XNUMXst Century Higgins Boat


LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha landing zone, photo: waralbum.ru


In the United States, they seriously thought about creating a new landing craft. The new development in the American press is already called the Higgins boat of the XXI century. The famous LCVP landing craft and its closest relatives, created after World War II, no longer fully suit the US military. The design of the new landing ship was designated SHARC (Small High-Speed ​​Amphibious Role-Variant Craft). Unlike all its predecessors, the possibility of remote control and fully autonomous operation should be realized on the new landing boat.

Landing boats type LCVP


An LCVP landing craft, also known as a Higgins boat, is the most famous landing craft in stories. And it's not even that the boat was built in a huge series. These boats were actively used by the Americans during major landing operations of World War II. They are familiar to many by the frames of photo and newsreels from the beaches of Normandy or Iwo Jima. In the future, boats more than once appeared on screens in feature films and often appeared in computer games. One of the most famous examples from the cinema is Steven Spielberg’s film “Saving Private Ryan”.

LCVP (Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel - a landing craft of personnel and equipment) was the most massive type of landing boats that were used by the U.S. military to transport landing ships to the coast of the Marine Corps and various weapons and cargoes. The boat could be used to land on an unequipped coast. LCVPs were widely used in the landing operations of World War II, including for landing conventional infantry units on shore. Boats were released in a huge series. For the U.S. Navy alone, over 15 years, 22 units were produced. At the same time, during the war years, 492 more of these boats were built and transferred to the Allies under the Lend-Lease program.


US troops in the Utah landing zone. In the foreground boat LCVP, photo: waralbum.ru

The landing boat was created by the designer and engineer Andrew Higgins, so he also went down in history under the designation Higgins boat, or Higgins boat. Initially, the designer relied on exclusively civilian use of his products. The project was commercial and was created for operation in shallow water and marshland. It was planned to use the boat in Louisiana, including for the exploration of oil fields, but the war made adjustments, and Higgins quickly converted the project to the needs of the army and fleet.

A distinctive feature of all LCVP boats was the nose ramp, which simplified the process of landing on any coast. The same technical solution seriously simplified the process of loading equipment and cargo on board the boat. In one voyage, a Higgins boat could bring ashore up to 36 soldiers (full platoon) or up to 3,7 tons of various cargoes, or a small army off-road vehicle. The crew of the boat could consist of three people, including two shooters who could support the landing with fire from large-caliber 12,7 mm M2 machine guns. Maximum speed - 9 knots (up to 17 km / h).

After the end of World War II, the operation of LCVP boats continued. At the same time, a whole family of structurally similar amphibious assault weapons, but increased in size, was created in the United States. For example, even during the war years, construction began on the LCM-6 landing craft, which surpassed the LCVP in all respects. These ships could deliver ashore up to 60 paratroopers or up to 34,5 tons of various cargoes, including one medium tank "Sherman".

Already after the war, the LCM-8 version appeared, featuring a large displacement and even more increased carrying capacity. The speed of such boats without cargo increased to 12 knots, and the carrying capacity - up to 60 tons. Such a boat could easily transport ashore up to 200 soldiers, or new Tanks: M48 medium tank or M60 main battle tank.


LCM-8 landing boats carry M60 tanks

At the same time, by the beginning of the XNUMXst century, these ships had become outdated. They are a pretty easy target for any modern weapons, not just rocket. The disadvantages of such amphibious assault include their low speed, as well as the need for a crew, which on boats LCM-6 and LCM-8 consisted of 5 and 4 people, respectively. At the same time, the boats are not the smallest in size, especially the LCM-8, which could be used to transfer tanks to the landing zone. Both the LCVP and LCM-8 in the USA are actively preparing a replacement.

How Americans see the new landing craft


The Navy and the US Marine Corps are ready to return to the arena relatively small landing craft, but at a new round of technological development. In the XNUMXst century, landing operations became even more risky than during the Second World War. Developed countries have acquired numerous high-precision weapons. For example, Russia and the PRC have good coastal defense equipment, including modern missile systems capable of hitting any landing ship still on the approach to the coast.

The problem for the American army is that the weaker armies of the world, and even individual armed groups, for example, Hezbollah, received guided missile weapons. So the likelihood that the enemy will hit landing ships even at a distance of 50 or 100 miles from the coast has increased significantly. At the same time, it is not possible to solve the problem only at the expense of modern amphibious vehicles. Yes, they are small in size and have a good level of protection against small arms fire and fragments of shells and mines, but they can’t be used in case of serious unrest at sea and are not able to make long distances. Amphibious armored personnel carriers still have to be planted as close to the shore as possible and at a low wave height.

That is why the fleet and the Marine Corps need small vessels that can deliver infantry, light weapons and military equipment to the shore, operating in the landing zone. First of all, a new landing vehicle is necessary for the delivery of troops, small-sized ground vehicles, light weapons systems, fuel, electrical equipment, ammunition, drinking water, provisions, etc.


U.S. drone tests

As a possible variant of the new landing ship, which is already called the Higgins boat of the XXI century, in the United States consider the project, known as SHARC (Small High-Speed ​​Amphibious Role-Variant Craft). According to The National Interest, a new high-speed vessel should deliver troops and property ashore at a speed of at least 25 knots (46 km / h). In this case, the ship should carry ashore up to 5 tons of payloads, and the maximum range should be 200 nautical miles (370 km). Some approximate dimensions of the future vessel are also known: the deck length is 13 feet (4 meters), the ramp width in the narrowest place is 5 feet (1,5 meters), and draft is 30 inches (0,76 meters).

An important feature of the new small high-speed amphibious assault should be the ability to work without a crew completely offline or in remote control mode, when the movement of the vessel will be controlled from the side of a large landing ship or from the shore. It is obvious that the fleet and marines will only be equipped with robotic boats, since they expect to get a modern tool that meets the challenges of today. At the same time, the landing craft itself must be modular so that it can easily be used for different missions. For example, the possibility of presenting such a landing boat as a platform for accommodating various weapons or unmanned aerial vehicles (both air and underwater) is being considered.
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  1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 05: 17 New
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    In this case, the ship must carry ashore up to 5 tons of payloads
    Well, what will it be, with such a carrying capacity? Without armor, it’s useless from the airborne assault when seizing the bridgehead, and with the seized bridgehead these babies are already not particularly needed, I think.
    1. Same lech April 24 2020 05: 25 New
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      One of the most famous examples from the cinema is Steven Spielberg’s film “Saving Private Ryan”.

      Yes, he opened the front hatch and hello to the infantry ... a mass grave ... here the main thing is to fall overboard in time before the bullet flew into the forehead.
      1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 05: 28 New
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        Quote: The same Lech
        Yes, I opened the front hatch
        Ramp.
        1. Same lech April 24 2020 05: 40 New
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          Ramp.

          One hell ... if a bullet flies in the forehead it makes no difference. smile
          1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 05: 42 New
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            Quote: The same Lech
            if a bullet flies in the forehead it doesn’t matter

            Yes, yes. )))
      2. Alexey RA April 24 2020 15: 08 New
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        Quote: The same Lech
        Yes, he opened the front hatch and hello to the infantry ... mass grave ...

        You just need to push the coastal defense.
        An alternative to the ramp is to fully climb over the sideboard and jump from it into the water, with a depth of 0,5-1 m. And then crawl ashore, wet to the waist. It is especially good to do this at a water temperature of less than 10 degrees, and even with a breeze. smile However, you can still try to put the gangway (under fire, yes) and go ashore along it.
        Oh yes, forget about the delivery of light equipment or artillery along with the landing: there is no ramp - there is no unloading of equipment.
        1. Liam April 24 2020 15: 21 New
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          Quote: Alexey RA
          It is especially good to do this at a water temperature of less than 10 degrees, and even with a breeze

          Well, at a water temperature of less than 10, unless a bruise can be earned)
          1. Lopatov April 24 2020 16: 40 New
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            Quote: Liam
            Well, at a water temperature of less than 10, unless a bruise can be earned)

            laughing

            Captain Evidence states that bruising is possible at temperatures below zero degrees. Adjusted for salinity.
        2. Lopatov April 24 2020 16: 35 New
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          The British. By the way, there was a very unpleasant experience in the landing operation
    2. Lopatov April 24 2020 08: 19 New
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      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Well, what will it be, with such a carrying capacity?

      For example, M327 120mm EFSS.
      Two boats - two conveyors with mortar and with a trailer for ammunition
      1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 08: 34 New
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        Well these armored assailants can not be called.
        1. Lopatov April 24 2020 08: 36 New
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          Why do they need armor?
          The main thing here is firepower. Still, 120 mm is 120 mm. Especially in the rifled version.
          1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 08: 38 New
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            Quote: Spade
            The main thing here is firepower
            Firepower is good, but when capturing a bridgehead, what kind of armor is needed, and mortars in jeeps are unlikely to go in the first wave.
            1. Lopatov April 24 2020 08: 44 New
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              Quote: Vladimir_2U
              but when seizing a bridgehead, what kind of armor is needed

              1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 08: 59 New
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                Quite right, but here a contradiction creeps in: the bridgehead is already occupied and dances with drones are not particularly needed, logistics can be provided with conventional boats. It seems that the drones in this case have been dragged as a tribute to fashion.
                1. Lopatov April 24 2020 11: 57 New
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                  Quote: Vladimir_2U
                  It seems that the drones in this case have been dragged as a tribute to fashion.

                  This is not a fashion, this is a fundamental decision
                  They try to apply in new samples the so-called "optionally controlled" option. A somewhat unfortunate term meaning "drove a carrier, but you can drop it"
                  Trucks, helicopters. And now the boat.
              2. Potter April 24 2020 12: 25 New
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                Amerikosov for the first wave of landing has almost an AAV7A1 landing craft tracked armored personnel carrier - in VO in 2016 there was an article about him.
                1. Vladimir_2U April 24 2020 13: 30 New
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                  Quote: Potter
                  AAV7A1

                  Girlhood LVTP-7.
  2. Donald72 April 24 2020 05: 45 New
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    It seems to me that using a drone when transporting people is a mistake. Any damage and cargo only to the Varangian sing. No chance of a quick repair.
    1. The leader of the Redskins April 24 2020 06: 54 New
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      With tongue removed. There can be a lot of input during the landing, and if the boat "spars" according to the program, or "freezes" without communication ...
  3. andrewkor April 24 2020 07: 50 New
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    Chastooshka from childhood, to the motive of rock and roll.
    Somewhere in the Pacific
    Sinking barge with dudes.
    The Chawaki are not discouraged.
    Rock accordion break.
    About the heroic four, carried into the ocean on the prototype LCM.
    1. Alexey RA April 24 2020 15: 20 New
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      Quote: andrewkor
      Somewhere in the Pacific
      Sinking barge with dudes.
      The Chawaki are not discouraged.
      Rock accordion break.

      Ziganshin boogie, Ziganshin rock, Ziganshin ate a second boot
      Quote: andrewkor
      About the heroic four, carried into the ocean on the prototype LCM.

      More precisely, on a landing boat (self-propelled barge) T-36 project 306, designed on the basis of LCM (3). And LCM (3) was the ancestor of LCM-6.
      Ziganshin, Poplavsky, Kryuchkovsky, Fedotov. 49 days at sea.
    2. il-z April 24 2020 16: 59 New
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      Nowhere striving, no need to live,
      No new feats
      Gagarin has already circled the earth!
      Ziganshin has already eaten his boots!

      So the guys are heroic, and this was written from the words of the mother of my fellow student by her neighbor.
  4. common man April 24 2020 08: 57 New
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    What is the meaning of drone? It's like, we’ll save the life of the crew (2-3 people), and the landing party (20-30 fighters) - well, and God bless them?
    Is it like in the Airborne Forces, IL-76 without a crew?
    1. Aag
      Aag April 24 2020 10: 25 New
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      The meaning is seen in the remote control (remote control) from the BDK to return from the landing site to the same BDK for your own portion of the landing. I don’t think that boats of this type have a very difficult control (well, certainly not like the IL-76: - )) so that the amphibious sergeant from among the airborne could not bring him (the boat) to the shore. Due to this, the payload can be increased. it’s useful to have double control. The crew, of course, is still needed (maintenance, operation in solving other problems) ...
    2. Saxahorse April 24 2020 21: 43 New
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      Quote: man in the street
      What is the meaning of drone?

      The point is to continuously provide the landing party thrown out in one way or another - with supplies! They want to eat, they need cartridges, and without mines and shells they’re definitely khan of the landing.

      That's all and up to 90% of the tonnage is required, especially in the early days and hours.
    3. Alt-right April 26 2020 23: 03 New
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      Quote: man in the street
      What is the meaning of drone? It's like, we’ll save the life of the crew (2-3 people), and the landing party (20-30 fighters) - well, and God bless them?
      Is it like in the Airborne Forces, IL-76 without a crew?

      1) It is "optional unmanned."
      2) The tasks of such a thing include not only the transportation of manpower, but also cargo. 2-3 people in a carriage, in the context of a small boat, is minus 200-300 kg of carrying capacity, for example.
      3) You obviously went too far, comparing the boat in the photo with IL-76 wassat
  5. Potter April 24 2020 12: 07 New
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    There is an excellent film Dieppe about the British landing in 1942 on the English Channel. Here, these Higgins boats are shown in close-up, first during the training of Canadians, then during the landing, and then when trying to evacuate those who remained from this landing. Churchill was conceived by Churchill as a demonstration for Stalin of the impossibility of opening a second front. But at first it was seen as an easy walk, then, after being postponed, postponed and almost canceled, the Germans managed to strengthen the defense. Canadians landed as a clear victim of politics.
  6. Undecim April 24 2020 12: 41 New
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    Recently, the majority of site authors understand the issue is considered bad form. Articles are written under the motto "and so it goes."
    The history of LCVP cannot be considered without the history of the creation of LCPLs, which are their direct predecessor. It was them that Higgins developed for the Marine Corps.

    It was the LCPLs, which were released by more than 12, who participated in the famous operation “Ratter” in Dieppe.
    LCVP appeared later.
  7. Alexey RA April 24 2020 15: 01 New
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    At the same time, by the beginning of the XXI century, these ships had become outdated. They are a pretty easy target for any modern weapon, not just a missile one. The disadvantages of such amphibious assault include their low speed, as well as the need for a crew, which on boats LCM-6 and LCM-8 consisted of 5 and 4 people, respectively. At the same time, the boats are not the smallest in size, especially the LCM-8, which could be used to transfer tanks to the landing zone.

    With LCM-8, the main problem is that the Marines did not need it either in the current “heavy” version, or in the promising “light” one.
    No, while the Marines had M60 - everything was fine. But after the rearmament of the marines on the Abrams, the LCM-8 was not capacious enough - the Abram did not fit into it. And why is the Marine Corps a fairly large “intermediate” boat that cannot carry the entire range of equipment ashore - if you still have to shove the LCAC and LCU-1610 into the docking chamber?
    And for the promising marines without heavy weapons, the LCM-8 is redundant.
  8. Grading April 24 2020 15: 27 New
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    Quote: Alexey RA
    Higgins boat
    On subtitles in Rus.