Military Review

Cars in Lend-Lease. Benefits and Benefits

194

Studebaker US6 trucks in the Iranian mountains, March 1943. Photo by Wikimedia Commons


In the fall of 1941, the USSR received the first American cargo sent under the Lend-Lease program. Such deliveries continued until the very end of the war and covered many areas. So, among the various equipment, the bulk were cars, primarily trucks. Consider the features of the supply of automotive equipment.

Dry numbers


According to directories of the Institute of Military stories The Ministry of Defense of Russia, on June 22, 1941, the Red Army had at its disposal more than 281 thousand vehicles of all available types, mainly trucks. With such a fleet, distributed throughout the country, had to start a war. In the first two months of the war, more than 206 thousand cars of various types were withdrawn from the national economy, which made it possible to strengthen army logistics - at the cost of worsening the situation in the rear.

During the Great Patriotic War, all major automotive plants continued to work, rebuilding production to current needs. Mostly trucks left the conveyors, and cars of some models were also produced. Some car factories have mastered the production of armored vehicles or weapons. From the beginning of the war until the end of 1945, the Soviet automobile industry surrendered more than 266 thousand units of automotive equipment.


Studebaker column in liberated Vienna. Wikimedia Commons Photos

Cars were of particular importance, and therefore quickly took the appropriate place in orders for deliveries under the Lend-Lease. Fast enough, trucks, tractors and jeeps became the main equipment in the supply. According to the postwar report of the US military, during the war in the USSR they sent approx. 434 thousand American cars. More than 5,2 thousand units were supplied by Great Britain.

The American and British auto industry offered a wide selection of products, and the Red Army seized the opportunity. A variety of samples were studied and ordered; the most successful and convenient became the subject of new orders. Hundreds of models were sent to the USSR from 26 automobile companies. Some samples were purchased by tens of thousands, others - only by tens.

Cars in Lend-Lease. Benefits and Benefits

"Willis" in Manchuria, summer 1945. Photo by Mirtransporta.ru

Most of the cars arrived in a dismantled state or in the form of car kits. Assembly and preparation for operation was carried out at specially constructed enterprises in Iran and at Soviet plants. For example, the Gorky Automobile Plant in 1941-46. collected about 50 thousand imported cars - in parallel with the production of its own equipment.

Deliveries of land-leasing cars made it possible to quickly recover losses in equipment, re-equip parts at the front and restore logistics in the national economy. As supplies under Lend-Lease continued, the share of imported equipment gradually increased. According to various estimates, in some periods up to 30-32 percent. The Red Army fleet consisted of American and British cars.

Basic Types


The most massive foreign car in the Red Army was the 2,5-ton three-axle truck Studebaker US6. Our country has received more than 150 thousand of such machines, both in finished form and in the form of car kits. Such trucks, previously rejected by the US Army, showed themselves well in the Red Army, which contributed to the emergence of new orders. US6 found application in both transportation and combat. A significant part of domestic jet mortars was built on such a chassis.


Guards jet mortar on the Chevrolet G7107 chassis. Photo Mirtransporta.ru

In 1942-43 deliveries of the Chevrolet G7100 series trucks have begun. Until the end of the war, more than 60 thousand such vehicles were shipped, of which approx. 48 thousand arrived in the USSR. American "one and a half" became a useful addition to the domestic technology of this class and found application in various fields. G7100 were delivered in the form of trucks and special equipment. Our experts also conducted experiments on the re-equipment of the cars received.

During the war years, GMC manufactured more than 560 thousand CCKW trucks of several modifications. Of these, only 8,7 thousand were sent to the USSR. One of the reasons for such a small supply volume was the availability of a more convenient alternative from Studebaker. You can also note 2,5 tons of cars from International Harvester. For the same reasons, the Red Army acquired only 4,3 thousand of such equipment.

Massive, but unsuccessful turned out to be a commercial two-ton truck Dodge WF-32. In 1942-43 The USSR managed to acquire approx. 9,5 thousand of these machines. The undercarriage of the civilian car was unsuitable for army loads. Due to constant breakdowns and problems with maintenance, the army refused to further purchase such equipment. In the event of failure, the existing machines were replaced by others.


GMC CCKW as a mortar. Photo Kolesa.ru

In the context of automobile lend-lease, one cannot fail to mention the legendary Willys MB. Deliveries of such cross-country vehicles began in the summer of 1942 and continued until the end of the war. "Willis" showed itself well as a staff vehicle, artillery tractor, etc., thanks to which orders for new batches of equipment constantly appeared. In total, the Red Army received more than 52 thousand of these machines.

In small quantities


However, not all cars were purchased in large quantities. For example, the Red Army showed interest in heavy 10-ton trucks, but did not need a large number of them. So, for several years only 921 Mack NR cars in different configurations were received. These machines were used in artillery units equipped with heavy systems, as well as in other units and in the rear.

Perhaps the rarest Lend-Lease truck has become the American "six-ton" Autocar U8144T. Truck tractors of this type were the basis of the imported pontoon-bridge park. The Red Army received only a few such kits, and with them only 42 cars.


Truck Mack NR British Army. In the back is a disguised Valentine tank. Photo Imperial War Museum / iwm.co.uk

Useful import


After the end of the Great Patriotic War and World War II, the countries participating in the Lend-Lease agreements began to settle accounts. Lost equipment, including numerous cars of all types were simply written off, and the remaining material should be returned or paid. Part of the automotive equipment was left in the Red Army and the national economy, taking it into account in further calculations. For a long time in parts, factories and collective farms, it was possible to meet imported cars of one type or another.

Deliveries of American and British Lend-Lease automobiles cannot be recognized as useful. The regular receipt of equipment at rates of up to several thousand units a month — together with its own production — made it possible to more quickly make up for the losses of the existing army, re-equip it, and also saturate the rear units and the national economy. The increased rate of supply of equipment obviously affected the economy and the combat readiness of the army.

The ability to purchase cars or other equipment from foreign countries allowed to partially unload our own production and reduce the corresponding consumption of raw materials. The freed resources and production capacities could be thrown to other urgent tasks.


Six-ton ​​truck truck Autocar U-8144-T. Photo US War Department

Finally, Soviet specialists were given the opportunity to fully study and evaluate the modern developments of many foreign automobile companies. The technique of fifty has undergone careful study. Already during the war, the accumulated experience began to be used in their own projects.

War and Settlement


With all this, there were economic benefits. During the years of the war, a significant part of the Lendliz equipment was lost and therefore did not need to be paid. After lengthy negotiations, the USSR and the United States agreed to pay 720 million dollars, while the total value of the delivered products reached almost 11 billion dollars.

Already in 1941, the Soviet Union had new opportunities associated with the American Lend-Lease program. The Soviet military and political leadership competently used them and received maximum benefits - with very limited expenses. The automotive sector, critical for the army, was no exception. As a result, victory was brought closer by both domestic and foreign cars of all necessary models.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka April 25 2020 05: 56 New
    26
    Thanks for the illustrations !!!
    All the good days!
    1. DMB 75
      DMB 75 April 25 2020 06: 10 New
      19
      These cars really brought Victory closer. All health and a good day, I join the previous speaker! The photos are really gorgeous. Thank you.
      1. Malibu
        Malibu April 25 2020 08: 57 New
        +7
        Quote: DMB 75
        These cars really brought Victory closer.

        I agree ! I read memoirs about those times .. Stalin gathered a large meeting of military and other quartermasters with the question "What does the front need first of all?" Well, a bunch of applications poured in, etc.
        And one general stood up and clearly said, "Comrade Stalin, the front needs trucks like air, our Army lacks mobility ...!"
        And one more interesting detail in the set of these Studdebers "included leather jackets for chauffeurs (which were confiscated by cunning quartermasters when unloading convoys, that's bastards ..)
        Well, OUR Victory is for Victory, and it was soldiers who did it with Lend-Lease or without it .. But the USSR would definitely win this war .. Too many atrocities were committed by the Nazis on our territory and there was no longer any fear There was simply an avalanche to go to Berlin to avenge all !
        Eternal memory to them soldiers of the Second World War! soldier
        1. knn54
          knn54 April 25 2020 10: 02 New
          +3
          My grandfather's brother drove at one time (he was the personal driver of General of the Army Petrov for several months) on the domestic "SUV" GAZ 61-73. He praised them, but for some reason they were not released enough. Apparently they did not realize the need for such machines. Well, "Willis" is simple same according to the brother of the grandfather) "fairy tale".
          1. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo April 25 2020 12: 21 New
            +7
            Quote: knn54
            Praised, but for some reason they were released a little.

            Just because of the weakness of the auto industry. In the first two five-year plans, they somehow mastered the production of machines using technologies of the late twenties - adjusted for local conditions, local quality of components and the qualifications of yesterday's peasants employed by workers. Plus, enormous resources were consumed by the military industry.
            Even after the war, having Lendleus samples, they could not surpass them for a long time. The same ZiS-151 turned out to be worse in many respects than the Studebaker.
            1. Saxahorse
              Saxahorse April 26 2020 20: 25 New
              +1
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              The same ZiS-151 turned out to be worse in many respects than the Studebaker.

              The same ZiS-151 had a carrying capacity of 4.5 tons, twice the size of the Studebaker. The car is really not perfect, but comparing them directly is silly. Although the serious influence of Americans in the development of machines of that time, of course, cannot be denied.
              1. Narak-zempo
                Narak-zempo April 26 2020 22: 03 New
                0
                Quote: Saxahorse
                The same ZiS-151 had a carrying capacity of 4.5 tons, twice the size of the Studebaker.

                Well, yes, the task, of course, was "to do the same, only better", but the means for its solution were obviously unfit. Starting with the engine, which was even weaker on the ZiS. And to create a more powerful engine on time, there was simply no personnel, because the best specialists were sucked in like a vacuum cleaner by the design bureaus for the development of aircraft and tank engines, where they were also constantly lacking.
            2. Serg koma
              Serg koma April 27 2020 05: 41 New
              0
              The British and other countries-producers of cars supplied to the USSR are completely "forgotten".
              Until the end of the war, more than 60 thousand such vehicles were shipped, of which approx. 48 thousand arrived in the USSR.
              - I didn’t understand this proposal at all, there’s no explanation of where 12 thousand went, where they disappeared on the way to the USSR.
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              The same ZiS-151 turned out to be worse in many respects than the Studebaker.
              Compare not comparable wassat
              Studer and ZiS-151 have little in common. During the development of the ZiS-151 we looked towards the 2,5 ton International M-5-6x4 and M-5-6x6 (3100 copies of 2 modifications were delivered)

              Especially since there was what and what to make the cabin from -
              They decided to make ZiS-150 from parts of the American truck of the K series manufactured by International Harvester. The fact is that the Soviet sales representatives were able to agree on purchasing from International Harvester stamping presses used to make cabin parts and plumage.

              The internal combustion engine was ours, even pre-war development, weaker than the Red Diamond. Gull-wing swinging bonnet laughing

              The closest relatives of ZiS-151 is ZiS-150
              and GAZ -33 1939 years from which he borrowed a cabin; ICE; transmission.
              1. Grits
                Grits April 28 2020 07: 36 New
                +1
                Quote: Serg Koma
                - I didn’t understand this proposal at all, there’s no explanation of where 12 thousand went, where they disappeared on the way to the USSR.

                PQ-17
          2. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA April 25 2020 14: 41 New
            +5
            Quote: knn54
            My grandfather's brother drove at one time (he was the personal driver of General of the Army Petrov for several months) on the domestic "off-road vehicle" GAZ 61-73. He praised them, but for some reason they were released a little. Apparently they did not realize the need for such machines.

            It's simple: the niche of all-wheel drive cars was closed by a lease-lease, and domestic similar chassis went under the BA-64.
          3. Grits
            Grits April 28 2020 06: 38 New
            0
            Quote: knn54
            Well, "Willis" is just (again, according to his grandfather's brother) "a fairy tale".

            And my grandfather, who fought on the Leningrad Front, loudly praised Studebaker as the most advanced car of the time.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins April 25 2020 06: 34 New
    21
    I always believed that Lend-Lease for us has become the spoon that is good for dinner.
    From the memoirs of the comrade’s father:
    - At the plant where he underwent practical training in the 60s, there was a Dodge 3/4. As punishment, in the sense of transportation between workshops. But sometimes it was not used entirely for its intended purpose. On hot days, when they really wanted kvass (or even beer), desperate daredevils used it to drive outside the gates to the neighboring neighborhood to a barrel behind a draft. Whatever the traffic police or the police would not cling to, on the sides they wrote in bold "FILM". And, indeed, they never stopped laughing
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 April 25 2020 08: 29 New
      15
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      desperate daredevils drove him out of the gate into the neighboring microdistrict to the barrel for a draft.

      Heh, yes, all Tagil knows that they used to go for vodka on T-90.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins April 25 2020 08: 36 New
        +4
        This is when the video in YouTube, across the road through the virgin lands?)))
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 April 25 2020 08: 41 New
          +5
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          This is when the video in YouTube, across the road through the virgin lands?)))

          Well yes..
      2. Malibu
        Malibu April 25 2020 08: 38 New
        -1
        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        desperate daredevils drove him out of the gate into the neighboring microdistrict to the barrel for a draft.

        Heh, yes, all Tagil knows that they used to go for vodka on T-90.

        And more than once, and even for distillation .. bully drinks
        1. really
          really April 25 2020 13: 06 New
          0
          Yeah, but to put the car (military) police, to close the road for a few minutes was not enough brains, although there is a sign.
          1. Hog
            Hog April 25 2020 16: 04 New
            +2
            Quote: really
            Yeah, but put the car of the (military) police

            Why should she be there? It’s like a railway crossing, but traffic cops are not standing in front of them.
            1. really
              really April 25 2020 16: 10 New
              +1
              There is a column of tanks, with different distances, if the gas turbine engine can be heard later. There are rails at the railway crossing, the driver is internally ready, and here rushing without reducing speed, the column
      3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka April 25 2020 09: 52 New
        +7
        Vladimir good day!
        I’ll clarify a little, this move is the norm of Nizhny Tagil, it is equipped with metal slugs under the tracks, do not dig the tunnel !!!
        I’ll roll myself there, although I saw tanks only once - six years ago !!!
        By the way, you need to go to the nearest store along the road! laughing
        And there are three cameras of video recording three in one direction and at least two in the other !!! So alas, but not for the fiery water, the handsome men ran !!!
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 25 2020 14: 47 New
          +3
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Vladimir good day!
          I’ll clarify a little, this move is the norm of Nizhny Tagil, it is equipped with metal slugs under the tracks, do not dig the tunnel !!!

          Judging by the video, there’s also a traffic light. The well-known video clearly shows that the car, which was driving in front of the filming video, slipped the intersection into red, almost falling under the tank.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 25 2020 17: 04 New
            +3
            All right!
            When he worked at the FDPO, students said that there were even accidents involving tanks, IIR, and other equipment. So, SDA holy!
            1. phair
              phair April 26 2020 03: 20 New
              +1
              There was an accident in Khabarovsk. BMP was gored by a passenger (they were preparing for the parade 10 years ago).
        2. Lekov L
          Lekov L April 25 2020 20: 45 New
          +1
          Vladislav, do they have their own test site?
          Not on the Prospector, they constantly ride?
          Respectfully.. hi
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 25 2020 22: 19 New
            +3
            I don’t live in the city of Nizhny Tagil, but just the last 4 years I have wound back and forth with checks! About once a quarter. When the first time I saw a tank on this stretch, I didn’t fall out of the car! Then it did not grow together! Although the last time hanging out there from February 9 to 21!
            And so as fun!
            In 2000, before Putin arrived at the armament exhibition, Toyota Caroll butted the IMR at this crossing! Apparently also from shock!
            More on Matiz guys said who did not have time to slip in front of "72". But if I saw photos with Toyota, then with Matiz only in words!
            Another case was with me in Yekaterinburg. After the May 9th Parade, the T-72 was hooked by the Urals.
            And stories in tagil go, as without it! But where is the truth?
            Regards, Good night Vlad!
        3. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 April 25 2020 23: 26 New
          +1
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          I’ll roll myself there, although I saw tanks only once - six years ago !!!

          Heh, I arrived in Tagil in the 2013th year, there just tramps drifted off, there were cops on all the roads. sad
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 26 2020 06: 17 New
            +2
            Vladimir, good morning! I'm talking about this move !!!
            And so, any check is taken to the UVZ museum, there are enough tanks there.
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 April 26 2020 06: 21 New
              +1
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              I'm talking about this move !!!

              Here they rushed from the landfill for vodka. At that time my uncle worked at Lining. However, there the whole Tagil was stealing when they showed them on the box and began to powder their brains, I don’t remember what.
      4. Grits
        Grits April 28 2020 07: 40 New
        +2
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        Heh, yes, all Tagil knows that they used to go for vodka on T-90.

        Interestingly, they paid for vodka or just put the barrel on the counter?
  3. Free wind
    Free wind April 25 2020 06: 43 New
    +3
    the Americans literally forced the Russians to use car kits, but ours resisted. Although for the same Katyusha, a body was dismantled from Studer. I wonder why it was necessary with such thoroughness to return the surviving equipment. Cars washed painted, even oil changed. And they were taken to chermet. Dodge 3/4 was also supplied. many considered him better than Wilice. Although of course these are cars of different classes.
    1. Potter
      Potter April 25 2020 07: 04 New
      19
      Because Lend-Lease is not a gift, it is a lease, free for the agreed period (5 years as a rule). If you want to keep it, pay. Therefore, some of the cars were returned, some were hidden in the dead corners of Siberia and military units. They paid for a certain part, and these payments have long been the subject of a dispute between the USSR and the USA. And the cars assembled at our factories from car kits went in our reports as our own release.
      Studebaker also took root with us because of the unpretentiousness of the Hercules engine. This engine was purchased by the USSR earlier, it had a lower compression ratio compared to other Americans, which made it easy to work on low-grade gasoline, and was not demanding on the quality of the lubricant.
      1. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee April 25 2020 07: 13 New
        +6
        Quote: Potter
        a lease is not a gift, it is a lease,

        HF 11011, a driving school, went to Studders, then an order came to pass. Dad swore that they demanded in the kit: keys, tools, accessories ... But more than 10 years have passed already, where you can take all this!
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy April 25 2020 08: 32 New
      +5
      My father told me that if the car did not have a canister, the Americans did not accept the car. There was a press on either the Murmansk or Arkhangelsk berth and this freshly painted car was pressed into a cube (of course, legends, but the meaning is the same).
      1. Hiller
        Hiller April 25 2020 14: 16 New
        +4
        Nikolai Ivanovich Telegin, foreman. Blessed memory of him. Passed the whole war as a driver on ZiS 5, jeep and student. To me a boy, he told how SHRUS on the jeep broke because of that. that they didn’t change the lubricant on time and lubricated it with autol, and when they were waiting for the high commission to arrive according to complaints, they changed the lubricant in CV joints at night and drove them through the mud all night. The second story - students completed the delivery to the Americans at the port until the last wrench, and they drove them to the ship and under a steam press. He drank and cried while recounting. I still remember his tears and trembling fists.
      2. phair
        phair April 26 2020 03: 22 New
        +2
        Not a legend. And so it was. Find (Prim Edge).
    3. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi April 25 2020 08: 49 New
      10
      Quote: Free Wind
      the Americans literally forced the Russians to use car kits, but ours resisted. Although for the same Katyusha, a body was dismantled from Studer. I wonder why it was necessary with such thoroughness to return the surviving equipment. Cars washed painted, even oil changed. And they were taken to chermet. Dodge 3/4 was also supplied. many considered him better than Wilice. Although of course these are cars of different classes.

      I don’t know that ours was returned there, but my father served at Studer in 50-53. At what in 52 they received from Kunashir almost brand new cars from under Katyusha.
      1. Avior
        Avior April 25 2020 09: 11 New
        +6
        They returned honestly, no one checked the quantity, yes, and how can I check it?
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov April 25 2020 09: 27 New
          -2
          Quote: Avior
          They returned honestly, no one checked the quantity, yes, and how can I check it?

          laughing
          And where did the Lend-Lease debts come from?
          In fact, they stupidly billed 2,6 billion. As the initial figure for bargaining
          1. Aaron Zawi
            Aaron Zawi April 25 2020 09: 29 New
            16
            Quote: Spade
            Quote: Avior
            They returned honestly, no one checked the quantity, yes, and how can I check it?

            laughing
            And where did the Lend-Lease debts come from?
            In fact, they stupidly billed 2,6 billion. As the initial figure for bargaining

            There is no such stupid. Remember how much civilian equipment was supplied under the Lend-Lease. Machine park, oil refineries, locomotives. It is clear that no one has given it all away.
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov April 25 2020 09: 41 New
              -5
              Quote: Aron Zaavi
              There is no such stupid.

              It is stupid.
              Estimated how much remained in service and was not returned. We figured out how much wear and tear, and set a beautiful figure of 2,6 billion. And that was a lot, and clearly did not reflect reality.

              That is, as in the market. When the seller calls for an inflated price to start trading.
              1. Avior
                Avior April 25 2020 10: 04 New
                18
                no one wondered, everyone thought
                the supply lists were known, their prices too.
                We ourselves have provided lists that are lost.
                The Americans subtracted what was lost and what they returned from deliveries, according to our data.
                The rest was calculated according to the lists, made a discount on wear, it turned out 2,6 billion
                They immediately halved this amount, and set the figure of 1,3 billion, as you write.
                2 billion Americans have never exhibited.
                hi
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov April 25 2020 11: 24 New
                  -6
                  Quote: Avior
                  2 billion Americans have never exhibited.

                  This is not true.
                  It was in that amount that they appreciated everything else.
                  Moreover, it is this figure that is indicated in the passage that you copied below.
                  Apparently you did not read it
                  1. Avior
                    Avior April 25 2020 11: 49 New
                    +8
                    That's right, they estimated that amount, but immediately threw off half of it and set it to 1,3.
                    2,6 were not billed.
                    re-read carefully, please.
                    is $ 2,6 billion, for negotiations this amount has been halved to 1,3 billion.

                    that is, they considered that they should pay 2,6, but in the negotiations they really set 1,3.
                    1. Lopatov
                      Lopatov April 25 2020 11: 54 New
                      -2
                      Quote: Avior
                      That's right, they estimated that amount, but immediately threw off half of it and set it to 1,3.

                      What's the difference?
                      These are all the same beautiful round numbers that have nothing to do with the real leftovers.
                      As required.
                      1. Avior
                        Avior April 25 2020 12: 02 New
                        11
                        I don’t understand something.
                        2,6 - this is the value of the remaining property, taking into account depreciation according to our own documents that we have provided to the States. These are not some approximate figures, these are figures on real accounting.
                        States requested half of this figure.
                        As you know, ours did not overreason it.
                        but I will not argue
                        hi
                      2. Lopatov
                        Lopatov April 25 2020 12: 09 New
                        -6
                        Quote: Avior
                        I don’t understand something.

                        Everything is simply impossible.
                        The Americans didn’t give a damn about how many cars were left in service on September 2, 1945.
                        2,6 digits for bargaining. 1,3 digits for bargaining


                        And your hints that "the vile Soviets have deceived the noble Americans"
                        have nothing to do with reality
                        Did you write this?
                        Quote: Avior
                        They returned honestly, no one checked the quantity, yes, and how can I check it?
                      3. 3danimal
                        3danimal April 26 2020 13: 33 New
                        +3
                        But after all, you also have a kind of attitude: good noble Soviets and greedy bad Americans?
            2. Grits
              Grits April 28 2020 07: 45 New
              0
              Quote: Avior
              The rest was calculated according to the lists, made a discount on wear, it turned out 2,6 billion
              They immediately halved this amount, and set the figure of 1,3 billion, as you write.

              With what fright did the Americans suddenly become so kind?
          2. 3danimal
            3danimal April 26 2020 13: 30 New
            0
            Of course it did not reflect, they tried to hide what was possible. And to give .. How was the return of the “flying boats” of Catalina, which for a long time there was nothing to replace?
        2. Potter
          Potter April 25 2020 13: 38 New
          -8
          The equipment was mainly bought with real money, more precisely, gold and the return deliveries of strategic materials to the USA and England, which were mined in the USSR and were required, including by the allies. Remember the gold cruiser Edinburgh? Here are the supplies for the train. transport, locomotives, wagons and rails, went mainly on Lend-Lease.
          1. Octopus
            Octopus April 25 2020 17: 52 New
            +6
            Quote: Potter
            Remember the gold cruiser Edinburgh?

            This gold will never end.
          2. Alf
            Alf April 25 2020 18: 18 New
            +5
            Quote: Potter
            The equipment was mainly bought with real money, more precisely, gold and the return deliveries of strategic materials to the USA and England, which were mined in the USSR and were required, including by the allies. Remember the gold cruiser Edinburgh? Here are the supplies for the train. transport, locomotives, wagons and rails, went mainly on Lend-Lease.

            The first deliveries were paid with real money, then they switched to LL.
            1. MORDVIN13rus
              MORDVIN13rus April 25 2020 20: 44 New
              -3
              For LL only equipment was paid, for example cars, planes, tanks, locomotives, wagons, that is, that which had a return under the agreement. Everything else, like stew, grain, plants, was paid for with gold, precious stones, fur and other materials.
              1. Octopus
                Octopus April 25 2020 23: 24 New
                +6
                Quote: MORDVIN13rus
                For LL only equipment was paid, for example cars, planes, tanks, locomotives, wagons, that is, that which had a return under the agreement. Everything else, like stew, grain, plants, was paid for with gold, precious stones, fur and other materials.

                On LL went what was included in the LL protocols. What was not included was purchased on commercial terms (more precisely, there were credit and charity schemes, a long conversation).
          3. 3danimal
            3danimal April 26 2020 13: 53 New
            +2
            Before the Union was included in the Lend-Lease program, equipment was bought, in addition, a certain amount was purchased later and in excess of this program.
            In any case, help was very welcome, freed up production capacity and saved lives.
          4. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo April 27 2020 11: 44 New
            0
            They bought for gold before the spread of the Lend-Lease Act in the USSR.
        3. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny April 26 2020 21: 42 New
          +3
          They returned, in the ports there were large presses, cars were pressed and loaded onto ships. The drivers who drove them to the ports cried.
      2. Avior
        Avior April 25 2020 09: 47 New
        +9
        Very simple.
        Ours wrote how much was destroyed during the war, the part that was considered unnecessary was returned, but what was not destroyed and not returned - that’s what the Americans thought.
        Prices were known, Lend Lease was provided in the form of money and lists of available goods with prices, everything is transparent there.
        Do not forget that a significant part of Lend-Lease was not military equipment that could simply be attributed to war, but machine tools and industrial equipment that you could not write off to war
        According to the Lend-Lease Act, only equipment that survived the war was payable; to agree on the final amount immediately after the war, Soviet-American negotiations began. In the United States, it was initially calculated that the amount payable for surviving civilian vehicles and equipment, taking into account their depreciation, is $ 2,6 billion, for negotiations this amount was halved to $ 1,3 billion. [46 ] [47] [48] At the 1948 talks, Soviet representatives agreed to pay only $ 170 million and met the predictable failure of the American side. The negotiations of 1949 also led to nothing (the Soviet side increased the proposed amount to $ 200 million, with installments for 50 years, the American side reduced to $ 1 billion, with installments for 30 years). In 1951, the Americans twice reduced the amount of payment, which began to equal $ 800 million, but the Soviet side agreed to pay only $ 300 million [49]. According to the Soviet government, the calculation should not have been carried out in accordance with real debt, but on the basis of a precedent. This precedent should have been the proportions in determining the debt between the United States and Great Britain, which were fixed in March 1946. As a result, the United States agreed with the proposals of the USSR [source not specified 257 days].

        An agreement with the USSR on the procedure for paying off debts under Lend-Lease was concluded only in 1972 [50]. Under this agreement, the USSR pledged to pay $ 2001 million, including interest, until 722. By July 1973, three payments were made in the total amount of $ 48 million, after which payments were discontinued due to the introduction of discriminatory measures by the American side in trade with the USSR (Jackson-Vanik Amendment). In June 1990, during negotiations between the Presidents of the United States and the USSR, the parties returned to the discussion of debt [51]. A new deadline for the final repayment of debt was set in 2030, and the amount was $ 674 million [52].

        Bargained, as you see for a very long time.
        Of the total US supply of Lend-Lease at $ 10,8 billion for the surviving equipment, according to the United States, it was necessary to pay $ 1,3 billion, or about 12%. As a result, the USSR, and then the Russian Federation, of the amount of $ 1,3 billion was recognized, and then partially paid $ 722 million [47] [48], that is, 6,5% of the total cost of supplies received by the USSR. It should also be borne in mind that the amount of debt was not indexed taking into account inflation, and in 2015 prices, the cost of deliveries under the lend-lease amounted to $ 160 billion [59].

        These are the real numbers in modern prices.
        They received 160 billion under the lend-lease, 720 million were returned.
        hi
        1. Malibu
          Malibu April 25 2020 10: 02 New
          -14
          Quote: Avior
          These are the real numbers in modern prices.
          They received 160 billion under the lend-lease, 720 million were returned.

          Do not lie so brazenly ... How much the USA received from the occupation of Europe not destroyed, as in our zone
          And the United States was in a deep economic depression before the start of World War II, and what did they become after graduation?
          Stalin was paying with them gold and platinum and even with the blood of our soldiers, who drenched the Wehrmacht to smithereens, unlike the Angolaxians who preferred massive air strikes ..
          It's a shame to read it and .. But I hope so many
          1. Avior
            Avior April 25 2020 10: 15 New
            12
            I prefer less pathos, more facts.
            If reality offends you, there's nothing to be done.

            But it’s a shame to read at you that
            Stalin used gold and platinum and the blood of our soldiers with them.

            About gold and platinum, this is fiction, of course, no one paid them for a land lease, but to make it clear to you the scale of the land lease, at that time a gram of gold was worth $ 1, that is, the land lease in gold equivalent was 11 tons of gold, then this there was almost half of the world's gold reserves.
            But for "and even the blood of our soldiers" - that's unpleasant to read.
            What do you think our fighters did not fight for their country, regardless of any Lendlis, but because Stalin sold their blood and lives to the States?
            Go far with such reasoning .....
            sad
            1. Malibu
              Malibu April 25 2020 11: 22 New
              -9
              Quote: Avior
              I prefer less pathos, more facts.
              If reality offends you, there's nothing to be done.

              But it’s a shame to read at you that

              C'mon over me as your minus, so everything is clear with you hi
              Quote: Avior
              But for "and even the blood of our soldiers" - that's unpleasant to read.
              What do you think our fighters did not fight for their country, regardless of any Lendlis, but because Stalin sold their blood and lives to the States?
              Go far with such reasoning .....

              Your western beloved partners specifically demanded blood and evidence that the USSR is ready to destroy Germany! So now you and people like you are turning the story inside out .. Your help from the USA went already when we actually broke the Wehrmacht ridge in near Moscow, in Leningrad, Stalingrad and the Kursk Bulge ... With great blood, but nevertheless they strangled this fascist reptile a little and went rollback-flight .. And they left us with only ruins with cobbled villages and gallows, etc.
              They are creatures, of course, but such as you are wandering, even worse .. soldier
              1. Octopus
                Octopus April 25 2020 18: 08 New
                +5
                Quote: Malibu
                evidence that the USSR is ready to destroy Germany!

                I'd love to see this evidence in October 41st.
                Quote: Malibu
                Your help from the USA went already when

                The first billion of the USSR was eating in the 41st. At a cost of a billion dollars - this is 20 thousand medium tanks, like the T-34, or fighters.
            2. Lopatov
              Lopatov April 25 2020 11: 35 New
              -6
              Quote: Avior
              for land lease no one paid them

              This is not true
              1. Avior
                Avior April 25 2020 11: 54 New
                +8
                If you are talking about the 5 tons of gold that drowned in Edinburgh, they had nothing to do with Lend Lease.
                During the war, nothing was paid for land lease, especially gold or platinum.
                Concurrently with Lend Lease, there was regular trade, although not on a very large scale.
                Not to mention that against the background of the equivalent of 11 tons, 000 tons do not look very significant
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov April 25 2020 12: 02 New
                  -2
                  Quote: Avior
                  If you are talking about the 5 tons of gold that drowned in Edinburgh, they had nothing to do with Lend Lease.

                  I'm talking about the money that the USSR paid in the 70s, about the money that Russia paid.
                  1. Octopus
                    Octopus April 25 2020 18: 03 New
                    +2
                    We reformulate. While Comrade was alive Stalin, no one paid the bourgeoisie for Lend-Lease.
                  2. MORDVIN13rus
                    MORDVIN13rus April 25 2020 21: 17 New
                    +1
                    "Telegram from the Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR to the Charge d'Affaires of the USSR in the USA
                    9th of October 1941
                    Tell Morgenthau that we agree to export 30 tons of Soviet gold to the USA in the near future to pay for the shipment
                    weapons and the goods we need. We want to know exactly what weapons and what necessary goods the American government is ready to send in the coming days. Keep in mind and tell Morgenthau that we urgently need to immediately receive up to 10 thousand conventional trucks from 1,5 to 3 tons. The term for issuing an advance for gold 2-3 months suits us. Inform Lukashev.
                    A. Vyshinsky "this is an appendix to my comment.
                  3. Octopus
                    Octopus April 25 2020 23: 21 New
                    +1
                    Quote: MORDVIN13rus
                    9th of October 1941

                    The decision on credit deliveries was made by Roosevelt on October 30. The USSR LL was included in the program in June 42nd, but with a spread to deliveries since the fall of 41st.
                    Quote: MORDVIN13rus
                    30 tons of Soviet gold

                    This is 30 million dollars. In trucks it is 3 thousand pieces, EMNIP. I could be wrong.

                    I remind you that LL was great, but not dimensionless. In addition to LL, ordinary purchases through AmTorg were also operating on normal commercial terms.
                  4. MORDVIN13rus
                    MORDVIN13rus April 26 2020 10: 27 New
                    0
                    The first protocol was signed on October 1, Roosevelt was signed only on October 28. But if you really get to the letters of agreements. That USSR was included in the treaty on LL only June 11, 42 years. All deliveries up to this protocol were carried out according to a commercial scheme, or else as they say the offer, that is, on ordinary loans, in payment of which the USSR was required guarantees for these loans, both in the first billion and in the second. What the USSR was made in the form of gold, platinum, drag stones.
                  5. Octopus
                    Octopus April 26 2020 13: 26 New
                    -1
                    Quote: MORDVIN13rus
                    The first protocol was signed on October 1,

                    This is the Moscow conference. Her protocols were included in LL retroactively, at that time a credit scheme was used.
                    ,
                    Quote: MORDVIN13rus
                    they went according to a commercial scheme, or else as they call it, that is, on ordinary loans, in payment of which the USSR was required guarantees for these loans,

                    Until October, yes, after October no, Roosevelt opened an unsecured line.
          2. MORDVIN13rus
            MORDVIN13rus April 25 2020 21: 03 New
            +1
            And where did you share a couple of tens of tons of gold delivered to the United States from the USSR in October 41 years.
      3. toha124
        toha124 April 25 2020 13: 13 New
        +5
        It's just that many people confuse "lend-lease" with the usual commercial purchases, which went up to "lend-lease" and continued in parallel with it. Hence the confusion. Figuratively speaking, Roosevelt lent us a fire hose, as the most important thing, but many buckets, shovels, axes, etc. had to be purchased.
    4. vadim dok
      vadim dok April 25 2020 14: 59 New
      +8
      And how much food was supplied under Lend-Lease! Without this food there would be a terrible famine among the population, the army would be fed, at the very least! The Americans supplied food, which was enough for more than 8 MILLION soldiers for 4 years! Yes, and for the population remained. And how many soldiers were saved
      supplies of medicines, medical equipment, bandages, syringes! All this was not in the USSR!
      1. MORDVIN13rus
        MORDVIN13rus April 26 2020 10: 38 New
        +2
        food was paid with real money, that is, it was like here many write commercial purchases. For information, little Mongolia helped a lot more in food than the United States. 54 thousand tons of wool came from the USA for LL, 64 thousand tons from Mongolia - 665 thousand tons of canned meat from the USA. But over the same years, Mongolia supplied almost 500 thousand tons of meat to the USSR, in terms of canned meat it will be more than the United States. As well as short fur coats, horses, other food. Mongolia also provided the USSR with access to its tungsten mines.
        1. Octopus
          Octopus April 26 2020 13: 29 New
          +1
          Quote: MORDVIN13rus
          Mongolia helped a lot more

          When applied to Mongolians, the word "help" is not quite appropriate. Until the 48th year, this is the region of China occupied by the USSR.
          Quote: MORDVIN13rus
          Mongolia granted the USSR access to its tungsten mines.

          I would not have provided.
          1. MORDVIN13rus
            MORDVIN13rus April 26 2020 20: 37 New
            +1
            When and in what year did the USSR occupy Mongolia? Especially about the part of China I liked, thanks a laugh.
            1. Octopus
              Octopus April 26 2020 21: 11 New
              +1
              Quote: MORDVIN13rus
              When and in what year did the USSR occupy Mongolia?

              Long story. It has gone since imperialist times.
              Quote: MORDVIN13rus
              I especially liked the part of China,

              Live and learn. Mongolia was recognized by China in 2002 (PRC - in 49th). In the early 40s, both she and Manzhou-Go were considered (and were) regions of China occupied by the USSR and Japan, respectively.
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 April 26 2020 21: 16 New
              +1
              Live and learn. Mongolia was recognized by China in 2002 (PRC - in 49th).

              The Mongols were very worried about this good
              Does China also consider the Republic of Tuva to be its territory?
              China and Kazakhstan have territorial claims!
              Japan Kuril Islands also considers its own!
            3. Octopus
              Octopus April 26 2020 22: 04 New
              0
              Quote: hohol95
              Does China also consider the Republic of Tuva to be its territory?
              China and Kazakhstan have territorial claims!
              Japan Kuril Islands also considers its own!

              All in good time.
            4. hohol95
              hohol95 April 27 2020 12: 33 New
              0
              Spain means it is not in vain waiting for the return of Gibraltar?
            5. Octopus
              Octopus April 27 2020 14: 01 New
              +2
              If the ratio of living standards in Spain and Britain is the same as in the Kuril Islands and Hokkaido, respectively - there will be something to talk about. Talk with the citizens of Gibraltar. But so far nothing.
            6. Octopus
              Octopus April 27 2020 14: 13 New
              +1
              Quote: Octopus
              Kurilakh and Hokkaido respectively

              Hokkaido and Kurillah, respectively, of course.
    5. MORDVIN13rus
      MORDVIN13rus April 26 2020 22: 38 New
      +1
      Well, what does the USSR have to do with it, if it's from the imperialist ones. As much as in 1911, thanks to the Republic of Ingushetia, it became an independent state. Moreover, most of Mongolia remained the territory of China.
    6. Octopus
      Octopus April 26 2020 23: 41 New
      0
      Quote: MORDVIN13rus
      if it’s still with the imperialist.

      Are you going to blame Marshal Choibosalan for Nikolai?
      Quote: MORDVIN13rus
      thanks to the Republic of Ingushetia, it has become an independent state.

      According to the Republic of Ingushetia itself, it has become, as it were, an independent state, the independent sovereigns of which for some reason were appointed by the northern neighbor.
      Not according to China or anyone else.
  • Avior
    Avior April 26 2020 14: 54 New
    -1
    Mongolia sold, albeit at the lowest prices, and the United States gave free
    big difference.
    and you hid it behind a neutral "set".
    1. MORDVIN13rus
      MORDVIN13rus April 26 2020 20: 34 New
      +2
      usa and free? Found as they say patron.
      1. Octopus
        Octopus April 26 2020 21: 12 New
        0
        Quote: MORDVIN13rus
        usa and free?

        Yes.

        Franklin Roosevelt loved tossing someone else's money. And not just money.
  • Octopus
    Octopus April 25 2020 17: 59 New
    +3
    Quote: Malibu
    How much the USA received from the occupation of Europe not destroyed, as in our zone

    Nothing. Victory without reparations and indemnities. Unlike.
    Quote: Malibu
    And the United States was in a deep economic depression before the start of World War II, and what did they become after graduation?

    Truman's economic team turned out to be more competent than Roosevelt's.
    Quote: Malibu
    and the blood of our soldiers

    Only in the 41st, when the question of supply was decided, Comrade Stalin did not say anything about paying in blood. This method of calculation could cause misunderstanding on the American side.
    Quote: Malibu
    unlike Angolaxians who prefer massive air strikes ..

    At the beginning of ground operations, it turned out that the doctrine of Douai Arnold and Harris was misunderstood.
  • Grigory_45
    Grigory_45 April 26 2020 15: 23 New
    0
    Quote: Malibu
    How much the USA received from the occupation of Europe not destroyed, as in our zone

    this does not apply to Lend-Lease. Many people received reparations from Germany, including Poland and Israel

    Quote: Malibu
    And the United States was in a deep economic depression before the start of World War II, and what did they become after graduation?

    if the conveyor plants operate in three shifts, then it goes without saying that there is no decline in production. The US government purchased the products, further distributing them according to Lend-Lease applications - do not forget that not only the USSR received help, and it was not the main recipient. The main consumer was the United Kingdom (it received aid worth 3 times more than the Union), a lot went to China.

    Quote: Malibu
    Stalin was paying with them gold and platinum

    gold was used for currency conversion to pay for supplies of the first year of the war, when the USSR was not yet included in the Lend-Lease program. Roosevelt needed to convince both the Senate and the population that Stalin was solvent, and this gave him reason to provide assistance with military supplies (I recall that the States adhered to a policy of isolationism and neutrality, and did not want to go into a world war). Lend-lease products were not paid (or rather, what was not lost during the war and not transferred to the United States was subject to payment. But in any case, payment was to be made only after the war).
    In addition, there was regular trade - with the same USA and Great Britain, for example.
    1. Mite
      Mite April 26 2020 15: 37 New
      -4
      Quote: Gregory_45
      this does not apply to Lend-Lease. Many people received reparations from Germany, including Poland and Israel

      Khe khe Besides the USSR .. We refused!
      Quote: Gregory_45
      do not forget that help was received not only by the USSR, and he was not the main recipient. The main consumer was the United Kingdom (it received aid worth 3 times more than the Union), a lot went to China.

      China received? This is something new .. As far as I know, Stalin China raised both technology and technical assistance .. hi
      Quote: Gregory_45
      I remind you that the States adhered to a policy of isolationism and neutrality, and did not want to climb into the world war). Lend-lease products were not paid (or rather, what was not lost during the war and not transferred to the United States was subject to payment. But in any case, payment was to be made only after the war).
      In addition, there was regular trade - with the same USA and Great Britain, for example.

      I understood you and your defense of the United States as the main "winner" in the Second World War .. If not for their stew and trucks, the Russians would not have taken Berlin?
      The stew was called the "second front" by the comfrey soldiers .. And that says a lot! soldier
      Go through the woods with your wiki and google .... Still say that the Jews won the war with their money .. Ugh damn .. Already a heart was stabbed .. angry soldier
      1. Grigory_45
        Grigory_45 April 26 2020 15: 52 New
        0
        Quote: Tick
        Quote: Gregory_45
        this does not apply to Lend-Lease. Many people received reparations from Germany, including Poland and Israel

        Khe khe Besides the USSR .. We refused!

        explain your thought

        Quote: Tick
        China received? This is something new ..

        China during the Second World War received assistance from the United States under the Lend-Lease program. In total, this program included: Great Britain, the USSR, France and China (since the summer of 41). According to American data, Beijing received $ 1,6 billion in aid (in 1945 prices)

        Quote: Tick
        As far as I know, Stalin China raised both technology and technical assistance ..

        you will decide over time. It is about the second world war.

        Quote: Tick
        I understood you and your defense of the United States as the main "winner" in the Second World War

        it means you didn’t understand me at all. We are talking for a Lend-Lease, about its role, about the mechanisms of its implementation, and we are not placing the winners of the Second World in the places of the podium

        Quote: Tick
        If not for their stew and trucks, then

        then we would have been much worse. At least for this, for helping with supplies that saved hundreds of thousands, millions of lives, you should not give a damn about Lend-Lease.

        Quote: Tick
        Walk the forest with your wiki and google ....

        and you were an eyewitness of those events?

        Well, the last. When you do not understand what is written, then you should ask again, and not think out. Or maybe you understand everything, but make money on hype? In any case, does not paint
    2. Octopus
      Octopus April 26 2020 15: 57 New
      0
      Quote: Gregory_45
      Many people received reparations from Germany, including Poland and Israel

      Israel is not a complete reparation; it is not a victorious country. And American reparations are something new.
      Quote: Gregory_45
      and this gave him reason to assist with military supplies (I recall that the States adhered to a policy of isolationism and neutrality, and did not want to go into a world war)

      )))

      You have a somewhat divorced view of Roosevelt's policies. The United States Defense Support Act itself, aka the Lend-Lease Act, is somewhat surprising in terms of neutrality.
      1. Grigory_45
        Grigory_45 April 26 2020 16: 28 New
        +1
        Quote: Octopus
        Israel is not a complete reparation, it is not a victorious country

        reparations were received not only by the victorious countries. Do you know the meaning of the term? Reparations - a form of liability of a subject of international law for damage caused as a result of an international offense committed by him to another subject of international law. That is, it is compensation in tangible terms in respect of compensation to other states for the damage caused.

        Quote: Octopus
        And American reparations are something new.

        According to the documents of the conference in Potsdam (Germany; July 17-August 2, 1945), reparations were to be expressed in material form (plants, machinery, equipment, inventories, as well as German investments abroad). The total amount of German property that the winning countries could remove from their zones of occupation was not agreed. It was indicated that the USSR would additionally receive from the zones occupied by the United States, Britain and France, approximately 25% of the dismantled equipment. The reparation claims of Poland should have been satisfied by the USSR from its share. The remaining members of the anti-Hitler coalition were to receive reparations from the western occupation zones.

        Agreements on the regime of deliveries for reparations from zones occupied by the USA, Great Britain and France were reached at a conference in Paris in November-December 1945 and were fixed in the agreement of January 14, 1946. Its participants were 19 countries, including the UK, the USA, France, as well as Albania, Greece, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. The Paris Treaty established a percentage of reparations for individual states and provided for the creation of the Inter-Allied Reparation Agency (IARA), which was responsible for recording and distributing reparations.

        The specific total amount of reparations assigned to Germany as a result of World War II was not fixed at the international level. In 2000, the Ministry of Finance of the Federal Republic of Germany prepared a report in which it was emphasized that "the winning countries took reparation payments unilaterally, and there are no regulatory records about this."

        Deliveries from the western sectors of occupied Germany actually ended in 1950. IARA ceased operations in 1959, determining the value of the removed property at $ 530 million (at the exchange rate of 1938). According to the Soviet press, the United States, Great Britain and France dismantled and exported equipment worth about $ 1,2 billion, gold - 277 tons (equivalent to almost $ 300 million), sea and river vessels - $ 200 million from their zones of occupation. Germany’s foreign holdings in the amount of about $ 4 billion went under the control of these countries. German patents and technical documents seized by the USA and Great Britain are estimated at approximately $ 5 billion.

        In September 1952, the so-called Luxembourg Agreement was signed between Germany and Israel (entered into force in March 1953). In accordance with this document, for 14 years, the German government paid reparations to the Israeli government in the amount of 3 billion marks (at today's rate, approximately 7 billion euros) as compensation for Jews who suffered during the Holocaust (1933-1945). Many historians point out that this is the only case when reparations were received by a state that did not exist during the war, and as a result of which they were paid.
      2. Grigory_45
        Grigory_45 April 26 2020 16: 30 New
        +1
        Quote: Octopus
        You have a somewhat divorced view of Roosevelt's policies. The United States Defense Support Act itself, aka the Lend-Lease Act, is somewhat surprising in terms of neutrality.

        If you have gaps in history and you don’t know about US policy until the Second World War ... then I’m almost powerless here. To study, to study, and to study again, as Comrade bequeathed. Ulyanov.
        Before WWII, the United States pursued an isolationist non-aligned policy. Public opinion was against participating in the new European conflict. Congress is also. In the congress then republicans prevailed, opposed Roosevelt’s position. They saw that Germany and Italy, although violating international standards, did not harm US state interests. They believed, that the situation is similar to the one that was before the WWI, and there is no point in getting into a meat grinder. The US political elite did not decide on the choice of the parties, and the status of neutral allowed the States to have benefits from each of the parties to the conflict.
        Roosevelt took great pains to turn the majority views in his country in his favor.
        First, the Lend-Lease Act followed, almost immediately the US Navy connected to the escort convoy, then - the occupation of Iceland in 1940. That is gradually, but the States got involved in the war, public opinion, attitude to the war changed. Well, after Pearl Harbor, there was no need to convince anyone
        1. Octopus
          Octopus April 26 2020 17: 42 New
          0
          Quote: Gregory_45
          and you don’t know about US policy until World War II ... then I’m almost powerless here.

          )))
          For some reason, it seems to me that Roosevelt’s activity is even better known to me than to you.
          Quote: Gregory_45
          Before WWII, the United States pursued an isolationist non-aligned policy.

          What else non-alignment? To what?
          Quote: Gregory_45
          Public opinion was against participating in the new European conflict. Congress is also.

          Yes.

          But not Roosevelt.
          Quote: Gregory_45
          The US political elite has not decided on the choice of parties,

          Even as decided.

          Roosevelt participated in the 40th election, promising Britain any help, but military, and Wilkie, who promised any help, including military.
          Quote: Gregory_45
          First, the Lend-Lease Act followed, almost immediately the United States Navy joined the convoy wiring, then - the occupation of Iceland in 1940.

          You are confusing the order.

          First, a neutral patrol, then destroyer bases (this deal, first of all, allowed to redeem British PMV debts), then LL (the British are fighting with American weapons provided by at the expense of the US government, for a minute), then (July 41st) the occupation of Iceland. In parallel, a lot of interesting things. Volunteers (in China since the 30s), all kinds of moral embargoes, ABDA and so on.

          Didn’t choose your side, speak?
          Quote: Gregory_45
          Well, after Pearl Harbor, there was no need to convince anyone

          Who is there to convince? Old man Adolf himself declared war.

          Your shortcoming is that you confuse rhetoric, especially election, and real politics. (This is in the best case. It is more likely that you are broadcasting stupid Soviet propaganda with a great friend of the Soviet people Roosevelt. Roosevelt was no friend to anyone.). The Roosevelt administration did not leave any doubts. And the consensus on this issue was complete, the differences with the Republicans concerned only tactical moments, beat the Germans or strangle. The Republicans were right, in their own way, the state of the American Armed Forces was extremely sad even in the 43rd year, to climb such a collective farm on the Wehrmacht was suicide. Tunisia has shown it.

          Quote: Gregory_45
          Many historians point out that this is the only case when reparations were received by a state that did not exist during the war, and as a result of which they were paid.

          Therefore, I write that the case of Israel is special. There is a lot of terminological confusion. Jews, what can I say.

          Quote: Gregory_45
          According to the estimates of the Soviet press ... German patents and technical documentation seized by the USA and Great Britain are estimated at about $ 5 billion.

          Still, I did not have enough estimates of the Soviet press on the value of intellectual property appropriated by the Americans.
          Quote: Gregory_45
          that "the victorious countries took reparation payments unilaterally, and there is no normative record of this."

          This means that there were no reparations. The looting of Germany was victorious, but there were no reparations. For objective reasons, on the part of the Allies, this process took place on a relatively small scale, the ruins of the Ruhr to the first industrial powers of the world were not particularly interesting.

          For objective reasons, the first industrial powers in the world had much less interest in German intellectual property. That jet engines, that nuclear project, that radio technology, that guided weapons from the Allies by the summer of 45th have moved much further. Yes, some achievements were stolen, and a lot. But in general, against the background of other German problems, this is not serious.
  • Lopatov
    Lopatov April 25 2020 11: 25 New
    -1
    Quote: Avior
    Bargained

    This is a keyword.
  • Ramzaj99
    Ramzaj99 April 25 2020 23: 12 New
    -3
    Quote: Avior
    These are the real numbers in modern prices.
    They received 160 billion under the lend-lease, 720 million were returned.

    These are not real numbers.
    Since it does not take into account what the USSR supplied to the Americans.
    And there, by the way, caravans with forests went, shipped chrome and manganese ore, sent wood, furs, and caviar across the ocean.
    About gold and platinum is fiction

    This is not fiction.
    They still cannot calculate how much gold was taken out at that time. All platinum was taken out, absolutely, this is a fact.
    According to various estimates, the USSR provided the USA with services and transferred goods worth several hundred million.
    1. Octopus
      Octopus April 25 2020 23: 30 New
      +7
      Quote: Ramzaj99
      According to various estimates, the USSR provided the USA with services and transferred goods worth several hundred million.

      According to various estimates.

      Among the various ratings are those from President Truman's report to Congress.

      2 million dollars.

      For comparison, from the British Empire - 6 752 million dollars.
      1. Ramzaj99
        Ramzaj99 April 25 2020 23: 49 New
        -1
        Quote: Octopus
        Among the various ratings are those from President Truman's report to Congress.

        And there are estimates, how much did the Americans help the Nazis?
        Henry Ford built 3-ton trucks at a factory in Cologne. About 50 thousand of these trucks were transferred to the German army in the period 1941-1945.
        Standard Oil, General Electric, traded quite openly with the Nazis. There was a presidential decree of December 13, 1941 that allowed doing business with enemy companies, unless there was a ban from the Treasury of America. American banks in the late 30s and before the outbreak of the war invested $ 800 million in industry and the financial system of Germany.
        So maybe if they did not help us and did not help them, then the war would not be so long and bloody ?? !! And maybe it didn’t happen at all? ......
        1. Octopus
          Octopus April 26 2020 00: 47 New
          +3
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          And there are estimates, how much did the Americans help the Nazis?

          Of course it’s known. 0 (zero) dollars. The Lend-Lease Act did not apply to Germany.

          Quote: Ramzaj99
          Henry Ford built 3-ton trucks at a factory in Cologne. About 50 thousand of these trucks were transferred to the German army in the period 1941-1945.

          In the period 41-45 years, this plant had no more relation to the Ford company than the GAZ plant.
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          Oil standard

          There is no such company in the 41st year.
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          General Electric traded openly with the Nazis

          After December 12, the 41st? Lies.
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          There was a presidential decree of December 13, 1941.

          Try to find him
          https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          doing business with enemy companies, if there was no ban from the Treasury of America

          Some strange formulation of the question. What do you mean "admitted"? If there is no ban on doing business, then what questions can there be in general?
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          American banks in the late 30s and before the outbreak of the war invested $ 800 million in industry and the financial system of Germany.

          And what is strange that American companies invest in the economy of an American (strategic, but not political) ally? How much did they invest in the industry of the enemy of their country, the Soviet Union?
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          $ 800 million

          Return on investment by private companies in the amount of 8% of the funds provided by the USSR under the LL Congress free of charge.
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          So maybe if they did not help us and did not help them, then the war would not be so long and bloody ?? !!

          At the expense of the bloody I will not say, but not so long for sure. If not by winter 41, then by winter 42 it could well end.
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          maybe it didn’t happen at all?

          The plutocrats were definitely not related to the Danzig problem.
          1. Ramzaj99
            Ramzaj99 April 26 2020 08: 28 New
            -2
            Quote: Octopus
            At the expense of the bloody I will not say, but not so long for sure. If not by winter 41, then by winter 42 it could well end.

            I see the pigs trying in full))
            Well, of course, the RIGHT story is already known all over the world, the Americans won the Second World War ..... if not for them, then in the 42nd miserable Russians would have surrendered and blah, blah, blah .....
            There is no such company in the 41st year.

            Dozens of historical works and archival documents, aren't you proof?))
            Rub further, young people are listening to you attentively .... And adequate people have taught history well and they know who is the winner and who is the trader who makes money in all the wars in the world ....
            1. Ramzaj99
              Ramzaj99 April 26 2020 08: 49 New
              -1
              No one reduces the help of the Americans. She was significant. BUT she was never decisive !!
              Any adequate person understands that war cannot be won by one weapon and stew.
              We need people with a will that will defeat the enemy.
              And by the way, substantial assistance from the Americans went only in the 42nd when it became clear that there would be no krieg blitz, the Germans stalled and began to get in the face ....
              Prior to this, all of Stalin’s requests were ignored, and there were only promises and small handouts.
              And the last thing. As many veterans said - yes, the Americans helped, But without this help, NOTHING would have changed, the result would have been the same, harder, but NOT MORE! And I trust them more than the new "historians")))
            2. Octopus
              Octopus April 26 2020 14: 16 New
              +3
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              Well, of course, the RIGHT story is known all over the world

              There is no right and wrong story. There is a story as it is and speculation on this subject.
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              Americans won World War II

              In World War II, the great Stalin defeated. Everyone else lost, to varying degrees. Including the multinational Soviet people, of course, no matter how you relate to it.

              Since the people who signed the American Brest-Litovsk in Yalta and Potsdam were in power in the USA until the 60th year, they managed to sell their alternative version of the story in which the Allies won, including the USSR. American liars often pretend to be a shame for victory, it is their and not only their political tradition. Since arguing with the Americans is more expensive for themselves, and the empire of Stalin began to fall apart during his lifetime, the USSR, beginning in the 50s, plays up to this lie. It acquired a completely schizophrenic character in the late 80s - 90s when, from the 96th, it seems, from the XNUMXth year on, in a minute of silence the following game moved (and is moving now):

              Soldier of the Great Patriotic War! You stood to death near Moscow and Stalingrad, drove bread to the besieged Leningrad, burned in a tank near Prokhorovka ... By dying, you saved millions of lives. You, having lost your relatives and friends in the Stalinist camps, brought freedom to the prisoners of Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau ...You did not intrude into other people's borders, did not seek glory. You defended the Fatherland! Defended his family. Recall all those who laid their lives on the altar of Victory


              The American soldier who liberated Buchenwald and Dachau, lost relatives and friends in the Stalinist camps. Disgusting.

              Speaking of Buchenwald. Not long Americans ordered there. With the transfer of Thuringia to the control of the Soviet side, Special Camp No. 2 resumed its work until 1950.
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              then in the 42nd miserable Russians would have surrendered

              With the neutral United States (and Britain, which had withdrawn from the war, who relied largely on American aid), there is little doubt about that. Are you miserable Russian or not, and poorly prepared for war. Very thin passed in the 41st, and in the 42nd.
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              Dozens of historical works and archival documents

              Dozens of works mean the art book of Charles Hayam "Trade with the Enemy" and its numerous retellings in the Cyrillic ZhZhshechka.
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              one weapon and stew can not win.
              Need people

              A lot of things are needed. And not everything was.
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              And by the way, substantial help from the Americans went

              Help was the very fact that help would and would close the imbalances of the planned Soviet economy that existed in peacetime. Without this, the Soviet government, which was never strong in the economy, would have to militarize industry in an even more monstrous situation than in reality.
              Quote: Ramzaj99
              But if there wasn’t this help, NOTHING would have changed,

              NOTHING.

              Only those veterans with whom you spoke would not be alive. If these are not veterans of the NKVD, of course, there will be a place beyond the Volga, and in the Reich Commissariats too.
      2. 3danimal
        3danimal April 26 2020 14: 34 New
        +2
        So at the factory Ford itself made cars or did the Nazis nationalize it by declaring war on the USA?
        If you’ve been taken away from your printer and counterfeit money is printed on it, are you still to blame?
        1. Octopus
          Octopus April 26 2020 14: 54 New
          +1
          Quote: 3danimal
          So at the factory Ford himself made cars

          Ford (not Boeing and not Consolidated) operated the largest aircraft plant in the United States.
          Ford (not Rolls-Royce) was the main manufacturer of Merlin engines in the UK from 42-45.
    2. 3danimal
      3danimal April 26 2020 14: 32 New
      -1
      How can one compare the expenses of the Labor Union and the supplies and money thrown from the bourgeois shoulder by Britain? wink
      1. Octopus
        Octopus April 26 2020 14: 38 New
        +5
        Quote: 3danimal
        How can you compare

        Arithmetic is too poor in shades to reflect the complexity of Soviet history.
  • Avior
    Avior April 26 2020 14: 57 New
    +1
    the volume of reverse lendlise is known - 2 million dollars is ore and more by little things.
    compare with a land lease of 11 billion
    they sold furs, caviar, etc. to the States for money, it was a usual trade.
    in return they also bought something
  • 3danimal
    3danimal April 26 2020 13: 55 New
    0
    But the greedy are still "americos" smile (they are capitalists)
  • Grigory_45
    Grigory_45 April 26 2020 14: 47 New
    0
    Quote: Avior
    Yes, and how can I check?

    There are figures of what was shipped to the USSR — American data. There are figures of the property that came to the Union — Soviet data. And there are numbers of what and in what quantity Moscow returned. Apparently, the difference in the cost of equipment in the first and last digits was requested by the Americans. In the United States, it was initially estimated that the amount payable for surviving civilian vehicles and equipment, including depreciation, was $ 2,6 billion.
    But for negotiations with Moscow, they billed 1,3 billion.
    1. Avior
      Avior April 26 2020 15: 04 New
      0
      there is a third figure, something else that was lost or spent during the war. she was also deducted from supplies.
      We gave the Americans this data
      subtracted from the second digit, the supplies were on the allies and it was believed that it came to the Union.
      and so right
  • phair
    phair April 26 2020 03: 24 New
    0
    Many of them rode to the Far East, did not surrender. Over the Urals, too, but was not a witness.
  • Grigory_45
    Grigory_45 April 26 2020 14: 34 New
    0
    Quote: Aron Zaavi
    I don’t know that ours was returned there, but my father served at Studer in 50-53. At what in 52 they received from Kunashir almost brand new cars from under Katyusha

    There were deliveries even after the war, for those orders which, before its end, they began to fulfill, but did not manage to complete (or send already manufactured products to the USSR) to the end.
    The property of the USSR was received, however, it had to be paid.
  • Avior
    Avior April 25 2020 09: 10 New
    10
    In our eyes, it was valuable, but the Americans should bring those killed by the war, even freshly painted, back to the states - nobody needed them there, there were enough of their surpluses.
    And, there is a big suspicion that this is just a bike or a strong exaggeration.
    The cars were obviously not handed over at once, well, they were painted for the first time for reinsurance, then they would have immediately seen why they were for the Americans, and they do not care what form they give up.
    1. Altona
      Altona April 25 2020 13: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: Avior
      In our eyes, she had value.

      -------------------------
      Well, still, 70% of industrial and agrarian developed territories were under the enemy, for the restoration of which equipment was required. A truck is the basis of the national economy, its basic element. The truck is the main hard worker in the economy. Therefore, they saw off the "rented" cars with tears in their eyes.
  • Altona
    Altona April 25 2020 10: 42 New
    +3
    Quote: Free Wind
    the Americans literally forced the Russians to use car kits, but ours resisted. Although for the same Katyusha, a body was dismantled from Studer.

    -------------------------
    For mass production, it’s better that way — you stupidly do one set of parts and do not get distracted by modifications to bring special bolts, elongated frame spars, reinforced springs and other things, the number of which is an order of magnitude smaller.
    Quote: Free Wind
    I wonder why it was necessary with such thoroughness to return the surviving equipment. Cars washed painted, even oil changed. And they were taken to chermet.

    --------------------------
    Under the terms of the lease. Lend-Lease is a lease. Another issue is that scientific and technological progress during the war accelerated and made this technique irrelevant and stupidly "depreciated", written off the balance sheet. By the end of the war, the United States had excess production capacity and there was no problem to slap new trucks.
    1. Avior
      Avior April 25 2020 11: 56 New
      +2
      they had a lot of their surpluses, and their army was reduced after the war.
    2. Alf
      Alf April 25 2020 18: 23 New
      +1
      Quote: Altona
      By the end of the war, the United States had excess production capacities and there were no problems to splash new trucks.

      Especially when you consider that the same Students did not fit into the standards of the US Army.
      1. Octopus
        Octopus April 26 2020 14: 23 New
        +2
        Quote: Alf
        the same Students did not fit into the standards of the US Army.

        The students had a lower valve engine, and the U.S. Army demanded a more progressive upper valve. On the other hand, Soviet engines are American engines of the early 30s, the same ZiSovsky Hercules, so the old American engine was completely suitable for the Soviet side.
  • tihonmarine
    tihonmarine April 25 2020 07: 26 New
    10
    Until 1962 my father had a "Dodge" which he somehow "grabbed" for school. Good permeability, and most importantly unpretentious, 15 years have passed since the war, and he worked. Also in the artillery division, Studobekers were used, although there were several of them and they were used to deliver shells, but they also worked like a clock, and the ZIS-50 that came out in the 151s by this time went on pins and needles.
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 April 25 2020 08: 01 New
    +4
    An interesting article, some details are shown again.
  • Professor
    Professor April 25 2020 09: 00 New
    11
    Deliveries of American and British Lend-Lease automobiles cannot be recognized as useful.

    Author, why be so modest? They were not just "useful", but life-saving. After all, it is not so much a huge number of cars supplied by bourgeois, but the absence of a local alternative. A lorry (by the way, also "American") was our everything. That is why they dragged everything they could on their humps, and at best on carts.

    After lengthy negotiations, the USSR and the United States agreed to pay 720 million dollars, while the total value of the delivered products reached almost 11 billion dollars.

    The bourgeois enriched themselves. wassat $ 10 billion in the 1940s is roughly $ 184 billion at current prices.
    1. Peter is not the first
      Peter is not the first April 25 2020 09: 33 New
      10
      I don’t think that just of these 11 billion have been enriched, we promised to pay only 720 million, and we paid only by 2006. Yes, and paid already with new money that lost value due to inflation. So Lend-Lease to us was like manna from heaven, which allowed us to survive and acquire, finally, mobility in order to break the backbone of fascism.
      1. Professor
        Professor April 25 2020 09: 42 New
        +6
        Quote: Peter is not the first
        I don’t think that just of these 11 billion have been enriched, we promised to pay only 720 million, and we paid only by 2006. Yes, and paid already with new money that lost value due to inflation. So Lend-Lease to us was like manna from heaven, which allowed us to survive and acquire, finally, mobility in order to break the backbone of fascism.

        That was sarcasm. Here, many believe that the Americans got rich in WWII.
        1. timokhin-aa
          timokhin-aa April 25 2020 16: 51 New
          +3
          They got rich.
          Just not because of Lend-Lease.
          1. 3danimal
            3danimal April 27 2020 07: 45 New
            0
            Replies from the Germans received? smile
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 April 25 2020 22: 54 New
          -1
          They printed more dollars for themselves and "helped" the Europeans "according to the Marshal's plan"! Do not become poor!
          1. Octopus
            Octopus April 25 2020 23: 25 New
            +2
            Quote: hohol95
            They printed another dollars for themselves.

            Have you heard anything about the gold standard?
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 April 25 2020 23: 35 New
              0
              Do you know about its cancellation in 1971?
              And you think that during the war, adhered to the Golden Standard?
              1. Octopus
                Octopus April 26 2020 00: 49 New
                +4
                Quote: hohol95
                Do you know about its cancellation in 1971?

                What period are you talking about?
                Quote: hohol95
                Do you think you adhered to the Gold Standard during the war?

                What do you mean "think"? The gold standard was officially in effect.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 April 26 2020 20: 57 New
                  0
                  And why was it necessary in 1944 "Bretton Woods agreement". It means "not everything was smooth in the Datsky Kingdom"!
                  1. Octopus
                    Octopus April 26 2020 21: 14 New
                    +1
                    Quote: hohol95
                    not everything was smooth in the Datsk Kingdom

                    Of course. In addition to changing economic circumstances in Britain, the gold standard, even the gold exchange system, is extremely harmful to the economy.
          2. Professor
            Professor April 26 2020 12: 56 New
            +2
            Quote: hohol95
            They printed more dollars for themselves and "helped" the Europeans "according to the Marshal's plan"! Do not become poor!

            Yoshi's paint ran out and he could not print rubles?
            1. Mite
              Mite April 26 2020 13: 10 New
              -1
              Quote: Professor
              Quote: hohol95
              They printed more dollars for themselves and "helped" the Europeans "according to the Marshal's plan"! Do not become poor!

              Yoshi's paint ran out and he could not print rubles?

              Your Yossi didn’t let their own in the United States (who don’t have money) when Hitler agreed to send Jews, who wants to leave Germany When you start whining about the Holocaust, etc. I always remember this moment and this transport returned to Germany and then it began .. negative
              And about the financing of the Reich by the Zionists, here I am generally silent ..
              We’ll post it all! Not all documents you managed to destroy, as evidence of your participation in this world massacre .. You can kick, but I will not change my opinion soldier
              1. Octopus
                Octopus April 26 2020 13: 33 New
                +2
                Quote: Tick
                US did not let its

                You're right. Cordell Hull, 47th US Secretary of State, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, enchanting geek. The story of St. Louis that you recalled here is just a trifle against the background of his other atrocities and follies. It’s a pity that he wasn’t on the post asshole, very sorry.
              2. 3danimal
                3danimal April 27 2020 07: 47 New
                +1
                Ok, then what about the extradition of Jewish refugees to the Nazis? (When there was a friendship with them)
              3. Professor
                Professor April 27 2020 07: 55 New
                +2
                Quote: Tick
                Your Yossi didn’t let their own in the United States (who don’t have money) when Hitler agreed to send Jews, who wants to leave Germany When you start whining about the Holocaust, etc. I always remember this moment and this transport returned to Germany and then it began ..

                Yosi Dzhugashvili held joint parades with Hitler when the concentration camps were in full swing. He supplied Nazi Germany until 22.06.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX. He caught the Jews who fled from the German zone of occupation of Poland and sent them back. Jews from the Soviet zone of occupation of Poland were not allowed to move to the rest of the USSR, leaving them to certain death. You remember that too. Do not forget who sank the ship with Jewish refugees in the Black Sea. Remember the shooting of the Jewish Anti-fascist committee. Do not forget about the order not to accept Jews in partisan detachments and dooming them to certain death. When all this is remembered, we will talk about "whining about the Holocaust, etc.".

                Quote: Tick
                And about the financing of the Reich by the Zionists, here I am generally silent ..

                And rightly so, shut up. Do not expose yourself, to put it mildly, not smart.

                Quote: Tick
                We’ll post it all! Not all documents you managed to destroy, as evidence of your participation in this world massacre .. You can kick, but I will not change my opinion

                Me to your opinion ...
                And the documents would be interesting to see. It is a pity that the RF Ministry of Defense has not yet declassified military archives. Military secret however. wassat

                PS
                Yosi Dzhugashvili did not have money to print money or did he think of only a compulsory state loan from a poor population?
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 April 26 2020 13: 26 New
              0
              For rubles, however, did not sell!
              Until October 1941, the USSR spent $ 41 million for purchases in the United States!
              You know no worse than me that initially the USSR simply bought what was required for currency or precious metals! And under LL got loans! Which were spent in the country of the creditor! The USSR did not see this money in fact. The Americans gave the loan themselves and got this money!
              The situation was the same with Britain. During the year of the war, debt to the United States grew by $ 1740 million British! In just a year! Already in December 1940, the British could not pay off their debts. Refused new contracts Money is over ...
              And under American law of 1934, for this reason, they were denied new loans.
              Then I had to "invent" Lend-Lease!
              And to the detriment of themselves, the Americans would not come up with it. They well calculated the behavior strategy for decades to come!
              Therefore, the US government and economic circles should not be considered as people capable of "giving up their last shirt"!
              1. Mite
                Mite April 26 2020 13: 38 New
                -2
                Quote: hohol95
                And to the detriment of themselves, the Americans would not come up with it. They well calculated the behavior strategy for decades to come!
                Therefore, the US government and economic circles should not be considered as people capable of "giving up their last shirt"!

                Thank you, everything was just that .. yes, and now the United States is the first to remove the cream in any global conflict .. hi
                Quote: hohol95
                The Americans gave the loan themselves and got this money!

                how everything is familiar ..
              2. 3danimal
                3danimal April 27 2020 07: 48 New
                0
                Lend-Lease is not loans. Open the encyclopedia.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 April 27 2020 12: 39 New
                  0
                  It provided for the following system of Lend-Lease settlements:
                  - materials destroyed during the war or unsuitable for further use are not subject to any payment;
                  - materials left after the war and suitable for civilian needs are paid in whole or in part in the manner of a long-term loan;
                  - military materials remain in the recipient countries, the US government reserves the right to demand them;
                  - equipment not completed by the end of the war, and ready-made materials stored in warehouses in the United States can be purchased by contracting states, and the American government provides a loan to pay for it.

                  It turns out if there is no cache - take loans.
                  1. 3danimal
                    3danimal April 27 2020 14: 27 New
                    0
                    - materials left after the war and suitable for civilian needs are paid in whole or in part in the manner of a long-term loan;

                    What prevents returning these materials?
                    (When we see what we want to see)
                    All deliveries were made without any payments, all raw materials, equipment “burnt out” during the war are not subject to payment.
                    This is when you have a shortage of explosives, aluminum, and they give it to you for nothing: just make weapons and defeat the common enemy.
                    In the absence of such assistance, who knows how long the war would last and how much more terrible the losses would be.
    2. boris epstein
      boris epstein April 25 2020 10: 11 New
      +5
      "A lorry (by the way, also" American ") was our everything." No, why not? Produced in large series of ZiS-5, in smaller series, three-axle Zis-6 (not only on the Americans, but also BM-13 were mounted on them) and cars of the Yaroslavl plant of the YAG series. Even before the war, a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun, searchlight installations, sound detectors for air defense and battery warfare were mounted on the YAG.
      1. [comment-show]
        Professor
        Professor April 25 2020 11: 21 New
        +8
        Quote: boris epstein
        "A lorry (by the way, also" American ") was our everything." No, why not? Produced in large series of ZiS-5, in smaller series, three-axle Zis-6 (not only on the Americans, but also BM-13 were mounted on them) and cars of the Yaroslavl plant of the YAG series. Even before the war, a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun, searchlight installations, sound detectors for air defense and battery warfare were mounted on the YAG.

        According to the GAVTU KA report, in total during the Great Patriotic War, 444,7 thousand new vehicles were received to equip the Red Army units. Their entry into the army, which decreased in 1942, since 1943, has continuously increased, mainly due to imports, and in 1944 reached the level of 162 thousand vehicles - or an average of 13,5 thousand units per month. Soviet industry gave the army 36,6% of the total revenue of cars, or 162,6 thousand cars, of which trucks and tractors - 156,2 thousand units. The import share was 63,4%, or 282,1 thousand cars, of which trucks and tractors - 246,2 thousand cars.


        https://warspot.ru/12297-studebeker-avtomobil-pobedy

        In his conclusions on the participation of the 6th Panzer Army in the Iasi-Chisinau operation, its commander noted that the rear of the army had the following vehicles:

        "... army units had 244 foreign cars, military vehicles - 85 vehicles, ZIS - 53, GAZ - 11, foreign cars - 21. Tankers - 86, of which ZIS - 74, GAZ - 12."




        Studebaker trucks from US supplies in the transport reserve of the Red Army command in the Mozhaisk region. August 17, 1944. The author of the picture: Boris Antonov.

        Photos on foot and through the mud I will not spread.
        [/ comment-show] [comment-deleted]
        The comment was deleted.
        [/ comment-deleted]
    1. Mite
      Mite April 26 2020 13: 03 New
      -3
      Quote: Professor
      Studebaker trucks from US supplies in the transport reserve of the Red Army command in the Mozhaisk region. August 17, 1944.

      It's too late that a professor .. Yours began to drive such supplies to the USSR .. Well, thanks for that, we are not proud
      1. 3danimal
        3danimal April 27 2020 07: 55 New
        0
        So until the summer of 1941, the Union had warm relations with Germany. And a considerable share of the supply of raw materials needed by the Nazis came from us.
        Negotiations were ongoing with the United States; only by December 1941 was it possible to pass a land lease law for the USSR through Congress. There was no “leader” with absolute power and a frightened political bureau and others who were ready to vote on the plan that they would ask “from above” (now little has changed smile ).
  • Usher
    Usher April 25 2020 11: 42 New
    -8
    This is a well-known Russophobe and anti-communist, what are you arguing with him? He's like the most intelligent)))
    1. Mite
      Mite April 26 2020 13: 44 New
      -1
      Quote: Usher
      This is a well-known Russophobe and anti-communist, what are you arguing with him? He's like the most intelligent)))

      Well, judging by the minuses, then he has a lot of fans here ... hi
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA April 25 2020 15: 32 New
    +7
    Quote: Boris Epstein
    Produced in large series ZiS-5, smaller series-triaxial Zis-6

    The ZiS-6 was discontinued in November 1941. After that, the Katyusha and special vehicles (refuellers, PARM, cranes, radio stations) were left without a chassis.
    Only ZiS-5 / ZiS-5V remained in the series.
    Quote: Boris Epstein
    and cars of the Yaroslavl plant of the YAG series

    The plant stopped producing cars in early 1942. Only caterpillar tractors were produced, and in a small series.

    The main problem is that all-wheel drive trucks in the USSR were not produced at all. The pre-war GAZ-63 did not have time to put in a series. So Lend-Lease closed that niche in which we had nothing.
    It was all-wheel drive trucks that allowed our combined armies to form motorized forward detachments with maneuverability and marching speed at the level of tank units. Now the infantry could itself, without involving mechanized formations, introduce rapidly moving regimental groups into the breakthrough and capture important targets in the depths of the enemy’s defense until their reserves arrived. The race to the Oder in the winter of 1945 was won precisely by these advanced detachments - the advanced detachment of the 5th shock army was the first to enter the river:
    The detachment was formed on January 25, 1945. It included the 1006th rifle regiment of the 266th division under the command of Lieutenant Colonel I. I. Terekhin in the vehicles of the 41st automobile regiment, the 220th separate tank brigade of Colonel A. N. Pashkov, 89th separate heavy tank regiment of Lieutenant Colonel M. L. Zhily, 507th fighter anti-tank artillery regiment of Lieutenant Colonel V. A. Dmitriev, 360th separate self-propelled artillery division of Major N. A. Zharkov, 2nd division 489- th mortar regiment, 2nd division of the 94th guards mortar regiment, 303th guards Sky Anti-aircraft Artillery Regiment of the 2nd Guards Anti-aircraft Artillery Division and a company of sappers. Designated by the state to service the transportation of ammunition and other supplies, the 41st automobile regiment of the 5th shock army consisted of 127 Ford trucks and 476 Studebakers. For the transport of the advanced detachment of the 94th Guards. the infantry division assigned 77 Studebakers to the infantry division, and 266 Studebakers to transport the advance detachment of the 61th Infantry Division (Colonel Esipenko). Esipenko’s detachment totaled 90 tanks, including 21 IS, 12 self-propelled guns, 42 guns and mortars, 12 Katyushas. The forward detachment commander was allocated a powerful radio station of the RAF type (intended for the front-army link), and when the detachment was removed from the main army forces up to 100 km or more, it was planned to send headquarters officers on Po-2 aircraft for communication.
    © Isaev
    1. Alf
      Alf April 25 2020 18: 28 New
      +5
      Quote: Alexey RA
      All-wheel drive trucks in the USSR were not produced at all.

      Issued. ZIS-32 in the amount of as many as 197 copies.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 27 2020 12: 17 New
        +1
        Quote: Alf
        Issued. ZIS-32 in the amount of as many as 197 copies.

        I confess, I forgot. sad
        But he read at Belash about the results of his tests - then fuel consumption just killed me.
        June 17, 1941. Showing truck tractors artillery systems. Participants: GAZ-61 Pickup (with ZIS-2 and 37 mm ZIK plus calculations), Pygmy NATI (the same and regiment), ZIS-32 (122 mm M-30, calculation, cargo in the back of 1200 kg), ZIS -36 (M-30 and 107 mm M-60, and 1800 kg), tracked conveyor (76 mm anti-aircraft gun of 1938, ZIS-2, team of 22 people). When all this traveled on virgin soil with a shaky clay base covered with dense turf ...
        Only three people get into a Pygmy with an anti-aircraft gun, but seven and ammunition are needed.
        ZIS-32 with M-30 on the virgin land is at a speed of 12-14 km / h, limited by engine power.
        ZIS-36 to tow the M-60 with a cargo in the back of 1500 kg and a calculation of 10 people could not. “When towing, the engine overheats and movement becomes impossible.” The car passed the section in low gears with stops. M-30 tows like the ZIS-32.
        A conveyor tractor with a team of 22 people and an anti-aircraft gun on the virgin land passed with an overload of 8-12 km / h. ZIS-2 - free, 25-30 km / h.
        And now we recall the German high-speed tractors described by Isaev ... A bit different possibilities, right? And also their number vs. "All kinds of waste from 3,6 km an hour on the hook" © fvl1_01.
        That is, we theoretically have a M-60 cannon (4311 kg) before the war, which kills all life. But practically ... And this, if you still do not take dirty details on the M-60 itself, on the accuracy of the ZIS-2, and fragmentation shells for it.
        Yes, another ZIS-32, ZIS-36 and a conveyor along a 100 km lane spend 80, 90 and 100 liters of gasoline of the 2nd grade. Who said Panther?
        1. Alf
          Alf April 27 2020 18: 20 New
          +2
          The counter-question is, what was the fuel consumption of the German all-wheel drive when driving on the road? Everything is relative...
        2. Alf
          Alf April 27 2020 19: 34 New
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Who said Panther?

          By the way, about the Panther. Consumption data
        3. Alf
          Alf April 27 2020 20: 40 New
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          then fuel consumption just killed me.

          Consumption at the Ganomaga was on the sencored koldoe..pods 80-85 liters per hundred.
  • svp67
    svp67 April 25 2020 09: 11 New
    10
    About amphibious cars were not mentioned, and their supplies were very necessary and useful for the Red Army
  • boris epstein
    boris epstein April 25 2020 10: 01 New
    +7
    Dodge 3 \ 4 (used in anti-tank regiments), amphibious vehicles and wheeled and half-tracked Pioneer armored personnel carriers were successful and necessary. Armored personnel carriers in the USSR were not produced at all.
    1. Alf
      Alf April 25 2020 18: 29 New
      +2
      Quote: Boris Epstein
      "Pioneer".

      What is this?
      1. Potter
        Potter April 25 2020 19: 53 New
        +1
        Apparently, Epstein is referring to the semi-tracked armored personnel carriers M2, M9 and ZSU and self-propelled guns based on them.
        1. Alf
          Alf April 25 2020 19: 57 New
          +5
          Quote: Potter
          Apparently, Epstein is referring to the semi-tracked armored personnel carriers M2, M9 and ZSU and self-propelled guns based on them.

          Apparently, he mixed up the concepts of Scout and Pioneer. In principle, the meanings of the words are similar.
          And also this, in the image of which after the war the BTR-40 was washed down.

          1. hohol95
            hohol95 April 25 2020 23: 10 New
            +1
            He got a half-track M3 Half-Track Personel Carrier with a wheeled M3A1 Scout Car.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 April 25 2020 23: 07 New
      +2
      Not "Pioneer", but "Scout"! And not half-track, but wheeled!
      Half-tracked armored personnel carriers were called M3 Half-Track Personel Carrier
      Agree that the words "Personel" and the pioneer "pioneer" have different meanings!
  • Proctologist
    Proctologist April 25 2020 11: 30 New
    +8
    Let me add that Lend-Lease is not only military equipment, which is mentioned in the article, it is also the most valuable equipment that allowed the USSR to produce "independently" critical items for the front.

    This is also a strategic raw material, without which it was also impossible to supply the front with "domestic" explosives, armor, etc.

    Finally, there are products. In addition to the famous "second front" stew, there was something else. For example, my family survived the evacuation on such a "diet" - potato peelings (domestic) and jam in large jars (American). I haven’t seen this jam, it’s interesting to google it, but I’ve remembered my grandmother’s gesture showing the size of a can (about an elbow) for life.

    Briefly, Lend Lease saved a lot of our lives, both at the front and in the rear.

    As for the return, everything is simple: they took it from an ally in mortal combat, and gave it to a potential enemy. Hence the economically ridiculous demands to return used equipment with delivery across the ocean at their own expense, if there is an overproduction of their new one.
    1. Avior
      Avior April 25 2020 12: 16 New
      +9
      Jam did not find, but it would be interestingsmile


      and a kit for self-assembly in your free time from battles

      smile
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Guazdilla
        Guazdilla April 25 2020 17: 09 New
        +5
        Jam did not find, but it would be interesting


  • Alecsandr
    Alecsandr April 25 2020 11: 43 New
    +9
    You won’t throw words out of the song. Lend-Lease was a good help to the Soviet troops in the struggle against the Nazi invaders.
    1. Mite
      Mite April 26 2020 13: 49 New
      -4
      Quote: Alecsandr
      You won’t throw words out of the song. Lend-Lease was a good help to the Soviet troops in the struggle against the Nazi invaders.

      Now, if right away, then it’s normal, and even in 1944 .. When the Nazis were persecuted and rushed to Berlin ..!
      Due to this, they raised their economy to unprecedented heights .. Who were the United States before the Second World War?
      1. Alf
        Alf April 26 2020 20: 21 New
        +1
        Quote: Tick
        Now, if right away, then it’s normal, and even in 1944 .. When the Nazis were persecuted and rushed to Berlin ..!

        The bulk of air shipments went from 42-43 years and reached a peak in the 44th.
      2. 3danimal
        3danimal April 27 2020 08: 05 New
        0
        Land Liz did not bring economic benefits, purchases were paid by the US government. BUT allowed to reduce the time of the war, "saving" and money and life, American, including.
        1. Octopus
          Octopus April 27 2020 10: 04 New
          +1
          Quote: 3danimal
          BUT allowed to reduce the time of the war, "saving" and money and life, American, including.

          You are right, the same Stettinius, the former head of the Lend-Lease commission, put forward precisely this argument in Congress when the relations between the Roosevelt administration and the USSR were discussed. US military spending at the end of the war was approaching $ 10 billion / month, so if LL in the USSR shortened the war by one and a half to two months, it lost money.

          True, there are a number of questions about this. In particular, did Stettinius, the 48th US Secretary of State, be interested in ending the war in general. According to his activities in the State Department, this is not particularly striking.
  • BAI
    BAI April 25 2020 11: 54 New
    +2
    In the fall of 1941, the USSR received the first American cargosent as part of the lend-lease program. Such deliveries continued until the very end of the war and covered many areas. So, among a variety of techniques, the bulk were cars, primarily trucks.

    Something tells me that in 1941 the USSR did not receive American help in general and American trucks in particular.
    1.

    We see that the first tanks (and these are the English tanks) arrived only in December 1941. Not in the fall. If there were trucks, then again they could only come with this convoy (or as part of the supply of these tanks). But the British did not supply us with cars. Thus, neither in the autumn nor in the winter of 1941-1942 there were no American trucks in the USSR.
    2. And it could not be, because Although contracts for the supply of equipment under Lend-Lease from the United States, although they began in 1941, they were concluded only in 1942.
    Negotiations on the First Delivery Protocol began on December 07.12.1941, 28, but were delayed until December XNUMX due to the entry of the United States into the war with Japan.
    The second protocol, known as the Washington Protocol, was signed on December 09.12.1942, XNUMX.
    The third protocol, known as the "London", was signed on 19.10.1943/XNUMX/XNUMX.
    The fourth delivery protocol was signed in February 1944.
    Fifth Protocol - in March 1945
    Those. Until December 1942, only Great Britain supplied military cargo to the USSR; the United States joined later.

    And most likely, the first deliveries of military cargo in 1941 - early 1942 were not Lend-Lease, but the usual purchases of weapons for gold. It is pertinent to recall the cruiser Edinburgh.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 25 2020 15: 37 New
      +8
      Quote: BAI
      We see that the first tanks (and these are the English tanks) came only in December 1941.

      In November 1941.

      © Soviet tank of the English production "Valentine II" in an ambush during the battle for Moscow. The photo was published in the newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda No. 275 of November 22, 1941.

      And here is a photo from the other side:

      © 15.11.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX German Pz.II tanks drive past the Soviet Valentine’s Mk.III tank that was lined up near the Istra River.
    2. Alf
      Alf April 25 2020 18: 36 New
      +7
      Quote: BAI
      But the British did not supply us with cars.

      7 units starting in the fall of 000.



    3. bubalik
      bubalik April 25 2020 20: 15 New
      +2
      Something tells me that in 1941 the USSR did not receive American help in general and American trucks in particular.

      Thus, neither in the autumn nor in the winter of 1941-1942 there were no American trucks in the USSR.

      ,,, at 41 they received a little, including cars.

    4. hohol95
      hohol95 April 25 2020 23: 19 New
      +2
      We see that the first tanks (and these are the English tanks) came only in December 1941.

      Type in the convoys "Dervish" and PQ-1 into the search engine. And that's all.
    5. Mite
      Mite April 26 2020 13: 55 New
      -2
      Quote: BAI
      And most likely, the first deliveries of military cargo in 1941 - early 1942 were not Lend-Lease, but the usual purchases of weapons for gold. It is pertinent to recall the cruiser Edinburgh.

      That's right .. Deliveries began through Iran! And for some reason, 100 thousand horses and the same number of short fur coats and other meat-picking meat, etc., are also forgotten by Mongolia. for free just before the battle of Moscow, we were received and this played an important role in the defeat of fascist hordes
      Thank you Mongolian comrades!
      1. Alf
        Alf April 26 2020 20: 23 New
        0
        Quote: Tick
        Thank you Mongolian comrades!

        Moreover, the supplies from the Mongols went under the "cap" - pay after the war and IF YOU THINK IT NECESSARY, the Mongols remember the help under Khasan and Khalkhin-Gol.
        1. Octopus
          Octopus April 26 2020 21: 05 New
          +1
          Quote: Alf
          help with Hassan

          Grandpa deceased here and?

          And if you are talking about the lake - which side of the Mongols is it?
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 25 2020 11: 58 New
    +9

    The main models of trucks supplied by Lend-Lease.
  • Fishery
    Fishery April 25 2020 14: 16 New
    +1
    great-grandfather was a signalman, he said a lot of things was American, telephone sets, wires and so on.
    1. 2 Level Advisor
      2 Level Advisor April 26 2020 09: 00 New
      +3
      yes communication in general was 90 percent "delivered" .. and communication, as we were taught at the school, as you know, "the nerves of the army"
  • 16112014nk
    16112014nk April 25 2020 14: 18 New
    +1
    For a long time in parts, at factories and on collective farms, it was possible to meet imported cars of one type or another.

    My father at Studebaker worked as a driver in the late 50s - early 60s. Photos were where he was driving, but unfortunately, everyone was lost.
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA April 25 2020 14: 40 New
    +4
    From the beginning of the war until the end of 1945, the Soviet automobile industry surrendered more than 266 thousand units of automotive equipment.

    There are two subtle points.
    1. Most of the trucks produced in the USSR were "lorries". The production of the ZIS-6, which was badly needed by the army (the only chassis for heavy special vehicles and "Katyusha"), was completely stopped during the war.
    2. The number of machines produced in the USSR includes machines assembled from machine sets supplied by LL - "screwdriver assembly".
  • The comment was deleted.
  • September XNUMXrd
    September XNUMXrd April 25 2020 17: 17 New
    -9
    Well, why praise America again? For her, it was just a business, the USSR would have solved the problems with vehicles on its own without problems. And so - they simply did them a favor, paid the labor of the working class in America, so that they would not swell with hunger from unemployment.
    1. Avior
      Avior April 26 2020 15: 09 New
      0
      What kind of business is it, give away for free?
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 25 2020 22: 52 New
    +5

    A tractor based on the American M4A2 Sherman tank on the construction of the Orenburg children's railway, summer 1953
    1. Alf
      Alf April 26 2020 20: 26 New
      +3
      Quote: Aviator_
      yagach based on the American M4A2 Sherman tank

      And with a horizontal suspension.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 26 2020 21: 51 New
        +1
        Is it good or bad, horizontal suspension?
        1. Alf
          Alf April 26 2020 21: 56 New
          +2
          Quote: Aviator_
          Is it good or bad, horizontal suspension?

          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ April 26 2020 22: 07 New
            +1
            So the tank is 1944 or 1945.
          2. Alf
            Alf April 27 2020 17: 39 New
            +1
            I wonder what alternatively gifted put a minus? Anything to argue with? Or shit and run away? I think that to such a person say that two, two, four, and then put a minus.
        2. Octopus
          Octopus April 26 2020 22: 06 New
          +2
          Quote: Aviator_
          Is it good or bad, horizontal suspension?

          All right.

          This also means that the machine is of late delivery, the end of the 44th or 45th year.
  • Old26
    Old26 April 25 2020 23: 30 New
    +6
    Quote: September XNUMXrd
    Well, why praise America again? For her, it was just a business, the USSR would have solved the problems with vehicles on its own without problems. And so - they simply did them a favor, paid the labor of the working class in America, so that they would not swell with hunger from unemployment.

    Of course, a Favor, but then how. And the fact that such supplies helped, and pretty well for our army, is of course a trifle. This is how you say praise America.
    But my father, a war veteran, an anti-tank gunner, says that American cars played a huge role, especially when 85 and especially 100-mm guns appeared in the army's arsenal. They were dragged by "Studebakers"
  • Tests
    Tests April 26 2020 00: 50 New
    +1
    "Bantik": the first jeep under Lend-Lease "dated May 17, 2016, the material of Sergey Yuferev on" V.O. "The cars got under the Lend-Lease from the USA to Britain, and from there to the USSR. Zhukov's bodyguards drove to the" Bantam " in the battle of Moscow.
  • Lekz
    Lekz 12 July 2020 12: 38 New
    0
    Lend-lease was welcome. And, of course, imported cars too. For which many thanks to the allies. At the same time, one should not forget that as of 01.01.43 there were only 22 thousand units of imported vehicles in the Red Army. (5,4%).