Military Review

Lend-Lease. Myths and Reality

57

Valentine "Stalin" goes to the USSR under the Lend-Lease program.



History Lend-Lease is mythologized by both opponents of the Soviet government and its supporters. The former believe that without military supplies from the United States and Great Britain the USSR could not have won the war, the latter, that the role of these supplies is completely insignificant. We offer you a balanced look at this question of the historian Pavel Sutulin, originally published in his LJ.

Lend-Lease History

Lend-Lease (from the English. "Lend" - to lend and "lease" - to rent) - a kind of lending program to the allies of the United States of America through the supply of equipment, food, equipment, raw materials and materials. The first step to Lend-Lease was made by the US 3 September 1940, when the Americans handed over the old destroyers 50 to Britain in exchange for British military bases. 2 January 1941, Ministry of Finance, Oscar Cox, prepared the first draft of a lend-lease law. On January 10, this bill was passed to the Senate and the House of Representatives. 11 March The law was approved by both chambers and signed by the president, and after three hours the president signed the first two directives to this law. The first of them ordered the transfer of X-NUMX torpedo boats to Britain, and the second - to betray Greece 28 50-mm guns and several hundred thousand shells. So began the story of Lend-Lease.

The essence of Lend-Lease was, in general, quite simple. According to the Lend-Lease Act, the United States could supply equipment, ammunition, equipment, and so on. countries whose defense was vital to the states themselves. All deliveries were free. All equipment, equipment and materials, spent, spent or destroyed during the war, were not payable. Property remaining after the end of the war and suitable for civilian purposes, had to be paid.

As for the USSR, Roosevelt and Churchill gave the promise to supply it with materials necessary for war immediately after the German attack on the Soviet Union, that is, 22 June 1941 of the year. October 1 1941 in Moscow was signed by the First Moscow Protocol on the supply of the USSR, the expiration of which was determined by June 30. The Lend-Lease Act was extended to the USSR 28 in October 1941, resulting in a loan to the Union for 1 billion dollars. During the war, three more protocols were signed: Washington, London and Ottawa, through which supplies were extended until the end of the war. Officially, Lend-Lease deliveries to the USSR stopped 12 in May 1945. However, until August 1945, deliveries continued according to the Molotov-Mikoyan list.

Lend-Lease. Myths and RealityLend-Lease deliveries in the USSR and their contribution to the victory

During the war, hundreds of thousands of tons of cargo were delivered to the USSR under Lend-Lease. The military historians (and, perhaps, all the others) are of the greatest interest, of course, with the allied military equipment - we will start with it. Lend-lease in the USSR was supplied from the USA: light M3A1 “Stuart” - 1676 pcs., Light M5 - 5 pcs., Light M24 - 2 pcs., Medium M3 “Grant” - 1386 pcs., Medium M4A2 “Sherman” (with a 75 mm gun) - 2007 pcs., Medium M4A2 (with a 76 mm gun) - 2095 pcs., Heavy M26 - 1 pc. From England: Valentine infantry - 2394 units, Matilda MkII infantry units - 918 units, Tetrarch light units - 20 units, Churchill heavy units - 301 units, Cromwell cruising units - 6 units. From Canada: Valentine - 1388. Total: 12199 tanks. In all, during the war years, 86,1 thousand tanks were delivered to the Soviet-German front.

Thus, Lend-Lease tanks accounted for 12,3% of the total number of tanks produced / supplied to the USSR in 1941-1945. In addition to tanks, ZSU / SPGs were also supplied to the USSR. ZSU: М15А1 - 100 pcs., М17 - 1000 pcs .; ACS: Т48 - 650 pcs., М18 - 5 pcs., М10 - 52 pcs. Total 1807 units were supplied. Total for the war in the USSR was produced and received 23,1 thousand units of ACS. Thus, the share of the ACS received by the USSR under the Lend-Lease of an ACS is equal to 7,8% of the total number of vehicles of this type obtained during the war. In addition to tanks and self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers were also supplied to the USSR: British Universal Carrier - 2560 pcs. (including from Canada - 1348 pcs.) and American М2 - 342 pcs., М3 - 2 pcs., М5 - 421 pcs., М9 - 419 pcs., Т16 - 96 pcs., М31. ., LVT - 3340 pcs. Total: 5 units. Since no armored vehicles were produced in the USSR, the Lend-Lease cars were 7185% of the Soviet fleet of this technology. Criticism of the Lend-Lease often pay attention to the low quality of the armored vehicles supplied by the Allies. This criticism does have certain grounds, since the American and British tanks in TTX were often inferior to both the Soviet and German counterparts. Especially given the fact that the Allies usually supplied the USSR are not the best samples of their equipment. For example, the most advanced modifications of the Sherman (М100А4Е3 and Sherman Firefly) were not delivered to Russia.

Where is the best situation with Lend-Lease deliveries? aviation. In total, during the years of the war, 18 aircraft were delivered to the USSR, including from the USA: P-297 Tomahawk fighters - 40, P-247 Kitikhavk - 40, P-1887 AeroCobra - 39, P-4952 " Kingcobra "- 63, R-2400" Thunderbolt - 47; A-195 Boston bombers - 20, B-2771 Mitchell - 25; other types of aircraft - 861. 813 Spitfires and Hurricanes were delivered from England In total, the Soviet troops received 4171 thousand aircraft for the war, making the share of foreign equipment in the revenues of the domestic air fleet 138%, although the allies refused to supply the USSR with pride Air Force -. Strategic bombers B-13, B-17 and B-24, of which 29 thousand units were produced during the war And at the same time in such machines are most needed the Soviet Air Force..

Under Lend-Lease, 8 thousand anti-aircraft and 5 thousand anti-tank guns were delivered. In total, the USSR received 38 thousand anti-aircraft units and 54 thousand anti-tank artillery. That is, the proportion of Lend-Lease in these types of weapons was respectively 21% and 9%. However, if we take all the Soviet guns and mortars as a whole (the receipts for the war are 526, 2 thousand), then the share of foreign guns in it will be only 2,7%.

During the years of the USSR, 202 torpedo boats, 28 escort ships, 55 minesweepers, 138 submarine hunters, 49 landing ships, 3 icebreaker, about 80 transport ships, and 30 tugboats were transferred to the USSR under Lend-Lease. Total about 580 ships. In total, the USSR during the war years received 2588 ships. That is, the proportion of Lend-Lease vehicles - 22,4%.

The most noticeable were Lend-Lease car supplies. Total Lend-Lease was delivered 480 thousand cars (of which 85% - from the US). This includes about 430 thousand freight (mainly US Studenbecker and REO US 6) and 50 thousand jeeps (Willys MB and Ford GPW). Moreover, the total revenues of cars on the Soviet-German front amounted to 744 thousand units, the share of Lend-lease vehicles in the Soviet fleet was 64%. In addition, 35 000 motorcycles were supplied from the USA.

But the supply of small weapons under the Lend-Lease were very modest: a total order of 150 000 units. Considering that the total receipts of small arms in the Red Army during the war amounted to 19,85 million units, the proportion of Lend-Lease weapons is approximately 0,75%.

During the war years in the USSR, 242,3 thousand tons of motor gasoline was supplied under Lend-Lease (2,7% of the total production and revenues of a / m gasoline in the USSR). The situation with aviation gasoline is as follows: 570 thousand tons of gasoline were supplied from the USA, and Britain and Canada - 533,5 thousand tons were supplied. In addition, 1483 thousand tons of light gasoline fractions were supplied from the USA, Britain and Canada. As a result of reforming, gasoline is produced from light gasoline fractions, the output of which is approximately equal to 80%. Thus, from 1483 thousand tons of fractions 1186 thousand tons of gasoline can be obtained. That is, the total supply of gasoline under Lend-Lease can be estimated at 2230 thousand tons. In the USSR, about 4750 thousand tons of aviation gasoline was produced during the war. Probably, this number also includes gasoline produced from the allies' factions. That is, the USSR production of gasoline from its own resources can be estimated at about 3350 thousand tons. Consequently, the share of Lend-Lease aviation fuel in the total amount of gasoline supplied and produced in the USSR is 40%.

622,1 thousand tons of railway rails were supplied to the USSR, which is equal to 36% of the total number of rails supplied and produced in the USSR. During the war 1900 locomotives were supplied, while in the USSR 1941 locomotives were produced for 1945-800 years, of which 1941 were 708. If we take the number of locomotives produced from June to the end of 1941 for a quarter of the total production, then the number of locomotives produced during the war will be approximately equal to 300 units. That is, the share of lend-lease locomotives in the total volume of locomotives produced and supplied in the USSR is approximately 72%. In addition, 11075 cars were supplied to the USSR. For comparison, in 1942-1945 in the USSR 1092 railway car was produced. During the war years, Lend-Lease supplied 318 thousand tons of explosives (of which the USA - 295,6 thousand tons), which is 36,6% of the total production and supplies of explosives to the USSR.

Under Lend-Lease, the Soviet Union received 328 thousand tons of aluminum. If you believe B. Sokolov (“The role of Lend-Lease in Soviet military efforts”), who estimated Soviet production of aluminum during the war at 263 thousand tons, the proportion of Lend-Lease aluminum from the total amount of aluminum produced and produced by the USSR will be 55%. Copper in the USSR was supplied 387 thousand tons - 45% of the total production and supply of this metal in the USSR. Under the Lend-Lease, the Union received 3606 thousand tons of tires - 30% of the total number of tires manufactured and supplied in the USSR. 610 thousand tons of sugar was supplied - 29,5%. Cotton: 108 m. Tons - 6%. During the war years, 38,1 thousand machine tools were supplied from the USA to the USSR, 6,5 thousand machines and the 104 press were supplied from Great Britain from the UK. During the war, the USSR produced 141 thous. M / r of machine tools and forging presses. Thus, the share of foreign machine tools in the domestic economy was 24%. The USSR also received 956,7 thousand miles of field telephone cable, 2,1 thousand miles of sea cable and 1,1 thousand miles of submarine cable. In addition, 35 800 radio stations, 5899 receivers and 348 locators, 15,5 million pairs of army boots, 5 million tons of food and so on were supplied by Lend-Lease in the USSR.



According to the data summarized in diagram No. 2, it can be seen that even in the main types of supplies, the share of Lend-Lease products in the total volume of production and supplies to the USSR does not exceed 28%. In general, the share of Lend-Lease products in the total volume of materials, equipment, foodstuffs, machinery, raw materials, etc. produced and supplied to the USSR. Usually estimated at 4%. In my opinion, this figure, in general, reflects the real state of affairs. Thus, it is possible with a certain degree of confidence to declare that the Lend-Lease did not have any decisive influence on the USSR’s ability to wage war. Yes, under the Lend-Lease supplied these types of equipment and materials, which accounted for most of the total production of such in the USSR. But would the lack of supply of these materials become critical? In my opinion, no. The USSR could easily redistribute production efforts in order to provide itself with everything necessary, including aluminum, copper, and locomotives. Could the USSR do without Lend-Lease? Yes, he could. But the question is, what would it cost him. Do not be a Lend-Lease, the USSR could go two ways to solve the problem of the shortage of those goods that were supplied by this Lend-Lease. The first way is just to close your eyes on this deficiency. As a result, there would be a shortage of cars, airplanes and a number of other vehicles and equipment in the army. Thus, the army would certainly have been weakened. The second option is to increase our own production of products supplied under Lend-Lease through the involvement of extra labor force in the production process. This force, respectively, could be taken only at the front, and thereby again weaken the army. Thus, when choosing any of these paths, the Red Army was the loser. As a result, we are dragging out war and unnecessary casualties on our part. In other words, Lend-Lease, though it did not have a decisive influence on the outcome of the war on the Eastern Front, but, nevertheless, saved hundreds of thousands of lives of Soviet citizens. And for that alone, Russia should be grateful to its allies.

Speaking about the role of Lend-Lease in the victory of the USSR, one should not forget about two more points. Firstly, the vast majority of machinery, equipment and materials were supplied to the USSR in 1943-1945. That is, after a turning point during the war. So, for example, in 1941, Lend-Lease delivered goods worth about $ 100 million, which amounted to less than 1% of the total supply. In 1942, this percentage was 27,6. Thus, more than 70% of Lend-Lease deliveries came in 1943-1945, and during the most terrible period of the war for the USSR, the help of the Allies was not too noticeable. As an example, in diagram No. 3 you can see how the number of aircraft delivered from the United States changed in 1941-1945. Cars are an even more telling example: as of April 30, 1944, only 215 thousand units were delivered. That is, more than half of the Lend-Lease cars were delivered to the USSR in the last year of the war. Secondly, far from all the equipment supplied under Lend-Lease was used by the army and fleet. For example, out of 202 torpedo boats delivered to the USSR, 118 did not have to take part in the hostilities of the Great Patriotic War, since they were put into operation after its completion. All 26 frigates received by the USSR also entered service only in the summer of 1945. A similar situation was observed with other types of equipment.

And finally, at the end of this part of the article is a small stone in the garden of Lend-Lease critics. Many of these critics emphasize the insufficiency of the supply of allies, supporting this by saying that the United States, with their level of production, could supply more. Indeed, the United States and Britain produced small arms 22 million units, and put the entire 150 000 thousand (0,68%). From the produced tanks, the Allies put the USSR 14%. The situation was even worse with cars: in the United States during the war years, about 5 million cars were produced, and about 450 thousand were supplied to the USSR — less than 10%. And so on. However, this approach is certainly wrong. The fact is that supplies to the USSR were not limited by the production capabilities of the allies, but by the tonnage of the available transport ships. And just with him the British and Americans had serious problems. The Allies simply physically did not have the number of transport vessels necessary to transport more cargo to the USSR.

Supply routes

Lend-lease cargo got into the USSR by five routes: through the Arctic convoys to Murmansk, across the Black Sea, through Iran, through the Far East and through the Soviet Arctic. The most famous of these routes, of course, is Murmansk. The heroism of the sailors of the Arctic convoys has been praised in a variety of books and movies. It is probably for this reason that many of our fellow citizens had the false impression that the main supplies under Lend-Lease were sent to the USSR by the Arctic convoys. Such an opinion is pure delusion. On the diagram №4 you can see the ratio of the volume of freight traffic on various routes in long tons. As we can see, not only did most of the land-lease goods not pass through the Russian North, but this path was not even the main one, yielding to the Far East and Iran. One of the main reasons for this state of affairs was the danger of the northern route due to the activity of the Germans. On chart # XXNX you can see how effectively the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine acted on the Arctic convoys.

The use of the trans-Iranian route became possible after the Soviet and British troops (from the north and the south respectively) entered Iranian territory, and on September 8 a peace agreement was signed between the USSR, Britain and Iran, along which British and Soviet troops were stationed in Persia. troops. From that moment, Iran began to be used for supplies to the USSR. Lend-lease cargo went to the ports of the northern end of the Persian Gulf: Basra, Khorramshahr, Abadan and Bandar-Shahpur. In these ports, aircraft and car assembly plants were set up. From these ports in the USSR, cargo went in two ways: by land through the Caucasus and by water through the Caspian Sea. However, the Trans-Iranian route, as well as the Arctic convoys, had its drawbacks: first, it was too long (the route from New York to the coast of Iran around the South African cape of Good Hope took about 75 days, and then it took time for the cargo to pass on Iran and the Caucasus or the Caspian). Secondly, German aviation hampered navigation in the Caspian Sea, and only in October and November sank and damaged the 32 ship with cargo, and the Caucasus was not the most peaceful place: only in 1941-1943 years in the North Caucasus 963 gangster groups were eliminated with a total 17513 person. In 1945, the Black Sea route was used instead of the Iranian route for deliveries.

However, the safest and most convenient route was the Pacific route from Alaska to the Far East (46% of the total supply) or through the Arctic Ocean to the Arctic ports (3%). Basically, Lend-Lease shipments were delivered to the USSR from the USA, by itself, by sea. However, most of the aircraft moved from Alaska to the USSR on their own (AlSib). However, even in this way there were difficulties, this time already connected with Japan. In 1941 - 1944, the Japanese detained 178 of the Soviet ships, some of which were Kamenets-Podolsky, Ingul and Nogin transports on 2 and more than a month. The 8 vessels — the transports Krechet, Svirstroy, Maikop, Perekop, Angarstroy, Peacock Vinogradov, Lazo, and Simferopol — were sunk by the Japanese. The Ashgabat, Kolkhoznik, and Kiev transports were sunk by unidentified submarines, and about 10 ships died under unexplained circumstances.

Lend-Lease Payment

This is perhaps the main topic for speculations of people trying to somehow denigrate the program of Lend-Lease. Most of them consider it their indispensable duty to declare that the USSR supposedly paid for all the goods supplied by Lend-Lease. Of course, this is nothing more than a delusion (or a conscious lie). Neither the USSR nor any other countries that received assistance under the Lend-Lease program, in accordance with the law on Lend-Lease during the war, did not pay a single cent for this assistance. Moreover, as already stated at the beginning of the article, they were not obliged to pay even after the war for those materials, equipment, weapons and ammunition that were consumed during the war. It was necessary to pay only for what remained after the war in one piece and could be used by the recipient countries. Thus, there was no Lend-Lease payment during the war. Another thing is that the USSR actually sent various goods to the USA (including 320 thousand tons of chrome ore, 32 thousand tons of manganese ore, as well as gold, platinum, wood). This was done in the framework of the reverse lend-lease program. In addition, the same program included free repair of American ships in Russian ports and other services. Unfortunately, I was not able to find the total amount of goods and services provided by the Allies within the framework of reverse lend-lease. The only source I found claims that this sum amounted to 2,2 million dollars. However, personally, I am not sure about the authenticity of this data. However, they may well be considered as a lower limit. The upper limit in this case will be the sum of several hundred million dollars. Anyway, the share of reverse lend-lease in the total lend-lease trade between the USSR and the allies will not exceed 3-4%. For comparison, the amount of reverse Lend-Lease from the UK to the US is 6,8 billion dollars, which is 18,3% of the total exchange of goods and services between these countries.

So, no Lend-Lease payment took place during the war. The Americans provided the bill to the recipient countries only after the war. The volume of UK debt to the United States was $ 4.33 billion, to Canada - $ 1.19 billion. The last payment of $ 83.25 million (in favor of the United States) and $ 22.7 million (Canada) was made on December 29 2006. The amount of debt of China was determined in 180 million dollars, and this debt has not yet been repaid. The French paid off the US 28 in May 1946, giving the States a number of trade preferences.

The debt of the USSR was determined in 1947 in the amount of 2,6 billion, but already in 1948, this amount was reduced to 1,3 billion. However, the USSR refused to pay. The refusal was followed in response to new US concessions: in 1951, the amount of debt was again revised and this time amounted to 800 million. The agreement on the procedure for repayment of debt on lend-lease payments between the USSR and the USA was signed only on October 18 of the year 1972 (the amount of debt was again reduced, this time to 722 million dollars; the maturity date is 2001 year), and the USSR agreed to this agreement only on condition that it was granted a loan from the Export-Import Bank. In 1973, the USSR made two payments totaling $ 48 million, but then stopped paying due to the introduction of the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the Soviet-American trade agreement 1974 in 1972. In June, 1990, during negotiations between the presidents of the United States and the USSR, the parties returned to a discussion of the debt. A new final maturity date was set - 2030 of the year, and the amount - 674 million. At the moment, Russia for the supply of Lend-Lease owes US 100 million dollars.

Other types of supplies

Lend-Lease was the only significant type of allied supplies of the USSR. However, not the only one in principle. Before the adoption of the Lend-Lease program, the United States and Britain supplied the USSR with equipment and materials for cash. However, the size of these supplies were quite small. For example, from July to October 1941, the United States supplied the USSR with a total of $ 29 million in cargo. In addition, deliveries to the USSR on account of long-term loans were envisaged in Britain. Moreover, these deliveries continued even after the adoption of the Lend-Lease program.

Do not forget about the many charitable foundations created to raise funds in favor of the USSR throughout the world. Assisted the USSR and private individuals. Moreover, such assistance came even from Africa and the Middle East. For example, the Russian Patriotic Group was established in Beirut, and the Russian Medical Assistance Society of Russia was created in Congo .. Iranian merchant Rakhimyan Ghulam Huseyn sent tons of dried grapes to 3 in Stalingrad. And merchants Yusuf Gafuriki and Mamed Zhdalidi handed over 285 cattle heads to the USSR.

Literature
1. Ivanyan E. A. History of the USA. M.: Bustard, 2006.
2. / A Brief History of the US / Under. ed. I. A. Alyabyev, E. V. Vysotskaya, T. R. Jum, S. M. Zaitsev, N. P. Zotnikov, V. N. Tsvetkov. Minsk: Harvest, 2003.
3. Shirokorad A. B. Far Eastern Final. M .: AST: Transyzdatknig, 2005.
4. Schofield B. Arctic convoys. Northern naval battles in World War II. M .: Tsentrpoligraf, 2003.
5. Temirov Yu. T., Donets A.S. War. M .: Eksmo, 2005.
6. Stettinius E. Lend-Lease - a weapon of victory (http://militera.lib.ru/memo/usa/stettinius/index.html).
7. Morozov A. The Anti-Hitler Coalition during the Second World War. The role of Lend-Lease in the victory over the common enemy (http://militera.lib.ru/pub/morozov/index.html).
8. Russia and the USSR in the wars of the XX century. Loss of the armed forces / Under total. ed. G. F. Krivosheev. (http://www.rus-sky.org/history/library/w/)
9. National economy of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. Statistical collection. ( http://tashv.nm.ru/)
10. Wikipedia materials. ( http://wiki.lipetsk.ru/index.php/%D0%9B%D0...BB%D0%B8%D0%B7)
11. Lend-Lease: how it was. (http://www.flb.ru/info/38833.html)
12. Aviation Lend-Lease in the USSR in 1941-1945 ( http://www.deol.ru/manclub/war/lendl.htm)
13. Soviet Lend-Lease Historiography ( http://www.alsib.irk.ru/sb1_6.htm)
14. What we know and what we do not know about the Great Patriotic War (http://mrk-kprf-spb.narod.ru/skorohod.htm#11)
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  1. borisst64
    borisst64 9 January 2013 10: 01
    +9
    There is no information about the famous stew. Typically, land-lease veterans remember her and the students.
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r 9 January 2013 21: 45
      +3
      And for this alone Russia should be grateful to its allies.


      And we paid off in full for these draconian loans, primarily because we fought for them and out of them, the lives of millions of our compatriots, and gold !!! The authors are silent about the conditions of Lend-Lease loans, how they were counted and where - the convoy sent to us was considered to be shipped without accounting for the convoy or not, but the gold coin only upon arrival at their port after loading on their shore, and if drowned - NOT ACCOUNTED! The Anglo-Saxons still no one took on loans just so !!!!!

      And then they helped (shout), and the author supposedly helped ......., so we PAYED SAME !!!
      1. igor.borov775
        igor.borov775 10 January 2013 06: 49
        +2
        It’s just that no one was given anything, Read the documents of those distant times, And deliveries after 42g started not just like that, The author is bashfully silent about this and it’s a pity, After all, len-lens was linked to one of the most difficult problems for our allies, Only at the Tehran Conference was the USSR’s firm consent was obtained, True, the Allies need to admit that they didn’t get what they wanted, But they wanted only one war between the USSR and Japan, and the USSR made a firm promise that he would enter the war only after defeating Germany, Everyone had to agree about the 5 millionth Reich army fighting on the eastern front is much more serious than those troops in Africa and on the islands in Oceania, there was agreed a second front in Europe, True, the Allies pulled with its opening as much as possible, But at the Yalta Conference all agreements were reached and Europe and Japan, the War will begin in three four months on one condition, Create a food supply of logistics for three four months, the Soviet Union simply could not quickly concentrate such an amount in a short period, Far East they were sitting on a hard limit in everything, the Allies did not even argue, but immediately agreed, Think about only one figure Create uninterrupted supply of 5 aircraft with gasoline and oil, ammunition, etc. for three months of combat operations, while the Pacific Fleet is in the same position as the rifle units too, According to our estimates, only 4 months after the war with Germany, our railway will be able to systematically carry out transportation in the required quantity,
      2. Ivan Pozdnyakov
        Ivan Pozdnyakov 31 January 2020 23: 52
        -3
        carefully read the article and realize that during the hostilities no one required payment
        and after the war they paid only for what survived or returned back
        so they ate American stew and no one paid for it
        unfortunately WITHOUT LAND LISA AND WE HAS NO CHANCE FOR VICTORY
        1. neri73-r
          neri73-r 1 February 2020 11: 57
          0
          Those like you didn’t have a chance, ours had them and they proved it!
        2. The son of Kuzkin’s mother
          The son of Kuzkin’s mother 18 May 2020 02: 42
          0
          Britain would not have a chance to survive, and the US would become a superpower. So Lendliz is not a gift from the breadth of the soul and not a favor, but a cold calculation: you are me, I am you.

          Quote
          "American historian J. Herring writes:" Lend-Lease was not ...
          the most disinterested act in the history of mankind ... It was an act of prudent egoism, and
          Americans have always been clear about the benefits they can derive from it "
  2. avt
    avt 9 January 2013 10: 30
    19
    In general, it’s good. But I think it was worth thinking about this, 1% in1941-1942, as they say, an expensive testicle for Christ's Day! This is the time when militiamen with trophy rifles from the time of the civilian and with one clip went to tanks! But our tanks were lost in the summer battles, and factories still were transported to the east to the east. Second, other supplies are not shown in the article, and this was not only dried grapes, stewed meat, egg powder, but also aluminum, gunpowder, and much more . Yes, I completely forgot if we did not pay with gold for deliveries - whose gold was brought from Murmansk by the Aglitz cruiser sunk by Hans? laughing
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 9 January 2013 11: 31
      0
      Quote: avt
      But I think it was worth thinking about this, 1% in 1941-1942, as they say, an expensive testicle for Christ's Day! This is the time when militiamen with trophy rifles from the time of the civilian and with one clip went to tanks! And our tanks were lost in the summer battles, but the factories in the heat exchangers still drove east

      So it is so, only the transportation system still had to be debugged, it wasn’t necessary to go to the bakery, especially considering that all Soviet ports were in the front line.
      Quote: avt
      whose gold was brought from Murmansk by the Aglitz cruiser sunk by Hans?

      This is the reverse Lend-Lease, for secret circuits, and can be stored wink
      1. avt
        avt 9 January 2013 12: 37
        +4
        The Vladimir _____- NOT, the "bloodthirsty" tyrant got scared of the Vlasov "patriots" and prepared himself a waste laughing laughing laughing But seriously, the organization of supplies - brilliantly carried out work under the leadership of the Supreme, saved the lives of many soldiers and civilians!
      2. Prisoner
        Prisoner 9 January 2013 16: 23
        +2
        Quote: Vladimirets
        So it is so, only the transportation system still had to be debugged, it wasn’t necessary to go to the bakery, especially considering that all Soviet ports were in the front line.

        I think it’s worth adding that the Germans ruffled their transport fleet with submarines especially strongly in the period 41-42 until they could establish a convoy system and so on. Therefore, simply physically there was nothing to carry much help on.
      3. nnz226
        nnz226 10 January 2013 02: 30
        +1
        Yeah, especially in 1942, when the famous PQ-17 was already on the 17th convoy, the ships of the "mistress of the seas" scattered in horror in different directions, only having heard (!!!) about the exit of "Tirpitz" into the sea. On diagram 5, the success of the Germans this year took place thanks to a kind of "help" from their allies.
        1. Prisoner
          Prisoner 10 January 2013 03: 27
          0
          Quote: nnz226
          Yeah, especially in 1942, when the famous PQ-17 was already on the 17th convoy, the ships of the "mistress of the seas" scattered in horror in different directions, only having heard (!!!) about the exit of "Tirpitz" into the sea. On diagram 5, the success of the Germans this year took place thanks to a kind of "help" from their allies.

          Well, 63 ships are not so much for the whole year compared with, for example, the fact that the Germans sank from the Allies in 41
          In 1941, 4398 vessels were sunk with a total displacement of 2 tons and 100 German boats were lost.
          True, this is data on all sunk, regardless of location, so the Allies simply had nothing to carry their help on.
          Well, then yes, they scored Tirpitz
      4. igor.borov775
        igor.borov775 10 January 2013 07: 30
        0
        Yes, and the northern way, at first one mistake was made, they prefer not to talk about it, but it was, the first caravans didn’t go to Murmansk but to Arkhangelsk, it’s hard to find documents now and there’s some mention, in short, the ice situation in that area got more complicated in the autumn. railway transport, All this led to the fact that all sea transport from the Allies should be sent to Murmansk, it was strange that the command of the Northern Fleet was also asked about this
    2. Ascetic
      Ascetic 9 January 2013 12: 02
      +9
      Quote: avt
      But I think it was worth thinking about this, 1% in 1941-1942, as they say, an expensive testicle for Christ's Day!


      Lend-Lease began to play some role only in the summer of 1943, when the path through Iran was established. The fate of the war has already been decided. Prior to this, very little and sporadically went through Murmansk; almost the entire 1941 did not receive anything, in 1942 there was a break for many months (just at the height of the Battle of Stalingrad).
      The United States has become obese in this war. In 1940, there were 8 million unemployed in America. In 1942, not a single one.
      "The spread of overeating was one of the signs of a marked increase in the standard of living of Americans during the war."

      Professor of History, University of Kansas Wilson.

      Since then, Americans are the fattest nation on the planet, and just start to lose weight, somewhere at once the war begins.

      In general, if these supplies were NOT PROFITABLE for the United States itself and did not serve as a huge impetus for the development of its economy, then there would be no supplies (indirectly, this makes clear the history of the opening of the "second front"). We would be told - Sorry, guys, we’ll eat the tenth horseradish without salt ourselves. You really do something yourself .. razio disintegrate. Almost 100% sure of this
      1. avt
        avt 9 January 2013 12: 52
        +5
        Ascetic _____ And this is true, I do not exaggerate but do not underestimate the importance of supplies. But take into account at least the supply of machine tools for industry! After all, how many equipment could not do. I strongly disagree with the statement about the decision of the fate of the war in 1943! It can also be argued that with the loss of the Romanian oil fields and the Silesian coal basin. The enemy was very strong, they did not lose command of the troops until April 1945. It’s not worth it to us to belittle the feat of our country;
      2. atalef
        atalef 10 January 2013 09: 19
        +1
        Quote: Ascetic
        Lend-lease began to play some role only in the summer of 1943, when the path through Iran was established. The fate of the war has already been decided

        If Lend-Lease allowed to save the life of at least one Soviet soldier - it’s already good.
      3. vitya29111973
        vitya29111973 4 March 2013 17: 06
        0
        "We would be in dire straits without American gunpowder, we could not be firing as much ammunition as we needed."

        "Without the American Studebakers, we would have had nothing to carry our artillery on. Yes, they largely provided our front-line transport in general."

        "Now they say that the allies never helped us ... But it cannot be denied that the Americans drove so many materials to us, without which we could not form our reserves and could not continue the war ... We did not have explosives, There was nothing to equip rifle cartridges with. The Americans really helped us out with gunpowder, explosives. And how much sheet steel they drove to us! How could we quickly set up the production of tanks, if not for American help with steel? that we had it all in abundance. "

        The reliability of K. Simonov’s transmission of these conversations with Zhukov is confirmed by the statements of G. Zhukov, recorded as a result of listening to security agencies in 1963.

        If Zhukov spoke like that, then you little brother should close your stick and say to yourself - "Thanks to the Americans."
    3. Evgan
      Evgan 9 January 2013 12: 34
      +6
      avt, really, you're right. But here's another question: 1941, Germany attacked the USSR, the Soviet front is relentlessly heading east, England lost almost all of its armored vehicles in France a year ago, it lacks the ability to arm its army. States have not entered the war, and prom. production is far from being transferred to military rails. Plus - the battle for the Atlantic and operations in Africa and the Mediterranean Sea, distracting almost all the forces of the British fleet. Which ruler under these conditions will give a lot on Lend-Lease? 1942, the situation is better, but it is completely incomprehensible whether Hitler can get to Baku oil, and from there - to British Palestine ...
      I’m just saying that, of course, the Allies could have done more, but still we must not forget that, above all, in that war, everyone was for himself. It just so happened that the goals coincided for a short time.
      1. avt
        avt 9 January 2013 16: 36
        +1
        EvgAn ____ I agree with you, each of our ally had his own interests, Churchill kept his empire, Roosevelt set up what he did very well, but that's another story. In general, the great people were not compared to Obama!
      2. nickname 1 and 2
        nickname 1 and 2 9 January 2013 17: 14
        +2
        Evgan,

        On the other hand: a huge number of Lend-Lease ships were sunk, and there, after all, people consciously, realizing the risk, went on the road and the dead.

        Are we offended when our fighters who died for the interests of other countries are not sufficiently revered? Well, you have to be fair. And rulers are another matter.
        1. Evgan
          Evgan 9 January 2013 20: 34
          0
          nickname 1 and 2 is also true.
      3. igor.borov775
        igor.borov775 10 January 2013 08: 27
        0
        Gentlemen, we need to understand one serious thing from the beginning that we were dear to what our dear allies considered necessary, Only in the late autumn of 41, a preliminary agreement was reached on what we really needed, Yes, and I just didn’t take such things, I can imagine what we experienced the British received these applications, Machine tools for aircraft plants and the automotive industry, mine equipment, forging machines and only after that purely military materials, This article simply does not have a place for the whole list, And it is very large, Medical av busses and tools, And the radio industry she just started to produce products but not to that extent, the equipment for her and the radio station, Do not forget one truth, we just started to really release something competitive with Germany and the war began, Even then no one believed that we we’ll get the latest weapons; the bet was made on our own strengths, only we ourselves could help ourselves, but we shouldn’t refuse help in any case, it helped us maintain our potential for further struggle with the terrible enemy,
      4. vitya29111973
        vitya29111973 4 March 2013 17: 12
        0
        Do not forget that the Americans received the strongest blow to the balls in Pearl Harbor. The real question was the evacuation of the western states where America was waiting for the Japanese to land.
    4. Beltar
      Beltar 9 January 2013 19: 05
      0
      They didn’t go to tanks with trophy rifles, but with those taken from the warehouses, and there were guns, as of June 22.06.41, 76, the USSR had a kit of 200 mm in XNUMX%, but the old ones were in warehouses, and those who kept Moscow were armed with them in the counterattack passed.
    5. igor.borov775
      igor.borov775 10 January 2013 07: 12
      0
      And with the payment, it’s also interesting. The invoice was not weak, the Yankees made preferential loans to the British, They, in turn, did the same good deed of France, This was not a secret anywhere, We must pay tribute to the delegation of Kosygin in England in the year 47 where we set premiere before the fact, A new agreement was signed and after these agreements the USA was confronted with the fact, a new one was drafted where it was specially agreed on controversial issues, it was decided to agree separately at another meeting, After I had not met any public katsii on this subject,
  3. rennim
    rennim 9 January 2013 10: 43
    +4
    In other words, the Lend-Lease, although it did not have a decisive influence on the outcome of the war on the Eastern Front, nevertheless saved hundreds of thousands of lives of Soviet citizens. And for this alone Russia should be grateful to its allies.


    And the Soviet people saved all their countries with a multimillion population ...
  4. Dobrokhod Sergey
    Dobrokhod Sergey 9 January 2013 11: 12
    +4
    Of course, thanks for the help, but if there had been no financial support from the Nazis before 1941 .... it would have been better and cheaper.
    1. knn54
      knn54 9 January 2013 16: 14
      +3
      And who said that it was not even after 1941. Sweden-supplies of SKF bearings, multi-ton supplies of nickel coins from Canada and the USA (on submarines) to "needy numismatists" from the 3rd Reich, a ban on bombing "private property" in RURE. And a deep bow to ordinary Americans.
  5. Atlon
    Atlon 9 January 2013 11: 26
    +6
    Cunningly invented ...
    For Lend-Lease Russia did not pay ... But according to the "reverse" Lend-Lease sent Manganese, gold, etc. laughing Well, well ... That is, they are trying to convince me that the United States did not get out of the Great Depression thanks to the 2nd World War (at the same time without fighting once (saving ordinary Ryan doesn’t count! tongue )). In addition, the British crown first set Hitler on the USSR and then became is free help the USSR? laughing In general, the author is lying, if not lying. A minus article, respectively. Another distortion of history, in favor of the arrogant Saxons.
    Ftopku, in short am
    1. Parabelum
      Parabelum 9 January 2013 12: 40
      +3
      also smiled, like a trifle think manganese, gold, platinum, wood. But supplies were still free
    2. huut
      huut 10 January 2013 05: 18
      +1
      I also thought how they got out of the crisis then ... According to the article, it turns out that they gave everyone, they received real crumbs back, that is, they made an incredible loss for themselves, but for some reason Oo took off.
      According to this text, the USA after the war should have lived worse than the destroyed USSR, eat grass.
      Unclean article, either unfinished or distorted.

      But the people didn’t like it, over there how vigorously they vote FOR)
    3. igor.borov775
      igor.borov775 10 January 2013 08: 53
      +1
      Stop pouncing on each other. A warring country, which had lost the most developed part of the country, couldn’t pay len lenses completely, even the British couldn’t do this, but counter deliveries were made within a reasonable amount, no one hid it, They certainly were humble, But we must bow to our ancestors that they could even do such a small thing for the allies, the simple people of Britain and America helped free of charge, the state didn’t, it was a soft loan for a warring country, it was easier to prepare their country for war that the Yankees used to the fullest extent gram, Yes, and to be honest it was not provided to everyone, Count how many countries received it and you will be surprised, But the MARSHAL Plan is another thing,
    4. vitya29111973
      vitya29111973 4 March 2013 17: 28
      0
      have you heard of such a science as history?
  6. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 9 January 2013 12: 10
    +4
    "Speaking about the role of Lend-Lease in the victory of the USSR, one should not forget about two more points. First, the vast majority of machinery, equipment and materials were supplied to the USSR in 1943-1945." about how, that is, how it became profitable. There is no overview of the supply of equipment and valuable materials, this is much more important than direct military supplies.
    1. igor.borov775
      igor.borov775 10 January 2013 09: 09
      0
      So the supply list has changed dramatically, And one more reserve began to be created in the east, And so that the neighbor didn’t find out, they had to be transported from the east ports to the west, And the stew appeared and much more, And it was very difficult to create a reserve in the east of all the way to the eastern ports Allies were ordered, Only on August 9, 45 Japan was presented before the fact, And they watched the piece of iron very strictly, Moreover, it was one,
  7. valokordin
    valokordin 9 January 2013 12: 22
    +3
    As they say, they lost because the last battalion was not enough. Yes, the Allies were not very generous, but to deny, all the more, to blame for the assistance rendered is blasphemy, despite all the costs. We, too, were not indebted.
    If the Allies helped us, then it was not disinterested and it was also beneficial to the Allies.
    1. Atlon
      Atlon 9 January 2013 17: 50
      0
      Quote: valokordin
      Yes, the Allies were not very generous, but to deny, all the more, to blame for the assistance rendered is blasphemy, despite all the costs.

      Firstly, no one "haits", but only asks to call things by their proper names! About help - it is said too much. As for trade, yes, they bought equipment (outdated, by the way) for gold and other resources. That's all. Thank you for not refusing to sell ... Although for gold, they will sell anything to anyone! laughing To recall at least how steam engines and tractors were sold with pleasure to the Bolsheviks. Although, publicly scolded this regime. Gold, my friend, it is everywhere gold! wink
      1. Atlon
        Atlon 9 January 2013 18: 12
        +4
        And by the way, to be precise ... Not even trade, but RENT! According to Lend-Lease, all the surviving equipment had to return back. I read the memoirs of veterans, how the soldiers cried when they saw how "their" jeep and Studebakers were being put under pressure right in the port, which they had driven to Murmansk on their own. They were exported back to the USA in the form of scrap metal (this way you can load more). So much for "help". Of course, no one returned the gold back.
        1. Wankiller
          Wankiller 15 January 2013 01: 55
          0
          Atlon ______ you are confusing something, according to Lend-Lease, at the end of the war, it was necessary to pay only for the surviving equipment, and not return it ... ish-you ... the amers foresaw everything here, why do they need this outdated junk back? what you read somewhere out there so it can be explained by the fact that ... maybe the USSR paid for the lend-lease, well, not in gold, but like "iron ore" wink .... after all, the recollection of people of the "last link" (I do not want to offend the memory of our grandfathers) is not much different from the recollection of "Baba Masha" ... they do not know the details either ... they are only an executive force
          here is another country:
          1.why the USSR did not deceive the amers ... well ... like, they say, "your equipment died during the war ... you see, there are only 20 tanks left ..." and so on.
          2. It is correct that after the war they did not pay money for the lend-lease and did not have to pay at all .... I explain why - because we paid with "reverse lend-lease" for the surviving equipment ie. the same ore and gold ..... that's what you are missing !!!
        2. vitya29111973
          vitya29111973 4 March 2013 17: 55
          0
          please ask about gold ??? This is not from the drowned "Edinburgh" so it has long been at home. Or do you have more sources?
  8. Andy
    Andy 9 January 2013 14: 44
    +2
    . In 1941 - 1944, the Japanese detained 178 Soviet vessels, some of which - Kamenetz-Podolsky, Ingul and Nogin transports - for 2 months or more. 8 vessels - transports “Krechet”, “Svirstroy”, “Maykop”, “Perekop”, “Angarstroy”, “Peacock Vinogradov”, “Lazo”, “Simferopol” - were sunk by the Japanese.

    It’s funny when Russian and Estonian (!) shit-guns talk about the evil Stalin who viciously attacked peaceful Japan. It just took and attacked ... for some reason it reminds of zombies, no thoughts, just a minimal program.
    1. igor.borov775
      igor.borov775 10 January 2013 09: 15
      0
      And the biggest transport that we had seems to be BALTFLOT generally silent
  9. 8 company
    8 company 9 January 2013 15: 16
    +2
    The Americans, as usual, all about ... himiliru. Our people shed blood, freeing the world from fascism, and still should remain an ally. By the way, the same thing happened in the First World War. It is interesting how the two-faced Western politicians during the war licked to Stalin everything that was possible and impossible, sang such sweet praises to him - you will hear (until now the Stalinists quote them), and after the war they again declared him tyrant. It’s always like this: someone plows, and someone sits on the hump of a plowman, hanging his legs.
  10. 12061973
    12061973 9 January 2013 15: 42
    -7
    why such a small% of the USSR did not build ships on ships during the war.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 9 January 2013 20: 49
      +1
      Quote: 12061973
      the USSR


      Minus for the USSR
      1. 12061973
        12061973 10 January 2013 20: 17
        +1
        you will eat or drink an ascetic, a little, otherwise the brain is starving and does not give rest to convulsions, it makes you hit the clave, excuse me with a small letter.
  11. 8 company
    8 company 9 January 2013 15: 54
    +1
    Quote: 12061973
    the USSR did not build a court during the war.


    Built. I read the memoirs of a shipbuilding engineer Bondarevsky, he built "big hunters" as a z / c at the future Severodvinsk plant (then - Molotov). For each "hunter" a number of workers received an order, except for prisoners.
  12. Rubik
    Rubik 9 January 2013 18: 29
    -3
    Currently, Russia owes US $ 100 million for Lend-Lease deliveries.

    Inflation is not taken into account in this case. $ 100 million in the 40s is now billions of dollars.
    1. Strategy
      Strategy 9 January 2013 20: 18
      +4
      At the Potsdam conference, JV Stalin responded to the demands of the allies to pay for the lend-lease: "We paid for everything with the blood of a Russian soldier!" Then it was taken for granted.
    2. Wankiller
      Wankiller 15 January 2013 02: 07
      0
      so you come on, get a hedgehog to America, gather the Senate and tell them about your ingenious guesses .... Russia should remain due to the fact that when the collapse ... then only she left behind the legal successor of the USSR, and the rest ... "brothers "... ran away ...

      Here are your billions to share, right? "Vilna" Ukraine will surely bend forever ...
  13. Gamdlislyam
    Gamdlislyam 9 January 2013 20: 07
    +1
    In the 60 of the last century, the USA forgave Lend-Lease debts to all countries (including England), except the USSR. Lend-Lease supplies were made to 52 countries.
    1. atalef
      atalef 10 January 2013 09: 21
      +1
      Quote: Gamdlislyam
      In the 60 of the last century, the USA forgave Lend-Lease debts to all countries (including England), except the USSR. Lend-Lease supplies were made to 52 countries.

      In general, England under Lend-Lease has completely reckoned. The United States did not forgive anyone.
    2. igor.borov775
      igor.borov775 10 January 2013 09: 22
      0
      Wow nifiga Len-Lease was accepted with strict restrictions, It was not so easy to get this soft loan only with the consent of the US Congress, We didn’t receive it for beautiful eyes, There were also special conditions,
  14. tomket
    tomket 9 January 2013 23: 04
    +1
    as the grandfather said regarding Lend-Lisa: The spoon is good for dinner.
  15. krisostomus
    krisostomus 10 January 2013 05: 27
    0
    It is strange to read most of the comments - frank ingratitude for the assistance rendered to and from just as warring states. One would like to ask - how did the USSR help warring England? That Germany regularly supplied grain? Does anyone imagine what it would mean to produce without a small half a million cars, or the delivered number of steam locomotives with wagons? The author is modestly silent that the Americans supplied another 4 million tons of canned food, concentrates and other products. What would the army be fed and where to get food when the main territories were occupied by the Germans? And where was it to be delivered if the Murmansk port could not handle cargo over 11 tons? The Americans also had to re-equip the port. They forgot that by May 1945, the recruiting resource was almost exhausted, and someone had to produce these additional products.
    Some kind of capricious patriotism is obtained.
    1. Parabelum
      Parabelum 10 January 2013 09: 43
      0
      Where is ingratitude? Read above, just ask to call everything by their proper names. Yes, there was help, but they paid for it. Allies had no altruistic trepidation. Clean business. And about England’s help, in which year did England begin to conduct active hostilities? Or did the Germans land on the island and move rapidly to London? I will not say anything about the number of German troops active on the eastern front, which is many times greater than the number of troops on the western.
      1. krisostomus
        krisostomus 10 January 2013 14: 10
        -1
        What do you mean paid? For equipment and materials destroyed or used as a result of battles, payment was not even provided. What kind of business is this and where is this "cash"? Gold was paid only for the so-called pre-lend-lease and purely civilian equipment. The USSR paid about 7 percent of the lend-lease amount. What is this if not altruism?
        What help could England provide, being in a state of war for a year, being subjected to massive bombing, practically in a naval blockade? Only after the turning point in the "Battle of the Atlantic" could normal assistance be provided, and it was the Allies who ended the German submarine fleet. If we talk about the role of the allies in purely hostilities, then the losses of the Germans in personnel on the Eastern Front amounted to 70 percent, 30 percent on other fronts. Taking into account the ratio of German and Soviet losses, this would mean the loss of another million Soviet soldiers. In addition, forcing the English Channel is a rather complicated undertaking, and I hope you know how the Soviet Feodosia-Kerch operation ended. And the Kerch Strait is not the English Channel.
        1. Parabelum
          Parabelum 12 January 2013 08: 31
          0
          But don’t call it, payment or reverse Lend-Lease (barter, to which the author of the article refers) was.
          Quote: krisostomus
          What help could England provide, being already at war for a year, undergoing massive bombing, almost under conditions of a naval blockade?

          And then what are the questions for the USSR? By the way, we also had a war, and they bombed us worse than them. only we still had active hostilities, and the transfer of production to the east.
          Quote: krisostomus
          If we talk about the role of the Allies in purely military operations, then the loss of Germans in personnel on the Eastern Front amounted to 70 percent, 30 percent on other fronts. Given the correlation of German and Soviet losses, this would mean the loss of another million Soviet soldiers.

          This is solely your guess. And what would happen if the USSR did not destroy 70% of the enemy? Britostrov would be German territory, etc. About a million soldiers is generally funny i.e. with the destruction of 30% of the enemy, the Allies suffered losses of 700 (I rounded it up), and we, the bast arms, immediately 000? Can we take the ratio of losses at the end of the war when the USSR fought with Japan?
          1. Wankiller
            Wankiller 15 January 2013 02: 37
            0
            Parabelum _____ leave .... this is propaganda from D. Sem in its purest form ... he is a deserter ... and in general such people cannot be convinced ... they are even too lazy to read them and all the more painful to write to the brain ... all the more so the picture something to compare with this ... for sure, such people read only the headlines and films they have loved Rambo ...
      2. vitya29111973
        vitya29111973 4 March 2013 18: 26
        0
        Duck didn't get paid !!!!!!!! And Great Britain for more than a year fought with Germany on its own. Yes, there were no large-scale military operations of ground forces, but there was "Battle of Britain", "Battle of the Atlantic" In the "Battle of Britain, Germany lost about 1700 aircraft. I think if on 22,06.1941 there were an additional 1700 aircraft in Germany, then they are all Moscow would have taken !!!
    2. Wankiller
      Wankiller 15 January 2013 02: 28
      0
      krisostomus _____ of course ... you're right .... well, let's all get up and start kissing Western saviors in a soft "chair" ... fool
      you probably don’t know that according to many sources, it’s these countries that ignited this war ... so they were afraid ... because with the occupation of the USSR they would not have a good future ...
      eh-you .... you need to read history and not only from one source (NATO propaganda) .... but also country events during the war ... like a "strange war", etc. and compare it in my head minus propaganda that your beloved uncle is a lover !!!
  16. Kukota
    Kukota 10 January 2013 09: 36
    +1
    ... Nevertheless, the USSR refused to pay.
    ... Failure followed in response to new US concessions
    ... in 1951, the amount of debt was again revised
    ... but then stopped paying


    I may be brought up incorrectly, but I think so. Have you been helped? Did you refuse The lives of the soldiers saved? Be kind or pay or return.
    I would definitely pay. Returning soldiers are more expensive than gold - they are still digging it up.
    The Chinese did not refuse to pay for our help in the fight against Japan, although they used it not for its intended purpose - in the fight against each other.
    1. Wankiller
      Wankiller 15 January 2013 02: 48
      0
      Kukota _____ kanechno ... from your words it turns out that a person’s life can be bought ... you probably already sold under a Lend-Lease ... it would be good if Russia were paid for this Lend-Lease ... and though ... here this good can be given for nothing ... let them spoil the gene pool there !!!

      The biggest stupidity that was shot in the 30s by people who were knocked on by others ... as a result, the informers basically remained, but the normal ones at the expense ... that’s nothing to be surprised at now ...
      it was necessary to turn around ....
      1. vitya29111973
        vitya29111973 4 March 2013 18: 35
        0
        - ... when the American stew, the oatmeal, egg powder, flour, other products began to arrive at us, what immediately significant additional calories our soldiers received! And not only the soldiers: something was falling to the rear.

        Or take the supply of cars. After all, we received, as far as I remember, taking into account losses in the way of about 400 thousand first-class cars of the time, such as Studebaker, Ford, passenger Willis and amphibians. Our entire army was actually on wheels and what wheels! As a result, its maneuverability increased and the pace of advance significantly increased.
        Yes ... ”Mikoyan said thoughtfully. - Without Lend-Lease, we would probably have fought for another year and a half.

        Year and a half !!!!!! it is 1,5 - 2,5 million sodatskih lives and more ??? millions of civilians. If two million sodats are nothing for you, then I think you are your kind of informers and are leading !!!
  17. Strategy
    Strategy 10 January 2013 14: 31
    0
    Interestingly, in the destroyed equipment whose soldiers fought? Who will appreciate their lives? Found the altruists!
  18. sailor76
    sailor76 10 January 2013 14: 57
    +1
    Help and cooperation with the United States began much earlier by inviting specialists to various fields, mainly engineering, look at our early tanks, planes and automobiles. Engines for the aircraft industry were mainly licensed copies. Lend Lease aircraft were really actively used in b / d. Suffice it to say that a good third of his victories Hero of the Soviet Union Pokryshkin made on P39 Aerocobra. The Kittyhock exterminators, and in my opinion Spitfire, also had a percentage ratio in our air forces.Tanky Valentine, Sherman, etc. Another thing is the price, our country was then in an extremely disadvantageous position, the loss gaps needed to be made up for. Well, uncle Sam and warmed his shaggy paw on someone else's misfortune.
  19. Karpv
    Karpv 10 January 2013 16: 57
    0
    I work on a piece of iron, and there one signalman says that the best phones that he used were American, from Lend-Lease. They were second to none in the quality of workmanship and work. Do not forget that in the USSR during the war, walkie-talkies were for the most part also received by Lend-Lease. Unfortunately, we have always had problems with communication.
  20. asf32wesdg
    asf32wesdg 10 January 2013 18: 38
    0
    It just can't be !!! The FSB has created this http://sho.rtlink.de/FS62Am database about any resident of Russia, Ukraine and other CIS countries. Really was really scared
    there are a lot of interesting things about me (addresses, phone numbers, even my photos of a different nature) - I wonder where they dug up this. In general, there are good sides - this
    Information can be deleted from the site.
    I advise you to hurry, you never know how to fumble there ...
  21. 12061973
    12061973 10 January 2013 20: 12
    0
    you will eat or drink an ascetic; otherwise, the brain deteriorates without glucose, excuse me. with a small letter.
  22. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny 11 January 2013 03: 40
    +3
    One could recall the help of Mongolia and Tuva. Moreover, the steppe residents gave everything disinterestedly, without any Lend-Lease.

    "On June 22, 1941, a joint resolution was adopted by the Presidium of the Small Khural, the Council of Ministers of Mongolia and the Presidium of the Central Committee of the MPRP, which expressed support for the Soviet Union. Economic assistance from Mongolia consisted in the transfer of funds, winter clothing, food, livestock, and the purchase of a tank column and squadrons.

    In Mongolia, an aid fund was created for the Soviet army. In October 1941, residents of Mongolia sent a train with gifts from 15 thousand sets of winter uniforms, about 3 thousand parcels worth more than 1,8 million tugriks. 587 thousand tugriks were transferred to the State Bank of the USSR in cash. By April 1943 of the year, 8 trains with food and clothing worth more than 25,3 million Tugriks were sent from Mongolia. At the beginning of 1945, a train of gifts from 127 wagons was sent.

    16 January 1942 began raising funds for the purchase of tanks for the tank column "Revolutionary Mongolia." The inhabitants of Mongolia transferred 2,5 million Tugriks, 100 thousand US dollars and 300 kg of gold to Vneshtorgbank. By the end of the 1942 year, the 53 tanks (32 T-34 and 21 T-70) were delivered to the Naro-Fominsk region of the Moscow Region. On January 12 of 1943, a Mongol delegation arrived in the USSR led by Marshal Khorlogiy Choybalsan, who handed over the tanks to the 112 Red Banner Tank Brigade.

    In 1943, a fundraiser was organized for the acquisition of the Mongolian Arat aircraft squadron. In July 1943, 2 million Tugriks were transferred to the account of the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR. On August 18, Stalin expressed gratitude to Mongolia. September 25, 1943 at the field airfield of the Vyazovaya station in the Smolensk region, the squadron was transferred to the 2nd Guards Regiment of the 322nd Fighter Aviation Division. Heroes of the Soviet Union N.P. fought in the squadron. Pushkin (First squadron commander), A.I. Mayorov, M.E. Ryabtsev. Mongolia also took over the clothing and food supplies of the tank column and squadron until the end of the war.

    In March 1942, the Mongolian authorities adopted a decree on the purchase of horses at specially established state prices. During the war, more than 500 thousand horses were delivered from Mongolia to the USSR. Participants in the war noted the unpretentiousness and endurance of Mongolian horses: “At first we thought that such small horses would not take soldiers with full equipment ... Having passed the difficult military roads on Mongolian horses, we were convinced that they are strong, do not know fatigue and are unpretentious in food. In short breaks between fights, they themselves plucked grass, nibbled the bark of trees and were always ready to join the battle. "
  23. i.xxx-1971
    i.xxx-1971 14 January 2013 17: 10
    +1
    The USA helped everyone not for free. This is a historical fact. Only a professional historian will never understand this. For Russian professional historians, President Roosevelt came up with a fire hose story. Lend-Lease is just a business, nothing personal. And we used it, because it would be foolish not to use it when the country is on the verge of destruction. That we are not dumber than their Rockefellers, Comrade Stalin proved reasonably abandoning the Marshall plan.
    1. Wankiller
      Wankiller 15 January 2013 03: 02
      +1
      i.xxx-1971 ____ I support and about Lend-Lease I have already expressed (above) ... our domestic "Yankees" either:
      1. stupid uneducated primates
      2. Promote
      3.or they simply do not care about the homeland and those who built and defended it, shed blood and died ... they sleep and see how to escape from the court, and then, like some, and pour mud over the hill ...
  24. Ratmir_Ryazan
    Ratmir_Ryazan 14 February 2018 22: 20
    +1
    Yes, they didn’t pay gold ?! But how did the United States manage to help everyone concentrate 80% of the world's gold reserves ?!

    Very simply, those deliveries that came from Lend-Lease ones came at prices several times higher than the fair value of what they supplied and forced the USSR to pay an inflated price, which ultimately allowed the United States to concentrate 80% of the world's gold reserves after the war. ..

    After the war, ships with Soviet gold were raised, and they are looking for them now, there are tons of them !!!

    Here's an example:

    In April 1942, a convoy of Allied ships left Murmansk for England. On board the cruiser Edinburgh - 93 wooden crates with 465 gold bars. Total weight - 5534 kg. Payment of the USSR for British weapons.

    On May 1, a German submarine torpedoed the Edinburgh. Although he remained afloat, he could not return to Murmansk. Having removed the crew, the British sank their cruiser with our gold. In 1981, the English treasure hunt firm Jesson Marine Rikaveriz concluded an agreement with the authorities of the USSR and Great Britain on the search and raising of gold. The Edinburgh lay at a depth of 250 meters (Port Nicholson at 213 meters). In difficult conditions, divers managed to lift 5129 kg. According to the agreement, 2/3 of the gold received by the USSR, 1/3 - Great Britain. The rescue company did not remain unprofitable: both countries unfastened 45% of the saved treasures for her work. After 5 years, the same company lifted another 345 kg. At the bottom there were 60 kg.

    This ship alone carried 5,5 tons of gold !!!

    But from fresh:

    Exactly three years ago (or rather, January 25, 2009), King Brooks, the sea treasure hunter, made a similar statement. His company, Sub Sea Research, specializing in the search for sunken treasures, discovered a ship under the code name “Blue Baron” off the coast of Guyana (hiding the names of the vessels found from competitors is a common practice of commercial archaeologists). The Baron was transporting super-high-value cargo from Europe to New York: 3,2 tons of diamonds (16 million carats!) And half a ton of rough diamonds, presumably belonging to Great Britain, as well as 10 tons of gold and 71 tons of platinum from the USSR. Plus copper, tin. All this was intended for the US Treasury to pay for military cargo under Lend-Lease. However, the Baron was torpedoed in 1942 by a German U-87 submarine. Died a year later from Canadian depth charges.

    Now think about how many ships it took and how much gold the United States received in the end from the USSR ?! For free, the USA does nothing, and moreover they don’t help anyone ...
  25. Mortifer666
    Mortifer666 30 October 2018 07: 18
    0
    The site administration is as deceitful as the author of the article. Especially smiled the mention of the free lend-lease)))))
  26. snku
    snku 30 November 2019 14: 20
    0
    I propose to set up Len-Lease museums in the Russian Federation and allied countries for the 75th anniversary of Victory, which include the entire range of supplies - from aircraft and tanks to Studebakers, Wilis and American "second front" stew. I am sure that military-historical societies and groups of reenactors from many countries will gladly take part in this.
  27. Lbaralgeen
    Lbaralgeen 9 December 2019 06: 28
    0
    How would the USSR plan to help Britain 39-40? In 1940, France and Britain intended to bomb the oil fields of the USSR.

    The USSR was already fighting Nazism in Spain. And for some reason Britain was not going to help Spain. The share of all Britain in wars is 6%, according to historians.

    No need to lie about mixing. Soviet aircraft flew beautifully on Soviet gasoline. And gas supplies were exclusively for American aircraft at the request of the United States.

    The USSR produced the full range of weapons and equipment, but who would refuse free help.

    Sherman. German tanks burned them like a match. There were American planes and the British abandoned them. As a result, they were sent to the USSR.

    The USSR had unlimited resources, but the European Union did not. Yes, the war would have lasted a month, but we would have lost more people. But the USSR would occupy the territory before Britain and include Japan and Korea.

    Only Kolyma delivered 400 tons - at a price of $ 35.50 per gram = 120 million tons.

    Officially, lend-lease supplies were suspended on May 12, 1945. From that moment until the Red Army crossed the Manchu border, supplies were carried out according to the "special program on October 17," that is, paid. By the way, in the midst of the Battle of Stalingrad, supplies were completely stopped. The reason was the almost complete defeat of the legendary convoy PQ-17, abandoned by its own guard ...
    When they begin to count military cargo and supplies, as they would now say "dual-use", then for some reason they do not take into account the losses in their delivery. Meanwhile, out of 12366 tanks sent to the USSR, 10864 reached their destination. 443 light and 1058 medium tanks still lie at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. For your information, during the Great Patriotic War, 14694 light tanks were produced in the USSR. Only 1260 light Lend-Lease tanks reached the Soviet ports, and almost all of them, like the 443 that did not arrive, were purchased. Starting from 1942, on the Eastern Front, the Wehrmacht and the Red Army used combat vehicles of this type by inertia. In tank battles, which is called "wall to wall", there was no particular need for them.

    As for medium tanks, the Americans, British and Canadians supplied us with 10662 combat vehicles, of which 9604 safely reached the USSR. 54713 were produced at domestic factories. There was only one unit of heavy tanks supplied to the USSR. We bought the only M-26 Pershing for testing. It can be seen today in the exposition of the museum in Kubinka. During the war, Soviet industry produced 7841 heavy tanks.

    By the way, cars assembled at domestic plants according to official statistics are not included in the number of 219 thousand cars produced during the war in the USSR. And it should be included ... It is difficult to say how many cars produced in the pre-war years, survived to the end of the war. But it is known for certain that only on May 1, 1945, there were 60 and a half thousand only captured vehicles in the Red Army. That is, domestic cars were an order of magnitude larger.

    As for the Lend-Lease vehicles, apart from the “Studebakers”, “Wilis”, “Dodge” amphibians, “Gi-Pee-Wee” amphibians, which have proven themselves on the front roads, sometimes “original” cars were supplied to the Union. somehow GMC and Reo without a roof ... For Africa or Italy, they were just right, but not for the Union.
    It is known for certain that three Soviet ships became victims of American submariners.

    The commander of the submarine "Sofish" in one day on February 17, 1943, wrote down five thousand tonnages to his combat account, drowning the Soviet dry cargo ships "Kola" and "Ilmen". More successful turned out to be his colleague, who commanded the Spadefish submarine, who sent 13 tons of Soviet tonnage to the bottom on June 1945, 11439 - the Transbalt transport.
    This is where curious arithmetic begins. So, the stew and canned borscht, which were produced in the USA by order of the USSR and according to the Soviet recipe, as well as things that were so exotic and absolutely unnecessary for the soldiers ’diet, like chocolate or chicken meat in chocolate, were eaten.

    The barbed wire, which the Americans continued to supply with tenacity worthy of better use, both in 1944 and 1945, despite requests from Moscow to send something more needed at that time, remained rusted on the ground of the defensive battles of the Red Army. Copper and aluminum went to enterprises. For petroleum products, which, incidentally, were suitable only for refueling Lend-Lease aviation equipment, which was capricious in terms of fuel, we fully paid off due to the return supply of crude oil and petroleum products during the war years.

    But the point is different. Under Lend-Lease, we were offered another "wartime product", which by some miracle escaped the steel boom of the 20s ... The dry-cargo steamers Belinsky, Lev Tolstoy, Kuzma Minin, Magadan, supplied under the Lend-Lease, "Poltava", "Sukhona", "Fabricius", "Yan Tomp", "Rodina" and "Vishera" were returned due to "unsatisfactory technical condition". The Samarkand dry cargo ship was not returned because of fears that it would not be able to cross the ocean due to its dilapidated state and was turned into a floating hostel. The service life of all the above vessels from the moment of their transfer to the Soviet Union to their return to the United States varied from three years to three months ...

    During the war, 4 Lend-Lease dry cargo ships were lost. In the first post-war years - five more. In addition, out of the three British "empires", in 1946, by agreement, we returned two.

    But there is also the last argument, they say, the machines supplied under Lend-Lease were much more complicated than the Soviet ones. However, for some reason, no one asked the question: "Why is the production of technically" primitive "(which does not mean at all that it is bad) weapons and military equipment the most complicated equipment"?

    Now the locomotives and wagons. During the war years, 1981 steam locomotive and 11156 wagons arrived from the United States. At the same time, only 92 steam locomotives and more than one thousand wagons were built in the Soviet Union. Help seems tangible. But citing these figures, the authors, as a rule, lose sight of the fact that deliveries must be compared with pre-war rolling stock.

    As of January 1, 1940 there were more than 26 thousand steam locomotives, and about 150 thousand freight wagons. During the war years, the Soviet Union lost, for various reasons, about 15800 locomotives. Even taking into account these losses, the share of American assistance is not so great.

    But the most important thing is that the steam locomotives ordered back in 1943 from the Baldvin and ALKo firms began to arrive only in the middle of 1944. In the history of steam locomotives, it happened the same as with merchant ships. Part of the locomotives that were to be supplied under the contract were rejected by the Soviet Union. We will not dwell on the technical side of the issue. Just note that similar steam locomotives were supplied to Russia by the same two firms during the First World War ... (!!!)

    pre-lend-lease - from June 22, 1941 to September 30, 1941 (paid in gold)
    1. Alexey K._2
      Alexey K._2 26 January 2020 19: 20
      0
      Amazingly long, hysterical and empty comment. Britain was already at war with Hitler when the USSR sent congratulations to Germany on successful military operations in Europe, as well as oil and other resources Hitler needed for war with Britain.
      Quote: LBaralgeen

      The USSR was already fighting Nazism in Spain. And for some reason Britain was not going to help Spain. The share of all Britain in wars is 6%, according to historians.

      To write about Spain is simply dementia. With what fright, monarchist Britain should help the communist leadership of Spain, which decided to take away and share other people's property. Actually because of this, the civil war began.
      Quote: LBaralgeen

      The USSR produced the full range of weapons and equipment, but who would refuse free help.

      Of course, that’s why the Nazis traveled 600km in the first month of the war. and captured hundreds of thousands of Red Army soldiers. In the first months of the war, the Lend-Lease was not approved in the USA. The USSR bought weapons for gold. Here is such a "spectrum."


      Quote: LBaralgeen

      The USSR had unlimited resources, but the European Union did not. Yes, the war would have lasted a month, but we would have lost more people. But the USSR would occupy the territory before Britain and include Japan and Korea.

      A resident of a country writes that even in peacetime makes cars worse than in resourceless Japan.

      Quote: LBaralgeen

      When they begin to count military cargo and supplies, as they would now say "dual-use", then for some reason they do not take into account the losses in their delivery. Meanwhile, out of 12366 tanks sent to the USSR, 10864 reached their destination.

      No one ever claimed payment for drowned goods. Lend-lease was considered only what came.
      Quote: LBaralgeen

      The barbed wire, which the Americans continued to supply with tenacity worthy of better use, both in 1944 and 1945, despite requests from Moscow to send something more needed at that time, remained rusted on the ground of the defensive battles of the Red Army. Copper and aluminum went to enterprises.

      An insignificant fact came in, but he “forgot” to mention about gunpowder, explosives, sheet steel for the production of tanks, radio stations, medical instruments and preparations.
      Quote: LBaralgeen

      Now the locomotives and wagons. During the war years, 1981 steam locomotive and 11156 wagons arrived from the United States. At the same time, only 92 steam locomotives and more than one thousand wagons were built in the Soviet Union. Help seems tangible. But citing these figures, the authors, as a rule, lose sight of the fact that deliveries must be compared with pre-war rolling stock.
      As of January 1, 1940 there were more than 26 thousand steam locomotives, and about 150 thousand freight wagons. During the war years, the Soviet Union lost, for various reasons, about 15800 locomotives. Even taking into account these losses, the share of American assistance is not so great.

      Lend-lease deliveries were completed according to orders of the Soviet side. Never have any claims been made regarding Lend-Lease by the leadership of the USSR. Only the current generation of shredding patriots is capable of such enchanting nonsense.
  28. Gennady Kapitonov
    Gennady Kapitonov 8 February 2020 14: 33
    0
    I disagree with the author in the assessment. Only three positions: steam locomotives, wagons and aviation fuel speaks of substantial help. If Guderian didn’t turn his columns to the south at 41m, Moscow would have to turn in ... So, both Japan and Turkey could enter in the war .... We were on the verge in 41 years.