Activities of the rear of the Northern Fleet to ensure allied convoys

Activities of the rear of the Northern Fleet to ensure allied convoys

The Arctic convoys of the allies went from the USA through Great Britain and Iceland to the northern ports of the USSR. From August 1941 to May 1945, the Northern Fleet received 42 convoys and dispatched 36 convoys (there were 78 convoys in total, comprising about 1400 merchant ships), while there were no convoys between July and September 1942 and March and November 1943 . Arctic convoys delivered to the USSR about half of all aid under Lend-Lease 1 [1-3].


The terminal points for receiving transports of the Union Arctic convoys during the Great Patriotic War were the sea trade ports of the cities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. The organization of loading and unloading operations and the shipment of goods arriving by sea inside the country was carried out by the specially created Office of the authorized State Defense Committee for Transport in the North, headed by Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin, which had special military teams and various vehicles at its disposal.

To the rear of the North fleet and the rear of the White Sea military flotilla were entrusted with the duty of comprehensively providing allied convoys. For example, the rear of the fleet and the rear of the flotilla were responsible for the quality and timing of emergency and emergency repairs of Allied warships and transport ships, for the deployment and maintenance of allied naval missions in the cities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk and the village of Polyarny. In addition, the rear functions included the obligation to supply the ships and ships of the Allies with fuel, food, ammunition, skipper and other types of property on the return trip. Departments of auxiliary vessels provided comprehensive assistance to the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk trading ports, including towing transports to moorings (piers) and from moorings (piers) to the raid.

On August 31, 1941, even before the signing of the first agreement (protocol) on mutual deliveries between the USSR, the USA and the United Kingdom, the first caravan [3] of six ships arrived at the port of Arkhangelsk under the escort of British warships. Teams I.D. Papanin quickly unloaded them. The rear of the flotilla, in turn, provided the ships and ships of the allies with everything necessary. This first safe voyage through the North Atlantic, and even under the conditions of a polar day, convincingly showed that such sea crossings are possible in the future, of course, subject to the reliable protection of caravans by warships and aviation.

On January 13, 1942, a second caravan of allies from nine ships entered the Kola Bay, accompanied by warships. As part of this caravan from England, our Soviet ship “Decembrist” arrived, delivering 7000 tons of food and other essential goods [4]. However, the unloading of the ships of this caravan showed that the Murmansk commercial port is poorly prepared for receiving transports. There wasn’t enough manpower, loading and unloading mechanisms were practically absent: most of them in the first days of the war were dismantled and taken to Arkhangelsk or inland. Meanwhile, navigation in the White Sea was ending, and the entire flow of allied cargo was supposed to be received by the Murmansk commercial port.

The government took the most urgent measures to rectify the situation. I.D. Papanin, with his apparatus, relocated from Arkhangelsk to Murmansk and assumed direct control of the reception and unloading of allied convoys. The deputies of the USSR People's Commissar for Foreign Trade, Borisov and Krutikov, arrived in Murmansk.

After government intervention, the trading port of Murmansk was fully manned. In order to quickly eliminate the consequences of aerial bombardment, recovery teams were formed in the port, and all facilities were equipped with the necessary fire extinguishing equipment. It should be noted that unloading and loading of ships, as a rule, took place under continuous fierce bombing, which often required interruption of work, rescue of material assets, extinguishing of fires that occurred, provision of medical assistance to victims, as well as removal of ships for draining [4].

In the future, the implemented measures allowed quickly after raids to correct the damage caused to the objects and again, without delay, proceed with loading and unloading.

Of course, the equipment of the port took time, money, materials and people. The mechanisms were mined in various ways. Dismantled from the failed transports, restored decommissioned cranes in peacetime due to unsuitability of cranes, arrows and winches. Gradually, the port fleet was replenished with new lifting mechanisms supplied by industrial enterprises. At first, mainly manual labor was used, and often ... the proven Russian “club”.

And the allied convoys continued to arrive at the ports of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, and in increasing numbers. Caravans already counted dozens of transports, and all of them had to be unloaded as soon as possible and, without delaying a minute, loading the arrived cargo into railway wagons and sending it to its destination so that the valuable and necessary front property would not die on the berths under enemy bombs. At the end of the unloading, the transports had to be loaded with our cargoes intended for the allies. In loading and unloading operations, except for the personnel of special military teams at the disposal of I.D. Papanin, often attended by Murmansk workers.

In 1943, the personnel of the Northern Fleet came to the aid of the Murmansk Commercial Port [4]. Pursuant to the decision of the Military Council, a contingent consolidated regiment of up to 3000 men was formed at the rear of the fleet. This regiment consisted of sailors, soldiers, foremen, sergeants and coastal officers seconded to the rear of the fleet. Major Engineer M.G. Romanov, chief of staff - senior lieutenant P.I. Usikov. The consolidated regiment had a combat organization until the platoon, inclusive, instead of squadrons in the regiment, working number brigades were formed, headed by brigadiers from the sergeant.

At that harsh time, situations often arose that required courage and initiative not only from the commanders of units engaged in work at the port, but also from all the leaders of the rear, including the chief. Once such an incident occurred. One of the allied transports followed with a cargo of boards to Murmansk, where he was supposed to join the return convoy QP-16. In the Teriberka area, vehicles were bombed and seriously damaged, including holes in the underwater hull. There was a fire on the ship. The crew of the ship failed to eliminate the fire on their own. Having assessed the situation, the captain decided to bring the burning ship to the Kola Bay and, without the permission of the fleet rear command, put him to the berth, thereby creating an emergency situation when the fire spread to the coastal structures. Having learned about what had happened, the head of the rear suggested the captain of the vessel and representatives of the Allied mission take the transport out to dry, where it was possible to easily extinguish the fire by filling outboard water that penetrated the inside of the vessel through holes and open kingstones. However, the captain and representatives of the mission considered this measure risky and, in order to relieve themselves of any responsibility for the possible consequences, transferred the transport to the fleet rear, having previously received a safe receipt from the head of the rear.

Employees of the technical and emergency rescue departments of the rear of the fleet towed damaged vehicles to a site that had been previously examined and prepared by divers for drainage, strengthened the bulkheads, flooded the holds at high tide and quickly eliminated the fire. After the fire was eliminated, water was pumped out of the interior of the vessel, all the holes in the hull were sealed up, the transport was reloaded with the necessary cargo and, with the next convoy, safely sent to England.

The chief, like many other employees of the rear of the Northern Fleet and the rear of the White Sea military flotilla, had to deal a lot with the issue of emergency and emergency repairs of warships and transport ships of the Allied convoys. For the purpose of the most efficient management of these works, special engineering groups consisting of energetic, proactive and highly qualified specialists were created at the technical and rear departments.

Some ships needed a more serious and lengthy repair, and the time to carry it out, as a rule, was limited by the interval between unloading the next caravan and sending it on the return flight. In connection with these circumstances, the forces of all ship repair enterprises of the rear were involved in the repair work and workers were removed from other rear facilities.

It should be noted that the crews of the ships and crews of the Allied transport ships did not take any part in the repair work. Moreover, with the threat of an air attack, most crew members, taking food and drink supplies, mattresses and blankets with them, calmly went far into the hills and there without much hassle waited for enemy air raids. On the ships and vessels, there were only sailors of the upper watch who were very negligent in the performance of their duties. Such negligence of crew members in conditions of low air temperatures in winter often led to the defrosting of deck devices, mechanisms and pipelines, which also gave our repairmen a lot of additional worries and troubles.

Sometimes it happened that even with the slightest threat from the enemy, the crew in full force left their ship. Only in 1942-1944, the ships of the Northern Fleet picked up and saved five abandoned ships of the Allied convoys, removed from them 40000 tons of valuable cargo. All these abandoned ships were then repaired by us, and then transferred to their owners [4].

During the escort of the northern convoys, Soviet sailors often watched as the American and English crews abandoned their ships, as soon as there was a threat of their flooding. There were times when sailors abandoned their ships for no apparent reason at all. The transports abandoned by the crews were afloat until they were drowned by escort ships. The command of the Allied convoys did not stop such actions of their sailors, but justified them by the fact that the main task was to save people, not cargo. The British and Americans did not feel the need in those conditions to risk their lives for some material values, especially since these goods were intended for a foreign country.

In the winter of 1943/1944 A caravan of about 20 ships arrived in the Arkhangelsk port. All vessels had severe damage to the propellers. The head of the technical department of the rear of the White Sea Flotilla A.N. Dorofeev recalls:

“The ships fell into ice conditions, and their propellers turned into“ sockets ”: all the edges of the screws ... were bent in radius. Ship captains and the mission demanded to straighten the edges of the screws. However, we could not agree with this, because with our means this work would be delayed for a long time, and most importantly, winter would come and there was a threat to freeze ships in Arkhangelsk. The English mission was convinced of the impossibility of editing, and she agreed to trim the bent edges ... Having lost 2-3 knots of the course, the ships left Arkhangelsk on their own. ”

During the Great Patriotic War, 296 warships and transport ships were repaired at ship repair enterprises of the rear of the Northern Fleet and the rear of the White Sea Naval Flotilla, at the enterprises of civilian people's commissariats, which were operatively subordinate to them.

The senior officer of the British Naval Mission in Arkhangelsk Mond in November 1942 wrote to the flotilla command about the quality of the repair work performed as follows [4]:

“White Sea military flotilla. Technical department.

November 23, 1942. No. 88/141.

1. After the departure of the last warships that were in Arkhangelsk this year, I would like to note the good work of the Technical Department of the White Sea Naval Flotilla in repairing English ships.

2. Almost every ship calling at the port needed some kind of repair. Many ships, especially the Horrner minesweeper and the Deynman trawler, required a rather large and lengthy repair.

3. In each case, the work was completed and completed quickly, and the quality of work was first-class, satisfying all the highest requirements.

4. Such work is of great importance for the movement of convoys to Northern Russia.

Allow me to express special gratitude and gratitude to you on behalf of the English Admiralty. ”

The scope of the work of the rear to supply the ships of the Union convoys with fuel, food and other types of material and technical support was quite large.

In fulfilling the mutual supply agreement, the USSR implemented the so-called reverse Lend-Lease program, according to which chrome ore, manganese ore, gold, platinum, wood, furs, mineral fertilizers and much more were supplied from the USSR to the United States and the United Kingdom. In addition, in accordance with this program, the USSR carried out free repair of allied warships and ships in its ports and provided other services. For example, free treatment of crew members of ships (ships) of the allies and their full material support in the event of damage or death of the ship (vessel) in Soviet territorial waters or when parking in ports [1].

The transport ships of the Allied convoys returned to their homeland not empty, their holds to the top were filled with timber, mineral fertilizers, ore and other vital for our allies in the fight against the common enemy (Nazi Germany) cargo.

Today at historical literature when covering the issue of Lend-Lease, individual authors allow themselves not to recall the existence of reverse Lend-Lease. Meanwhile, on October 1, 1941, an agreement (protocol) was concluded in Moscow on mutual deliveries, and not on unilateral assistance to the Soviet Union from the United States of America and the United Kingdom. There is no doubt that Lend-Lease allies' deliveries played a definite positive role in the victory of the USSR over fascist Germany, but the role of these deliveries is currently greatly exaggerated by the falsifiers of the history of World War II.

Использованная литература:

1. The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. In 12 volumes. Volume 1. The main events of the war. - M .: Military publishing house. 2011.S. 727-737, 933.
2. Kurmyshov V. M. The Northern Sea Route on the eve of and during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. // Collection of scientific articles of the International scientific-practical conference "The decisive contribution of the Soviet people to the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies during the Great Patriotic War. Truth and fiction. - St. Petersburg: Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, VA MTO, 2015.S. 362-364, 716.
3. The electronic encyclopedia Cyril and Methodius. 2007. The article "Lend-Lease".
4. Dubrovin N. P. I command the rear of the right flank. On the combat and everyday work of the rear of the Northern Fleet during the Great Patriotic War (memoirs of the deputy commander of the Northern Fleet - the head of the rear of the Northern Fleet, manuscript in the author’s edition). - L., 1985.S. 188-197, 202.

Footnotes:

1. Lend-lease (from the English. “Lend” - to lend and “lease” - to lease, for rent) - the US government program to assist the warring countries-allies in the anti-Hitler coalition. The first agreement (protocol) on mutual deliveries (not on unilateral assistance) between the USSR, the USA and the United Kingdom was concluded on October 1, 1941. This agreement was valid until June 30, 1942. There were five such protocols during the war, four during the Great Patriotic War and one, later called the program, on October 17, 1944, during the period of the war between the USSR and militaristic Japan. All Lend-Lease deliveries were discontinued on September 20, 1945. The USA and Great Britain supplied arms, military and other equipment, uniforms, foodstuffs, gunpowder, shell and mines to the USSR. Lend-lease supplies were received by the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the USSR [1].

2. Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin - a famous polar explorer, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, head of the Northern Sea Route.

3. This allied convoy was code-named "Dervish." He delivered humanitarian aid from US citizens outside the Lend-Lease program.

4. Drying - the part of the surface of the seabed adjacent to the shore, freed from water at low tide and flooded with water at high tide, with a slight slope.
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  1. Aaron Zawi April 29 2020 10: 29 New
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    All the same, "Arctic convoys" is less than 50%.

    The northern route played an extremely important role in the delivery of strategic cargoes to the USSR at the first stage of the war. The risk was justified by the speed of delivery of weapons to the Soviet front during the most difficult period for the country. Until July 1942, 964 thousand tons of weapons, materials, and food were sent with northern convoys — 61% of all goods brought into the USSR from abroad. 2314 tanks, 1550 tankettes, 1903 aircraft, etc. were delivered by the northern route. From July 1942 until the end of 1943, a noticeable decrease in the role of the northern route began, the total share of deliveries to the USSR decreased from 61% to 16%. Although almost half of all the weapons brought into the country (tanks, planes, etc.) were still delivered by northern convoys. At the final stage of the war, in connection with the gradual closure of the "Iranian corridor", its role increased again. In 1944–1945 over 2,2 million tons or 22% of all cargo were delivered to the country through it. During the war years, the northern route delivered 36% of all military cargo.


    1. bubalik April 29 2020 12: 18 New
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      All the same, "Arctic convoys" is less than 50%

  2. knn54 April 29 2020 10: 44 New
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    Interestingly, the allied treaty and the start of the Land Lisa took place in June 1942. They were waiting.
    And until that moment, the Yankees (Standard Oil Company) supplied the Germans with oil.
    1. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 11: 09 New
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      “And up to this point, the Yankees (Standard Oil Company) supplied the Germans with oil” - when, how much, the names of the tankers, ports for receiving cargo. Information to the studio please.
      1. Krasnoyarsk April 29 2020 15: 07 New
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        Quote: Sergey Valov
        “And up to this point, the Yankees (Standard Oil Company) supplied the Germans with oil” - when, how much, the names of the tankers, ports for receiving cargo. Information to the studio please.

        Yeah, Standard Oil Company has advertised its commercial activities.
        But general information about this is available.
    2. Old Horseradish April 29 2020 13: 09 New
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      The first three vehicles with military cargo (3 vehicles is about 30 trains) arrived along the northern route in August 1941. So do not. Learn a better story.
    3. Avior April 29 2020 15: 06 New
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      would you abandon this story
      I brought here a list of tankers of companies from the former Standard Oil, which was dissolved long before the war, by the way.
      Every second tanker drowned by the Germans was from the former Standard Oil, this is not mine, but the list is similar
      ("Panama Transport Co" is a Panamanian branch of Standard Oil, New Jersey, New York, one of the largest companies remaining after the initial Oil section, but the Germans did not care about the Panamanian flag, they drowned with it)
      Try to guess who owned the first American tanker that was sunk in January 1942 after America and Germany were at war. The answer is probably surprising - "Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York" and these were far from losses by mistake. I will provide statistics on the losses of Standard Oil bulk carriers from December 1940 to July 1942, including the loss of the two above-mentioned tankers Charles Pratt and IC White. Or rather, I won’t bring them down, but simply list all the vessels that were sunk for the first six months of 1942, using the example of two companies - Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York and Panama Transport Co.

      1. "Charles Pratt" (8,982 brt) October 20, 1939
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: Aruba (5 Dec) - Freetown
      load: 96.069 barrels of fuel oil
      Sunk U65 21.12.40/2/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      2. "IC White" (7,052 gt) 1940
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: Curaçao - Capetown
      load: 62.390 barrels of crude oil
      Sunk U66 27.09.41/3/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      3. "Allan Jackson" (6,635 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Cartagena, Colombia - New York
      Cargo: 72.870 barrels of crude oil
      Sunk U66 18.01.42/22/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      4. "WL Steed" (6,182 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Cartagena, Columbia (23 Jan) - Key West, Florida - New York
      Cargo: 65.936 barrels of crude oil
      Sunk U103 02.02.42/34/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      5. "RP Resor" (7,451 gt)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Baytown, Texas - Fall River, Massachusetts
      Cargo: 105,025 barrels of Bunker C fuel oil
      Sunk U578 27.02.42/47/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      6. "Hanseat" (8,241 gt) 1935
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: New York - Caripito, Venezuela
      Cargo: Ballast
      Sunk U126 09.03.42/XNUMX/XNUMX - no dead

      7. "Penelope" (8,436 gt) 1935
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: Caripito - Halifax
      Cargo: Crude oil
      Sunk U67 14.03.42/2/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      8. "EM Clark" (9,647 gt)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Baton Rouge, Louisiana - New York
      Cargo: 118.725 barrels of heating oil
      Sunk U124 18.03.42/1/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      9. "Esso Boston" (7,699 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Güiria, Venezuela - Halifax
      Cargo: 105.400 barrels of crude oil
      Sunk U130 12.04.42/XNUMX/XNUMX - no dead

      10. "Heinrich von Riedemann" (11,020 gross)
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: La Guira, Venezuela (14 Apr) - Port of Spain (16 Apr) - Aruba
      Cargo: 127.041 barrels of crude oil
      Sunk U66 17.04.42/XNUMX/XNUMX - no dead

      11. "Harry G. Seidel" (10,354 brt) 1935
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: Aruba (27 Apr) - Caripito, Venezuela
      Cargo: Ballast
      Sunk U66 29.04.42/2/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      12. "Esso Houston" (7,699 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Aruba (9 May) - Montevideo, Uruguay
      Cargo: 81.701 barrels of fuel oil
      Sunk U162 13.05.42/1/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      13. "MF Elliott" (6,940 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Newport News (19 May) - Trinidad - Caripito, Venezuela
      Cargo: Ballast
      Sunk U502 03.06.42/13/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      14. "LJ Drake" (6,693 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Aruba (4 Jun) - San Juan, Puerto Rico
      Cargo: 72,961 barrels of gasoline
      Sunk U68 05.06.42/41/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      15. "COStillman" (13,006 gross)
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: Aruba - New York
      Cargo: 125.812 barrels fuel oil and 39 tons dry cargo
      Sunk U68 06.06.42/3/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      16. "Franklin K. Lane" (6,589 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Caripito, Venezuela - Trinidad (7 Jun) - Aruba
      Cargo: 73,000 barrels of crude oil
      Sunk U502 09.06.42/4/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      17. "EJ Sadler" (9,639 gb)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: San Nicolas, Aruba (21 Jun) - New York
      Cargo: 149.003 barrels of kerosene
      Sunk U159 22.06.42/XNUMX/XNUMX - no dead

      18. "William Rockefeller" (14,054 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Aruba (19 Jun) - New York
      Cargo: 135.000 barrels of fuel oil
      Sunk U701 28.06.42/XNUMX/XNUMX - no dead

      19. "Benjamin Brewster" (5,950 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Baytown, Texas (8 Jul) - Tampa, Florida
      Cargo: 70578 barrels of aviation gas and lubricating oil
      Sunk U67 10.07.42/25/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      20. "RW Gallagher" (7,989 gross)
      Owner: Standard Oil Co of New Jersey, New York
      Route: Baytown, Texas (10 Jul) - Port Everglades, Florida
      Cargo: 80.855 barrels of Bunker C fuel oil
      Sunk U67 13.07.42/10/XNUMX - XNUMX dead

      21. "Beaconlight" (6,926 gt)
      Owner: Panama Transport Co (Standard Oil Co), Panama
      Route: Capetown (21 Jun) - Trinidad
      Cargo: Ballast
      Sunk U160 16.07.42/1/XNUMX - XNUMX dead
    4. Spring fluff 4 May 2020 01: 04 New
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      I’ll tell you an even more terrible thing. Great Britain declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939, and the USSR signed a trade agreement with Germany at about the same time and supplied Germany with two more years. Life is not such a simple thing. The British probably didn’t really trust the USSR, which they wanted to destroy all the capitalists, fought with religion and supported Germany for a couple of years, while the British fought with it
      1. Jager 5 May 2020 19: 32 New
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        The Germans and the British had their showdown. You can also recall the "strange war".
  3. lwxx April 29 2020 10: 46 New
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    All of these abandoned ships were then repaired by us, and then transferred to their owners
    If the ship was abandoned (abandoned) and ours were picked up, why was it returned? Moreover, they were repaired at their own expense.
    1. Avior April 29 2020 15: 09 New
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      and where did you get that for yours?
      1. lwxx April 29 2020 15: 20 New
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        In addition, in accordance with this program, the USSR carried out free repair of allied warships and ships in its ports and provided other services. For example, free treatment of crew members of ships (ships) of the allies and their full material support in the event of damage or loss of the ship (vessel) in Soviet territorial waters or when parking in ports [1].
        1. Avior April 29 2020 15: 28 New
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          in case of damage or loss of the ship (s) in Soviet territorial waters or when parking in ports
  4. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 11: 05 New
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    Another article of the type “but it wasn’t very necessary” and “what kind of things are around”.
  5. Courier April 29 2020 12: 52 New
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    However, the unloading of the ships of this caravan showed that the Murmansk commercial port is poorly prepared for receiving transports. The workforce was not enough, loading and unloading mechanisms were practically absent


    How so, it's the damned imperialists of the Anglo-Saxons who delayed supplies
  6. Courier April 29 2020 12: 58 New
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    It was Royal Navy who defended the convoys and patrolled most of the northern route, right up to Murmansk itself. And not a word has been said about this.
    1. hohol95 April 29 2020 13: 17 New
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      It was Royal Navy who defended the convoys and patrolled most of the northern route, right up to Murmansk itself.

      And Murmansk with Arkhangelsk RN defended?
      British Navy ships were to accompany transport vessels throughout the more than 2000-mile route from England and Iceland to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk.
      When reaching 20 ° east longitude (Bear Island), the Northern Fleet entered the business, to the best of its ability, providing a convoy meeting, strengthening ship escort, covering the convoy vessels from the air and escorting him to ports. The Northern Fleet's area of ​​responsibility fell on the route segment closest to the coast of Norway and German airfields - and therefore the most dangerous route along the convoy's route.

      And is the SF warships abandoned ships from the PQ-17 convoy?
      “Don’t do it, Dudley! ..”
      1. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 14: 17 New
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        Think about the above words - “the Northern Fleet came into action, to the best of its ability ....., strengthening the ship's escort”
        1. hohol95 April 29 2020 15: 12 New
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          More specifically. What was the author wrong to become, an excerpt from which I cited?
          1. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 15: 59 New
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            In the quote you quoted, it says, “to the best of your ability, providing for the escort to meet, reinforcing the ship's escort, covering the escort vessels from the air and escorting them to the ports”, The Northern Fleet did not carry out and defend convoys in its area of ​​responsibility, but "to the best of its ability" and "strengthening" and later on in the text. That is, he strengthened the convoy to the best of his ability, and the capabilities of the Northern Fleet were very limited. At the same time, I in no way question the heroism and courage of the Soviet North Sea sailors.
            By the way, the author of the article wrote everything correctly, I’m talking about the conclusions made by you from this article. Without the RN, the Northern Fleet would not be able to cope with the task of guarding convoys, because only the threat to meet the British kept the German ships in the bases, and their rare exits ended very badly for the Germans. The Northern Fleet had neither ships nor aircraft to stop the Germans.
            Read on this topic Platonov.
            1. hohol95 April 29 2020 16: 36 New
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              According to your RN, would you stand up for the defense of Murmansk if the German troops broke through to the city?
              The fact that the British warships carried the main burden in guarding convoys is beyond doubt by anyone! But they should not be considered the defenders of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk!
              1. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 18: 00 New
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                “According to your RN, would you stand up for the defense of Murmansk if the German forces broke through to the city?” - where did I write this? Quote please.
                1. hohol95 April 29 2020 18: 21 New
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                  You did not write it! I asked you. Based on the greatness and power of RN.
                  The Northern Fleet had neither ships nor aircraft to stop the Germans.
                  1. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 19: 21 New
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                    You really did not understand that we are talking about ships, or ... ???
                    1. hohol95 April 29 2020 21: 35 New
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                      Didn’t the ships and aircraft of the Northern Fleet work on land targets? Worked!
                      So what's the grudge?
                      If RN were so cool and so “eager” to defend the convoys, would they be able to find in the same port of Murmansk to engage in battle when the Wehrmacht exits directly to the city?
                      I strongly doubt it! Without diminishing the heroism of the British sailors, but on such actions neither by order (it would not have followed), nor by personal initiative, they were not honored!
      2. Sergey Valov April 29 2020 14: 18 New
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        “And these are the warships of the SF abandoned ships from the convoy” - Great is the mighty Russian language laughing
        1. hohol95 April 29 2020 15: 15 New
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          A subtle hint of a missed initial letter And in the word "DROP"?
      3. Avior April 29 2020 15: 20 New
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        No, Murmansk defended RAF, not RN, Operation Strange.


        Along with the bombing of Petsamo and Kirkenes, the British launched an operation to remove the Soviet and Norwegian miners from Svalbard and carry out the operation "Strange" (Strength). A demonstration of this force was the transfer of 151 air wings to the Soviet Union to participate in joint hostilities and to train Russian pilots in managing English haricaines with their subsequent transfer to the Soviet Air Force.
        151 wing was formed in July 1941 specifically for sending to the USSR and consisted of 134 (major A.G. Miller) and 81 (major A.H. Ruk) squadrons ....
        For two months of the wing’s stay in Russia, the weather allowed only one week to fly normally. But even in this short period of time, the British managed to show themselves and their planes perfectly. The ratio of wing losses to enemy losses was 1:15.

        The Allies very successfully solved the second task of staying in Russia, training Soviet pilots in managing new machines. Major General Kuznetsov and captain Safonov became the first Russian pilots to take the Hurricane into the air. In late September, a training squadron was created under the wing, into which Soviet pilots Captains Raputsokov, Safonov, Kukharenko and Senior Lieutenant Yakovenko were introduced as instructors. Intensive training of Soviet pilots began.



        Now look carefully at where the PQ-17 convoy has spread out, find Bear Island there and re-read your post again
        When reaching 20 ° east longitude (Bear Island), the Northern Fleet entered the business, to the best of its ability, providing a convoy meeting, strengthening ship escort, covering the convoy vessels from the air and escorting him to ports. The Northern Fleet's area of ​​responsibility fell on the route section closest to the coast of Norway and German airfields - and therefore the most dangerous route along the convoy

        hi
        1. hohol95 April 29 2020 15: 27 New
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          No, Murmansk defended RAF, not RN, Operation Strange.

          They were delivered to the USSR with the first convoy PQ-0 or Dervish, whose ships moored in Arkhangelsk on August 31, 1941. Some of the fighters (15 units) were delivered unassembled with an escort, and then transported from Arkhangelsk to Vaenga; the other 24 Hurricanes were deployed on the deck of the Argus aircraft carrier, from which they flew to the Soviet airfield on September 6.

          According to the British specifics, RN did not have their own aviation! Aviation belonged to RAF! And standing on the decks of aircraft carriers as well!
          1. Avior April 29 2020 16: 01 New
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            you asked, I answered.
        2. hohol95 April 29 2020 15: 35 New
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          Not good at reading nautical charts. In your opinion, what exactly is the Federation Council to blame for the death of the convoy? Not meeting the court at the appointed place.
          1. Avior April 29 2020 16: 02 New
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            there is no sea map there.
      4. Alexey RA April 29 2020 19: 22 New
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        Quote: hohol95
        And Murmansk with Arkhangelsk RN defended?

        In 1945, the command of the Northern Fleet requested the Allies to help with the PLO in the area of ​​the main base of the fleet. For German submarines began to be discovered already near Rybachy.
        The British helped as they could - they organized an anti-submarine search by ships from the escort of the KOH JW-66 that had arrived. They drowned U-307, our EM Karl Liebknecht also claims to drown U-286.
        1. bubalik April 29 2020 20: 18 New
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          sinking U-286
          ,, before this frigate
          HMS Goodall (K 479) sank.


  7. Undecim April 29 2020 18: 07 New
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    Three authors, of which two are candidates of science, and an article at the level of a school essay with a propaganda bias.
    1. 3x3zsave April 29 2020 19: 34 New
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      Absolutely right. And these are techies, not historians.
      1. Undecim April 29 2020 19: 52 New
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        The site has recently been swept by a wave of publications of an unacceptable level for a self-respecting resource. But even against this background, the article surprised me with a huge number of mistakes and completely ridiculous agitational exertions. There really is not enough one candidate of science, you need two and an assistant.
        1. bubalik April 29 2020 20: 52 New
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          ,,, didn’t you grumble all the time "why do not the authors list the references,?" laughing and here’s the list ,,, in a half-article laughing
          The design is good: references, footnotes. The content only jumped request
  8. Tests April 29 2020 19: 16 New
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    Dear authors! Forced to correct you: First :. I. D. Papanin was appointed to the post you mentioned on October 15, 1941. Secondly: In 1941, the port of the city of Molotovsk (today - the city of Severodvinsk) belonged to the construction of No. 203 of the NKVD of the USSR and plant No. 402 (today - SEVMASH), it became the sixth cargo section of the Arkhangelsk Commercial Sea Port only in 1942. Thirdly: For some reason, you did not include the British tanker Aldersdale in the Dervish PQ-0 convoy. Fourth: On July 31, 1941, the British mine loader "Evecher" arrived in Arkhangelsk, its cargo: more than 200 secret magnetic mines, 1000 depth charges, parachutes and special pyrotechnic materials. So he walked in the conditions of a polar day. At the end of August, the nights in Arkhangelsk were already dark, to the north even darker, the “Dervish” was not a polar day. Fifth: on January 13, 1942, from the Kola Bay, escorted by warships, the QP-5 allied caravan out of 4 (FOUR) ships came out: Arkos (USSR); "Decembrist" (USSR); Olima (Britain); "San Ambrosio" (Britain). Sixth: The Decembrist left the Hwal Fjord on December 08, 1941 as part of the PQ-6. The Decembrist entered the Kola Bay only on December 20, 1941 (He reached the ice edge in the throat of the White Sea and turned with the El Mirlo tanker to the Polar, they were accompanied by the cruiser Edinburgh and destroyers). December 20.12.1941, 88 was attacked by two Yu-15s, two bombs pierced the deck of the vehicle, but did not explode. There is a legend that during the reflection of this raid a group of Soviet pilots, led by M.M. Gromov, she uncovered the tanks that stood on the deck of the Decembrist and opened fire from tank guns on German planes. True, the question arises, how did the British tank guns that were transported on deck did not score, before loading onto the ship, with cannon fodder. Seventh: Convoy QP-15 was the last in a series of PQ / QP. Eighth: During the Great Patriotic War, there were no ship repair enterprises in the rear of the White Sea military flotilla. Ninth: The ore from which chromium is mined is chrome. If the item is coated with chrome, the item is chrome plated. Fifth: Part of the vessels from the USSR went empty, part partially loaded, for example, rags and linen, tar and tar var only occupied part of the holds. Eleventh: The Dervish convoy, in addition to humanitarian aid from US citizens, delivered to Arkhangelsk: trucks, mines, bombs, rubber, wool, XNUMX Hurricane fighters, fuel and lubricants for these fighters.
    1. Undecim April 29 2020 20: 07 New
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      Dear authors! Forced to correct you: First :. I. D. Papanin was appointed to the post you mentioned on October 15, 1941.
      Dear authors, not only were they mistaken with the date, they also transferred the position.
      headed by Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin specially created Office of the authorized State Defense Committee for Transport in the North
      On October 15, 1941, Papanin was appointed authorized by the State Defense Committee for Maritime Transport in the White Sea and the organization of loading and unloading in the Arkhangelsk port.
    2. Alexey RA April 30 2020 11: 12 New
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      Quote: Tests
      There is a legend that during the reflection of this raid a group of Soviet pilots, led by M.M. Gromov, she uncovered the tanks that stood on the deck of the Decembrist and opened fire from tank guns on German planes.

      NNZ, re-mothballed tank guns (37-mm turret guns on M3-medium) was arranged by the Troubadour TR team from PQ-17.
  9. Tests April 29 2020 19: 25 New
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    bubalik (Sergey), overwhelming THANKS for the table! I knew about the Baltic ports in 1944. I did not know about deliveries through land borders in Asia and through the ports of the Danube. Thanks again!
    1. bubalik April 29 2020 19: 52 New
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      Tests
      Today, 20
      hi
      bully
  10. Tests April 29 2020 19: 52 New
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    hohol95 (Alexey), dear, the first victories of submariners in the Northern Fleet in the Great Patriotic War were victories of British lead boats. From 04.08.41/18.01.42/1941 to XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX British boats were based in turn at the Polyarny: Taygris, Trident, Sivulf, Silayn, Stojen. In XNUMX, British minesweepers were based in Arkhangelsk: Bramble, Leda, Seagal, Harrier, Salamander, Halsion, Celia, Macbeth (although in some books Macbeth recorded with a corvette), "Gauser", "Speed", "Gossamer", destroyers: "Electra", "Ektia". In the event of the USSR's withdrawal from the war, these ships had to do everything so that the Germans would not get the Soviet Federation’s war ships. Also, these ships were to accompany the vessels of the northern convoys to Arkhangelsk and Molotovsk, to fight with mines, planes, submarines of the Germans. These ships received the name "local convoy", later, in addition to Arkhangelsk, they were based on Yokanga.
    1. hohol95 April 29 2020 22: 02 New
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      In the event of the USSR's withdrawal from the war, these ships had to do everything to prevent the Germans of the USSR SF ships.

      Thank you for this offer ...
      Thanks to the Allies for helping the youngest and weakest of our fleets!
      But Murmansk in 1941 defended thanks to the actions of citizens of the USSR. The actions of our family and friends!
      And no matter what RN and RAF would help in protecting the city itself.
      1. Max Lebedev 1 May 2020 14: 34 New
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        But Murmansk in 1941 defended thanks to the actions of citizens of the USSR. And no matter what RN and RAF would help in protecting the city itself

        I absolutely agree.
  11. Guazdilla April 29 2020 21: 25 New
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    The first transport arrived in Molotovsk was unloaded in a port not equipped with a pier and cranes. Tanks were unloaded almost manually, drowning several pieces of equipment. PQ transports were loaded mainly with raw materials mined in Monchegorsk-Apatity for their stability. On barges that sailed through the White Sea in winter, the entire cargo was frozen into one layer, and again it was manually broken for further transshipment. Almost all aviation kerosene going to the Soviet Union was pumped to the port of Molotovsk. When the air defense did not work, in the winter for several days "white nights" came.
  12. Tests April 30 2020 11: 24 New
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    Guadzilla, dear, how do you get such information? Severodvinsk (Molotovsk) stands on fine white sand at the confluence of the Northern Dvina into the White Sea, which walks with the tides. Even a relatively light passenger car sand sucks on the shore for a couple of hours on the bridges. In the fall, north-west and north winds often blow, water in the Northern Dvina and upstream of Arkhangelsk becomes salty, autumn 1941 was no exception. And you write about tanks. “Matilda” on the ship is about 27 tons, “Valentine” is about 16 tons. The port of Molotovsk in 1941 belonged to Construction No. 203 of the NKVD of the USSR and the crane farm was just like a wooden pier, with .d. a branch. About the recessed tanks where they found? And when in the Great Patriotic War in winter, barges from the coast of the Kola Peninsula were pulled? I have not heard about this. Please share the sources of information. After all, the Obozerskaya-Soroka (Belomorsk) railway was already commissioned in September 1941 .... The oil depot in Molotovsk, in fact, received oil products, which were delivered to the USSR by northern convoys. It was the only one in the North of the European part of the USSR .... For their ships, the Near Convoy or the Near Escort, which were based on Arkhangelsk and Yokanga, as well as for their planes that fought from the territory of the USSR, the British sent their tankers to the Navy, they didn’t enter Molotovsk ... And about Molotovsk’s weak air defense - where did this come from? The number of bombs dropped on Molotovsk is known. The places of their fall are known. Places of deployment of air defense batteries - known. Not a single ship, not a single ship was damaged by bombs in Molotovsk. Air defense airports nearby - enough in 1941, and later. Arkhangelsk - yes, in 1942 he was badly damaged by the bombing of the Germans.
  13. Guazdilla April 30 2020 19: 52 New
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    About the situation in the port here.

    http://my-life-war.ru/sever-moya-rodina/sudostroj-molotovsk-severodvinsk.html


    There were no warehouses, no storage areas, no access roads, no cranes and other means of mechanization. All this had yet to be created at Milotovsky port as soon as possible. A harsh winter was coming. First of all, it was necessary to build a continuous line of piers. Even its first turn, scheduled for completion on January 10, 1942, required about 10 thousand cubic meters of timber and a monthly work of 30 copres for driving 19-meter piles. It was a huge amount of work.



    Already several ships from the second caravan (PQ-1), which arrived to the North in mid-October 1941, were received at Molotovsk, the port of which had just begun to be created. Starting with the convoy PQ-3 (mid-November 1941), all operations on the entry and exit of vessels in the ports of Arkhangelsk and Molotovsk were carried out using icebreakers. At the same time, due to the still insufficient depth at the bar of the Ship's sleeve of the Dvina, partial unloading of ships with heavy draft in Molotovsk was practiced, followed by their transfer to Arkhangelsk. Due to the extremely harsh winter, the ice situation at the end of the year became so complicated that all the ships of the PQ-6 convoy, which arrived on December 23, 1941, had to be unloaded also in Molotovsk.

    The port began to operate, having only five cranes in two mobile conveyors. Several railway cranes were leased from the railway, the rest were tracked. Cranes had a small lifting capacity - and most importantly - a small boom, which did not allow their use in direct work on the hold.

    And at the berths were vessels requiring urgent unloading. Unloading was solely by ship's means. The cargo lifted from the hold, laid on the pier at the side. Here it could be taken by a railway crane and brought to the carriage or platform. But a lot of cargo had to be pulled from ships on metal sleds, made right there in the port. Two people in front, one behind carried such a sled. Handle prevailed. Of the 25 thousand tons of cargo processed by the port in 1941, only a sixth part was unloaded using machinery. [/ B]

    A lot of effort was required to ensure the loading of bulk cargo. Frozen potassium salt had to be loosened first manually - "pick." All processing was manual, only subsequently this process was mechanized using grabs.

    Particularly difficult was the work of unloading heavy cargo - tanks, transported mainly on the upper decks of ships. After the winter crossing across the North Atlantic, they arrived at the port in the form of huge ice blocks. First, they had to free them from the ice shell with steam from the hoses, arrange how the port men “Valentin” (Canadian infantry tank “Valentine”, weight 17 tons) and “Matildam” (English medium tank “Matilda”, weight 26 tons) joked. Tanks were unloaded by ship's arrows - heavyweights. It took a long time to prepare such an arrow, and all this equipment was far from being in exemplary condition on allied transports. During loading and unloading operations, breakdowns of cargo arrows, and sometimes even the masts to which they were attached, often occurred.





    But the port has just begun to be built. Often the ships stood at the cordon of piles, on top of which there was no flooring, access roads, cranes could not be used. And all the parts necessary for repair had to be pulled to the side of the ship manually.

    Despite all this, neither in 1941 nor in the subsequent war years there was a single case of failure to repair the deadline. But from the captains of foreign vessels regularly received gratitude to Molotovsk for the quality of work performed.
    There weren’t enough railway wagons, and the intensity of the unloading was such that the cargo did not have time to be removed from the berths, and it was pulled manually, on a sled, to a distance of up to 100 meters. - (this also applies to the part of the question of whether the transportation of raw materials by wagons from the Kola Peninsula was meaningful, if it was possible to send chrome ore, apatite, magnesite, asbestos by barges and on a shorter route, without using berthing equipment. )

    About drowning a few pieces of equipment here.
    http://arcticwar.pomorsu.ru/sea/nc3/research/ship_repair_factory_402_4.htm
    Under these conditions, there were some incidents - several consignments of cargo fell into the water, one tank was drowned. But he was soon picked up and quickly brought back to normal.

    About German air raids here.

    https://kpcevrf.ucoz.ru/blog/sudostroj_molotovsk_severodvinsk/2011-09-1
    The night of March 23-24.
    During the German air raid on Molotovsk, 13 high-explosive bombs were dropped.
    This is of course not enough, but I suppose that not everyone reported to you. Fires happened there, firemen were awarded, however, like the valiant air defense employees.

    300 thousand tons of chromium ore, 32 thousand tons of manganese ore, potassium salt, apatite, magnesite, asbestos. I do not think that it was reasonable to transport such quantities by train in conditions when there was heavy traffic from the Kola Peninsula with goods to the front.

    Here about the port from another author.
    http://sevska.net/index.php?id=4&option=com_content&task=view
    A concise description of the work on the construction of the Molotov port was given by its chief engineer A.N. Starshov in the newspaper Seaman of the North, Northern State Shipping Company (SGMP), without naming the secret city of Molotovsk. “Ensky port has grown an unprecedentedly short time in the conditions of severe northern winters. The port builders faced enormous difficulties:>
    It is difficult to add anything to such evidence of a direct participant in the events. It is simply impossible to overestimate the results and significance of the work done from the point of view of ensuring the delivery of critical goods to the front.
    Molotovsk began to receive the first ships of caravans in December 1941, when the port was just beginning to be built. Seven dry cargo vessels from the PQ-4 - PQ 6 caravans, breaking through heavy ice with icebreakers, stood at the unfinished berths of the city. The entire mechanization of the port then consisted of 4 railway and 2 caterpillar cranes leased from plant No. 402 and the railway. Unloading of goods, including heavyweights (tanks, aircraft, etc.) was carried out exclusively by ship's means. During loading of general (piece) cargo into cars, manual labor prevailed. Boxes, bags, bales were transported to the rear of berths on sleighs pulled by people. This had to be done in frosts of 30-36 degrees, with snow charges and in a prickly wind.




    And again about the drowned goods.


    at first, the Molotovsky port did not have personnel movers at all and had to rely only on these people, divided into brigades while maintaining the barracks regime. This can explain the low labor productivity of loaders at first (50-60% of the norm), and
    cases of damage and drowning of the cargo (mainly, small).

  14. Tests 1 May 2020 00: 53 New
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    Guazadilla, dear, what and how Leonid Shmigelsky wrote in his articles is like a historian Valentin Pikul. It’s interesting to read beautifully, figuratively, but by numbers it doesn’t fit in with figures from other sources ... "The Savings District, which had no loading facilities at that time and was not connected by rail to the main port, could not accept foreign vessels in 1941 . "- This is a quote from Shmigelsky. Here is only the Savings on 16.12.1941/2/5. accepted 50 vessels from PQ-12 (one of them is our Komiles). Unloading of ships was carried out with 3 tons of floating crane, three rolling and one crawler crane, 2 berth stationary crane and 10 gantry cranes began to be installed on the quays. 000 1942 tons of imported cargo were removed from XNUMX vessels and, on the newly constructed temporary railway line, delivered to Isakogorka. Permanent railway savings - Isakogorka passed by the autumn of XNUMX. In Solombal and Maimaks, this road is still “Papaninskaya” ... Yes, on the splash screen of the site “My cranes fly away”, a white stork in the photo flies, not a crane at all ...
    “At the same time, due to the still insufficient depth at the bar of the Ship’s sleeve of the Dvina, partial unloading of ships with heavy draft in Molotovsk followed by their escort to Arkhangelsk was practiced." This is also Shmigelsky pearl. In the 20th century the ship’s sleeve of the Northern Dvina was not a sleeve along which ships and ships sailed from the sea. The fairway to Arkhangelsk was in the Maimaksan branch of the Dvina. Permission to remove heavyweights from Liberty vessels in Molotovsk and to send these vessels with less draft for unloading at Bakaritsa was given by telegram A.I. Mikoyan February 21, 1944. “There were no warehouses, no storage areas, no access roads, no cranes and other means of mechanization. All this had yet to be created in Milotovsky port as soon as possible. And a harsh winter was coming.” - and this is again L. Shmigelsky. After the creation of the AMTP agency in Molotovsk, plant No. 402 (now SEVMASH) transferred the railway to the port cranes, floating crane with lifting capacity of 40 t and port stationary crane with lifting capacity of 45 t. Until January 1942, the port used 2 berths of plant No. 402, in 1942 and later, the port also used factory berth No. 3.
    If we are talking about the winter of 1941-42, then NO barges could be carried out. The sea froze early. Part of the vessels could not be withdrawn; they stayed for the winter in Molotovsk (ships of the USA, Britain, Panama). Remember how many QP-4 were removed from Arkhangelsk to clean water. 20 days! Plus 15.01.1942/XNUMX/XNUMX the icebreaker "Stalin" the Germans bombed. That's it - navigation has stopped ..
    .However, those who write about the lack of personnel movers in the Molotov port, for the sake of interest, would take an interest in the Severodvinsk City Museum with photos and biographies of the dynasties of workers at the Molotov (Severodvinsk) port. Those dynasties began equally and at the same time. In the fall of 41, seven evacuated specialists came to Molotovsk - port workers from sunny Odessa. They mobilized from three regions of the Russian Federation men aged 45-50 years old who were not fit for military service, taught the wisdom of working as loaders.
    "A concise description of the work on the construction of the Molotov port was given by its chief engineer A.N. Starshov in the newspaper of the Northern State Shipping Company (SSMP)" Seaman of the North ", without mentioning the secret city of Molotovsk." Guadzilla, dear, why didn’t you write that Comrade Starshov wrote the characterization in 1942? It would be interesting to know from him the number of zag / s 2 of the Yagrinlag camp, that they worked at the port of Molotovsk in the winter of 1941-42, that they were buried in a cemetery on the future Solzenskoye Highway, and the amount of z / k that were captured and sent to Rikasikha to drink coniferous decoction. Here are just the "Seaman of the North" about s / c Jagrinlag from 1942 40-50 did not write a single line ...
    And the transports of QP convoys in 1941, for the most part, came with lumber, and not with ore.
    1. Guazdilla 2 May 2020 00: 06 New
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      In the fall of 41, seven evacuated specialists came to Molotovsk - port workers from sunny Odessa.
      "Little Odessa"

      Not in the 41st, but in the 42nd

      But the personnel problem remained unresolved. There were no qualified personnel in the Molotov port with experience in organizing cargo handling operations: storekeepers, stevedores, dispatchers. Specialists evacuated from ports that ended up in the zone of occupation were called upon to solve this problem. So, on the orders of the People’s Fleet, hundreds of Odessa port workers were seconded to various ports of the country, where, with the start of the Lend-Lease cargo reception campaign, many problems arose in organizing their reception, unloading, storage and destination. In January 1942, the Odessa port dispatcher M. Prychert, loader foreman A. Polishchuk, stevedore M. Kogan, personnel inspector S. Gorodkova, technician S. Bely, coal base manager M. Averbukh, stevedore S. Chernobrivy arrived in Molotovsk Dr. Prikert was appointed head of the Molotov port. The “Odessa colony” in the city was so significant that during the war years Molotovsk was called “Little Odessa”.
      https://sevmash.livejournal.com/85424.html