Military Review

The best Russian intelligence agent of the XIX century

30
The best Russian intelligence agent of the XIX century
Ivan Petrovich Liprandi

Ivan Petrovich Liprandi lived a long life, having managed to personally get acquainted with a huge number of iconic figures of Russian stories. This state and military leader devoted most of his life to serving the Russian Empire, rising to the rank of Major General of the Russian Imperial Army and being an active member of the secret police. He devoted the last third of his life to military history, collecting materials about the Patriotic War of 1812, and also wrote memoirs about Pushkin. By the way, Alexander Sergeevich immortalized the image of Liprandi in literature, writing off the image of the mysterious Silvio from his best friend from the period of Chisinau exile in the novel “Shot”.


Hot Blood of the Iberian Peninsula


The future general of the Russian army and an active member of the secret police had Spanish-Moorish roots and belonged to the family Liprandi, who settled in Piedmont in the 1785th century. Thus, Liprandi changed the Iberian Peninsula to the Apennine. The father of the future Russian intelligence officer owned weaving factories located in the Italian city of Mondovi in ​​the Piedmont region. He moved to Russia only at the end of the XNUMXth century, in XNUMX.

In our country, an industrialist took the name of Peter Ivanovich Liprandi and set about organizing a well-known weaving business. In particular, he was one of the founders of the Imperial Alexander Manufactory, which became the first mechanical spinning mill in the Russian Empire. In Russia, the children of Peter Ivanovich were also born, whom he baptized in the Orthodox faith. Ivan Liprandi was born July 17, 1790. According to some reports, Peter Ivanovich Liprandi lived 106 years. Whether it is true or not, it’s hard to say today. But it can be noted that longevity for those years was extremely atypical and passed on to his son, who did not quite live up to his 90th birthday (he died in St. Petersburg on May 9, 1890).

For his first-born Peter Ivanovich chose a military career, and Ivan Liprandi himself was hardly opposed. In 1807, at the age of 17, he entered the military service, becoming a column driver. At the beginning of the XNUMXth century in Russia they called the cadets (non-commissioned officers) who were preparing in the future to become officers of the "retinue of His Imperial Majesty for the quartermaster part." This is the old name of the General Staff of the Russian Empire.

Liprandi took a direct part in the next Russian-Swedish war, which lasted from February 1808 to October 1809. Already in December 1808, Ivan Liprandi was promoted to second lieutenant for his courage shown in combat conditions, and was additionally awarded a golden sword. Despite the fact that he was originally trained as an officer of the General Staff, he was often in battle formations. Being at the headquarters of Prince Mikhail Dolgoruky, Liprandi was a personal witness to his death, when on October 15, 1808, at the battle of Idenzalmi, the prince, together with the staff of his headquarters, tried to raise an overlying detachment. Many decades later, Ivan Petrovich will describe this event in his memoirs.


Duel of Onegin and Lensky, Ilya Efimovich Repin

Moreover, already in the years of the Russian-Swedish war, the talent of a young officer who had a tenacious memory and could well remember all the details and events really revealed. Also, Ivan Liprandi was well versed in military topography, was able to read maps well and navigate the terrain. He distinguished himself in collecting intelligence, including secret information. It easily collected information on the movement of enemy troops, found a common language with the prisoners and the local population, which provided access to important information. For the next quarter century, it is intelligence activity in its very original form, when there was still no division into undercover, sabotage, and analytical branches, that would become the main activity for Ivan Petrovich. In this intelligence field at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, Liprandi will be practically unrivaled.

Another important quality of Liprandi was the ability to easily learn foreign languages. He read freely in Latin and in a large number of European languages. After the conclusion of peace with Sweden, Liprandi spent a lot of time in the library in Abo (today Turku), engaged in self-education. However, hot blood made itself felt. In the summer of 1809, a duel took place in Abo between Liprandi and the Swedish officer Baron Blom, who was considered a famous Swedish Breter. Ivan Liprandi emerged victorious from this duel, gaining fame throughout the army. Then, the reputation of a Breter and a recognized expert in matters of honor is forever secured to him.

At the origins of the “military police”


Ivan Liprandi met the Patriotic War of 1812 already in the rank of chief quartermaster of the corps Dmitry Sergeyevich Dokhturov. Together with him, Liprandi visited almost all the significant battles of the war of 1812, including the battle of Smolensk, Borodin, Tarutin, Krasny, Maloyaroslavets. For Borodino he was awarded the state award - the Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree. Also distinguished himself during the battle on the Katzbach River in August 1813. Liprandi managed to take part in the battle of peoples near Leipzig.

Ivan Liprandi's military career was developing successfully, the Patriotic War of 1812 and foreign campaigns of the Russian army brought him dozens of state awards, and he himself rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Until 1818, Ivan Petrovich Liprandi was in France as part of the Separate Guards (occupation) corps, commanded by Count Mikhail Vorontsov and Major General Mikhail Orlov. It was in France that Liprandi was even more immersed in intelligence activities, in practice becoming acquainted with the methods of work of the outstanding police officer Widoc.


Eugene Francois Vidocq

Eugene Francois Widoc has done a lot for the development of police affairs around the world. Having transformed from a criminal into a private detective, and then the chief police officer of France, Widoc believed that only a criminal could overcome the crime. In fact, he created a whole brigade of former criminals, which was called "Surte" ("Security"). Widoc put into practice many of the ideas that are still used by the police and intelligence agencies of many countries. In particular, he created a system for the operational accounting of criminals, contributed to the development of criminalistics, began to contact representatives of science for scientific and technical expertise and work with physical evidence, and had a huge impact on the organization, strategy and tactics of police work. Acquaintance with this outstanding person was very useful for Liprandi.

It was Lieutenant Colonel Liprandi Vorontsov and Orlov who were instructed to organize a "military police", the structure of which has never been in the Russian army. In fact, it was a symbiosis of the GRU and the FSB, and the organization itself had to deal with intelligence and counterintelligence. It simply could not be otherwise. Intelligence activities in the occupied territory were inseparable from counterintelligence, and the political investigation was associated with criminal investigation.

Very soon, Ivan Petrovich Liprandi became a real Russian resident in Paris, who joined the local Masonic lodges, and had close contact with his French colleagues. In particular, on the instructions of Vorontsov, he investigated the secret royalist conspiracy ("Society of Pins"). There, in France, Liprandi, thanks to Vidoka, also saw the criminal world near him, mastered the skills of surveillance, recruitment, interrogation, got acquainted with the most modern search technologies, which he would later introduce in Russia.

Intelligence and Secret Police Service


In 1818, Liprandi returns to his homeland, but instead of the guards uniform he puts on a simple army. And instead of a brilliant career at the General Staff in the capital, the officer was actually waiting for a reference to the outskirts of the empire - to Bessarabia. According to one version, the next duel became the cause of the official turmoil of an excellent officer. But in the new conditions, Liprandi was true to himself. As in France, he was engaged in military intelligence. The love of collecting information, which some considered manic, and which will help him in the future with memoirs and historiography, was in demand in a new place.

Now, instead of the French, Liprandi collected mainly information about the Turks, studying the life and structure of the border areas: Bessarabia, Wallachia, Bulgaria, Romania, as well as the Balkans and the European part of Turkey. He also began to learn new languages, to which Turkish and numerous local languages ​​were added. Despite the intense activity and numerous analytical notes and reports, this period of Liprandi's life will be remembered for all his acquaintance with Pushkin in Chisinau. Liprandi made friendship with the poet, they were together first in Chisinau, then in Odessa until the departure of Alexander Pushkin from southern Russia.

At the same time, acquaintance with Pushkin and friendship with him were only one episode in the life of a scout. In 1826, Liprandi was among those suspected of preparing the Decembrist uprising. At the same time, many believe that Ivan Petrovich, on the contrary, was introduced into the Southern Society of the Decembrists, made the necessary acquaintances and collected the necessary information. Contemporaries considered him a man of liberal views, who came from Paris, as well as an officer who was critical of the power of the monarch. Most likely, this was not true. Since after the arrest of Liprandi in Chisinau and charges of involvement in the activities of the Southern Society, he was released on February 19, 1826 with an acquittal.


Battle episode of the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829

After that, the most intense five-year period of intelligence activity came in the life of Liprandi. The intelligence genius and specialist in Turkey and the Turks themselves, Ivan Petrovich was seconded to the Southern Army, led by Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselev. Kiselev was preparing a military campaign against Turkey and Liprandi’s skills were very welcome. Liprandi received a full carte blanche for work and was actively engaged in establishing an agent network, as well as the work of the military police in the Danubian principalities. He personally recruited agents throughout the theater of future hostilities and did so very energetically. Liprandi's meticulousness here again was in the hands of the Russian army, since he collected all the possible information: on the condition of roads and fortresses, the nature of the terrain, composition and quality fleet, ports and marinas, arming the troops and the quality of their supply.

At the same time, he bribed Turkish officials and obtained correspondence from foreign consuls. But the work of Liprandi did not go unnoticed by the enemy. Three attempts were organized against him, but all of them ended unsuccessfully for the Turkish side. Against this background, showing his characteristic adventurism and perseverance, which combined with meticulousness, Liprandi continued to prepare voluminous reports and analytical notes that came to the command desk.

After the end of hostilities with Turkey in 1832, Liprandi resigned from military service, being already a major general, married a Greek woman Zinaida Samurkash and lived in a happy marriage, in which three sons appeared in the family. Liprandi returned to service in 1840, becoming an official of special assignments at the Ministry of the Interior. As an employee of the Russian secret police, he did a lot to uncover the Petrashevsky circle, identifying the main members of the secret society, all of them were then arrested. Also in the 1850s, he dealt with the issue of the Old Believers, especially the sect of the Skopts. Having studied the life and customs of the followers of this sect, Liprandi came to the conclusion that they do not pose any danger to the state.

In 1861, he finally retired and concentrated on history and literature, collecting memoirs and information about the Patriotic War of 1812, as well as publishing his own essays, notes and memoirs. Later, Leo Tolstoy quoted Liprandi's memoirs in his famous novel War and Peace.
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  1. Insurgent
    Insurgent April 22 2020 07: 39 New
    16
    Great actual stuff! good
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 22 2020 08: 54 New
    0
    Yes. extraordinary personality. talented. brilliant officer.

    actually waiting for a reference to the outskirts of the empire - to Bessarabia.

    beautiful. dynamically developing region, part of New Russia.

    together they were first in Chisinau, then in Odessa until the departure of Alexander Pushkin with southern Russia.

    Yes. once upon a time. just a hundred years ago, it was still Russia, for which Ivan Liprandi fought in RTV
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r April 22 2020 09: 22 New
      0
      Quote: Olgovich
      Yes. once upon a time. just a hundred years ago, it was still Russia, for h

      Correct a little - about 200 years.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 22 2020 10: 31 New
        -4
        Quote: neri73-r
        Correct a little - about 200 years.

        MF what a fright?
        103 years back there was RUSSIA.
        1. cost
          cost April 22 2020 14: 44 New
          +7
          Ivan Liprandi is the elder brother of the hero of the Crimean War, general from infantry, the commander of the Life Guards Semyonovsky regiment Pavel Petrovich Liprandi, with whom he developed and successfully completed the battle plan for Balaklava.
          photo1 Pavel Petrovich Liprandi

          and the uncle of Shipka’s defense hero Lieutenant Rafail Pavlovich Liprandi, the first gentleman of the golden St. George’s weapon
          photo2 Rafail Pavlovich Liprandi
  3. knn121121
    knn121121 April 22 2020 09: 18 New
    +1
    many thanks
  4. knn54
    knn54 April 22 2020 09: 36 New
    +1
    Greek patriot of Russia.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent April 22 2020 09: 42 New
      14
      Quote: knn54
      Greek patriot of Russia.


      Why греческий ?

      The future general of the Russian army and an active member of the secret police had Spanish-Moorish roots and belonged to the genus Liprandi, who settled in Piedmont in the XNUMXth century. Thus, Liprandi changed the Iberian Peninsula to the Apennine.
      1. Sklendarka
        Sklendarka April 22 2020 10: 18 New
        -2
        Quote: Insurgent
        Quote: knn54
        Greek patriot of Russia.


        Why греческий ?

        The future general of the Russian army and an active member of the secret police had Spanish-Moorish roots and belonged to the genus Liprandi, who settled in Piedmont in the XNUMXth century. Thus, Liprandi changed the Iberian Peninsula to the Apennine.

        Yes, and the current patriots of Russia will drop their denyushka who in the Pyrenees, and who in the Apennines ...
        Not - `` With a pen and a sword '' (V. Pikul) it will be more fun ...
    2. Peter is not the first
      Peter is not the first April 22 2020 10: 05 New
      +2
      At that time, intelligence and counterintelligence rested on such enthusiasts.
      1. phair
        phair April 23 2020 02: 33 New
        0
        After 7 reorganizations, they also held on to enthusiasts ...
  5. Catfish
    Catfish April 22 2020 10: 04 New
    +5
    Thanks to the author! hi
    An interesting article, did not know anything about this man. If they didn’t send him south, maybe he opened up all the deceitful intentions of the Decembrists and there would be no demarches with a shot on the Senate Square.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 22 2020 10: 52 New
      +1
      Konstantin, hi.
      "revealed all the evil intentions of the Decembrists" here begins a curious story: even Emperor Alexander 1 knew about the secret society and some leaders. This moment is also mentioned in the film: "The Star of Captivating Happiness", when Alexander 1 speaks to Volkonsky.
      Subsequently, Volkonsky during the investigation turned on the doctor: yes? There was a conspiracy, but did not know. Sidorov in a secret society? Ay what a burdock I am
      I recommend finding and reading "The Private Lives of Russian Gendarmes". You will be interested
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 22 2020 11: 11 New
        +4
        "Zvezda" is a very beautiful film, but as far as historical accuracy is concerned ... it's still a movie. request By the way, during the filming there was an interesting episode: there was no snow in the city at all, and they got out of the situation by overtaking the firefighters of the "Ural" -penogon. They also built snowdrifts. But all the laughter was that when the wind rose, these "snowdrifts" rose with it and had to wait until the wind died down to continue shooting. laughing
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 22 2020 11: 51 New
          +1
          I did not know about the foam episode.
  6. Chersky
    Chersky April 22 2020 10: 51 New
    +2
    Yes thanks a lot. That would be more materials.
    But, unfortunately, there is more and more crap on this resource.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 22 2020 17: 22 New
      +4
      Quote: Chersky
      That would be more materials.

      Yeah, right now ... laughing
      Count the comments under this article and under today's one about Lenin. Well, what articles are more profitable to publish? Although there is an article, as they say, "nothing", the seething of the masses generates just like a pack of yeast in a village toilet.
  7. vladcub
    vladcub April 22 2020 11: 03 New
    +2
    Leprindi is a born intelligence and counterintelligence organizer.
    His manufacturer and it seemed his son had to continue his father's "career", and he became a military man. He was an extraordinary man
  8. Caretaker
    Caretaker April 22 2020 11: 05 New
    +1
    ... belonged to the family Liprandi, who settled in Piedmont in the XNUMXth century. Thus, Liprandi changed the Iberian Peninsula to the Apennine.
    Piedmont is located outside the Apennine Peninsula.
    Ivan Liprandi was born July 17, 1790. ... did not live to see his 90th birthday a bit (he died in St. Petersburg on May 9, 1890).
    90th or 100th anniversary?
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 April 22 2020 11: 33 New
      0
      As I understand it, his son passed away in 1890. My comment is below.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 22 2020 11: 48 New
      +3
      Quote: Caretaker
      ... belonged to the family Liprandi, who settled in Piedmont in the XNUMXth century. Thus, Liprandi changed the Iberian Peninsula to the Apennine.
      Piedmont is located outside the Apennine Peninsula.
      Ivan Liprandi was born July 17, 1790. ... did not live to see his 90th birthday a bit (he died in St. Petersburg on May 9, 1890).
      90th or 100th anniversary?

      The caretaker, the author has slightly forgotten geography, but there is nothing to worry about - in fact, it did not affect
  9. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 April 22 2020 11: 27 New
    +1
    The material is interesting, always interested in history.
    But the author confused something with the dates, it turns out our hero became a father at 10, is it too early?
    Born in 1790, his son lived 90 years and died in 1890.
  10. vladcub
    vladcub April 22 2020 11: 42 New
    +2
    Comrades, I honestly did not understand why the author included the illustration "Duel of Onegin and Lensky".
    Perhaps as an illustration of the duel between Leprindi and Baron Blum?
  11. Fat
    Fat April 22 2020 11: 43 New
    +2
    Already in December 1808, Ivan Liprandi was promoted to second lieutenant for his courage shown in combat conditions, and was additionally awarded a golden sword

    Second Lieutenant awarded the Golden sword "for bravery." Only in 1807 did Alexander 1 reintroduce such an award: "like a monument of Ours to those feats of respect, they are counted among other distinctions .."
    This is very serious. Apparently something really outstanding has done. Very interesting what. Have to look for a biography now.
  12. vladcub
    vladcub April 22 2020 11: 58 New
    +1
    Quote: Chersky
    Yes thanks a lot. That would be more materials.
    But, unfortunately, there is more and more crap on this resource.

    Unfortunately you are right: on the site, with any doubtful crap make up for the lack of interesting material
  13. WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo April 22 2020 14: 00 New
    0
    I really liked the article. To the author - respect and respect.
    Of the pre-revolutionary scouts, to my shame, I know only A. Griboedov
    By the way, it seems to me that intelligence activity was not only popular in army circles - now it is not very popular, but in those days ... Probably, if you delve into this kind of hostility, it was the basis of the duels of the hero of the article.
    And further. Interestingly, and with what fright did Father Liprandi change sunny Europe for our "Palestinians"? But nevertheless, what is curious, not only did he come, he still stayed, he baptized the children into Orthodoxy, that is, he settled in full. So it was good for him here?
    1. phair
      phair April 23 2020 02: 36 New
      0
      This is the dignity of the scout. Morgunov said about Griboyedov- "He finished badly!"
  14. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 22 2020 17: 31 New
    +4
    Thanks to the author. The character is interesting and engaged in business useful and necessary. It is unfortunate that such an invaluable specialist at the end of an active career did not become a teacher of his art, did not pass on the experience to young colleagues. So he remained a lone master.
  15. Andrey Krasnoyarsky
    Andrey Krasnoyarsky 2 May 2020 13: 00 New
    0
    Liprandi, of course, is an outstanding personality, but, in my opinion, Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky was still the best intelligence officer of Russia of the 19th century.
  16. barin
    barin 3 May 2020 09: 39 New
    -2
    Recently, the topic of Intelligence is relevant