Military Review

Suther: Submarine Technology of the Future?

45
Suther: Submarine Technology of the Future?

Most readers are well aware of the concept of "laser", derived from the English "laser" (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation - amplification of light through stimulated radiation "). Invented in the middle of the XNUMXth century, lasers thoroughly entered our lives, even if their work in modern technology is often invisible to ordinary people. The main popularizer of technology has become books and films in the science fiction genre, in which lasers have become an integral part of the equipment of fighters of the future.


In reality, lasers have come a long way, being used primarily as reconnaissance and target designation tools, and only now should they take their place as weapons battlefield perhaps radically changing his appearance и appearance of combat vehicles.

Less well-known is the term “maser” - an emitter of coherent electromagnetic waves of the centimeter range (microwaves), whose appearance preceded the creation of lasers. And very few people know that there is another type of source of coherent radiation - "Saser."

Ray of sound


The word "saser" is formed similarly to the word "laser" - Sound Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (sound amplification due to stimulated emission) and means a generator of coherent sound waves of a certain frequency - an acoustic laser.

Do not confuse a saser with an “audio projector” - a technology for creating directional sound streams, as an example we can recall the development of Joseph Pompey from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology “Audio Spotlight”. In the audio spotlight "Audio Spotlight" a beam of waves is emitted in the ultrasonic range, which, non-linearly interacting with air, increase their length to sound. The length of the beam of the audio projector can reach 100 meters, however, the strength of sound in it quickly decreases.

If the generation of light quanta - photons occurs in lasers, then phonons play their role in sasers. Unlike the photon, the phonon is a quasiparticle introduced by the Soviet scientist Igor Tamm. Technically, a phonon is a quantum of vibrational motion of crystal atoms or a quantum of energy associated with a sound wave.


Phonon - a quantum of vibrational motion of crystal atoms

“In crystalline materials, atoms actively interact with each other, and it is difficult to consider such thermodynamic phenomena as vibrations of individual atoms in them - huge systems are obtained from trillions of linear differential equations connected with each other, the analytical solution of which is impossible. Oscillations of crystal atoms are replaced by the propagation in a substance of a system of sound waves, the quanta of which are phonons. The phonon belongs to the number of bosons and is described by the Bose - Einstein statistics. Phonons and their interaction with electrons play a fundamental role in modern concepts of the physics of superconductors, heat conduction processes, and scattering processes in solids. "


The first sazers were developed in 2009-2010. Two groups of scientists presented methods for producing saser radiation - using a phonon laser on optical resonators and a phonon laser on electronic cascades.


A prototype optical laser saser, designed by physicists at the California Institute of Technology (USA), uses a pair of silicon optical resonators in the form of tori with an external diameter of about 63 micrometers and an internal diameter of 12,5 and 8,7 micrometers into which the laser beam is fed. By changing the distance between the resonators, it is possible to adjust the frequency difference of these levels so that it corresponds to the acoustic resonance of the system, as a result of which a 21-MHz frequency laser radiation is generated. By changing the distance between the resonators, you can change the frequency of sound radiation.

Scientists from the University of Nottingham (Great Britain) created a prototype electron-stage caser, in which sound passes through a superlattice including alternating layers of semiconductors of gallium arsenide and aluminum with a thickness of several atoms. Phonons accumulate like an avalanche under the influence of additional energy and are repeatedly reflected inside the superlattice layers until they leave the structure in the form of saser radiation with a frequency of the order of 440 gigahertz.


Scheme of a saser based on a superlattice of alternating layers of gallium arsenide and aluminum


Saser prototype of scientists at the University of Nottingham

Sasers are expected to revolutionize microelectronics and nanotechnology, comparable to those produced by lasers. The possibility of obtaining radiation with a frequency of the terahertz range will allow using sasers for high-precision measurements, obtaining three-dimensional images of macro-, micro- and nanostructures, changing the optical and electrical properties of semiconductors at high speed.

Applicability of sazers in the military field. Sensors


The format of the warfare environment determines the choice of the type of sensors that are most effective in each case. IN aviation The main type of reconnaissance equipment is radar (radar), using millimeter, centimeter, decimeter and even meter (for ground-based radar) wavelengths. The ground battlefield requires high resolution for accurate identification of targets, which can only be obtained by reconnaissance optical range. Of course, radars are also used in ground technology, as well as optical reconnaissance means are used in aviation, but nevertheless the bias in favor of the priority use of a certain range of wavelengths, depending on the type of format of the medium of warfare, is quite obvious.

The physical properties of water significantly limit the propagation range of most electromagnetic waves in the optical and radar range, while water provides significantly better conditions for the passage of sound waves, which led to their use for reconnaissance and guidance of weapons of submarines (submarines) and surface ships (NK) in the case of if the latter are fighting an underwater enemy. Accordingly, the main means of reconnaissance of submarines became sonar systems (SAC).

HAC can be used both in active and passive mode. In active mode, the HOOK emits a modulated sound signal, and receives a signal reflected from an enemy submarine. The problem is that the adversary is able to detect the signal from the HACK much further than the HAC itself will catch the reflected signal.

In passive mode, the HAC "listens" to the noise emanating from the mechanisms of a submarine or enemy ship, and detects and classifies targets based on their analysis. The disadvantage of the passive mode is that the noise of the latest submarines is constantly decreasing, and becomes comparable to the background noise of the sea. As a result, the detection range of enemy submarines is significantly reduced.

HAC antennas are phased discrete arrays of complex shape, consisting of several thousand piezoceramic or fiber optic converters that provide the reception of acoustic signals.


On the left is the Irtysh-Amphora SAC spherical receiving antenna of Russian Project 885 (M) Multipurpose Nuclear Submarines (ICAPL), on the right is a horseshoe-shaped HAC antenna with a wide aperture LAB (Large Aperture Bow) of modernized US Virginia type nuclear submarines (NPS)

Figuratively speaking, modern HACs can be compared with radars with passive phased antenna arrays (PFAR) used in combat aircraft.

It can be assumed that the appearance of sasers will allow the creation of promising HACs, which can conditionally be compared with radars with active phased array antennas (AFAR), which have become a hallmark of the latest combat aircraft.

In this case, the operation algorithm of promising HACs based on laser emitters in active mode can be compared with the work of aviation radars with AFAR: it will be possible to generate a signal with a narrow radiation pattern, ensure a failure in the radiation pattern of the interference source and its own jamming.

Perhaps, the construction of three-dimensional acoustic holograms of objects that can be transformed to obtain an image and even the internal structure of the object under study will be implemented, which is extremely important for its identification. The ability to generate directed radiation will make it difficult for an adversary to detect a sound source when the HAC is in active mode to detect natural and artificial obstacles when moving submarines in shallow water, and to detect sea mines.

It must be understood that the aquatic environment will significantly affect the “sound beam” in comparison with how the atmosphere affects the laser radiation, which will require the development of high-performance systems for guiding and correcting laser radiation, and this in any case will not be like a “laser beam” - divergence of saser radiation will be much greater.

Applicability of sazers in the military field. Weapon


Despite the fact that lasers appeared in the middle of the last century, their use as a weapon providing physical destruction of targets is becoming a reality only now. It can be assumed that the same fate awaits the sasers. At least the "sound cannons" similar to those depicted in the computer game "Command & Conquer" will have to wait for a very, very long time (if the creation of such is at all possible).


Sound cannons from the computer game "Command & Conquer"

Drawing an analogy with lasers, it can be assumed that self-defense complexes can be created in the future on the basis of sasers, similar in concept to the Russian aviation aircraft defense complex L-370 Vitebsk (President-S), designed to counter missiles aimed at an aircraft with infrared homing heads using an optoelectronic suppression station (SES), including laser emitters, blinding the homing missile.


Airborne defense complex L-370 "Vitebsk" ("President-S") with a light-emitting diode

In turn, the airborne self-defense complex of submarines based on laser emitters can be used to counter the torpedo and mine weapons of the enemy with acoustic guidance.

conclusions


The use of sazers as a means of reconnaissance and armament of promising submarines is most likely at least medium-term, and even distant. Nevertheless, the foundations of this prospect need to be formed now, creating a reserve for future developers of promising military equipment.

In the XNUMXth century, lasers became an integral part of modern reconnaissance and target designation systems. At the turn of the XNUMXth and XNUMXst centuries, a fighter without a radar with AFAR can no longer be considered the pinnacle of technological progress and will be inferior to its competitors with a radar with AFAR.

In the next decade, combat lasers will radically change the face of the battlefield on land, on water and in the air. It is possible that sazers will have no less impact on the appearance of the underwater battlefield in the middle - end of the XNUMXst century.
Author:
Photos used:
popmech.ru, expert.ru, naked-science.ru, bastion-karpenko.ru, topwar.ru, vpk.name
Articles from this series:
Laser weapons: technology, history, status, prospects. Part of 1
Laser weapons: prospects in the air force. Part of 2
Laser weapons: ground forces and air defense. Part of 3
Laser weapons: navy. Part of 4
Resist light: protection from laser weapons. Part of 5
Laser weapons on combat aircraft. Is it possible to resist him?
2050 year combat aircraft concept and weapons based on new physical principles
Secrets of the Peresvet complex: how the Russian laser sword works?
Aviation performance of the Peresvet combat laser system: carriers, targets, tactics of application
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  1. Fizik M
    Fizik M April 17 2020 18: 32 New
    10
    In this case, the operation algorithm of promising HACs based on laser emitters in active mode can be compared with the operation of aviation radars with AFAR: it will be possible to generate a signal with a narrow radiation pattern, to ensure a failure in the radiation pattern of the interference source.

    the author, in modern digital CEOs it’s not just implemented a long time agoMoreover, this was done much earlier than in the radar!
    1. Shurik70
      Shurik70 April 17 2020 23: 57 New
      +8
      The Soviet writer Grigory Adamov described in detail both the technology and the various effects of the use of such weapons.
      In the 1938th year.
      The novel "The Mystery of Two Oceans"
      1. Romario_Argo
        Romario_Argo April 18 2020 12: 38 New
        0
        on our submarines since the USSR used LIDAR - a device for underwater vision
        there are periscopic LIDARs for finding wormwood when floating in ice - with a range of 50 meters
        available for the CMC in the form of monitors to illuminate the course underwater environment up to 500 meters (in its "layer")
        SASERS - this is the same ROFAR - submarine QUANTUM radar
        1. Fizik M
          Fizik M April 19 2020 13: 00 New
          -4
          Quote: Romario_Argo
          on our submarines since the USSR used LIDAR - a device for underwater vision
          there are periscopic LIDARs for finding wormwood when floating in ice - with a range of 50 meters

          fool
          Monsieur, I can’t forbid you to use weed, but keep your wet ravings with me
    2. pmkemcity
      pmkemcity April 18 2020 13: 25 New
      0
      Quote: Fizik M
      the author, in modern digital ASGs this is not something that was realized a long time ago, moreover, it was done much earlier than in the radar!

      Straight off my tongue! What a shish kebab (maser-sazer)! Such "pseudoquantum" systems are applicable in hydroacoustics only as detectors (if primitive - to remove "harmonics" from "harmonics"). This will undoubtedly color the signal picture, but will it be useful? And yes, the water in the sea is far from "an ideal liquid of H2O, sea water is a soup of all sorts of cockroaches, sometimes with the same" saser "wavelength, with all the ensuing" wave processes ".
      1. Shopping Mall
        April 20 2020 08: 27 New
        0
        Quote: pmkemcity
        Quote: Fizik M
        the author, in modern digital ASGs this is not something that was realized a long time ago, moreover, it was done much earlier than in the radar!

        Straight off my tongue! What a shish kebab (maser-sazer)! Such "pseudoquantum" systems are applicable in hydroacoustics only as detectors (if primitive - to remove "harmonics" from "harmonics"). This will undoubtedly color the signal picture, but will it be useful? And yes, the water in the sea is far from "an ideal liquid of H2O, sea water is a soup of all sorts of cockroaches, sometimes with the same" saser "wavelength, with all the ensuing" wave processes ".


        The technology for creating sasers is at the very initial stage of development. Who knows where she will come? Now there are lasers of many ranges of EM radiation - from hard ultraviolet radiation to infrared radiation. X-ray lasers can be considered reality, more complicated with gamma-lasers, but they will get to them.

        Sasers are the same - now they are megahertz and gigahertz, but they can be created in other ranges and / or use some analogs of filters - doublers / frequency dividers, functionally similar to those used again in lasers.

        High-frequency sazers can very well be used for close ranges for high-precision guidance of anti-torpedoes - a kind of KAZ analogue in tanks.
        1. pmkemcity
          pmkemcity April 20 2020 12: 11 New
          0
          Quote: AVM
          The technology for creating sasers is at the very initial stage of development. Who knows where she will come?

          That's how the navigator became sonar
  2. Operator
    Operator April 17 2020 18: 35 New
    +8
    In the aquatic environment, sound oscillations of only a low frequency from 100 Hz and lower freely spread. High-frequency oscillations (from 100 KHz and higher) do not attenuate in a childlike way, plus they are reflected from any boundary between inhomogeneous layers of water (in terms of temperature and salinity). As a result, craniing of the underlying water layers and the so-called liquid bottom effect - stagnant volumes of water in the bottom recesses, where the submarine can completely disappear from detection by a high-frequency sonar locator.

    Therefore, high-frequency sasers will not work in combat sonar (except for the search for mines, sunken objects and mapping the bottom at close range).

    PS Modern HAS matrix antennas are active rather than passive phased arrays.
    1. Fizik M
      Fizik M April 17 2020 23: 56 New
      0
      Quote: Operator
      In the aquatic environment, sound oscillations of only a low frequency from 100 Hz are freely propagated

      in YOUR bursa at least something was said about the attenuation?
      1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  3. DimanC
    DimanC April 17 2020 18: 44 New
    +7
    I looked at the photo of this scientist .... Damn, I thought we were the only ones working on junk and dreaming about modern equipment laughing It turns out that British scientists are not far from us laughing laughing wassat
    1. Skifotavr
      Skifotavr April 19 2020 11: 53 New
      +1
      And what should the modern look like? smile In scientific equipment, modern stylish design and fashionable LCD displays are not the main thing. And then there is a specific direction. I've heard that for example in modern expensive professional musical equipment even radio tubes are still used. What can we say about the scientific and experimental, that is, not intended for users.
      1. DimanC
        DimanC April 19 2020 15: 45 New
        +1
        Of course, in scientific equipment, lcd displays are not a fad. And as a result of complex miniaturization - a tube picture tube, you know, is heavier and more dimensional laughing Well, there is a fashion too belay One must also sell somehow ...
        Here it is better to consider two processes: the development of the actual technical characteristics and the development of the interface. And in the modern world, the interface often comes out on top. What is the use, for example, of a "good" XNUMX GHz tube oscilloscope if the picture from its tube screen has to be copied onto a transparency? How can it be further processed on a computer and included in the next mathematical model? Well, and so on for other characteristics. ... "that is, not intended for users ..." - researchers are also users, only with their own specifics hi
      2. boris epstein
        boris epstein April 19 2020 17: 49 New
        0
        It’s just that the gain of the transistors has a wide spread, and transistor amplifiers give an inanimate sound, as musicians say. Therefore, cool musicians prefer tube amplifiers. Tube equipment is not subject to ion shock when using weapons of mass destruction.
  4. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse April 17 2020 22: 17 New
    +2
    Less well-known is the term “maser” - an emitter of coherent electromagnetic waves of the centimeter range (microwaves), whose appearance preceded the creation of lasers.

    As far as I remember, on the contrary. Maser seems to have created later, purely out of curiosity, by analogy with lasers.

    But in general, the article is curious, the quantum of vibrations is a very interesting and non-standard approach! Thanks to the author for the original topic!
    1. Gato
      Gato April 18 2020 01: 24 New
      +4
      As far as I remember, on the contrary

      No, that’s all right: the maser is 1954, the laser is 1960. For the maser, the resonator size was about 12 mm, and for the optical range according to this principle it should have been on the order of microns. But bypassed with the help of the Fabry-Perot resonator.
  5. garri-lin
    garri-lin April 17 2020 22: 31 New
    +3
    The sonic cannon from Mystery of Two Oceans becomes a reality. Thanks to the author for the informative article.
    1. Avior
      Avior April 17 2020 23: 29 New
      +4
      exactly, Adamov immediately remembered as soon as he began to read
      The ships found themselves in
      the visibility range of ultrasonic spotlights. One of these ships was
      magnificent "Izumo" - fifteen thousand-ton handsome cruiser, the last
      a word of military shipbuilding, with three powerful battle towers, twelve
      heavy, three hundred and forty-millimeter guns, a range of thirty
      two kilometers, six torpedo tubes, four aircraft and speed
      fifty knots.
      ....
      A nasal ultrasonic gun camera appeared on the screen. Head Acoustics -
      Fat Chizhov - sat in an armchair. A screen shone in front of him, and on it
      clear silhouettes of a smoking cruiser loomed ...
      - Get ready for battle! - the captain gave the command. - According to the cruiser! purpose
      - metal! Only metal! Do not touch people!
      - There is getting ready for battle, only for metal! - confirmed Chizhov,
      hurriedly screwing something, lifting, moving.
      - Beat the bottom to the waterline! Five tenths of the power! Attention!
      ....
      - Stop! - ordered the captain, and the submarine immediately stopped in place.
      -- Attention! - the captain gave the command to Chizhov. - Aim! Sound!
      Nasal ultrasonic gun compartment, followed by a central control post
      and finally, the entire huge submarine filled with restrained
      musical buzz, as if from the work of a powerful dynamo. First minute
      nothing changed in the appearance of the cruiser. The ultrasonic gun worked
      only at five tenths of its power.

      Suddenly, a movement arose among the officers on the cruiser’s command bridge.
      As if ripped off by the wind, they quickly ran down. Cruiser bow and stern
      gradually began to rise up, its middle - to go down, and
      slender, almost graceful lines of boards became more and more noticeable to take the form
      arcs. The stampede of people on the decks began.
      The entire silhouette of the ship - from the keel to the radio antenna - was clearly visible on
      submarine screen. In the eyes of the captain and senior lieutenant, the middle
      the underwater part of the cruiser began to stretch, sprawl like clay.
      Only one minute after the start of the ultrasound attack, the middle
      facing the submarine side of the ship suddenly and immediately pressed into
      it, then suddenly, like a huge bubble, burst, and a giant stream of water
      burst into the holds, into the engine room, into the artillery cellars.
      The cruiser immediately settled, having collected a monstrous portion of water in a few seconds.
      Neither underwater anti-mine thickening of the sides nor numerous
      waterproof bulkheads. A powerful stream of water has become sovereign
      master of his spoils - magnificent cruiser, beauty and pride
      Imperial East Asian Fleet ...
      - Stop the sound! - the captain gave the command and, turning his pale face to
      Senior Lieutenant, added: - We must give people time to launch boats.
      The cruiser slowly plunged its middle into the water, bullying higher and higher
      up nose and stern.
      .
      - The cruiser "Izumo" continuously sends distress signals. Informs that
      drowning. Says that for an unknown reason, starboard and port side
      creep open access to water.


      smile
  6. Mastrer
    Mastrer April 18 2020 00: 21 New
    +3
    To illustrate the sound weapon IMHO better suited noise paratroopers slaanesh.
    1. mgfly
      mgfly April 18 2020 10: 20 New
      +3
      and I remembered a sonic tank from a dune)
      1. AllXVahhaB
        AllXVahhaB April 19 2020 16: 00 New
        0
        Quote: mgfly
        and I remembered a sonic tank from a dune)

        Emperor: Battle for Dune?
  7. Gato
    Gato April 18 2020 01: 31 New
    0
    Lasers, masers, razers, gazers are somehow more promising because they can work in a vacuum - unlike sasers, whose work for obvious reasons is limited by a dense medium.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 18 2020 01: 42 New
      +5
      Quote: Gato
      Lasers, masers, razers, gazers

      Phasers forgot! And hyperphasers!
      1. Gato
        Gato April 18 2020 02: 27 New
        -1
        Thank you for reminding me. Not sleeping
  8. shinobi
    shinobi April 18 2020 01: 59 New
    -3
    We’ll wait and see. Coronovirus can put an end to all of humanity by now mutating into a more lethal form. But it was interesting.
  9. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 18 2020 02: 56 New
    +3
    To submarines (and to water in general) this technology does not have
    even a distant relationship.
    Super-high-frequency sound is generated that decays almost instantly.
    In all kinds of nanotechnologies, this is promising for quality checks of the material.
  10. Usher
    Usher April 18 2020 07: 26 New
    +2
    Figuratively speaking, modern HACs can be compared with radars with passive phased antenna arrays (PFAR) used in combat aircraft.

    What a fright? AFAR and PFAR are essentially no different, you should not enter the word PASSIVE.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 18 2020 12: 10 New
      +3
      "AFAR and PFAR are essentially no different" ////
      ----
      They differ in functionality very much.
      AFAR is hundreds or thousands of independent elements
      "transmitter-receiver". Each item can be customized with
      using software to your mode. So they do. They are flexibly combined
      in groups and each group give their task. Your mode.
      For example, the F-35 radar can scan the ground,
      giving out a 3-d picture with marked targets and at the same time
      Watch out for air threats.
      PFAR has one transmitter and many receivers. He can work
      or in one mode, or in another, but not simultaneously in several.
      1. Serg4545
        Serg4545 April 19 2020 08: 38 New
        +1
        // They are flexibly combined
        in groups and each group give their task. Own mode .//

        Is there any practical sense in such modes?
        To begin with: PFAR can also actually simultaneously, as in the example you cited, scan the ground and monitor the air situation. At PFAR, very quickly (in fractions of a second), you can change the characteristics and direction of radiation. And this radar can scan the earth, then rebuild (in a split second) to examine the sky, then rebuild to continue to scan the earth from the place where it ended. Thus, PFAR will supply you with the highest quality information, only with a delay of 1,5-2 seconds. In my opinion, such a delay is not critical.

        On the other hand, the AFAR can supply data without such a delay. But at what cost is this achieved !?
        Radiation AFAR is divided into two streams. And since the power of the radar is quite a specific quantity, the power of each stream will be 2 times less than the maximum. And this means that the mapping of the earth will be carried out in 2 times less detail. And the radius of detection of aircraft will also be reduced by 2 times!
        So AFAR of course can simultaneously perform several tasks at the same time, but this is achieved by a multiple! deterioration of the basic characteristics of the radar. Somewhere at the level of the third generation of aircraft. And accordingly, the efficiency of the aircraft with AFAR will be like that of the third generation.
        And what for goat button accordion?
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 19 2020 09: 36 New
          -1
          Land mapping not complete
          radar power. The radar was originally designed for
          separation of tasks. Therefore, it is incorrect to speak of a decline in quality.
          PFAR is out of date. It was designed for air combat only,
          where constantly full power is needed.
          AFAR is much more difficult to manufacture (especially compact) and much more expensive.
          But AFAR has many functions. On the F-35, a jammer is also built into the radar,
          eg. No separate unit or container needed.
          1. Serg4545
            Serg4545 April 19 2020 11: 50 New
            +2
            // Land mapping is not performed at full
            radar power .//
            Why is that?
            No, of course, you can specifically or forced to reduce the power of the radar. But it is clear that the higher the power of the radar, the higher the detail and speed of work.

            // The radar was originally designed for
            separation of tasks. Therefore, it is incorrect to talk about a decrease in quality.
            No design will help circumvent physical laws. If the radar consumes 6 kW, then if you divide the radiation of this radar into two equal streams, then you will not get two streams of 6 kW each. You will get two flows of 3 kW each (actually, of course, less due to conversion losses).
            If there are 3 flows, then the power of each will be 2 kW and so on. And the less power, the less range, detail and other characteristics.

            // PFAR is outdated //
            Fuck !!
            And why then the military departments of all technically developed countries continue to invest in the development and production of VFD?

            // On the F-35, the jammer is "built in" into the radar,
            eg. No separate unit or container needed .//

            Directly not needed?)
            Indeed, the radar (and any, not just AFAR!) Can be used to interfere with another radar. But. Interference can only be set at the wavelength at which your radar is capable of operating. For AFAR, this is usually a certain range of centimeter waves. And if the enemy radar works in a different range of centimeter waves? Or even in decimeter, or millimeter? Then you simply cannot physically interfere with enemy radars!
            Okay. Let's say you accidentally met an adversary whose radar operates in the same range as your radar. But here is the trick. Your radar can shine and interfere only in the front hemisphere. And what if the enemy radar is behind? Turn around? First is the time. Secondly, the enemy fighter has already landed on your tail. This is where electronic warfare would have come in handy to bring down the guidance of its missiles or guns, but you cannot. For interference can only be put forward!
            In general, there are no fools. And on real combat sorties, the F-35 will ALWAYS fly with separate EW blocks or containers.

            And in general, I see that you simply repeat the brochures of manufacturers of AFAR.
            I once analyzed their allegations and came to the conclusion that, in fact, the AFAR has practically no advantages over the PFAR.
            With some stretch to these advantages can be attributed greater reliability AFAR.
            What is the stretch?
            Have you heard about such a problem as the frequent failure of PFAR emitters? So I have not heard. And if this part is already very reliable and its failure is an extremely unlikely event, then what is it about?
            In addition, the AFAR has a much less reliable liquid cooling system for the radar, compared with air-cooled VFAR. So it is possible that PFAR is not inferior in reliability to AFAR.
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh April 19 2020 12: 27 New
              +3
              "the military departments of all technically advanced countries continue
              invest in the development and production of PFAR "////
              ----
              Which aircraft and which countries?
              Everywhere during upgrade, PFAR is replaced by AFAR.
              And new models - all with AFAR.
            2. 3danimal
              3danimal April 19 2020 21: 43 New
              +2
              When we have a sufficient number of radars with AFAR in aviation (which we also strive for), it turns out that this is a very useful thing, almost like a transition from a slotted antenna array to a PFAR.
              In the meantime, PFAR is "no worse" smile
            3. 3danimal
              3danimal April 19 2020 21: 47 New
              +2
              . If the radar consumes 6 kW, then if you divide the radiation of this radar into two equal streams, then you will not get two streams of 6 kW each. You will get two streams of 3 kW each (actually, of course, less due to conversion losses).

              You forget about the possibilities of more flexible tuning of the new radar and greater sensitivity.
              Analogy: the processor of 2010 and 2020 consumes the same (or slightly less) amount of energy, but is multiple times more productive.
  11. Usher
    Usher April 18 2020 07: 30 New
    +1
    Quote: Fizik M
    Quote: Operator
    In the aquatic environment, sound oscillations of only a low frequency from 100 Hz are freely propagated

    in YOUR bursa at least something was said about the attenuation?

    Can we read?
    High frequency oscillations (from 100 kHz and higher) die out

    First read, then write
  12. Andrey.AN
    Andrey.AN April 18 2020 13: 35 New
    0
    Drones will probably need to measure distance for navigation. Yes, and on the submarines are needed if you equip drones. But these are the simplest of several piezo elements.
  13. ser56
    ser56 April 18 2020 16: 46 New
    0
    the author is very optimistic .. hi . Efficiency of lasers multiplied by the efficiency of Sazarov makes the creation of the latest high power technically very difficult ... request
    1. Shopping Mall
      April 30 2020 11: 30 New
      0
      Quote: ser56
      the author is very optimistic .. hi . Efficiency of lasers multiplied by the efficiency of Sazarov makes the creation of the latest high power technically very difficult ... request


      The efficiency of some lasers, such as high-power solid-state disk, reaches 70%. In diodes, in my opinion, theoretically, it can be on the order of 75%, or maybe higher.
      1. ser56
        ser56 April 30 2020 12: 44 New
        0
        Quote: AVM
        for example, powerful solid-state disk, reaches 70%.

        you are a storyteller ... repeat
  14. Angelo Provolone
    Angelo Provolone April 19 2020 00: 51 New
    +2
    Reminds an application for a grant.
    Flight of fancy, fragments of the long-known information of the last century, drank dough and no practical use ...
  15. The comment was deleted.
    1. Shopping Mall
      April 30 2020 11: 32 New
      0
      Quote: Usher
      I mean that both are radar and actively emit. The author of the article simply considers the PFAR type as a passive system.


      The author does not think so.