Military Review

Combat aircraft. Unique bombing US

30
Combat aircraft. Unique bombing US

I must say right away: do not judge by appearance! The plane is both wonderful and noteworthy. And in a way - and unique.


Not only is it an underwater marine plane aviation Japan, it is also his honor to be the only plane to bomb US territory during World War II.

Yes, there were balloons with explosives, there were. But a strike on the USA with the help of aviation - this was only two times in total, with one crew.


But let's order.

Seaplane E14Y1 appeared as part of a program to improve underwater fleet Japan 1937. According to this program, new, more modern aircraft were to appear on the new and old submarine cruisers of the imperial fleet.


Kugisho and Watanabe Tekkosho firms took part in the competition for the creation of a new reconnaissance aircraft. Despite the fact that it was Watanabe Tekkosho who was the author of the reconnaissance model already in service, the more promising Kugisho project won the competition.

Let no one be embarrassed that the planes were created by not-so-well-known companies, in fact, the designers of both companies were more than competent people who could not save such a task. To build a hydroplane for use in a submarine is even more difficult than to design and build a deck aircraft from scratch.


Submarine hangar - this is not the inner deck of an aircraft carrier, as it were. But Mitsuo Yamada did the job. And the task was, I repeat, not the easiest: to build a monoplane, which should not only have good flying qualities, but also fit into the hangar of a submarine!

Yamada chose a low wing monoplane design with two supporting floats. When placing the machine in a limited-sized hangar, the wing consoles folded along the fuselage, and the stabilizer turned down.


At the end of 1938, the assembly of the first two prototypes of the seaplane was completed, which received the designation “Marine experimental boat seaplane E14Y1”, and in early 1939 the flight tests of seaplanes began.

The seaplane was nothing new at that time, it was a mixed-design aircraft with a 9-cylinder Hitachi GK2 Tempu 12 engine, air-cooled, equipped with a wooden two-blade propeller of a constant pitch.

Floats - all-metal, one-way.

The armament was minimal: one 7,7-mm machine gun mounted on a pivot mount in the observer's cabin for defense of the rear hemisphere. And two 30 kg bombs that could be hung under the wings.

But this is a scout, so in principle, with weapons everything is clear.


However, the tests revealed a very unpleasant thing. The plane turned out to be heavy, the mass exceeded the calculated one by 180 kg. This, of course, entailed a decrease in the payload, that is, the fuel supply.

In general, it turned out somehow frivolously, the plane could take only about 200 liters of gasoline, which ensured a flight range of 480 km. The Fleet’s General Staff considered that this was simply not serious, and handed over the seaplane to Watanabe Tekkosho for revision, as it had more experience working with this type of aircraft.

At Watanabe Tekkosho, miracles did not happen, but they reduced weight by 80 kg. Not God knows what, but already something, as they say.

In general, the plane flew, and flew well. He was not capricious, easy to manage, coped with the wave, and as a whole evoked only positive emotions from the testers.

And in December 1940, after the design changes were made, the seaplane was expectedly adopted under the designation E14Y1.


Although the E14Y1 was intended for arming submarines, the order was increased and the plane went to coastal military bases, where it was also used to patrol the coast of the Japanese islands, taking off from the bases of the Japanese naval aircraft.

On the submarine, the E14Y1 was deployed folded in a waterproof oval section hangar 1,4 m high, 2,4 m wide and 8,5 m long, which was located on the deck before the conning tower.


For storage in the hangar of the submarine, the aircraft was thoroughly disassembled. The floats were undocked from the wing and the fuselage, the wings were also undocked and laid along the fuselage. The tail unit was folding, the stabilizer with elevator turned up, and part of the keel down.

However, the assembly of the aircraft did not take much time. It took 15 minutes to prepare the plane for launch. And as the crew improved their skills, the assembly and installation time on the catapult was reduced to six and a half minutes.

The aircraft started with the help of a pneumatic catapult, working from the pneumatic system of the submarine, and after landing, the aircraft was lifted aboard by a crane, dismantled and sent to the hangar.




14 minutes passed from the moment the submarine surfaced to the start of the E1Y15 from the pneumatic catapult. Later, after technical staff gained experience, this time was reduced to 6 minutes 23 seconds. After the flight was completed, the aircraft landed near the boat, boarded a crane, disassembled and placed in the hangar.


The seaplane E14Y1 made its first combat mission on reconnaissance at Pearl Harbor base on December 17, 1941. The aim of the flight was to photograph the results of the attack on deck aviation by Admiral Nagumo on December 7, 1941.

The seaplane launched from the catapult of the submarine I-7 and disappeared.

The next flight of the E14Y1 took place on January 1, 1942 in the Oahu area. This time the flight was successful, and the car returned aboard the boat. By the way, it was noted that the Americans could not detect this small car with a radar. And the E14Y1 could calmly do its job.

In early January 1942, the Australian submarine I-25 successfully operated on Australian waters, on board which was also the E14Y1. On February 17, 1942, he made a reconnaissance flight over Sydney Harbor, and on February 26, E14Y1 photographed the waters of the Australian port of Melbourne. On March 1, a seaplane made reconnaissance flights over Hobart in Tasmania. On March 8, the same submarine approached Wellington in New Zealand and four days later, the E14Y1 took off for reconnaissance and photographing Auckland. Returning back to Japan, the I-25 submarine carried out reconnaissance of Suva in Fiji.


The rich intelligence information about the location of the U.S. Navy, collected by the I-25 boat using the E14Y1 seaplane, was later used by the Japanese naval command in planning underwater attacks.

In general, the work of the E14Y1 scout was so successful that the Japanese fleet-inspired command formed the 8th submarine squadron under the command of Admiral Sazaki specifically for operations in the waters of Australia and New Zealand.

The squadron included boats I-21, I-22, I-24, I-27 and I-29. True, the role of the reconnaissance was to play the I-21 boat with a seaplane on board, and all the rest had on board small double submarines.


At the end of May 1942, the seaplane E14Y1 was again over Sydney Harbor, and again the detection system splashed it. E14Y1 calmly photographed the harbor and began to search for ships with the aim of pointing small submarines on them. This is not to say that the plane and boats acted successfully, because the Americans sunk all four small boats without suffering any losses.

Meanwhile, the 4th submarine squadron was operating in the Indian Ocean, which included submarines I-10 and I-30 with seaplanes on board. On May 2, 1942, E14Y1 with I-10 carried out reconnaissance flight over Durban, and a few days later - over Port Elizabeth. Meanwhile, E14Y1 from I-30 performed similar flights over the ports of Zanzibar, Aden, Djibouti and French Somalia.

But the greatest success can be considered the actions of boats in Madagascar, which the Allies began to "liberate" from the protectorate of France, more precisely, Vichy. E14Y1 examined the entire coast of Madagascar and, according to their data, all the same small submarines that sank a tanker in the port harbor of Tuamasin and treated two battleships with the battleship Ramilles, which had to be dragged to Durban for repairs, went into action.


But, of course, the most epic operation was the bombing of US territory.

On August 15, 1942, I-25, under the command of Captain Lieutenant Meiji Tagami, with the E14Y1 on board, left the port of Yokosuku and by early September arrived at the US West Coast near Cape Blanco, Oregon.

The task of the crew of E14Y1, consisting of a pilot Fujita and observer Okuda, was to drop 76-kg incendiary bombs into forest areas of Oregon.


Pilot Nabuo Fujita

Incendiary bombs were filled with a special mixture, which, when ignited, gave a temperature of more than 1500 degrees over an area of ​​100 square meters. For four days, bad weather did not allow the flight. Only on September 9 the sky brightened, and Fujita with his partner began to prepare for take-off. The submarine was against the wind, and the catapult lifted a seaplane into the air, which headed for Cape Blanco.

The plane deepened from the coastline by 11-15 km, focusing on Mount Mount Emily, where the crew dropped bombs on the forest.


On the way back, Japanese pilots discovered two transport vessels that had to be circumvented to avoid detection. Commander Tagami decided to attack the ships, but the boat was discovered by a coastal defense patrol plane and now the Japanese had to flee inland.

They decided to carry out the next flight on the night of September 29. This time, the area east of Port Or Ford was attacked. Fujita normally flew over and dropped the “lighters,” but when he returned, the crew hardly found the location of his submarine. After a dramatic search for the boat on the oil trail, the pilots managed to find the submarine when the last drops of fuel remained in the tanks.

These two raids caused very little damage. The fact is that before these events in Oregon, torrential rains fell for two weeks, and the forests simply did not want to burn.

But some historical Fujitsa flights were of importance, since they were the only bombing of US territory by an enemy combat aircraft during the entire Second World War.

And if you consider that on the way back on October 4, 1942, the American tanker Camden torpedoed, and on October 25 the Lam Dohery, we can safely say that the operation was successful.

On September 3, 1943, I-25 ended in the Solomon Islands when it was sunk by an American warship. Observer Okuda died in October 1944 in the Formosa area during an attack on an American aircraft carrier. The only participant in the attack on the US coast that survived the war was the pilot of Fujita.

In general, the career of the E14Y1 ended approximately the same as that of many deck scouts: they were simply replaced by radars. And the use of reconnaissance seaplanes by submarines has generally become impossible, since the risk of detection has multiplied.


So it is logical that in 1943 the production of E14Y1 was discontinued. A total of 138 aircraft were produced.


LTX E14Y1

Wingspan, m: 11,00.
Length, m: 8,54.
Height, m: 3,80.
Wing Area, m2: 19,00.

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 1 119;
- normal take-off: 1;
- maximum take-off: 1 600.

Engine: 1 x Hitachi Tempu-12 x 340 hp
Maximum speed, km / h: 246.
Cruising speed, km / h: 165.
Practical range, km: 880.
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 295.
Practical ceiling, m: 5 420.
Crew, person: 2.
Armament:
- one 7,7-mm machine gun "Type 92" in the rear of the cab;
- 60 kg bombs.
Author:
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  1. Courier
    Courier April 27 2020 18: 11 New
    +7
    Another confirmation, if the Japanese had real opportunities, they would bomb the United States. The Germans also wanted to.
    1. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo April 27 2020 22: 16 New
      +1
      Yes, no adequate retribution for Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the burnt Tokyo striped, alas, did not receive. Easy to get off.
  2. Gato
    Gato April 27 2020 18: 14 New
    +4
    Nda ... On americabomber does not pull ...
    But the steam catapult on the submarine is news for me, I used to think that the plane was unloaded into the water and took off by itself.
    1. ALEKSANDR KUTS
      ALEKSANDR KUTS 16 June 2020 13: 59 New
      0
      not steam), but pneumatic .....
  3. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 April 27 2020 18: 21 New
    +2
    an interesting tandem: a submarine and a strike aircraft where the boat does not float ... now this makes the missile armament of submarines more efficient and over long distances ... progress ...
  4. bk316
    bk316 April 27 2020 18: 42 New
    +5
    Thank you for the article. Very informative.
    But if the weather contributed to the damage, it could have been incomparably greater .... Won California burns regularly.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus April 27 2020 19: 06 New
      +1
      IT IS POSSIBLE AND PORTS ARE LIGHTED - WITHOUT RETURN TO THE BOAT. If yes, if only ... we don’t recognize the springs before and at the beginning of WWII - as the United States moved to the necessary coalition
  5. iouris
    iouris April 27 2020 18: 49 New
    0
    This is an incident. The bombing had a purely symbolic meaning and no effect.
  6. Avior
    Avior April 27 2020 19: 04 New
    +3
    Fashionable theme was

    Meet- PL Surkuf, France, 1930
    Aircraft carrier with 203 mm guns
    and this is his plane Besson MB.411

    Soviet CPF - only a boat for him was never built

    The British submarine HMS M2, 1928, with a steam catapult, by the way, and her plane Parnall Peto; photo taken between 1927-1932

    After the war, there were also projects, for example, the Ka-56 Osa, UAV Americans tried for Ohio, but really did not materialize
  7. Avior
    Avior April 27 2020 19: 21 New
    +7
    but there were projects even steeper- flying submarines
    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Летающая_подводная_лодка
    Conveir Submarine, 1964

    Winged submarine Donald Reid Commander-2

    Ushakov flying submarine

    UAVs Lockheed Martin Cormorant, about to shoot from Ohio mines, knew how to swim under water and fly. In the project, of course smile this is the beginning of the 2000s
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_Martin_Cormorant

    Nothing has come out yet
    and the topic is interesting in theory
    hi
    1. Sniper Amateur
      Sniper Amateur April 27 2020 19: 54 New
      0
      but there were projects even steeper- flying submarines
      Nothing has come out yet

      Why didn't it work? Two things - actually flew and dived. One was even reactive.
      1. Avior
        Avior April 27 2020 20: 16 New
        +2
        which ones? I mean real samples, suitable for practical use, and not this entertainment

        and reactive is what?
        They didn’t let me finish the conveyor, as far as I know
        1. Sniper Amateur
          Sniper Amateur April 27 2020 20: 23 New
          +4
          I don’t have djvu on my office computer - download this one: http://maxima-library.org/mob/b/429065 - the last chapter.
          Well, or tomorrow or the day after tomorrow I will look at my girlfriend — her husband has this book in paper form — and then I will post a quote.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 27 2020 20: 44 New
            +9
            Well, or tomorrow or the day after tomorrow I will look at my girlfriend - her husband has this book ...

            I respect people with a real sense of humor. good drinks
            1. Sniper Amateur
              Sniper Amateur April 27 2020 20: 51 New
              +3
              With my last name and chases - it’s sad to be kagorichsko contraindicated! wassat
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 27 2020 21: 00 New
                +3
                Yes, it seems to me that sadness does not make sense at all, life is beautiful. smile
          2. Avior
            Avior April 27 2020 21: 23 New
            0
            Thanks, read
            There about Donald Reid's works at the link above. In reality, he didn’t have a working model — the model, and the model for the demonstration show on the show — flew in, splashed, plunged, surfaced — but no longer took off.
    2. Simple
      Simple April 28 2020 10: 52 New
      0
      And it will not work, since the density of the media is orders of magnitude different.
  8. Sniper Amateur
    Sniper Amateur April 27 2020 19: 52 New
    +1
    In general, the career of the E14Y1 ended approximately the same as that of many deck scouts: they were simply replaced by radars. And the use of reconnaissance seaplanes by submarines has generally become impossible, since the risk of detection has multiplied.
    So it is logical that in 1943 the production of the E14Y1 was discontinued.

    Nevertheless, submarine seaplanes and tethered gyroplanes for submarines were produced right up to the defeat of the Empire.
  9. WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo April 27 2020 20: 00 New
    +2
    A very good article, but in the middle of the text, between the photos of the plane taking off from the carrier’s deck, in my opinion there is a duplicate of the paragraph.
    And so - how great were the Yapas. Indeed, even at the beginning of the century they were not considered developers at all, and already in the first third of the century they actually make an underwater aircraft carrier. And okay, the Germans - everything is clear with them, they are notable techies. But yapi. Moreover, all its own - and dvigun and glider. And most importantly, people. To develop such an airplane, so that it still folds like a penknife, and even then does not fall apart in flight a little, you also need to have a staff who can implement everything in hardware.
    In short, a serious adversary.
  10. rocket757
    rocket757 April 27 2020 20: 39 New
    0
    Cool. The hard way to excellence.
  11. calm
    calm April 27 2020 20: 58 New
    0
    probably the most advanced aircraft for operation from submarines it was still
    Aichi M6a Seiran and their carriers I-400
  12. bubalik
    bubalik April 27 2020 21: 08 New
    +2
    Sydney Harbor
    ,,, attack on Sydney Harbor, entertaining operation.
    without suffering any loss.

    ,, the Japanese ferry Cattabula sunk, killed 21 sailors.
  13. bubalik
    bubalik April 27 2020 21: 36 New
    +3
    that the American tanker Camden torpedoed I-4 on October 1942, 25, and the Lam Dohery on October 6, we can safely say that the operation was successful.

    ,,,and not only.
    11.10.1942/15/16 she discovered the surface submarines of the Soviet submarines L-25 and L-16. I-15 went into a torpedo attack and the last remaining from the ammunition, sank a torpedo L-5 (captain-lieutenant D.F. Gusarov). With the L-45 they noticed a periscope and managed to fire at it, firing 30 shells from a 40-mm gun. The fire lasted XNUMX–XNUMX seconds, until the periscope disappeared into the water.
  14. Fitter65
    Fitter65 April 28 2020 03: 10 New
    +1
    ... it was his honor to be the only aircraft to bomb US territory during World War II.
    Only I would clarify the CONTENTAL territory of the United States. Since in June 1942 the capture of two islands of the Aleutian ridge, Kyska and Attu, which from 1867 belonged to the United States, occurred. During the capture, 2 light aircraft carriers were also used, the aviation of which made several sorties during the landing ...
  15. Angrybeard
    Angrybeard April 28 2020 09: 33 New
    +1
    Now they can be replaced by disposable drones. Only teach them to float from the depths. And burning Oregon seems like a bad idea. There are showers from Vancouver and Oregon for half a year. It was necessary to the south.
    1. Simple
      Simple April 28 2020 10: 49 New
      0
      The following video on the LOCUST program also implies a start from surface ships.
      But the start principle itself is quite universal.



      For example:

  16. NF68
    NF68 April 28 2020 17: 25 New
    0
    Hence the woods:

    http://www.airwar.ru/enc/sww2/e14y.html
  17. WapentakeLokki
    WapentakeLokki April 28 2020 19: 36 New
    0
    ... the Japanese took an alternative ... Konpeki no Kantai .. in which Yamamoto returned to his youth after death ... well, he annealed .. so there the I400 series was built back in 1941 and on board 3 Seraina and some other the device but already about two motors ... a cartoon without translation, but you can watch it like that ... who cares .. https: //rutracker.org/forum/viewtopic.php? t = 3364143 ...
  18. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 21 July 2020 18: 10 New
    0
    hello arrived! Is the Hawaiian Islands not US territory? And the Aleutian Islands, too?