How the Korean War of 1950-1953 Was Prepared

How the Korean War of 1950-1953 Was Prepared

2020 will undoubtedly enter history humanity as the year of the beginning of many changes. Changes in politics, economics, ideology ... Too many over the past years we have come up with myths and fairy tales. We began to believe not what we see with our own eyes, but what we are told, written, shown. We have changed our memory to "a modern point of view on ..."


Many events that took place before our eyes or the eyes of our fathers and grandfathers, we now perceive differently. They told us so! We, former Soviet people, are enraged by the attitude of the West towards the history of World War II. It is very unpleasant for us when our grandfathers are turned from liberators into invaders. I already often hear a terrible phrase from young people: “Why did you have to give so many soldiers' lives for Warsaw, Prague, Berlin and so on? It was necessary to act as allies. It was necessary to erase the city’s carpet bombings and strengthen the fascists. ”

We ourselves did not even notice when such a change in our consciousness occurred. "To live with wolves - howl like a wolf." In a fight with a beast, we ourselves are ready to act like animals.

Coronavirus, the oil war, the collapse of the global economy ... A lot of problems that somehow once faded into the shadows until recently, the top-end theme is the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the Victory. But there are other dates that should be remembered forever. Today I decided to recall one of these dates. At 4 a.m. on June 25, the bloodiest war began in the history of the XNUMXth century after the Second World War.

I did not specifically indicate the year. In order for readers to recall this event on their own. The war began on June 25, 1950! It was then, almost 70 years ago, that the Korean War of 1950-1953 began. A war that did not have at its core any territorial, interethnic, religious, clan, cultural or economic conflicts.

Korea before World War II


Many Europeans today are not very clear why Korea even existed and remained independent next to such powerful states as Russia, China, Japan. The Korean Peninsula is a really mouth-watering piece. But only when a neighbor had a full-fledged navy and ambitions to conquer other people's territories.

Korean civilization has long existed separately from its neighbors. Koreans were a monolithic nation with its own traditions, way of life, and culture. In modern language, such a state would be called original. At the same time, the rulers of Korea were well aware that they would not be able to confront their neighbors and never thought about external expansion.

But the neighbors periodically captured some parts of this country and established their dominance there. Especially tried in this Japan. Samurai used Korea as a source of raw materials and cheap labor. At the end of the 19th century, Japan was the first of Korea’s neighbors to take the path of modernization. And it was then that an understanding of the importance of the territory of Korea for this state appeared.

But the same understanding came to the governments of other countries. Given the proximity of Korea, the first to get into a fight for this country with Japan were the Chinese. The result of the confrontation was the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. Sometimes this war is called the Japan-Manchu war. Then the Japanese badly battered the Chinese army. Japan received not only material compensation for the war launched, but also quite serious territories.

The second war is known to us much more. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Here I will allow myself to remind readers of a fact that is somehow ignored by historians. We never paid indemnities. We lost the war. But they lost less killed and captured than the Japanese. We spent less money than Japan. And the peace treaty, in my opinion, does not look like a winner’s contract with the vanquished, but not a very good agreement between equal partners.

Putting competitors in their place, but realizing that this is not the last war for Korea, Japan begins the direct genocide of Koreans from 1910-1912. In modern terms, the Japanese were Koreanized. Korean holidays, the Korean language were banned. For rituals according to Korean customs was imprisonment. The persecution of faith began.

This policy of the Japanese naturally led to the appearance of discontent among Koreans and the emergence of resistance. Guerrilla units led by Kim Il Sung began to alarm the Japanese military. The Japanese in response increased their military presence. The situation began to develop in a circle. But the uprising in Korea did not begin. The Japanese war machine and cruel punishment did their job.

Post-war actions of the USSR and the USA


Even before the end of the war, the USSR and the USA thought about the fate of Korea. Both us and the Americans were interested in this country. The fact is that with its defeat, Japan refused to control all previously occupied territories. So Korea was becoming the key to the Far East. The problem was solved in the same way as it was done in Germany. The country was simply divided into Soviet and American zones of occupation by 38 parallels. North departed the USSR, south to the United States.

In some sources, one can find the opinion that the Soviet Union and the United States deliberately went to the separation of Korea with the aim of the subsequent creation of two states. To argue on this issue is stupid. Speculation is always just speculation, but the fact that it was the United States that planned such a division and it was the Americans who proposed it is a fact. Here are lines from President Truman’s published memoirs:

"... the project for dividing Korea along the 38th parallel was proposed by the American side."

On August 13, 1945, General MacArthur, commander of American forces in the Far East, instructed the commander of the 24th Hodge Corps to accept the surrender of the Japanese army and occupy South Korea. By the way, in some American publications it is September 1945 that is called the beginning of the Korean War. Why September? Just because it was at this time that American troops occupied these territories without encountering any resistance.

What did the Americans and we hoped for? What is the point of tearing the country apart and at the same time declaring an imminent reunion? It is difficult to unequivocally answer this question. But it seems to me that the whole thing lies in the prospects for the further development of the world. Stalin believed that the authority of the USSR was so great that countries, with appropriate assistance, would choose the socialist path of development themselves, while Truman counted on the establishment of dominance in the world through atomic weapons.

This explains the loyal attitude of both parties to the formation of local authorities of a clearly pro-communist nature in the north and pro-American in the south.

Preparing for war


The Americans actually began preparations for war in the fall of 1945. It was in November 1945 that the “National Defense Command” of Korea was established in the American zone of occupation. In fact, the leadership of the formed units, military training, and supplies were provided by the USA; military equipment was also supplied by the USA. US officers and sergeants commanded Korean units and units. The Americans were tasked with achieving tenfold superiority over the northerners.

In 1946, a government was formed in the South under the leadership of Lee Seung Man. In response, the northerners formed the government of Kim Il Sung. Both governments claimed full power in Korea.

It should be recognized that the Soviet-American commission tried to find a solution to this problem. But the Cold War prevented it. In fact, the situation has come to a standstill. The Americans decided to legitimize the Lee Seung Man government and held elections in the southern part of the country on May 10, 1948. On August 15 of the same year, the Republic of Korea was proclaimed. In response, September 9, 1948 proclaimed the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, led by Kim Il Sung.

Here, I think, the necessary footnote should be made. Explain the terms “legitimacy” and “legality”. The fact is that from the frequent use of these words, many confuse their meaning.

Legitimacy is the voluntary recognition by the people of power. Recognition by the authorities of the right to make decisions on behalf of the people. Legality is recognition of the rule of law. The real effect of the law is: "the law is bad, but it is the law." This is above all. When power acts on behalf of the law, and not on behalf of the people.

After both governments were formed, the occupation forces began to withdraw from the territory first the DPRK (1948), then the Republic of Kazakhstan (1949). At the same time, the armies of the republics received weapons, equipment and equipment left by Soviet and American soldiers and officers. The South received equipment for 50000 soldiers, the North - for 180 thousand.

In general, during the occupation of the USSR, the DPRK turned into a fairly developed country. Kim Il Sung clearly acted in accordance with Stalin's instructions. Twice as much in terms of population, the DPRK was significantly superior to Kazakhstan in terms of economic development and the standard of living of the people. North Korea had a well-armed army.

I will give a few numbers. DPRK: 10 infantry divisions, 242 tank T-34, 176 SU-76, 210 aircraft (Yak-9, IL-10, IL-2). RK: The army is half the size, 22 combat aircraft, 27 armored vehicles. The only thing that can be compared is the fleet. Approximately the same on both sides.

Instead of a conclusion


Neither the Soviet nor the American leadership wanted an open clash. That is why the Soviet and American armies were evacuated from the Korean Peninsula. However, the ambitions of both Korean leaders were not taken into account. Both Kim Il Sung and Lee Son Man longed for power. Full power over the entire territory of Korea.

But the Soviet and American governments by 1950 allowed a military solution to the problems that arose. Moreover, Stalin, after meeting with Kim Il Sung, was sure of a quick victory for the northerners, and in the United States they were confident that they could attract UN troops to the "pacification" of the DPRK. By 1950, Moscow and Washington already understood the strategic importance of the Korean Peninsula.

One more factor is usually spoken of little. Despite the victory of the Chinese Communists in the civil war, Mao already did not agree with Stalin in everything and led his own foreign policy. He did not consider it shameful to interfere in the affairs of other countries. Naturally, in order to "help the brothers establish popular power."

Bottom line: the war in Korea is a product of the then political confrontation between the two systems.
Author:
Photos used:
Sergeant First Class Riley from the Signal Corps, flickr.com, commons.wikimedia.org
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  1. Lannan Shi April 10 2020 13: 33 New
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    In 1946, a government was formed in the North under the leadership of Lee Seung Man. In response, the southerners formed the government of Kim Il Sung. Both governments claimed full power in Korea.

    Something, like that ... A bit surprising)
    1. Andy April 10 2020 13: 43 New
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      I also wanted to note this
    2. Machito April 10 2020 13: 46 New
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      Quote: Lannan Shi
      In 1946, a government was formed in the North under the leadership of Lee Seung Man. In response, the southerners formed the government of Kim Il Sung. Both governments claimed full power in Korea.

      Something, like that ... A bit surprising)

      Pup. Overlooked the author. Further corrected in the text.
    3. Amateur April 10 2020 14: 14 New
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      Maybe admins at VO will finally require their authors that they not only write, but also read their articles before publication. Readers must be respected.
      1. elenagromova April 10 2020 15: 17 New
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        Anything can happen, all authors are people, not gods.
        1. Amateur April 10 2020 15: 22 New
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          authors are people, not gods.

          If they are people, but they cannot read, then for whom are they writing? Lyapis-Trubetskoy read his Gavril.
          1. elenagromova April 10 2020 15: 25 New
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            But it is better, in my humble opinion, not to go in cycles in clerical errors, but to pay the main attention to the essence.
            Maybe she didn’t intervene in her own business, but as one of the authors, I know that anything can happen, and against bullying for typos. Fortunately, this is a site, not a newspaper, where you can’t fix it in the printed version.
            1. Amateur April 10 2020 15: 40 New
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              Do not get hung up on clerical errors, but focus on to the point.

              If you pay attention to the essence, then the number of articles on the HE, in which the essence is absent, significantly exceeds the number of articles with clerical errors. Moreover, this trend in VO is progressing. But while it is better IN, unfortunately, there is nothing.
              1. elenagromova April 10 2020 16: 16 New
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                Here with the essence just can argue.
                "In general, during the occupation of the USSR, the DPRK turned into a fairly developed country."
                Probably, if we use the word "occupation" in this context, then it would be worthwhile to quote it. And it would be better not to use it at all.
                A typo - nonsense, it happens.
          2. Vladimir_2U April 11 2020 06: 56 New
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            Quote: Amateur
            If they are people, but at the same time not able to read, then for whom they write

            In fact, for that there is a profession of proofreader and editor!
        2. rich April 10 2020 16: 17 New
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          Anything can happen, all authors are people, not gods.

          and some of them concurrently and admins yes
  2. Atlant-1164 April 10 2020 13: 42 New
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    “I already often hear a terrible phrase from young people:“ Why did you have to give so many soldiers' lives for Warsaw, Prague, Berlin and so on? We had to act as allies. We had to wipe the city with carpet bombings and strengthen the Nazis. ”
    with both hands for !! past decades have shown .. they are worth the same life of our compatriot, thousands of lives of Poles, Bulgarians and Romanians !! and others like them suffered the Nazis.
    1. Octopus April 10 2020 14: 10 New
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      I often hear a terrible phrase from young people


      I always wonder where the authors take such strange young people with whom they are discussing. I mainly come across young people who just do not care, the Second World there or the Third Intergalactic. There is a movie about that and about that.

      As for young people who are interested in WWII, they are aware, and pretty good. The USSR could not afford strategic bombing, and this instrument itself did not justify itself.
    2. Alexander Greene April 11 2020 14: 15 New
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      Quote: Atlant-1164
      “And why was there so much soldier's life to give for Warsaw, Prague, Berlin and so on? It was necessary to act as allies. "It was necessary to wash the city with carpet bombings and strengthen the Nazis."
      with both hands for !! past decades have shown .. they are worth the same life of our compatriot, thousands of lives of Poles, Bulgarians and Romanians !! and others like them suffered the Nazis.

      As a child, I was dismantling my father, a participant in the Battle of Stalingrad, why did the Germans atrocities so much with us, and then we fed them in Germany, watered, helped restore the metro ...?
      To this he replied to me: "Because we are the Soviet, Red Army, and not fascist!"
  3. Andy April 10 2020 13: 42 New
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    We never paid indemnities. We lost the war. But they lost less killed and captured than the Japanese. We spent less money than Japan. And the peace treaty, in my opinion, does not look like a winner’s contract with the vanquished, but not a very good agreement between equal partners.
    -----------
    But what about Paul Sakhalin? no guys are all wrong, everything is wrong guys ...
    1. Kronos April 10 2020 15: 17 New
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      When you want to imagine defeat as a victory, pulling an owl on the globe
  4. mvg
    mvg April 10 2020 14: 09 New
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    Where are the facts, figures and conclusions? And the most important question: how, having such an advantage, how to get along? Essentially lose?
  5. really April 10 2020 14: 20 New
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    Kim Il Sung was born in 1912, and he has already begun to partisan with the author, more carefully please, the fact how much technique was left is very interesting, for which I thank the author.
  6. Free wind April 10 2020 14: 27 New
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    The section On spheres of influence of 38 parallels was at the Yalta Conference. Signed by Stalin, Roosevelt Churchill. In the same way, Vietnam was divided into spheres of influence.
    1. Octopus April 10 2020 14: 34 New
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      Are you the very youth with whom the author communicates?
  7. Igor Borisov_2 April 10 2020 14: 28 New
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    In principle, entertaining. I look forward to continuing .....
  8. General70 April 10 2020 15: 42 New
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    In 1946, a government was formed in the North under the leadership of Lee Seung Man. In response, the southerners formed the government of Kim Il Sung. Both governments claimed full power in Korea. What kind of nonsense? wink laughing
  9. Operator April 10 2020 17: 18 New
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    Most of the postulates of the author of the article are not true.

    Korea only gained independence from China in the 17th century, and before that it was either a Chinese province or a vassal state. Korea was conquered by Japan in 1905 and was turned into its province.

    At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, there was no discussion of any division of Korea after the restoration of its statehood - the line of demarcation between Soviet and American troops was determined along the 38th geographical parallel. In battles with the Japanese, units of the Red Army in several places plunged south beyond the 38th parallel, but were laid back immediately after the end of hostilities. The Americans belatedly landed amphibious assaults in southern Korea, so that, if desired, the Red Army could independently liberate its territory.

    In connection with the ideological differences in the north and south of the Korean Peninsula, two states were formed. The troops of the USSR and the USA were withdrawn from the peninsula.

    After the creation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, its communist leadership planned to expand its sphere of influence in Korea and suggested that the USSR carry out joint aggression against South Korea. The USSR refused the proposed military adventure (all the more so given the availability of a sufficient number of nuclear weapons in the United States). Then the PRC provoked the leadership of North Korea to attack South. The attack ended in the complete defeat of the enemy, under whose control there were only small bridgeheads on the coast.

    Since the aggression of one state against another is prohibited by the UN Charter, the United States convened a meeting of the United Nations supreme executive body, the Security Council, in order to obtain approval for the formation of UN troops and the organization of resistance to the aggressor. Stalin supported the American resolution in the UN Security Council, ordering the representative of the USSR Vyshinsky not to participate in the vote.

    UN troops, consisting mainly of American units, liberated all of South Korea and occupied almost all of North Korea with the exception of a narrow strip along the border with China. After that, the so-called Chinese volunteers in the amount of 1 million people and several Soviet fighter and anti-aircraft artillery divisions based on the territory of the PRC entered the war. Chinese and Soviet forces restored the status quo at the start of the war along the 38th parallel.

    The South Korean armed forces were destroyed at the first stage of the war, the North Korean - at the second.
  10. Edward Vashchenko April 10 2020 22: 35 New
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    The article is useful, but the phrase is:
    The second war is known to us much more. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Here I allow myself to remind readers of one fact that is somehow hushed up by historians.

    This is which of the historians thought so? Together? Can I have a surname?
  11. voyaka uh April 11 2020 02: 34 New
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    The most important result of the Korean War is the formation of the Republic of Korea.
    Which has now become one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world,
    overtaking Japan. World leader in shipbuilding, mechanical engineering, electronics.
    1. Vladimir_2U April 11 2020 07: 01 New
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      Quote: voyaka uh
      The most important result of the Korean War is the formation of the Republic of Korea.
      Which has now become one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world,
      overtaking Japan. World leader in shipbuilding, mechanical engineering, electronics.

      Under completely undemocratic rule, until the year 85, which doesn’t matter at all, and with frenzied pumping of funds. And no longer a leader.))
      1. voyaka uh April 11 2020 10: 28 New
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        Democracy came gradually throughout the Far East.
        And in Japan for a long time there was one “ruling party” in power.
        With inevitable corruption and political infusion. And then it started
        normal alternation of power.
        Similarly, in Korea.
        It will be the same in China. The Chinese Communist Party will gradually turn into just
        to the "ruling party", then change the name to some
        "Social Justice" smile and then the opposition will appear.
        1. hohol95 April 11 2020 19: 52 New
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          In Greece, "democracy" has long been, and did not begin to live better. They were a "showcase of the Western way of life" by the side of the SFRY. received a pumping money no worse than the Republic of Korea. But everyone ate and with the collapse of the SFRY, the Greek "showcase" became unnecessary! And the Greeks were asked to repay debts ...
          You do not know how many "paper dollars" were poured into the Republic of Korea?
          1. voyaka uh April 11 2020 19: 57 New
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            Investments are not always successful.
            Depends on the country and people.
            Korea paid for all investments. Japan too. Germany too.
            China is profitable for any investor.
            In Israel, technology investors are lining up for money.
            But there were unsuccessful examples. Including Greece.
            1. hohol95 April 11 2020 20: 06 New
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              Including Greece.

              Baltic countries ...
              Oh, how much money the USSR poured into them. In these windows of socialism!
              1. voyaka uh April 11 2020 20: 13 New
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                I don’t know how the USSR was poured, but in Estonia, for example,
                Finland actively invests. The country is economically
                very successful. And there are practical results.
                Latvia is an outsider. No results yet.
                Poland is towing Lithuania, in which Germany has successfully invested.
  12. hohol95 April 11 2020 20: 03 New
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    Dear author! You forgot to mention the following information -
    In South Korea, the General Council of Korean Trade Unions (GCKTU), led by activists from the Communist Party, included hundreds of thousands of participants and held protest marches.
    He became the main target of repressive actions, the protest was ultimately suppressed in 1948. The repression was still strong and after 1948, from August 1949 to April 30, 1949, approximately 89,710 people were detained in eight months.
    From 1945 to 1961 she neither borrowed nor received foreign investment.
    According to the criteria of the World Bank and the neoclassical economy, such a situation is a complete anomaly.
    On the other hand, Korea received more than $ 3,100 million in grants from the United States during that same period. No other external assistance was provided to her.
    Good such GRANTS ...
    Information taken from the article -
    South Korea, Exposing a Miracle (Part 1)
    1. voyaka uh April 11 2020 20: 22 New
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      This is not a disclosure of a miracle, but an explanation of a miracle. smile
      There is a miracle. No need to tell what Samsung, for example.
      And there are more than one company like Samsung in Korea.
      A country that knew how to make only fishing schooners now produces
      the largest ships - container ships and tankers - in the world.
      Not able to make even a gun
      exports howitzers to Europe! You can go on and on ...
      1. hohol95 April 11 2020 23: 41 New
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        Well done Koreans! But well done, then they became NOT themselves. Money was given, technology was given. The army was recreated. There is an external enemy. So support from outside will not be lost!
        And neither Finland nor Poland will help the Baltic countries! Finns from Estonia will make their region, Poland will regain the lands of the Commonwealth from Lithuania! Or maybe the Germans will stop sponsoring everyone ...
        He will also show the coronovirus where the crayfish hibernate ...
  13. Kostadinov April 13 2020 16: 06 New
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    1. I do not think that the losses of Russia hit less in people and in technology than the losses of Japan in the war of 1905. Only two Pacific eskadri with their armadillos cost how much and how many people lost?
    2. It is impossible to compare the DPRK army only with the army of South Korea in 1950. American aviation and the navy intervened in the civil war in Korea in the very first days, and the US ground forces from about the tenth day. The DPRK allies intervened in the war only in the fourth month. For four months, North Koreans fought alone against the United States.
  14. Kostadinov April 14 2020 13: 00 New
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    Quote: voyaka uh
    The most important result of the Korean War is the formation of the Republic of Korea.
    Which has now become one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world,
    overtaking Japan. World leader in shipbuilding, mechanical engineering, electronics.

    1. The main result of the Korean War is that the United States was defeated and stopped in the fomentation of a world war. If Hitler and Musolini were defeated in Spain or Czechoslovakia, they could have avoided WWII.
    2. The small DPRK state, independent from the USA and its global world order, has been preserved and is successfully developing.
    3. South Korea is a US protectorate (like the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia). It can’t beat any leader into anything, because it is a protectorate and its satellite cannot put into orbit with its launch vehicle.
  15. gsev 10 May 2020 14: 15 New
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    "We never paid indemnities."
    In fact, the indemnity was disguised as payments for the maintenance of prisoners of war. Another thing is that the shame of 1904 was washed away in 1945. And in 1918-1922 the red partisans in the Far East were able to defend the independence and integrity of Russia better than the tsarist generals and ministers.