Military Review

The last battle of the German raider

73

- Your documents. Mr. ... Tamerlan? How did you get here? Business? No, this is a regular check.


The check was not ordinary. The suspect was spotted on this road. Officer Cornwall flipped through the papers thoughtfully. Insurance is in order. Nothing formally presented.

The driver looked curiously at the policeman in the mirror. He stood at the middle rack, not approaching the driver's door. A standard security measure to reduce the risk of a surprise attack.

“Take a step out of the car, please.”

The driver did not move, continuing to smile. A barely audible cry was heard from the trunk.

- Out of the car! Alive! Cornwall's hand pulled the Smith & Wesson out of its holster.

The friendly expression disappeared. Sitting in a half-turn, the driver tried to shoot an obtrusive guard. He was only a split second late: a policeman shot him in the shaved nape.

A simple denouement, if the unexpected had not happened. Officer's Smith & Wesson misfired ...

The wounded Cornwell ran into his car in a fog. A wheel turned to the side protected him from the following shots: an old police trick, which became a ritual at every stop on the road.

Bending down, Cornwall reloaded the gun. Shot! Second! Third! The fourth occurred to the attacker.

The radio flashed: “Highway North, a shootout at ninety-sixth. The officer is wounded. "

I am sure that most of you have guessed about the motives and subtext of "noir reading."


The names of the characters are left unchanged. The episode with a shootout on the highway demonstrates the features of a meeting with a murderer in a peaceful guise. Despite the safety measures taken, the risk always remains. Initiative and surprise - on the side of the "wolf in sheep's clothing." And the risks increase even more if something goes wrong.

On the calendar May 8, 1941. The Tamerlan cargo ship flying the Norwegian flag (the disguised Penguin raider) is approaching for inspection by His Majesty's Cornwall cruiser.

“Penguin”, he is “Tamerlan”, he is the Greek “Kassos”, he is the Soviet “Pechora”, he is the elusive “Raider” F from the reports of the British Navy, he is “Ship 33” and “Hilfskroitser 5” (HSK -5) in reports Kriegsmarine, a true master of reincarnation, having passed the distance equivalent to the two equators of the Earth in 357 days of his campaign. During this time, he seized and destroyed 28 large vessels with a total tonnage of 136 thousand gross registered tons. "Penguin" takes pride of place among the most productive ships in all history wars at sea!

By the value of the sunk tonnage, the Penguin could only be compared with its colleague Atlantis (Raider C) and a series of formidable thirties from a different era.

German raiders belonged to a specific class of military equipment. Combining the signs of a light cruiser (six guns of 150 mm caliber), a destroyer (4-6 TA and one and a half dozen torpedoes), a mine-layer (Penguin had 380 mines on board) and an expeditionary floating base for supplying submarines in remote areas of the ocean.

The last battle of the German raider

There were also signs of a landing ship (a hundred fighters to form boarding teams), a floating prison, and a reconnaissance vessel. Secretly making their way into the Pacific Ocean, one of the raiders collected an extensive array of information about the Northern Sea Route, which was later used to conduct military operations in the Arctic.

“... they took pictures of the coast continuously, took pictures of all the objects that they only met on their way. They photographed the islands they passed by, near which they stood, photographed the Chelyuskin cape, photographed the icebreakers, under which they went. At the slightest opportunity they did depth measurements; landed and photographed, photographed, photographed ... the raider’s radio service practiced intercepting and processing radio communications between ships and EON icebreakers. ”

Pictures and radio interception are the most harmless that these ships could offer. They posed a real mortal danger in other conditions.

And we - without lights, so it will be more true. And the trade will be much more honest!


Raiders were not like auxiliary cruisers of other states.

The British Rawalpindi or the Japanese Hokoku Maru, former liners, were on the line of fire as a necessary measure. An alternative to large warships for patrolling ocean communications. The auxiliary cruisers did not hide their new appointment and proudly carried the flag of their country.

When the enemy appeared, the British sailors radiated the coordinates and died in an unequal battle. The Rawalpindi is the daring daredevil who threw himself under the guns of the Gneisenau. A similar feat was accomplished by Jervis Bay, standing in the way of Admiral Sheer.

In a duel situation with warships, such "cruisers" were doomed.

German raiders did not work like that. All the time they posed as harmless and stupid "traders". They went into action under the flags of allied or neutral states. And when they were calculated and tried to be shot, they screamed the loudest on the air about an attack on a peaceful "merchant" of an unknown warship, save who can! Kriegsmarine sailors had less honor and conscience than bones in a jellyfish.

Like submarines using the uncertainty and uncertainty of the aquatic environment, raiders took advantage of the uncertainty of the situation and the need for their adversaries to comply with maritime rules.

Cargo ship hulls were a tactical ploy. The Hilfkreuzers were specially created in such a way as to break through the blockade and dissolve in the ocean under the guise of civilian ships.

Armament was hiding behind bulwarks. A "masquerade" was used with removable chimneys, masts and false cargo arrows.


One of the few signs that a raider could issue was the lack of “color” in the crew of a merchant ship. The moment that pilots of patrol planes paid attention to.

For reconnaissance, the raiders used their own seaplanes with British identification marks. Noticing the next “victim”, the scout boldly flew up and dropped a package of instructions onto the deck. “A German raider is seen in the square. Use caution. Lie down on the Nord course. ”

On the Nord course, the Penguin was waiting for them. Holy naivety.

And who probably could have known how long it would last and how this crazy raid would end? ..

Hence the highest autonomy. The economical engine of a civilian vessel with an average fuel consumption of 38 tons / day with a diesel reserve of 4000 tons allowed the Penguin to cover a distance of 30 miles.

Desalination plants on board provided the raider with 15 tons of fresh water per day. More than enough for a crew of 400 people and hundreds of prisoners languishing on board.

Fritz prudently loaded everything aboard - from skis and kits of a tropical uniform to beads and trinkets for the inhabitants of New Guinea.

In case of the capture of unexpected captives, there was a stock of women's and children's things, toys and baby food.

In the premises intended for the imprisonment of crew members of sunken ships, the Germans installed microphones. Reveal an escape plan or eavesdrop on any information about the whereabouts of other ships.

Here death is like a bride. The circle narrows, and the bride has no playful friends!


The main armament of the “Penguin” consisted of six 6 '' guns (149 mm actual caliber), taken from the Kaiser ships of the line fleet, ammunition for 300 HE shells per barrel.

No matter how obsolete the guns of the German raiders seemed, the power of their shells was enough to smash the tower for almost any warship - of those that could be sent to capture them.

Opponents noted the training of German gunners. Despite the casemate location of the guns, in which only four guns could fire on one side, the fire performance of the raiders was an unpleasant surprise for everyone who tried to stop these killers.

In 2008, when examining the wreckage of Sydney’s wreckage, experts counted at least 87 hits with the main caliber! The consequences of the battle with the raider "Cormoran", during which the opponents sank each other. In total, the Germans managed to fire more than 500 shells from three guns (the fourth tank gun was demolished by the Sydney fire at the very beginning of the battle).


The design of the warship implied a more convenient placement of weapons with large elevation angles. But in the battle with the raider, this did not guarantee victory.

The raider simply refused to fight at long distances. At great distances, he continued to grimace, playing the "merchant". He took time to flee again in the unknown direction once dark.

The exception was the Atlantis, which was spotted at the time of the transfer of fuel to the submarine. "Covered" in the act!

In other cases, the raiders opened fire only when it became clear that exposure was inevitable. At this point, the distance between the opponents was reduced so much that the physical deterioration of the German trunks or a smaller base of rangefinders did not matter much (the Penguin had two rangefinding posts with a base of 3 meters).

However, some of the raiders (“Tor”, “Comet”) managed to get new six-inch “torpedocanone”, as on destroyers like “Narvik”.

In the presence of artillery of the same caliber, the raider and the opposing cruisers of British construction represented “crystal vases with clappers”. Under the circumstances, each was given a chance to inflict fatal injuries on the other. At the same time, raiders, as a rule, were much larger than their opponents. And purely because of the size they could hold out longer. While the constructive defense of most cruisers of the 1930s. could not prevent the spread of fire, the destruction of compartments or the loss of mechanisms from shaking with multiple hits of 6 '' shells.


The creators of the raiders also made efforts to increase combat stability. Armored bridge, double sides in the ammunition storage areas, the space between which was filled with sand.

In addition to everything, each raider carried torpedo weapons.

“The battle showed what skill the enemy vessels change their appearance and what dilemma the captain of the cruiser has to face trying to expose him. The danger the cruiser is exposed to when approaching such a ship too close and from a direction convenient for gun and torpedo fire is obvious: the raider always has the tactical advantage of surprise. ”
(The commander of the cruiser Cornwall.)


All further, until he enters the square, where, with the main caliber, fate awaits him.


The raider crew could disguise the ship as a merchant ship. Using open directories, he could reproduce his callsigns. The only thing the Germans could not fake was the reports of the allies. About the presence in the specified area of ​​certain merchant ships. And it became fatal.

There should be no Tamerlan vessel to the north of Seychelles!

By that time, Cornwall had been following a parallel course for an hour, to no avail showing the signals “Stop the ship”, “Lie down to drift”. The frightened "merchant" did not respond to the threats, sending one after another radiograms of the pursuit of an unknown warship. The distance between the opponents was quickly reduced, reaching eight miles (according to other sources - 11000 m). Uncertain of the suspicious ship's accessory, the Cornwall fired a couple of warning volleys - and turned toward rapprochement.

Sirens howled on the raider, shields fell, the flag of the German Navy flashed on a gaffel. The Penguin fired the first salvo that landed dangerously close to the Cornwall.

And suddenly the unexpected happened: on the British cruiser, because of a short circuit, the armament refused! The telephone line of the fire control posts followed. At this critical moment, the Germans made a couple of direct hits at Cornwall. External damage seemed insignificant, but fragments interrupted the steering machine cables. An unarmed, uncontrolled ship rolled to the left under a hail of German shells!


The various descriptions of that battle vary in detail, but the general situation is paradoxical. At some point, there was a threat that the “peace bargainer” would deal with a cruiser like “County” ...

The only thing that saved Cornwall in that situation was a 203 mm caliber. Recovering after the first round, the cruiser regained control weapons and fired back!

Having got beyond the reach of the Penguin cannons and using his advantage in long-range guns, he began to shoot the raider in cold blood. Correcting volleys with a seaplane raised in the air. Not much time passed when the next four-gun volley tore the Penguin to shreds.

Of the 402 people of his team, 60 remained alive, and of the two hundred captured sailors on board, only 24 were saved.

During the battle, the British used up 186 main-caliber shells, the Germans managed to fire 200 rounds.

Despite all the safety measures taken and maintaining a considerable distance between the Cornwall and the suspicious vessel, the victory was not easy.


As for the other famous battle between Sydney and Cormoran, it is worthy of a separate analysis. The price of carelessness? Only in part.

Without taking the responsibility off of the Australian commander who allowed criminal rapprochement with the raider, given the technical features of the Hilfcruiser and the fury with which the raider attacked the enemy, Sydney had little chance at any distance.

Unlike the mighty Cornwall, the Sydney was armed with eight 152 mm guns. He was smaller and weaker than his colleague in all respects.

His adversary, “Cormoran,” on the other hand, was the largest and most armed of the Krigsmarine auxiliary cruisers.

The main thing that united these episodes was the inability to clearly identify the enemy. Which required approaching at a dangerous distance and inevitably put the pursuers under attack.


The name "Penguin" was not chosen by chance. One of the raider's tasks was to undermine whaling off the coast of Antarctica.


A detailed plan of the upper decks of the "Penguin" will certainly be interesting for modelers

Based on:
Interrogations of the surviving crew of the Penguin (Interrogation of Survivors from Raider 33, October 1941).
Author:
73 comments
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  1. Thrifty
    Thrifty April 20 2020 05: 20 New
    21
    I recognize the hand of a specialist! Oleg, reading your articles is really fun! Thank! !! hi good
    1. Aag
      Aag April 20 2020 08: 04 New
      +4
      Joining! Thanks! hi
      EMNIP, in the series of books "Military Adventures" there were works on this topic ...
  2. Nehist
    Nehist April 20 2020 05: 49 New
    27
    Kriegsmarine sailors had less honor and conscience than bones in a jellyfish (s). Dear Oleg, why is this pathos? Even Lao Tzu said, War is a way of deception. So the raiders were in their own right. Well, the story of the raiders is very, very interesting. In the Russo-Japanese War, have our Raiders and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have so much power, then the YaIF had to divert serious forces to capture them.
    1. Djusha
      Djusha April 20 2020 08: 33 New
      +6
      In Russo-Japanese there was a completely different world and completely different rules of war at sea, which at least they tried to observe. And such actions of the RIF would eventually result in multimillion-dollar compensation, remember the case of the raider "Alabama" https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delo_Alabama "
      ended with the payment of $ 15 million compensation. And with what in fact the actions of the EQA ended - for half of the vessels they paid compensation or returned to the owners.
      1. Nehist
        Nehist April 20 2020 08: 41 New
        +3
        But this is already the mistakes of the Pevchevsky bridge. And Alabama was engaged in privateering (which the guilty party did not deny), which was prohibited by the Paris Convention of 1856. Well, in 1878 in Russia, a whole Dobroflot was created specifically for cruising operations on the enemy's trade munitions.
      2. Nehist
        Nehist April 20 2020 08: 54 New
        +2
        These are already misses of the Pevchevsky bridge. Moreover, Alabama was engaged in privateering, which was banned by the Paris Convention of 1856, which, incidentally, was not denied by the guilty party. And in RI, a whole Dobroflot was created in 1878 specifically for cruising operations in commercial communications. Regarding other rules of warfare at sea. It was the British who first violated all written and not written rules, as a result of which they received an unlimited war. Take trap ships precisely for this reason the submarines stopped stopping merchant ships and removed commands from them before drowning. In the same way, it was the British who shot a German parachute parachute in the air at WWI
        1. Rakovor
          Rakovor April 22 2020 14: 41 New
          0
          To this we can add that in 1940 the British began to shoot down German hydroplanes under the red cross, which were engaged in the rescue of pilots, and the Germans only began to bomb hospital ships in response.
          1. Sniper Amateur
            Sniper Amateur April 28 2020 00: 07 New
            -3
            Sanitary aircraft were not protected by military law. But the hospital court - yes.
    2. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 20 2020 09: 52 New
      13
      Quote: Nehist
      Well, the story of the raiders is very, very interesting.

      Well, yes.
      At one time, it was British trap ships that led to a complete change in the paradigm of submarine warfare.

      So what about "bones in jellyfish" .... the Germans just had great teachers.
    3. 27091965
      27091965 April 20 2020 11: 36 New
      +9
      Quote: Nehist
      Kriegsmarine sailors had less honor and conscience than bones in a jellyfish (s). Dear Oleg, why is this pathos? Even Lao Tzu said, War is a way of deception. So the raiders were in their own right.


      To this we can add that in February 1940, England announced that all merchant ships should be armed. To this, Germany replied that all English merchant ships would be regarded as warships.
      1. Sniper Amateur
        Sniper Amateur April 28 2020 00: 05 New
        -3
        The then rules of naval warfare allowed arming merchant ships while retaining precisely the status of merchant ships.
    4. Proctologist
      Proctologist April 20 2020 13: 02 New
      +3
      In fact, it may be a fair remark, but what a turn! Elegant, Oleg, many thanks for the literary presentation.

      As for "honor and conscience", especially in the era of romanticizing the Nazis, I note that the Germans (and Hitler) referred to the "barbaric" partisan methods of war in the USSR, as well as the fact that the USSR did not sign the Geneva Convention as a reason " a similar "attitude towards Soviet prisoners and partisans.

      At the same time, that at sea (described in the article), that on land (they shot English saboteurs, who were in uniform initially), they behaved like this. I don’t think that if the partisans turned the earflaps with red stars inside inside out before an ambush, it would have changed the matter. And raising the flag at the last moment with an obvious disguise as a peaceful ship is precisely a guerrilla war.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 20 2020 13: 08 New
        +4
        The causal connection in the war between Germany and the USSR was different - at first the Wehrmacht organized field camps for the extermination of Red Army prisoners and fired on the spot of the Red Army political officers (thereby violating international conventions), and only then the Soviet partisan movement in the occupied territories was organized.
        1. Proctologist
          Proctologist April 20 2020 20: 52 New
          0
          I am not talking about causes and effects. I talked about the justifications that can be prepared ahead of time, and far-fetched. It’s true that the execution of political officers on the spot was from the first days of the war (I don’t know the date, maybe from 22.06). I have not heard about the extermination camps. Unlike death camps, in which, among other things, Soviet prisoners of war were sent, along with other categories of prisoners.
          1. Operator
            Operator April 20 2020 21: 45 New
            +2
            Beginning June 22, 1941, infantry units of the Wehrmacht organized temporary camps for prisoners of war of the Red Army in the open air without any supply of water, food and medical assistance. Accordingly, the prisoners were dying from dehydration, exhaustion, wounds and executions trying to escape from certain death. The prisoners ate grass, collected dew, the captured prison doctors tried to alleviate their fate without medicines and tools.

            Only after a month of hostilities, the surviving prisoners were relocated to permanent camps organized by the Wehrmacht field gendarmerie with dugouts / barracks, water and food supplies.
      2. Nehist
        Nehist April 20 2020 13: 26 New
        +7
        British ace James Ira T. Jones - My habit of attacking the Huns fleeing with parachutes. This is in WWI. So the British did a lot to make everyone else spit on all sorts of conventions. In the Navy, too, the Americans did not lag behind them either. By the way, Americans and Japanese were especially distinguished by shooting at pilots fleeing parachutes. September 16, 1942 generally became a turning point in the war at sea precisely after this the famous Doenitz order appeared, known as the order of Laconia. By the way, when they tried to attract Doenitz during the Nuremberg tribunal for this order, even Chester Nimitz himself defended him. So that no one is romanizing the Nazis, you just need to be objective and not shy away from the truth.
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo April 20 2020 21: 58 New
          +1
          So after all, Hitler's fascination with racist theories also has English roots. He admired Cecil Rhodes and other British figures, and the opinion that the British are the best part of the white race was generally accepted at the turn of the century. Hence the national inferiority complex among the Germans, who sought to catch up and surpass the British in everything, including to prove that they are Aryans, a race of masters, and not some kind of "Krauts" (as they were contemptuously called for their love of Sauerkraut - sauerkraut).
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins April 20 2020 08: 30 New
    +2
    Thank. I read it with pleasure.
  4. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 April 20 2020 08: 34 New
    +3
    From the first words it was clear that this was Kaptsov! So only he writes, entertainingly and interestingly.
  5. Non-fighter
    Non-fighter April 20 2020 09: 08 New
    10
    About "honor and dignity". The author apparently forgot about Q-bots. Trap ships, in appearance and flag, were merchants who were substituted for German submarines, and when the submarine surfaced and sent a group to capture, a naval flag was raised and fire was opened from camouflaged guns. Consequences: the submarines simply sank ordinary civilian ships without giving the crews a chance to escape.
    -
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov April 20 2020 10: 00 New
      +8
      Quote: Not the fighter
      and when the submarine surfaced and sent a group to capture

      I’ll clarify.
      Not for "capture", but in order to warn the crew of the ship that it will be sunk.
      So that they could calmly launch boats and evacuate

      There was no one to capture. crews of the First World War were very few
  6. novel66
    novel66 April 20 2020 09: 48 New
    +3
    Oleg, thank you, great, I'm waiting for more about armor and big guns!
  7. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx April 20 2020 09: 51 New
    +6
    At the same time, raiders, as a rule, were significantly larger than their opponents. And purely because of the size they could hold out longer. While the constructive defense of most cruisers of the 1930s. could not prevent the spread of fire, the destruction of compartments or the loss of mechanisms from shaking with multiple hits of 6 '' shells.

    Loves Oleg unnecessarily "to spread his thoughts along the tree." According to German data, damage to the "Cormoran": The first shell pierced the pipe and exploded in the radio room. The second and third hits in the engine room, damage to the engine and boilers, almost completely disabled the machine team. The fourth round hit one of the 150mm cannons but did not explode. The civilian "shell" with 3.5 hits stayed afloat slightly longer than the "crystal vase with mallets" after 87 and one torpedo.
    1. Rurikovich
      Rurikovich April 20 2020 18: 02 New
      +1
      Quote: BORMAN82
      The civilian "shell" with 3.5 hits stayed afloat slightly longer than the "crystal vase with mallets" after 87 and one torpedo.

      The point is that there were naval mines on the "Cormoran", and according to the Germans, the fire that arose from those two hits in the engine room area was blazing dangerously close to the storage of these very mines. Therefore, when the temperature reached a critical one, the crew left the ship and it flew into the air with a bright fireworks around midnight yes
      As you can see, there is a confluence of unfortunate circumstances for the German hi
      1. Bormanxnumx
        Bormanxnumx April 20 2020 18: 54 New
        0
        The fact is that after two hits
        20000t. the raider lost his means to fight for survivability and the fire went out of control.
        1. Rurikovich
          Rurikovich April 20 2020 19: 19 New
          +1
          The fact is that all the same, the designed merchant ships differ from the designed warships in terms of the overall well-thought out at least some kind of protection, therefore it is not surprising that a couple of successful hits did their job and put an end to the fate of the future, albeit converted for military needs, but still civilian ship
          1. Bormanxnumx
            Bormanxnumx April 20 2020 19: 45 New
            0
            Quote: Rurikovich
            The fact is that all the same, the designed merchant ships differ from the designed warships in terms of the overall well-thought out at least some kind of protection, therefore it is not surprising that a couple of successful hits did their job and put an end to the fate of the future, albeit converted for military needs, but all the same

            Have I argued somewhere else? Tell this not to me, but to the author of this opus)))
            At the same time, raiders, as a rule, were significantly larger than their opponents. And purely because of the size they could hold out longer. While the constructive defense of most cruisers of the 1930s. could not prevent the spread of fire, the destruction of compartments or the loss of mechanisms from shaking with multiple hits of 6 '' shells.
            1. Rurikovich
              Rurikovich April 21 2020 06: 28 New
              +1
              This is Kaptsov request laughing A solid percentage in his articles, especially on the maritime theme, is full of colorful turns and already noticed more than once adjustments of facts to the necessary conclusionswink
              Combat stability depends not only on size, but on a multitude of other objective and subjective factors. Therefore, I would also ask the question of who would last longer on the water with the same number of hits - a warship of 7000 tons, which to some extent included at least some protection against 6 "shells or a merchant ship of 20000 tons, which fundamentally does not have at least what armor protection what wink
              1. Rurikovich
                Rurikovich April 21 2020 07: 01 New
                0
                I will add (there is still a little time). If a cargo merchant ship is sharpened to ensure the carriage of a certain cargo under certain conditions (let's take the provision of seaworthiness) and its internal structure meets only certain safety measures on the high seas, that is, the hull must withstand the load of waves in full load, then constructive protection measures not only from the effects of water, but also protection from weapons with which they will try to sink it. and this is the division by waterproof bulkheads, this is armor protection within the allotted displacement of vital compartments, this is to ensure fire safety by reducing combustible materials in the structure. So it is in terms of combat stability that the example of the battle between Sydney and Cormoran is very indicative - in fact, two shells sent the merchant to the next world, while the sinking of the cruiser took several dozen and a torpedo to boot. For those who think it will immediately become clear that Kaptsovsky
                At the same time, raiders, as a rule, were significantly larger than their opponents. And purely because of the size they could hold out longer. While the constructive defense of most cruisers of the 1930s. could not prevent the spread of fire, the destruction of compartments or the loss of mechanisms from shaking with multiple hits of 6 '' shells.

                full bullshit. hi
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA April 21 2020 11: 03 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Rurikovich
                  So, in terms of combat stability, the example of the battle between Sydney and Cormoran is very indicative - in fact, two shells sent to the next world a trader

                  You can also remember the last fight of "Stir", when the German VSKR, to his misfortune, stopped the TR "Stephen Hopkins" - and after the fight with him was abandoned by the team and blown up. The only 102-mm gun of the American transport inflicted fatal damage to the German VSKR.
  8. dgonni
    dgonni April 20 2020 10: 25 New
    +2
    The author is mistaken or did not intentionally indicate the fact that Papanin led the Germans through the Northern Sea Route. And yes and yes, this
    The campaign later made it possible to feel the German Navy quite freely in 41-44 years
    1. Moon
      Moon April 20 2020 12: 52 New
      +4
      Quote: dgonni
      German raider held Papanin

      "Ems" - if I am not mistaken. (Converted freight transport)
      Germany is a continental power, and for its warships to enter the ocean, it was necessary to break through the waters controlled by England and France. That is why, until a decision was made on the war with the USSR, it was decided to work out the passage of German ships through the Northern Sea Route from Germany to the Pacific Ocean. The Soviet government, in general, was not opposed. Glavsevmorput in the person of our famous polar explorer Ivan Papanin, received a team for cooperation. The beginning of this cooperation was our polar expeditions on the Vologda ship and the Murmanets hydrographic vessel. Expeditions were carried out with the participation of German experts. From 1933 to 1937, Soviet pilots carried German steamships through the Kara Sea to the ports of the Ob and Yenisei.
      The ship received a new name - "Comet", operational names HSK-7 and "Vessel 45", in the British Navy the ship received the designation "Raider" B "used the data -" Semyon Dezhnev "

      Thus, with the assistance of the neutral Soviet Union, the German raider broke into the Pacific Ocean, sank a lot of merchant ships and, making a "round-the-world voyage", returned to Germany.
      I read the article in one breath. Good one.
      But war .. it’s a cruel deception and betrayal of treachery and murder - it is always and everywhere in it.
      Honesty and the best empathic feelings die immediately to everyone.
  9. lis-ik
    lis-ik April 20 2020 12: 35 New
    +1
    Oleg, great article. And I saw a direct coincidence. Only yesterday I discovered a wonderful author, science fiction writer Alexander Pletnev, downloaded his book "Battleships". It can be seen that the author is well versed in naval topics and history, owns the performance characteristics of technology of those times and modern ones. If you haven't read it, I highly recommend it. It describes the events that you have repeatedly described in your articles (assumptions). I read and remembered your publications.
  10. vladcub
    vladcub April 20 2020 12: 40 New
    0
    Oleg, you got an interesting story, but the only cant: twice one of the same text. Only this jamb can be shared with moderators
  11. prodi
    prodi April 20 2020 12: 42 New
    0
    just like that, you won’t figure out how to further increase the firepower of such a raider, on your knee, unless you cut 3-4 through corridors from side to side in the superstructure and roll out LeFT18 (with shortened beds) to the current direction
  12. Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 14: 05 New
    +4
    The various descriptions of that battle vary in detail, but the general situation is paradoxical. At some point, there was a threat that the “peace bargainer” would deal with a cruiser like “County” ...

    The issue of damage is quite interesting ...
    In the Admiralty Handbook GB4273 (52). HM Ships Damaged or Sunk by Enemy Action 3rd Sept, 1939 to 2nd Sept, 1945. states the following.
    Cruiser Cornwall, May 8, 1941.
    The nature of the damage:
    two direct hits by shells with instant fuses.
    Repair Time:
    1 month.
    Brief description of damage and conclusions made:
    Cornwall suffered damage from two direct hits above the waterline in a fight with an enemy raider. A hole in the hull of the right boat in the area of ​​frames 75-77, between the lower deck and the platform deck. The skin was damaged in the section 77-79 frames and minor damage was done to the internal structures. Hole in the side planking on the starboard side at frames 130-131 3 feet below the upper deck. Minor damage to internal structures above the waterline, minor damage from shrapnel. Damaged one ring of the main section [probably ring main power supply - MW] and some communication cables and CWD cables.
    Fighting - not reduced.

    About the failure of the steering machine, not a word, as there are no conclusions on the results of damage.
    1. 27091965
      27091965 April 20 2020 15: 16 New
      -1
      Quote: Macsen_Wledig
      as there are no conclusions on the results of damage.


      Various information appears periodically, but it is mostly hypothetical.
      1. Macsen_wledig
        Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 15: 50 New
        +2
        Quote: 27091965i
        Various information appears periodically, but it is mostly hypothetical.

        Well ... I still believe the British Admiralty. :)
  13. Looking for
    Looking for April 20 2020 14: 40 New
    -3
    I wonder since when was the Washington type cruiser turned out to be a Country type cruiser?
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 14: 46 New
      +3
      Quote: Seeker
      I wonder since when was the Washington type cruiser turned out to be a Country type cruiser?

      Ever since the British "Washingtonians" began to be named after the counties of Britain (County).
  14. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx April 20 2020 15: 04 New
    +3
    Cleverly stupid article.
    In war, all methods are good if they give some advantage.
    In general, war is a way to deceive the enemy.
    I'm not saying that disguising the Germans as civilian ships was worthy of a soldier, but it worked for a while.
    Everyone used it.
    Fact, in one form or another.
  15. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich April 20 2020 18: 49 New
    +3
    It is in this article that Mr. Kaptsov should have mentioned that the British "Washington" cruisers of the "County" type, which were the direct descendants of the "Hawkins" created for destruction on communications, confirmed their purpose - to act on communications and protect merchant shipping. The 203mm guns left no chance for the German trade raiders. So it was in these two cases of the sinking of the Penguin and Atlantis that the concept of the British “Washingtonians” was brilliantly confirmed - the ships corresponded to their purpose.
    Although it is written in a manner inherent to the author, I will like it - any victims of the exam should like it, and this is a plus hi
    1. Engineer
      Engineer April 20 2020 19: 23 New
      +2
      Is it brilliant right?
      The Angles were preparing for a cruising war. The Germans didn’t come to her, they showed some activity, let’s say so. The number of auxiliary cruisers was small. At the same time, the British TKR drowned as much as ONE of them. Brilliant, hehe.
      Just very quickly, even to Raeder, it dawned that things now make submarines.
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich April 20 2020 19: 30 New
        +6
        Quote: Engineer
        Is it brilliant right?

        Two, my friend, two raiders sunk directly by "Washingtonians".
        In any case, the German trading raiders were and the English cruisers acted against them. So I do not see a contradiction.
        And the fact that the Germans sent for communications not only submarines, but also auxiliary cruisers and warships, suggests that they used their capabilities at the beginning of the war to the maximum. And only later, with the British organized opposition against surface ships, the blockade of the coast, which made it difficult to exit from Germany to the ocean, did they switch to submarines.
        You need to look at the problem from all angles wink hi
        1. Engineer
          Engineer April 20 2020 19: 37 New
          +2
          I confess, I forgot about Atlantis’s meeting with Devonshire. Andrey, you are right
          But the overall balance of the auxiliary cruisers for the Germans as for me. More damage than suffered, while distracting the ships of the first line. Cruising war sunset is generally a problem of basing in the first place
          1. Macsen_wledig
            Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 20: 17 New
            +6
            Quote: Engineer
            More damage than suffered, while distracting the ships of the first line.

            So the first line for the "county" is precisely the communications service ...
            KRT were just working out their "number".
        2. ser56
          ser56 April 20 2020 21: 13 New
          0
          Quote: Rurikovich
          two raiders sunk directly by "Washingtonians".

          and Spee can be attributed to them ... repeat
          1. Rurikovich
            Rurikovich April 20 2020 21: 52 New
            +3
            hi Unlikely No. Exeter just got rid of the Spee in full, but the fact that Langsdorf did not find an antidote against the actions of the light cruisers, together with the excellent work of the British in disinformation, put an end to the actions of the “Count Spee”. Two shells, one of which flew away unexploded - not an argument that would attribute the end of the "pickpocket" from the guns of the "Washingtonian" wink drinks
            1. ser56
              ser56 April 21 2020 12: 48 New
              0
              Quote: Rurikovich
              ascribe the end of the "pickpocket" from the guns of the "Washingtonian"

              would LCR resist without it? Speer generally accepted them for EM ... request so beat and beat ... repeat
              1. Rurikovich
                Rurikovich April 21 2020 23: 44 New
                0
                Quote: ser56
                Speer generally accepted them for EM ..

                These are questions for German officers. wink
                Quote: ser56
                so beat and beat ...

                Well, they didn't beat me up, but forced me to make the wrong decision. In addition to two blanks from Exeter, the German was hit with a couple of dozen semi-armor-piercing 6 "shells from light cruisers, half of which flew off before exploding. without much success. As a result, Langsdorf had to reckon with the fact that he had a "tail". Now we know that there was no one else around and it would be worth trying to break away from the British, because the efficiency of diesel engines allowed them to keep full speed for a long time, in contrast from vocational school LKR Personally, I would try to win a long distance race ...
                This is where they would know
                would resist LKR

                versus 283 mm landmines if a more risky commander commanded a pickpocket request repeat
                But this is my personal opinion drinks hi
                1. Macsen_wledig
                  Macsen_wledig April 22 2020 11: 09 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Rurikovich
                  These are questions for German officers.

                  The problem of correct target identification is a common problem of all fleets ...
                  You can recall, for example, the battle in the Irbensky Strait July 6, 1941 or.
      2. Macsen_wledig
        Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 19: 36 New
        +2
        Quote: Engineer
        The Angles were preparing for a cruising war. The Germans didn’t come to her, they showed some activity, let’s say so.

        And who said that the British were preparing to fight precisely against the Germans? :)
        1. Engineer
          Engineer April 20 2020 19: 41 New
          0
          And if you recall against whom the British were going to fight, then here the embarrassment of lime will be completely unambiguous
          1. Macsen_wledig
            Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 20: 18 New
            0
            Quote: Engineer
            And if you recall against whom the British were going to fight, then here the embarrassment of lime will be completely unambiguous

            Where exactly is kofuz?
            1. Engineer
              Engineer April 20 2020 20: 26 New
              +1
              Where exactly is kofuz?

              Kuantan, Colombo, Java Sea
              So the first line for the "county" is precisely the communications service ...

              There is such, but for example Cunningham wanted TKR for squadron service. I got Berwick and not right away.
              In addition to the county, the Germans were caught by the linders
              1. Macsen_wledig
                Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 20: 35 New
                +1
                Quote: Engineer
                Kuantan, Colombo, Java Sea

                Still, it was 15 years after Washington ... :)
                Probably remember the maxim about "preparing for the last war."

                Quote: Engineer
                There is such, but for example Cunningham wanted TKR for squadron service. I got Berwick and not right away.

                I wanted it, because the Italians beat the CRT, to which cash to Kanigham KRL was shot at the limit of the distance.

                Quote: Engineer
                In addition to the county, the Germans were caught by the linders

                They are the "light" version of the "county" ... :)
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer April 20 2020 20: 41 New
                  0
                  Prepared for the war with the Yap. Fact. Screwed up. Fact. The threat of the Japanese was recognized before and after Washington.
                  I wanted to. Fact. For squadron service. What is the argument about?
                  They are the "light" version of the "county" ... :)

                  I disagree, but specifically on this point argue laziness, sorry)
                  1. Macsen_wledig
                    Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 20: 50 New
                    0
                    Quote: Engineer
                    The Japanese thunderstorm was recognized before and after Washington.

                    Before Washington, the 1902 treaty between Britain and Japan was in effect ...

                    Quote: Engineer
                    I wanted to. Fact. For squadron service. What is the argument about?

                    You can hammer in nails with a microscope, but whether it is necessary.

                    Quote: Engineer
                    I disagree, but specifically on this point argue laziness, sorry)

                    As you wish... ;)
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer April 20 2020 21: 18 New
                      0
                      Before Washington, the 1902 treaty between Britain and Japan was in effect ...

                      This is a well-known fact, as well as how at ease this agreement was leaked by the British in Washington.
                      At that time, the US-England-Britain triangle of forces and the arms race that England did not pull was a reality
                      You can hammer in nails with a microscope, but whether it is necessary.

                      ABC is not a carpenter, and the county is not a microscope. I think the best British admiral of the 20th century knows better.
                      1. Macsen_wledig
                        Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 21: 23 New
                        0
                        Quote: Engineer
                        This is a well-known fact, as well as how at ease this agreement was leaked by the British in Washington.

                        Remind the reason? :)

                        Quote: Engineer
                        ABC is not a carpenter, and the county is not a microscope. I think the best British admiral of the 20th century knows better.

                        Naturally better ...
                        As I wrote above, he had nothing to "fend off" the Italian MCTs ...
                      2. Engineer
                        Engineer April 20 2020 21: 59 New
                        +2
                        Remind the reason? :)

                        Even more distracted from the subject of discussion outlined in the original post of Rurikovich?
                        Andrey's thesis was planned to protect trade and brilliantly justified the appointment
                        Counter-thesis. Ok, planned. But it is difficult to call their results brilliant.
                        It’s easy to notice. what the argument is about combat use in this particular aspect. You are explaining to me here for politics and Washington, and this in this particular case is not the tenth, but the hundred and tenth
                        On the subject of discussion. There were very few German auxiliary cruisers. They drowned dozens of ships. The Germans themselves are sunk a bit. The British effectively intercepted supply vessels, but this was done by the entire CF, and not just the county. And most importantly, the interception was carried out according to decrypted radiograms, first of all, to which the counties are not related. The cruising war died out by itself when the Germans considered success and compared with submarines. As for the protection of communications in the Indian Ocean from the Japanese, the British in general, and their TKR in particular, signed their helplessness
                        The general "account" in the confrontation with the auxiliary cruisers is more likely in favor of the Germans
                      3. Macsen_wledig
                        Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 22: 24 New
                        +3
                        Quote: Engineer
                        The cruising war died out by itself when the Germans considered success and compared with submarines.

                        But the auxiliary cruisers continued to be sent on campaigns (the Michel campaign, the second Comet campaign, the Coronel campaign) and rebuilt ...
                        In May 1942, it was planned to rebuild the Amerskerk, Moltkefels, Nidenfels and Meersburg into the WRC.
  • prodi
    prodi April 20 2020 19: 46 New
    0
    I nevertheless wanted to ask: a volley of 3-4 torpedo tubes, from the point of mutual drift, point-blank, could not change the layout, even with all the guns pointing at the raider?
    1. Nehist
      Nehist April 20 2020 20: 28 New
      0
      In the first period of the war, torpedoes in Kriegsmarine were not a special masterpiece, there were very frequent failures, submariners, in general, rolled up a whole scandal. Otherwise, Britain would have decided a significant number of large warships in the early years of the war.
      On October 30, 1939 a report was received from U-56: “10:00. "Rodney", "Nelson", "Hood", 10 destroyers. Square 3492, course 240 °. Fired three torpedoes. Failures. "
      By the way, the Americans also had the same story with torpedoes in the initial period of the war.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 21 2020 11: 06 New
        +2
        Quote: Nehist
        By the way, the Americans also had the same story with torpedoes in the initial period of the war.

        The Americans have this initial period lasted until 1944. smile
        Moreover, both submariners and torpedo bombers.
  • ser56
    ser56 April 20 2020 21: 12 New
    -1
    Not bad! Well read. Special thanks for the curious plans of the Raiders!
    It is a pity, the author did not say directly that the Penguin passed the NSR during 2MV, but chose the indirect path ... hi
    I suppose the result of this passage of the raider on the NSR was the raids of the Germans in the Arctic ... request
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 21: 20 New
      +3
      Quote: ser56
      Not bad! Well read. Special thanks for the curious plans of the Raiders!
      It is a pity, the author did not say directly that the Penguin passed the NSR during 2MV, but chose the indirect path ... hi

      Actually it was "Comet" ...
      1. ser56
        ser56 April 21 2020 13: 00 New
        0
        Quote: Macsen_Wledig
        Actually it was "Comet" ...

        exactly sclerosis ... request
  • Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig April 20 2020 21: 26 New
    +4
    The English version is also not bad ...
    https://izwest.livejournal.com/2515246.html
    1. Engineer
      Engineer April 20 2020 22: 33 New
      +2
      I’ll clean up .... Oh Oleg-Oleg. There are the same standards of decency.
  • Nazaroff
    Nazaroff April 24 2020 07: 48 New
    -1
    That’s what you don’t say, but in German raiders, you feel some otherworldly horror. A warship, of the same German Navy, as it is - it’s a warship. And these raiders, they are like sea werewolves, ominous and scary ...
  • xomaNN
    xomaNN April 24 2020 22: 14 New
    0
    Bravo to the author for choosing a topic. I remember when I read an article about the sea battle of Cormoran-Sydney the first time in Technique-Youth of the 70s that the German Raiders enjoyed studying this topic.
  • Enky
    Enky April 30 2020 18: 40 New
    0
    The propaganda stereotypical cliches were very amusing in the article: Instead of, as we expect from the Germans, "humanely" letting the captured women and children go to the bottom, they carefully prepared women's things and toys for them ... Typically fascist and blatant meanness and treachery!