! And we’re joking! laughing
  • Astra wild April 30 2020 22: 45 New
    • 2
    • 1
    +1
    Quote: vladcub
    I agree "Krasnodar" is his own guy and understands humor

    You do not admit, purely theoretically, that the "kind of guy" will look at you through the scope? Just kidding

    I heard somewhere that all Jews, in case of war, go to Israel - right?
    1. Phil77 April 30 2020 23: 01 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild

      I heard somewhere that all Jews, in case of war, go to Israel - right?

      Faith! Here's how? How do you imagine it?!?!?
    2. Pane Kohanku 1 May 2020 00: 12 New
      • 3
      • 0
      +3
      I heard somewhere that all Jews, in case of war, go to Israel - right?

      Albert lives here. And so far I haven’t left anywhere since the beginning of the buhurt in 2014 for sure. laughing and it’s unlikely to go anywhere. Brave! drinks (yeah, where will he go if all the drinking companions in Russia!) wink
      Colleagues, despite our differences, you and I will find ourselves in the same information and language field. hi God grant that we make our communication even better ... soldier
      1. Phil77 1 May 2020 01: 30 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        God grant that we make our communication even better ...

        Peace, Labor, May! Happy Holiday !!!! drinks
      2. Astra wild 1 May 2020 07: 22 New
        • 1
        • 2
        -1
        So will he sell for a bottle and faith?
        1. Phil77 1 May 2020 08: 22 New
          • 3
          • 1
          +2
          Quote: Astra wild
          So will he sell for a bottle and faith?

          Is this a joke? When to laugh?
    3. Phil77 1 May 2020 09: 24 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild

      You do not admit, purely theoretically, that the "kind of guy" will look at you through the scope? Just kidding

      Or maybe you shouldn’t joke like that? For a general familiarization with the question. About 500 thousand Jews fought in the ranks of the Red Army during the war years, about 200 thousand of them died. 157 people were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Not a little, really? * joke * -unsuccessful.
  • Astra wild 1 May 2020 07: 17 New
    • 1
    • 1
    0
    Quote: Olgovich
    Quote: vladcub
    possibly poisoned: both A. M. Gorky and his son

    What for?

    So as not to interfere with the son. (Men are jealous owners, however we are jealous). A. M might not like the fact that the daughter-in-law immediately found “consolation,” or perhaps out of opposition. You will not deny that Berry was, to put it mildly, a nasty person
  • Astra wild 1 May 2020 07: 18 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    God grant that we make our communication even better ...

    Peace, Labor, May! Happy Holiday !!!! drinks

    Thanks for the congratulation. Says "Pan Kohanku"
    1. Pane Kohanku 1 May 2020 14: 45 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Says "Pan Kohanku"

      Vera, he once asked you to give your name so that communication would be even more pleasant.wink Because it’s really really nicer than anonymous nicknames! love
      I will join you and Sergey-Phil. All with the Labor Day! soldier Peace-work-may, and a little gin / wine for the mood! drinks
  • Astra wild 1 May 2020 07: 25 New
    • 1
    • 2
    -1
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Astra wild

    I heard somewhere that all Jews, in case of war, go to Israel - right?

    Faith! Here's how? How do you imagine it?!?!?

    Save your homeland
    1. Phil77 1 May 2020 08: 09 New
      • 2
      • 1
      +1
      Know comments! stop