Military Review

A-12 and SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft: record technology

70

Aircraft Lockheed A-12 in the parking lot of the plant number 42 in Palmdale. Photo US Air Force


In the mid-sixties, the CIA and US Air Force received the latest reconnaissance aircraft A-12 and SR-71. These machines, unified in the main part of the units, were distinguished by extremely high flight and technical characteristics that made it possible to effectively solve the main problems. However, achieving maximum speed at the level of M = 3,3 and a flight altitude of more than 25 km proved to be an extremely difficult task, which required fundamentally new design solutions and technologies.

Circle of problems


The development of the A-12 and SR-71 projects was carried out in the Lockheed branch with the unofficial name of Skunk Works. The creation of new aircraft began with research work and the search for optimal technical solutions. At this stage, it was established what problems the “three-swing” aircraft faces. Then the search for suitable technologies began.

A-12 and SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft: record technology
Model A-12 while studying radar signatures, 1959. Photo by the CIA / cia.gov

One of the central problems was aerodynamics. Flying at a speed of approx. M = 3 has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account when forming the appearance of the aircraft. However, reaching such speeds was also not easy. For this, special engines were required that could work equally efficiently at all high-speed modes.

At the required flight speeds, the problem of thermal loads had to fully manifest itself. It was necessary to protect the glider from overheating, deformation and possible destruction. With all this, the aircraft had to be highly durable, since at the operating speeds even the simplest maneuvers were associated with overloads.

A separate requirement affected the visibility of the aircraft to the enemy. By that time, the leading countries managed to build a developed network of radars to control airspace, which is why the issue of reducing radar visibility has become urgent. This problem should be considered when developing a glider.


The nacelle of the aircraft SR-71. Wikimedia Commons Photos

Finding solutions to the expected problems was not easy and quick. Work on the A-12 aircraft for the CIA was launched in 1957 and continued for several years. During this time, the general concepts and approaches to the design have changed several times. The first flight of the prototype aircraft was completed only in 1962. The SR-71 scout for the Air Force was developed on the basis of a ready-made machine, which allowed to significantly accelerate the work.

Special glider


The solution to the main part of the expected problems was directly related to the design of the airframe and general aircraft systems. After a long search, it was possible to find the best version of the aerodynamic shape. The “tailless” scheme with developed influxes in the bow and central part of the fuselage and a pair of keels were considered the best. The applied scheme made it possible to obtain high lifting force and improve flow around at all speeds. In addition, the bending moment in the bow was sharply reduced.


Pratt & Whitney J58 engine. Photo Wikimedia Commons

Special glider contours made it possible to partially disperse signals from the radar. In some sections of the airframe, where the design allowed it, there were parts made of radar absorbing materials. However, reducing visibility was not the main objective of the project, and there were other factors that partially leveled all the design achievements in this area.

The issues of thermal protection, mass and strength were solved with the help of titanium and its alloys. The glider was 85% of them. Other parts were made of heat-resistant grades of steel, ceramics, etc. Glazing of the cockpit lantern made of quartz glass. For mechanical and thermal strength, it was connected to a glider using ultrasonic welding.

According to calculations, during the flight, the average skin temperature should have reached 260 ° C, the maximum at the leading edges - up to 400 ° C. In this regard, the airframe provided for numerous pipelines for circulating fuel, removing excess heat and preheating the fuel.


Nozzle apparatus of the engine. Wikimedia Commons Photos

The titanium design retained strength when heated - but changed dimensions. At cruising speed, the A-12 and SR-71 lengthened by several inches. This problem was taken into account during the design and provided for special gaps in the casing, internal structures and even in the fuel system. As a result, fuel literally oozed from the plane on the ground, but after acceleration the leak stopped. Also, part of the casing was made of corrugated sheets.

Record engine


The A-12 and SR-71 aircraft used the unique JT11D / J58 family of hybrid engines from Pratt & Whitney. Their design combined turbojet and ramjet engines with the possibility of joint or alternating operation. Maximum thrust, depending on modification, 20-25 thousand pounds; afterburner - 32,5 thousand pounds.


J58 engine running at different speeds. Wikimedia Commons Graphics

The core of the J58 engine was a turbojet placed inside a once-through unit with an assist fan. The air intake device was equipped with a movable central body; there was also a set of hatches and sashes for controlling the incoming flow. The air intakes were controlled in accordance with flight modes using a separate computer.

At supersonic and supersonic speeds, the air intake cones were in the forward position and optimized the flow at the engine inlet. With increasing height and speed, they were shifted back. At speeds greater than M = 3, the air flow was divided between ramjet and turbojet engines, which created 80 and 20 percent. traction accordingly.

The J58 engine used kerosene-based special JP-7 jet fuel. Under normal conditions, it was characterized by increased viscosity, but when heated, it did not differ from standard compositions. Fuel was also used as part of the lining cooling systems, cabs, instrument compartments, etc. It was used as a working fluid in nozzle control hydraulics. The heated liquid immediately entered the engine and burned out.


Scout A-12 with Air Force identification marks in flight. Photo US Air Force

The engine was started by injection of the so-called starting fuel - liquid triethylborane (TEB), flammable in contact with air. Each J58 had its own TEB tank for 16 engine / afterburners. The engines used special silicone grease optimized for high temperatures. At temperatures below zero Celsius, this composition hardened, which complicated the operation of the equipment.

Great price


Skunk Works and allied businesses have successfully completed all of their tasks and created aircraft with uniquely high flight performance. However, this took several years and significant financial expenses, and the resulting aircraft were distinguished by a high production cost and complexity of operation.


Afterburner flight. NASA Photos

The development of the project and the search for all the necessary technologies took several years. The launch of production was also associated with certain problems. For example, the memoirs of the head of Skunk Works Ben Rich mentioned difficulties in obtaining titanium. The United States did not have such raw materials, which is why it was necessary to arrange a whole operation for its purchase in the USSR through shell companies.

In the interests of the CIA built 15 aircraft of the main modifications. The Air Force received 32 units. The contract with the Air Force provided for the cost of one SR-71 at the level of 34 million dollars (more than 270 million at current prices), and the production program was record high for its time.

Operation was also difficult and expensive. Preparation for the flight took several days. After each flight, the aircraft required 650 different checks and procedures that took several hours. After 25, 100 and 200 hours of flight, a thorough inspection with partial disassembly was required, which took several working days. Engines were sent to the bulkhead after 200 hours of operation, and after 600 hours for major repairs.


SR-71 is landing. NASA Photos

Shortly before the cancellation of the SR-71, it was openly reported that the flight hour of such an aircraft costs approx. 85 thousand dollars. The operation of one machine annually cost at least 300-400 million.

However, the CIA and the Air Force received a special tool with the highest performance. A-12 and SR-71 could operate at altitudes of at least 25-26 km and reach speeds of up to M = 3,3, which for many years saved them from the air defense of a potential enemy. During the operation, the CIA lost 6 of its A-12s, the Air Force - 12 units of SR-71. There were no combat losses.

Technological breakthrough


The operation of the A-12 aircraft lasted only a few years - until 1968, the Air Force used its SR-71 until 1998, and NASA wrote off the equipment a year later. Aircraft of two models and several modifications, having a special design based on advanced technologies, could show outstanding tactical and technical characteristics. However, for the same reason, they were excessively expensive and complex. By the time they were abandoned, more convenient and effective intelligence tools appeared.

A direct replacement for the A-12 / SR-71 did not appear - spacecraft have long and firmly occupied the niche of reconnaissance aircraft. As a result, new designs aviation Techniques with comparable characteristics have not yet appeared in the United States. However, Skunk Works high-speed aircraft projects created a serious scientific, technical and technological base for the further development of military and civil aviation. Those or other solutions proposed in the past are still actively used.
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  1. Angelo Provolone
    Angelo Provolone April 10 2020 06: 00 New
    -10
    Salvage won
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins April 10 2020 06: 15 New
    20
    One of the epoch-making aircraft. He proved that three mach speeds can be overcome serially ...
  3. Free wind
    Free wind April 10 2020 07: 06 New
    +7
    The car looks fantastic, the performance is incredible. True, we soon got a MIG-25 plane, and the Blackbird could easily pull out feathers.
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor April 10 2020 07: 36 New
      13
      These planes met during intercepts, but to no avail. I couldn’t catch the Drozda MiG, just because of an ambush, with the same result.
    2. Grigory_45
      Grigory_45 April 10 2020 15: 27 New
      +6
      Quote: Free Wind
      True, we soon got a MIG-25 plane, and the Blackbird could easily pull out feathers.

      MiG-25 couldn’t catch Drozd when it was cruising, the only chance was on collision courses, with competent guidance from the ground.
      But the MiGs successfully intercepted the SR-71 over Europe, when the latter carried out reconnaissance missions along the border with the Warsaw Pact. There was nowhere to drive over Europe, and the Black Bird could not realize its speed potential
  4. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya April 10 2020 07: 38 New
    15
    Yes, the leap in aircraft construction is amazing! The first flight took place in 1959, and after all, only 20 years before that, in 1939, a speed of 600 km / h for aircraft seemed to be a record.
  5. AAK
    AAK April 10 2020 08: 42 New
    13
    71st flew mainly on 2 routes: the north, especially the area of ​​the Kola Peninsula and Taimyr, and the east - Kamchatka. For air defense, when the 71st approached, the code "Bustard" was given, it was very difficult to accompany this target "on the machine", as a rule - on the manual, usually the most experienced operators worked ...
  6. Operator
    Operator April 10 2020 09: 26 New
    -9
    Ramjet - as the author calls the holim afterburner turbofan engine laughing

    A-12 / SR-71 mainly stood on the ground under maintenance and disassembly / assembly, and in the air they were used only against second-rate countries (including China at that time), since the USSR air defense in the areas of US intelligence interests lightly shot down a low-maneuverable aircraft at all speeds and flight altitudes.

    Regular (sic!) Flights to the airborne border of the USSR in Kamchatka are generally beyond reason. The American reconnaissance forces were counteracted by a specially assigned on-duty radar without disclosing a wartime radar detection system.

    As a result, the plane "flew into the chimney" - he served in the US CIA for 6 years, having made a huge financial hole in the department's budget. In the US Department of Defense, he was listed for 30 years in order to formally work out the amortization period.
    1. 3danimal
      3danimal April 10 2020 12: 16 New
      +1
      The budget allowed, obviously.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 10 2020 12: 22 New
        0
        What agents of influence of the KGB of the USSR played on bully
        1. 3danimal
          3danimal April 10 2020 15: 05 New
          0
          As a result, the one who lost in the economy is the one who earns less and spends a lot.
          1. Operator
            Operator April 10 2020 15: 56 New
            +2
            As a result, the n-th number of billions of bucks of the 1960s was flushed down the toilet laughing

            Why bind to a specific project the general state of affairs after 30 years? So you can reach out to mice - the loss of US leadership in 2020.
            1. 3danimal
              3danimal April 10 2020 21: 23 New
              +3
              The nth number of billions of bucks from the 1960s was flushed down the toilet.

              The rich are sometimes difficult to understand, could afford. Like the lunar program ...
              Remind who is the leader in science and economics?
              1. Operator
                Operator April 11 2020 00: 17 New
                -4
                People's Republic of China, no? laughing
                1. 3danimal
                  3danimal April 11 2020 22: 00 New
                  0
                  In terms of US GDP, it is 1,5 times larger than China (China is 8 times larger than Russia), and by 10-15% more in science expenditures (in PPP) (China is 11,5 times larger than Russia).
                  This is an interesting tendency to rejoice in the successes of China, which, obviously, according to the above parameters, we will NEVER be able to catch up (with the current, "stable" state of affairs).
    2. Proctologist
      Proctologist April 10 2020 12: 34 New
      +5
      You have a good nickname, Andrey is a cameraman. It fits the article exactly!

      I served as an air defense operator. The division was raised when it was reported that a "high-altitude target" was expected. An air defense division for one plane to shoot down "lightly" on a collision course. Because it is technically impossible to catch up and "heavy" will not work.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 10 2020 12: 37 New
        -2
        The air defense division was raised at first (to keep it in good shape), then "Black Berdov" were routinely bullied with one or two MiG-31s.
    3. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek April 12 2020 11: 13 New
      0
      In Vietnam, not a single one was shot down .... they flew as they wanted.
      1. PilotS37
        PilotS37 April 12 2020 13: 50 New
        0
        Quote: Zaurbek
        In Vietnam, not a single one was shot down .... they flew as they wanted.

        So over Vietnam, "Drozd" flew "zip": in the Hanoi region, he crossed the entire territory of the DRV from east to west in 10 minutes.
        So try to bring him down for such a time at such a height.
        The same thing happened and the 25th over Israel in the first half of the 1970s. And for the same reason (but it never occurred to anyone to chase them over Washington ...).
        1. SovAr238A
          SovAr238A April 14 2020 20: 45 New
          +2
          Quote: PilotS37
          Quote: Zaurbek
          In Vietnam, not a single one was shot down .... they flew as they wanted.

          So over Vietnam, "Drozd" flew "zip": in the Hanoi region, he crossed the entire territory of the DRV from east to west in 10 minutes.
          So try to bring him down for such a time at such a height.
          The same thing happened and the 25th over Israel in the first half of the 1970s. And for the same reason (but it never occurred to anyone to chase them over Washington ...).


          So let the 25th fly over Israel for a very short time.
          And then they stopped abruptly.
          The question is why?

          Second question.
          Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
          What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

          I give a hint, see operating conditions, devices labeled APU ...
          The most interesting thing is that there you will see a limit of ..... km / h ...
          Much less than M = 2.

          If you find, of course, information, it’s difficult ...
          it’s much easier to throw caps up and the brain doesn’t strain it ...

          Tales about 2.82 leave the storytellers.
          And learn how to separate specially prepared record devices from drill machines.
          1. PilotS37
            PilotS37 April 14 2020 20: 49 New
            0
            Quote: SovAr238A
            Second question.
            Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
            What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

            Or am I missing something ...
            Did they hang rockets on "Drozd"? !!!!!!!!
            wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat
            1. SovAr238A
              SovAr238A April 14 2020 20: 51 New
              +2
              Quote: PilotS37
              Quote: SovAr238A
              Second question.
              Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
              What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

              Or am I missing something ...
              Did they hang rockets on "Drozd"? !!!!!!!!
              wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat


              No.
              On the MiGs that were supposed to catch up with Thrush ...
              But I am very interested, why, when I clearly indicated MIG-25 and MIG-31, why did you turn them over to "rockets suspended on Drozda"?

              Trying to change the subject? Turn the discussion over?
              You have no chanos, I won’t let you turn the topic on another path, don’t try ... you will look very stupid.
              1. PilotS37
                PilotS37 April 14 2020 20: 54 New
                0
                Quote: SovAr238A
                Quote: PilotS37
                Quote: SovAr238A
                Second question.
                Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
                What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

                Or am I missing something ...
                Did they hang rockets on "Drozd"? !!!!!!!!
                wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat


                No.
                On the MiGs that were supposed to catch up with Thrush ...

                You carefully read my post? - Who was there to catch up with whom? ..
                What potion from the corona virus do you drink? (I’m so interested in: suddenly I want to have some fun ...)
                1. SovAr238A
                  SovAr238A April 14 2020 21: 00 New
                  +2
                  Quote: PilotS37
                  Quote: SovAr238A
                  Quote: PilotS37
                  Quote: SovAr238A
                  Second question.
                  Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
                  What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

                  Or am I missing something ...
                  Did they hang rockets on "Drozd"? !!!!!!!!
                  wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat wassat


                  No.
                  On the MiGs that were supposed to catch up with Thrush ...

                  You carefully read my post? - Who was there to catch up with whom? ..
                  What potion from the corona virus do you drink? (I’m so interested in: suddenly I want to have some fun ...)

                  There is no potion ... Again I see the standard scheme of "taking the topic of discussion to the individual" ...
                  All according to patterns and patterns.
                  I have just been working in the Internet for many years, and I am also interested in this topic.
                  I have a question for your employers.
                  Why do they take such nonsense as you and use such outdated schemes?
                  After all, each of you gets good money, and the exhaust from you is zero point, zero point.
                  Maybe, instead of just people like you, you can hire really understanding how to conduct a real polemic on the Internet, so as not to screw it up like cheap bots like you do it ...

                  Damn, it's so funny and childish ...
                  On all sides and most importantly, it worked 10 years ago.

                  People like you - get together in a dozen, and still you will not have a chance ...
                  You are worthless, and calling you worthless ...
                  Uneducated bots.
                  and most importantly in your vocabulary, there are many neologisms that clearly give an idea of ​​your age.
                  You do not have a clear idea of ​​what you are writing - they give you a script that you describe.
                  1. PilotS37
                    PilotS37 April 14 2020 21: 02 New
                    0
                    Quote: SovAr238A
                    I have just been working in the Internet for many years, and I am also interested in this topic.
                    I have a question for your employers.

                    Well, you cub ...
                    1. SovAr238A
                      SovAr238A April 14 2020 22: 16 New
                      0
                      Quote: PilotS37
                      Quote: SovAr238A
                      I have just been working in the Internet for many years, and I am also interested in this topic.
                      I have a question for your employers.

                      Well, you cub ...



                      Well, I see a simple and cheap "drain" from the topic ...
                      And what did you want to say?

                      Well, really, what’s about rocket suspension
                      What is there on escape scripts?

                      Go on ...
                      take your steps to the masses ... come on, we'll see everything.
                      thousands of people are reading us here.

                      What you really are, a bot or a living person who is interested in military matters.
                      Show your knowledge.
                      Spread me with your knowledge of how the pylons are called in the MiGs, what their performance characteristics are ...

                      Just facts ..
                      Then it will become clear to everyone which of us is who ...

                      Otherwise, if you merge once again, it will remain for the whole life of your nickname and you will have to log in ...
          2. Lozovik
            Lozovik April 18 2020 15: 30 New
            0
            Quote: SovAr238A
            Second question.
            Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
            What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

            For an 84D aircraft with 46 missiles, Vpr = 1200 km / h to H = 18 km, higher - M = 2,83.
          3. alipes
            alipes 28 August 2020 18: 19 New
            0
            Owl, you are misleading the people. The Mig-25 limitation is M-2,83, not 2,82, and at this speed during overflights after routine maintenance, in order to count the overflights, it is necessary to withstand several minutes. APU is available only on the Mig-25, on the Mig-31 AKU, and there are no restrictions on these devices.
    4. PilotS37
      PilotS37 April 12 2020 13: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      As a result, the plane "flew into the chimney" - he served in the US CIA for 6 years, having made a huge financial hole in the department's budget. In the US Department of Defense, he was listed for 30 years in order to formally work out the amortization period.

      I don’t know why you Operatorzamususuyut!
      That's right: the car, of course, was a breakthrough one, but very complicated and expensive to operate (the author of the article kept silent (or does not know) that during the takeoff run, the Drozd lost several tons of fuel each time: its wing panels were not made "in the joint", but with a gap for thermal expansion, therefore, during the takeoff, the wing tanks literally oozed).
      And, indeed, it was used successfully only against Vietnam (aha!), China and Egypt. "Drozd" jumped into Soviet airspace only slightly, tangentially, since deepening into our territory was extremely dangerous for it: it might not have been shot down right away, but to drive could.
      And the final of the "Drozd" was amusing: at the end of the 1980s, the first combatant Su-27s appeared in the North. They were inferior to the Drozd in speed, but could hover in the air for a long time (which neither the MiG-25 nor the MiG-31 could do). As a result, one Su-27 "Drozda" caught it - the pilot gave an open text request to launch a missile "on target" - command command to him not allowed, but since then these "targets" have ceased to fly to the borders of the USSR ... (In those glorious times I worked at Sukhoi aerodynamic and heard this story from people who "were in the subject".) It is clear that after that SR-71 was no longer needed, and then they quickly remembered that he - turns - very expensive to operate ...
      1. Operator
        Operator April 12 2020 14: 12 New
        -3
        You just can’t imagine how many idolaters of the cargo cult are gathered on the VO, before the squeal and saliva on the monitor they hate everything domestic.
        1. PilotS37
          PilotS37 April 12 2020 14: 17 New
          0
          Quote: Operator
          You just can’t imagine how many idolaters of the cargo cult are gathered on the VO, before the squeal and saliva on the monitor they hate everything domestic.

          I can imagine! drinks
          But there are many here who simply don’t understand what they are writing about: they didn’t build airplanes, they didn’t drive tanks, they even couldn’t dismantle Kalash, but I’d like to speak out ...
          So it turns out: "How could he groan such an amazing thing!" wassat wassat wassat
      2. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A April 14 2020 20: 36 New
        +1
        Quote: PilotS37

        I don’t know why you Operatorzamususuyut!


        Just an Operator is a group of comrades.
        Rather, one who writes on tracing papers and patterns of a companion group.

        The alternative is still the one ...
        1. PilotS37
          PilotS37 April 14 2020 20: 47 New
          0
          Well, all that, gentlemen, is your business!
          But the fact that gold is in the gang ...
          (C)
  7. Fitter65
    Fitter65 April 10 2020 10: 02 New
    11
    Unfortunately, the article is simply not about anything. You could just write that supposedly in the USA there used to be such a plane as SR-71, who are interested in details read the book
    1. NN52
      NN52 April 10 2020 11: 47 New
      +6
      It was a good plane. In 2001, the Americans even wanted to "revive" this project (remove from storage and restore several aircraft for flights)
      . But it did not work out ...
      1. NN52
        NN52 April 10 2020 11: 49 New
        +6
        And the "spark", for training the flight crew, was original on it (pay attention to the instructor's cockpit)
        1. novel66
          novel66 April 10 2020 12: 17 New
          10
          my favorite plane ... well, unpatriotic ... I know .. Dima, hi hi
        2. Pete mitchell
          Pete mitchell April 10 2020 13: 46 New
          +6
          Quote: NN52
          It was a good plane ...

          The creation of the ingenious Kelly Johnson - implemented really daring projects
        3. Bersaglieri
          Bersaglieri April 10 2020 14: 36 New
          +2
          The MiG-25U has the same "whatnot". But the funniest design was on the Tu-128U
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA April 10 2020 17: 04 New
            +3
            Quote: Bersaglieri
            But the funniest design was on the Tu-128U

            Oh yeah... pelican was good. smile
          2. NN52
            NN52 April 10 2020 23: 07 New
            +4
            Bersaglieri
            Have you ever seen the MiG 25 "twin"? And who was "sitting" where?
        4. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 10 2020 17: 01 New
          +5
          Quote: NN52
          And the "spark", for training the flight crew, was original on it (pay attention to the instructor's cockpit)

          We similarly turned the Tu-22 into the Tu-22U.
    2. Operator
      Operator April 10 2020 12: 26 New
      +3
      Impressed by the book's subtitle - Lockheed Stealth Aircraft laughing
      Nah-nah Bear Nikolsky with such knowledge of the subject.
    3. Martin
      Martin April 17 2020 16: 48 New
      0
      In this book, I only need to see the cover to say that she has a place in the trash. The SR-71 is as invisible as Little Red Riding Hood. In the text of the article under discussion, by the way, the author also hints at a "decrease in visibility."
      I "drove" these "Social Revolutionaries" for two years without a break for lunch. The Soviet station AWACS meter range 1959 development ("Lena", if anyone is interested), easily took it and led on the entire range of the standard detection range. And the serifs from the "Socialist-Revolutionary" were the same fats as from MiGs going to intercept or even passenger sides.
      By the way, about MiGs: at least in their performance characteristics from the boarding school the maximum speed is lower than that of the Socialist Revolutionary, but in practice, according to readiness No. 1, they flew out of Monchegorsk, attached themselves to the Socialist Revolutionary and accompanied him outside my ICO (to the east). Then, in the same way, they returned in parallel, MiGs rolled home, and the SR - to themselves. Perhaps he did not overtake them out of politeness. Or thought the rocket would catch up anyway.
  8. gridasov
    gridasov April 10 2020 10: 44 New
    -1
    This article, like many others, reveals such an aspect that there is no technology to develop and achieve higher speeds.
  9. Proctologist
    Proctologist April 10 2020 12: 31 New
    +8
    This is not just an epoch-making machine, but the highest achievement in aviation today, 60 years after the first flights of the "high-altitude target".

    The article is annoying that the units of measurement (thrust in thousands of pounds) are not translated, that different currencies are mixed - the cost of a flight hour in dollars on the day the aircraft are written off and the cost of development 40 years earlier. The dollars were obviously different.
  10. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 10 2020 12: 45 New
    +4
    inside a once-through installation with helping a fan.

    How long can you use Google translation thoughtlessly? Really it was impossible to write "additional", so it would be in Russian.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 10 2020 13: 38 New
      +5
      Yes there were no auxiliary and additional fans. Description of the engine - complete nonsense.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 10 2020 13: 43 New
        +1
        As for the delirium - I agree, only the American text, whatever it is, must still be translated into Russian.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim April 10 2020 13: 47 New
          +2
          The point is that this is not a translation of the "American" text. I don’t know where the author got the revelations from, they hide the sources like Kaschey's igloo.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ April 10 2020 13: 49 New
            +2
            Well, I thought it was a dumb googl translation, and if the author gives it out of his head, then this is something. Klitschko with Chernomyrdin nervously smoking on the sidelines.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim April 10 2020 13: 54 New
              11
              The fact is that even the English-language Wikipedia, in comparison with the Russian-language in these matters, is at an unattainable height. Uriapatriots can minus, but this is impossible to refute.
              I’m far from thinking that this author worked with some serious sources. For this, he has neither knowledge nor desire.
              His hobby - transfusion from empty to empty - verbiage.
          2. Zaits
            Zaits April 10 2020 17: 39 New
            +1
            This nonsense has been walking for a long time. In any case, this is not the first time I have come across this.

            Specially decided to check, the result is impressive. In the Russian-language Wikipedia - in general to the utmost.
            And even in the English language it is mentioned that there is an incorrect description of the operation of the engine. That is, the roots are more likely there.
    2. PilotS37
      PilotS37 April 12 2020 13: 55 New
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      inside a once-through unit with an assist fan.

      How long can you use Google translation thoughtlessly? Really it was impossible to write "additional", so it would be in Russian.

      For this you need knowhow the turbojet engine works. Precisely "to know", and not to read in some book.
  11. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2020 13: 11 New
    10
    The A-12 and SR-71 aircraft used the unique JT11D / J58 family of hybrid engines from Pratt & Whitney. Their design combined turbojet and ramjet engines with the possibility of joint or alternating operation.
    The core of the J58 engine was a turbojet placed inside a once-through unit with an assist fan.

    Guard! Take away the keyboard from this author, do not allow him to write articles on such topics and generate such nonsense.
    The same children can read! Especially about a turbojet inside an in-line installation with an assisting fan. A unique delirium of technogenic character.
    On A-12 and SR-71 and used turbojet engines with afterburner - TRDF. They became hybrid only on Wikipedia, which, obviously, was written by the same special.
    The main feature of the engine is the presence of a special bypass, according to which 20% of the incoming air from the fourth stage of the compressor was supplied to the afterburner. This made it possible to ensure its stable long-term operation, increase traction and unload the compressor in order to ensure the operation of the gas generator, otherwise instead of creating traction, it turns into a brake.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 10 2020 13: 46 New
      +1
      Or maybe you still have to wait a bit, and the author will catch up with Chernomyrdin and Klitschko in terms of the quality of the aphorisms expressed? Not only everyone can look into the future.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 10 2020 13: 48 New
        +3
        If Klitschko had read the VO site, he would have choked with envy.
    2. alipes
      alipes April 10 2020 14: 02 New
      +3
      The most competent comment, and the author of the article is technically illiterate and has nothing to do with aviation.
  12. Grigory_45
    Grigory_45 April 10 2020 15: 07 New
    0
    the niche of reconnaissance aircraft has long been firmly occupied by spacecraft.
    space satellites are not omnipotent, they also have significant shortcomings. Therefore, the famous U-2s, as well as the strategic intelligence profession, are still mastering UAVs (Global Hawk as an example)
  13. iouris
    iouris April 10 2020 15: 14 New
    +1
    Aviation reached its limit long ago and even a little further. That is why Gleb Evgenievich Lozino-Lozinsky pushed through and began to develop the theme of "aerospace aircraft".
  14. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx April 11 2020 03: 20 New
    +3
    79-81gg., ZVO, Leningrad separate air defense army (from Pskov to Saarem was). Regularly worked on SR-71. By the way, our regiment was imprisoned for them under special conditions (there were not many of them in certain areas). This refers to the mixed composition of the regiment, three S-75 and two S-200 divisions. Thrushes were flying on schedule. When the division on the database, clearly, twice a week, on the battlefield. They had two bases. One in England, the other on Schleswig Holstein. At the beginning of the week, he took off from the British Isles, made a call along the edge of our borders and boarded Schleswig. Four days for routine maintenance and express went in the opposite direction. I saw them on my radar (served in intelligence). Not every time, but after a year and a half of service they became boring. He himself served on the S-75, a month later two months, at the S-200 a month later. So I caught a few lightings a month.
    According to reports that they came to us and were brought to drugs, they showed the greatest activity in Cuba and Vietnam. There they could freely enter the airspace of these countries, since the S-200 was present there in minimal quantities. In Cuba, they did not seem to be at all.
  15. chebman
    chebman April 11 2020 13: 43 New
    +3
    As a technology demonstrator, this plane is just a plague! It is unlikely that any of the countries even after 60 years will be able to create at least an analogue of Drozd.
    But that's how weapons are a complete failure. The operation of this aircraft is not even dancing with a tambourine, it is some kind of ballet accompanied by an orchestra!
  16. Operator
    Operator April 11 2020 22: 03 New
    -1
    Quote: 3danimal
    In terms of US GDP, 1,5 times more than China ... in spending on science (in PPP) - more by 10-15%

    There were more.

    As for the Russian Federation - remind me how much China in the 13th century surpassed Mongolia in terms of GDP and expenditure on science? laughing
  17. pirr
    pirr April 13 2020 20: 48 New
    0
    Operation Stinker. There was a story about this plane in the collection "Stepsons of the Universe"
  18. grumbler
    grumbler April 17 2020 19: 31 New
    0
    I highly recommend the translation of Ben Rich's book "Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Work at Lockheed"
    https://infl1ght.livejournal.com/48049.html

    From the author of the translation:
    From the development of the U-2 to an inconspicuous fighter, this is the first time a story is told about what happened behind the scenes of the struggle for air supremacy. This is the true story of Skunk Works, America's most secret and successful aerospace division. According to Ben Rich, a brilliant division leader for nearly two decades, the chronicles of the legendary Skunk Works are a drama about confrontations in the Cold War and fighting in the Persian Gulf, outstanding engineering breakthroughs and seemingly impossible achievements. The book presents a portrait of a unique group of scientists and engineers who made Skunk Works so famous. This book includes many personal memories of key points, including those from CIA and Air Force pilots who made many secret and risky flights, and is a description of the most impressive triumphs of aviation of the 20th century. Finally, I finished work on the translation of an interesting book that began back in October 2016. Many thanks to everyone for comments and support. Without you, I would definitely give up this business :)

    There are many technical and organizational details of the work of the American military-industrial complex. Rich's interesting reflections on the role of secrecy, see Chapter 16, "Summing Up":
    Another potential area for cost reduction is security. Secret program
    increases producer costs by 25 percent. [...] However, before wrapping the program in a cocoon of secrecy, we must be damn sure of this necessity. Revising privacy laws is an important step toward real money savings. [...]


    Thanks to the enthusiast for the work!
  19. Outsider
    Outsider 22 June 2020 01: 50 New
    0
    Quote: PilotS37
    Quote: SovAr238A
    Second question.
    Have Urya-Patriots ever set out to ask what is the maximum speed of a MIG-25 or MIG-31 with suspended missiles?
    What is the maximum rocket launch speed?

    Or am I missing something ...
    Did they hang rockets on "Drozd"? !!!!!!!!
    wassat wassat wassat

    - On the YF-12 hung. And let them at speeds up to 3.2M:
    https://testpilot.ru/usa/lockheed/yf/12/yf12.htm