Military Review

Pact

28

On the 75th anniversary of the Victory in World War II, the TV channelHistory"Conducts a nationwide campaign-competition" I am proud. " Everyone can shoot and send a video to the contest about why he is proud of his great-grandfather, grandfather or someone close to them who participated in the Great Patriotic War. This is a story of a feat that is stored in every Russian family. You can familiarize yourself with the rules of the contest, as well as send your work on the site lagor.rf


Today we recall the summer of 1939, when in Moscow the representatives of England, France and the USSR were in tense negotiations on the possible creation of an anti-Hitler coalition. For the Soviet leadership was a complete surprise statement by Western diplomats that they did not have the authority to conclude any agreement. On August 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim Ribbentrop flew to the capital of the USSR. That same night, the Soviet-German treaty was signed in the Kremlin. The Soviet Union and Germany agreed not to attack each other. Why did Stalin agree with Hitler? What conditions were contained in the secret protocols to the contract? And is it true that the main goal of the Soviet government was to occupy the countries of Eastern Europe?

Top secret
The Soviet-German non-aggression treaty has long been considered one of the most classified documents of the twentieth century. For eighty years no one knew where it is stored. The original contract was not published in print. In the Soviet Union, this document was never officially investigated, and the existence of secret protocols was denied. Only at the end of Gorbachev's perestroika, when the country announced a policy of publicity, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact again became the subject of discussion. It was stated that the agreement with Hitler should be considered Stalin's personal decision, and the Soviet people did not bear any responsibility for him. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and its secret protocol were published by the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in May 2019. This treaty, concluded 80 years ago, still affects international relations. Most countries of the Western world, the Baltic states and Eastern Europe consider this document as proof of the guilt of the USSR in starting the Second World War. But is it really so?

The reasons that prompted Stalin to make a deal with Hitler lie in the events that took place in Europe on the eve of World War II. In the 30s of the twentieth century, Soviet-German relations were in a deep crisis. Having come to power, Hitler said that he considers communism to be the main threat to the German people. In Germany, the communist movement was banned, and its participants sent to prisons and camps. The ideologists of Nazism announced the creation of a German racial empire - the Third Reich - which will dominate all of Europe. The core of this state should be the territories of Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland. The goals and objectives of the Nazi elite were openly formulated in the program documents of the Nazi party and were never hidden. Although it was precisely the representatives of the left forces who were sharply negative towards Nazism in the countries of Western Europe, the majority of Western politicians still regarded the Soviet Union as the main threat to Europe. Hitler used these moods in his own interests.

In 1936, German troops occupied the demilitarized Rhine region. In March 1938, Hitler annexed Austria to the Reich without firing a shot. Six months later, he demanded that Germany be returned to the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia, where the German population lived. Czechoslovakia was bound by mutual assistance treaties with France and the Soviet Union. In the event of an attack by Germany, these countries were to take the side of the Czechs. On September 21, 1938, at the plenum of the League of Nations, the Soviet envoy Litvinov announced that the USSR was ready to help the ally. On the southwestern border of the USSR, troops were put on alert. In the event of a war with Germany, the Soviet leadership asked Poland to let the Red Army through its territory to the Czech border. But Poland refused categorically. At this time, the French and British were already negotiating the inclusion of the Sudetenland in the sphere of influence of Nazi Germany. An agreement on the transfer of these lands was signed on September 30, 1938 in Munich and subsequently received the name "Munich Agreement". As a result, Czechoslovakia lost a third of its territory. Germany received more than half of all Czech coal, zinc and graphite reserves. Czech industry became one of the main pillars of the economy of the Third Reich during the Second World War.

Questions to Poland
An independent Polish republic took an active part in the Czechoslovak section. Back in 1934, Poland was the first European country to sign a non-use of force treaty with Hitler. On the day of the conclusion of the Munich Agreement, with the support of the Germans, the Polish army occupied the Teshin region of Czechoslovakia. At the same time, Hitler had serious territorial claims against the Poles. Poland separated Germany from East Prussia. Hitler sought to reunite these lands. In January 1939, he summoned the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland, Jozef Beck, to Berlin and presented him with an ultimatum. Its essence was as follows: the Poles must hand over the free city of Danzig to Germany and provide the possibility of building highways through the so-called “Danzig Corridor” in order to link the territory of Germany divided into two parts. The Poles rejected this ultimatum and thereby actually signed a sentence.

On April 11, 1939, Hitler approved the directive on preparations for the military invasion of Poland. The attack was to begin no later than September 1 of that year. In response, England and France entered into a mutual assistance agreement with Poland. A few days later, negotiations on the Polish crisis began in Moscow. The Soviet side proposed concluding an anti-Hitler Anglo-Franco-Soviet union and signing a military convention. Saving Poland for the USSR was a matter of their own national security. Negotiations on the creation of an anti-Hitler coalition lasted several months, but did not lead to any result. The main obstacle to the conclusion of the anti-Hitler union was the position of Poland. To ensure its protection in the event of war, the Soviet side proposed to let the Red Army through Polish territory to the German border. But the Poles again refused. The German attack on Poland was due to begin in a month, and no agreements were reached with England and France.

Military alliance
Hitler closely followed the negotiations in Moscow. The war with the Soviet Union was not in his immediate plans. On the contrary, for the success of the Polish campaign, he needed to neutralize the potential threat from the East. The very next day after the failure of the Soviet-Polish negotiations - on August 15 - the German ambassador in Moscow, Schulenburg, delivered a message from Berlin to Molotov. Hitler is ready to conclude a military alliance with Stalin. It was a complete surprise. According to the agreement, the parties pledged not to attack each other and not to join military alliances against them. In a secret protocol to the pact, the USSR and Germany agreed on the delineation of areas of interest in Eastern Europe in the event of war. The zone of influence of the USSR included most of the eastern territory of Poland. Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia were also classified as Soviet interests. The Germans had to maintain control of Western Poland and Lithuania. The agreement, signed within one day, became a worldwide sensation. On August 25, 1939, England and France entered into a military alliance with Poland. But this could not stop Hitler. On September 1, the Germans invaded Poland.

The western regions of Poland were occupied by the Wehrmacht in just 4 weeks. On September 17, the Polish government fled to Romania. The rest of the Polish army was not led by anyone. On September 17, 1939, the Red Army entered the eastern regions of Poland, where Ukrainians and Belarusians lived. In November, the territories where the Belarusian and Ukrainian populations lived were included in the Soviet Union.

In September 1939, the Soviet government conducted intense negotiations with the Baltic republics on the conclusion of a military alliance. On September 28, the USSR and Estonia signed a mutual assistance pact. The parties committed themselves to provide each other with economic and military assistance in the event of an attack by any European power. The Soviet Union received the right to lease Estonian naval bases and airfields. A week later, the USSR concluded similar agreements with Latvia and Lithuania. In all three republics, allied USSR coalition governments were formed, and parliamentary elections were held. The newly elected parliaments proclaimed the creation of the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian socialist republics. In early August, they were accepted into the Soviet Union.

Condemning the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in words, in fact, many countries of Eastern Europe, having gained independence, continue to use its fruits. In the summer of 1940, the USSR annexed Bessarabia captured by Romania, on the territory of which modern Moldavia subsequently arose. Belarus and Ukraine received vast territories in the West, which to this day are part of these states. A third of its modern territory was annexed to Lithuania, including the capital, the city of Vilnius. At the beginning of the XNUMXst century, EU countries unanimously condemned the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact as an act of Soviet aggression. However, not one of the new states has ever abandoned the territories acquired through this document.

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  1. Same lech
    Same lech April 24 2020 04: 56 New
    +1
    . At the beginning of the XNUMXst century, EU countries unanimously condemned the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact as an act of Soviet aggression. However, not one of the new states has ever abandoned the territories acquired through this document.

    History has not taught anything to these countries ... NATO, which includes these countries, is gradually gradually preparing to march east ... Poles and Germans have their eyes on Kaliningrad ... the Balts in the Pskov and Novgorod regions ... Romanians are not averse to seizing Ukraine ... the Turks of Crimea ... the Anglo-Saxons dream of Siberia ... the Japanese about the Kuril Islands and the Far East ... the Finns are not averse to grab Karelia at the opportunity.
    In general, in the long run, the appetites of these countries remained the same as in the last century.
    And what about Russia? smile looking at how our Foreign Ministry constantly expresses concern and bewilderment it seems to me that our partners, in quotation marks, will only provoke their appetite with demands on our state.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 April 24 2020 05: 33 New
      +5
      In modern RUSSIA, Vlasov's followers are frankly grown. the one who, for the sake of his career, vowed love for the SOVIET AUTHORITY, and then became a traitor. He also tried to * cook up * the ideological justification for betrayal.
      It is frankly a pity that there are wretched people who believe not in historical facts, but in the interpretation of historical events.
      1. knn54
        knn54 April 24 2020 11: 55 New
        +1
        It would be nice if VO about the Munich conspiracy to place material. From the "textbooks" on history only harm.
    2. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee April 24 2020 05: 55 New
      +1
      Quote: The same Lech
      our Foreign Ministry is constantly concerned
      And that still interesting virus arose and oil fell unexpectedly .... The haymaking in a leap year!
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 05: 21 New
    11
    For Russia, even the fact that Hitler rolled Poland was a real blessing, only with this did the Pact justify itself 200 percent.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech April 24 2020 05: 46 New
      +9
      only by this did the Pact justify itself 200 percent.


      Poland is striving for this again ... I marvel at their folly ... after all, the sign of God was sent to the Poles, do not go into Russia ... meet Smolensk birch and Ivan Susanin again ... they do not want to understand anything.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine April 24 2020 08: 49 New
        +4
        Quote: The same Lech
        meet Smolensk birch and Ivan Susanin again ... they do not want to understand anything.

        How many goats do not beat, all the same butting climbs!
  3. Gennady Korsunov
    Gennady Korsunov April 24 2020 05: 43 New
    +1
    Proud of those people who defended the country of course you need !! Just looking now at this country and the descendants of those who defended it is not something that the hunt is proud to cry !!
    1. Lipchanin
      Lipchanin April 24 2020 05: 51 New
      +2
      Quote: Gennady Korsunov
      and the descendants of those who defended it not that the hunt is proud to cry !!

      Have you looked in the mirror? belay
      1. Lipchanin
        Lipchanin April 24 2020 06: 11 New
        +5
        And here I am proud of Russia in which the descendants of those who defended and made Russia a great country grow !!!
        1. apro
          apro April 24 2020 06: 25 New
          -6
          Quote: Lipchanin
          And here I am proud of Russia in which the descendants of those who defended and made Russia a great country grow !!!

          Dear Russia and that country which consisted a little different ... to say the least.
          1. Lipchanin
            Lipchanin April 24 2020 06: 31 New
            +9
            Russia is written with a BIG letter.
            And it is natural that different. She got stronger
            1. apro
              apro April 24 2020 06: 33 New
              -7
              It is not natural that Russia is the grave digger of the USSR. And continues to destroy the Soviet legacy ...
              1. Dart2027
                Dart2027 April 24 2020 06: 49 New
                +4
                Quote: apro
                Russia is the grave digger of the USSR

                Then what in the USSR did Suvorov, Kutuzov, Ushakov, Dmitry Donskoy, etc. consider as their history?
          2. bistrov.
            bistrov. April 24 2020 06: 43 New
            +2
            Quote: apro
            Russia and that country which stood a little different

            I do not like? Borders are open, forward, to the West, the streets are sweeping ...
            1. Lipchanin
              Lipchanin April 24 2020 07: 00 New
              +3
              Quote: bistrov.
              I do not like?

              Paraphrasing a little
        2. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine April 24 2020 08: 55 New
          +5
          Quote: Lipchanin
          And here I am proud of Russia in which the descendants of those who defended and made Russia a great country grow !!!

  4. Gardamir
    Gardamir April 24 2020 07: 50 New
    -1
    Finally! Details, available, by years. And then many heard the ringing ...
    I think it’s time for ourselves to shape the ideology of Russia. One of the points is the denial of the usefulness of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact at that time, deliberate harm aimed at discrediting Russia.
    1. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk April 24 2020 10: 04 New
      +2
      Quote: Gardamir
      Finally! Details, available, by years.

      Unfortunately not in detail. For some reason, a very important point is not mentioned. Stalin, knowing the urgent need for Hitler to not conclude an anti-Hitler union, and therefore offered Stalin his non-aggression pact, decided to take advantage of this. Hitler was told that the first step to such an agreement should be an economic agreement. And it was signed. Under this agreement, Germany provided a huge loan, for which the USSR ordered the German industry equipment for plants under construction: machine-tool, chemical, aviation, etc., etc., etc.
      In addition, Germany handed over to the USSR samples of modern weapons: aircraft, anti-aircraft guns, etc.
    2. Doctor
      Doctor April 24 2020 19: 43 New
      0
      One of the points is the denial of utility at the time of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

      Not everything is so simple. Otherwise, they would not have argued for 80 years.
  5. svp67
    svp67 April 24 2020 07: 57 New
    +2
    Here are the differences between Stalinist diplomacy and Western. There, much rests on the "gentleman's word", which at the right time can be taken back. Joseph Vissarionovich trusted only the signed papers. What “words of a gentleman” did Chamberlain give to Hitler in Munich if we find out, it will not be very soon, the UK is doing everything to keep the archives from shedding light on this longer.
    And here’s another moment, they always urge us to “repent”, saying: “Repent and there will be nothing for you, just lighten your soul”. And whenever we follow this advice of theirs, the words will soon sound: “pay, since you have repented and admitted guilt” ...
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine April 24 2020 08: 58 New
      +3
      Quote: svp67
      And here’s another moment, they always call us to “repent”, saying: “Repent and there will be nothing for you, just lighten your soul”.

      And why repent for the fact that our fathers took Berlin, or for the release of Auschwitz ???
  6. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine April 24 2020 09: 01 New
    +2
    At the beginning of the XNUMXst century, EU countries unanimously condemned the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact as an act of Soviet aggression.
    The Molotov-Ribentrop Pact is one of the most significant acts signed by the government of the USSR.
  7. nikvic46
    nikvic46 April 24 2020 11: 03 New
    +2
    If we talk about the victory of 1945, then I have pride in the USSR and the Soviet people. There is nothing more to say.
  8. sportmega0505
    sportmega0505 April 24 2020 14: 50 New
    +2
    I believe that the start date of World War II is determined by Western historians and politicians intentionally. This was done so that all the pacts of Western countries with Hitler, the Munich conspiracy, its participants and details, the occupation of the Czech Republic by Poland, etc. remain outside the main event. Bastards and bastards, and what is essential, are the main arsonists of the war!
  9. spandau_prison
    spandau_prison April 26 2020 03: 34 New
    +1
    The Soviet-German non-aggression pact was long considered one of the most classified documents of the twentieth century. For eighty years no one knew where it is stored. The original contract was not published in print.

    Or maybe the author should read something from historical literature?
    The agreement was published in the newspaper Pravda one day after the conclusion. At the Nuremberg trials, he was among the documents submitted by the Soviet side. It was an open document. In whose sails does the author try to blow, casting a shadow over the wattle fence?
  10. Charlie
    Charlie April 30 2020 09: 16 New
    0
    Quote: Lipchanin
    And here I am proud of Russia in which the descendants of those who defended and made Russia a great country grow !!!

    Not great. Big just
  11. Charlie
    Charlie April 30 2020 09: 31 New
    0
    Quote: knn54
    It would be nice if VO about the Munich conspiracy to place material. From the "textbooks" on history only harm.

    It would be nice to place material on the report of the High Command of the German Army to the German government on the concentration of Soviet troops against Germany