Military Review

"Training canvas" of the great master

186

Vasily Ivanovich Surikov. "The Conquest of Siberia by Ermak." Oil on Canvas, size - 599x285 cm. Russian Museum


"Let's take, kovina, kaitin Suikova" Rest in Eymakom Sibi ". On the left - Cossacks, Spyava - Tatai. The Cossack samopaly - bang-bang-bang are bursting. Tatian shooters whistle - Whack, Whack, Whack. Everything got drunk, everything is in motion! Just a minute - yaaaa! Sibius is reposed! ”
(Art critic in the play by Arkady Raikin)


Art and история. We continue the series of articles devoted to the theme of historicism. weapons and armor on the canvases of the great masters. The paintings here were considered the most diverse, and only a few of them in this regard were both historical and realistic, and ... pathos! In others, there were too many “but I see it”, in others, the epic just went through the roof, thirdly, all spoiled one or two details. And here a logical question arises, is there, well, let's say, such a picture in which all this is in moderation and which is harmonious just by the merging of historicism, knowledge of the specifics of clothing and weapons, and epic? That is, it should be a talentedly painted picture. Moreover, this should be just a battle canvas, whose task is to depict the battle of our ancestors for their vital interests. And it should be noted, there is such a picture. And she is well known to all. Moreover, it is so famous that it got into the article on “IN” («» “How Ermak conquered Siberia”, December 23, 2010), and in the play by Arkady Raikin from Soviet times.


One of the last sketches of the picture

Surikov came up with the idea to paint this picture in 1889, but he began to work on the idea with the idea and worked directly on it only in 1891. No wonder they say that any idea should ripen. Moreover, what is interesting, by his own admission, he did not read the annals, and he nevertheless developed a vision of the picture. However, this is not surprising. But how else to show the confrontation of two forces and the victory of one of them, if not through their clash and the domination of one by the other through the image of the characters of one "power" larger than the characters of the other? “Ours” is located at Surikov’s left, because the features of our artistic perception are such that our eyes glide on the canvas from left to right. And they are larger than the opponents of the Cossacks - “Kuchumovites”.


And here we see a clear search for the color of the picture - should it be brighter or darker?

The artist began work on the painting in 1891, and completed in 1895. And it immediately became a landmark event of the 23rd exhibition of the Association of Wanderers, it was bought by Emperor Nicholas II, and then in 1897 transferred it to the Russian Museum, where it is today.


And it all started with such a sketch ...


Then he got that look ...


And then this one, already with a bright red “speck”

The picture shows us the climax of the Siberian campaign of Yermak Timofeevich (1581-1585) - the battle of 1582 between the Cossacks of Yermak and the army of the Siberian Khan Kuchum. In one of her descriptions, I came across a wonderful phrase: "In the interpretation of the artist, this event is presented as a national feat, the artist emphasizes the inextricable connection of Russian soldiers with their leader." Well, this is all a tribute to socialist realism, because everything is the same, if you think about it, you can describe it in a completely different way: we face a clash of barbarism and civilization. More technically and socially developed people subjugate the more backward, which have become a brake on the path of progress. Who are these people on the left? Outlawed people, typical conquistadors who came here “for zipuns”. Who is their leader? A conquistador like Cortes or Pizarro? There is a difference? There is! Our people needed furs, that is, yasak, the cessation of predatory raids, that is, the submission of the aborigines to the "white king", and there - live as you like, the souls of the Siberians have not yet been discussed. In addition to the thirst for gold, the Spaniards also had a concern for the souls of the Indians in their hearts. Baptize, believe, and live there as you want ... In any case, the campaigns of both conquistadors and Cossacks were beneficial both to the heads of their states and to the states themselves: a lot of new zemlyats, gold reserves and “fur currency” are always good. So we will not talk about the "national character" and "national feat." Otherwise, every lucky “godfather” with us will be considered a national hero ... But this does not detract from the essence of the picture and its epic, as well as the personality of Yermak himself. This is who you need to be, what charisma to possess, in order to unite all these "very specific morals of people" and lead you to unknown lands for battle and death!


Every detail of the picture was worked out by the artist in sketches! Here is the boat with the Cossacks! The butt of the shooter on the right is terrible, of course, but it’s just a “training”

And the artist understands this and puts Ermak in the center of the picture, and even portrays it in profile, with his hand pointing forward. Both himself and his whole army are surrounded by banners with the face of the Savior and the equestrian figure of St. George. The banners fluttering, most likely, both on the Kulikovo field and on the Ugra River ... Well, now they are fluttering here, that is, our ancestors reached their "Berlin"!


Layout of figures on the canvas (1891)

And masterfully shown the army of Kuchum. There are only those there: Tatars and Evenks, with Ostyaks, warriors and shamans, but all have bows and arrows, although one has a crossbow. But it is obvious that all this mass cannot resist the Cossacks ... Not without reason, however, on a different occasion, it was very correctly said that “no stamina, no physical strength, no herdness and solidarity of mass struggle can give an advantage in the era of guns and guns! "

"Training canvas" of the great master
Study for the painting - a banner from the arsenal of the Moscow Kremlin

Obviously, the artist was primarily attracted to the images of people. Yes, this, in fact, was then a tradition - to draw everyone from life. It wouldn’t have been overlaid with photographs, collected other people's paintings with the right people ... But no: write, write like that! And the artist goes to the Ob, as well as Tobolsk, and in the summer of 1891 he already draws sketches from Evenki and Ostyaks in the Turukhansk Territory. In a letter to his brother, he reports that he chose the dimensions of the canvas: “8 arshins and 4”, that is, it is approximately 5,6 × 2,8 meters. And then again trips ... In 1892 he went to the Don to paint portraits of Cossacks. And again Siberia, the Minusinsk Territory, the gold mines where he found “his Ermak,” painted images of Tatars, and in the Minusinsk Museum from the ethnographic collection he made sketches of the natives' clothes embroidered with beads and leather patterns. Here he also wrote the sketch “On the River”, on which he depicted an arrow standing in the water.


"Faces of the Vorogov"

In 1893, Surikov arrived in the village of Razdorskaya to write studies from local Cossacks, whose names have survived to this day. It was Arseny Kovalev, Anton Tuzov, Makar Agarkov, and then their faces got into the picture. Moreover, it was Arseny Ivanovich Kovalev who just became the prototype of the final image of Ermak, and Makar Agarkov served as the prototype of Yesula Ivan Ring. Here, on the Don, he sketched a large Cossack boat, which also appeared in the picture. And in the same year he again went to the north of Siberia: now to draw portraits of the Ostyaks. In 1894, Surikov again visits Tobolsk and swims along the Irtysh. Here, in general, from whom our artists need to learn to write historical paintings. Ostyaks are needed, or, there, Yakuts - you take and go to Siberia to write Ostyaks, Chukchi or Yakuts. I decided to write my vision of Princess Razin's drowning - you are sailing along the Volga and Don, looking for traits, but behind the arrowheads and daggers of the Scythians - welcome to the Golden Pantry of the Hermitage and to the Minusinsk depression. And look, and "soak in the spirit" of this place. Here a lot of money is needed, but Surikov just had it. I did not live in poverty, therefore I traveled everywhere. Indeed, for only “Boyar Morozova” he received 25 thousand rubles. Given that the general at the beginning of the twentieth century was paid 770 rubles, and the lieutenant general received 500!


And this is his famous “Boyar”


Again heads ... Old Tatar and young ...

Due to the size of the painting that Surikov painted at home, he even had to change the Moscow apartment, which he moved to, having returned from Krasnoyarsk in the autumn of 1890, to a larger one. In December 1892, Surikov took a break in the work on the canvas, as he was preparing the painting “Healing the Blindborn” for the exhibition. However, at the beginning of 1894 he again set about "his Ermak." And at first the color scheme of the picture was brighter. But then Surikov chose for her the same gloomy flavor in which we all now know her. For a long time, Ermak “wandered” on the canvas, then “hid” behind other Cossacks, then, in later versions, on the contrary, was completely separated from his army, and only as a result the artist found the most suitable place for him.


Etude "Shooter". And look how carefully all the details are spelled out, although the strokes themselves are somewhat rude. And the mirror, and the helmet, and the patterned handbag on the belt - everything is very realistic!

The canvas “The Conquest of Siberia by Ermak Timofeevich” was completed by Surikov in 1895, and in March of the same year, the Council of the Academy of Arts awarded him the title of academician. The canvas was bought by the Emperor for 40 thousand rubles - the largest amount that was ever given for a painting by a Russian artist. Already in April 1895, a royal decree was signed on the establishment of the Russian Museum of Emperor Alexander III, and this painting was also transferred here. To Tretyakov (to whom Surikov originally promised this canvas) he all the same in 1895 presented a copy of the painting of smaller sizes (103 × 59 cm).


Cossack with a gun. And here it is: the saber is written historically true. But the gun has been modernized for two hundred years, no less

It is interesting that V. Soloukhin wrote about this painting in 1966, or rather, wrote what the museum guides spoke about it at different times. At first - that Surikov wanted to show the people. People, people and people. Around the people. Ermak is not allocated, surrounded by the people, is in the center of the people. But fifteen years before, in his words, it was said differently: “Ermak is located in the center of the composition, which emphasizes his role as leader, chieftain, commander. He stands under the banner, under the Holy Savior, not made by hands, and under George the Victorious. One feels how his will is cementing the attacking army. All the soldiers rallied around him and are ready to lay down their heads, but not to betray their chieftain. ” (V. Soloukhin. Letters from the Russian Museum, 1966) Well, like this: to any time, its own songs and its own view of things. Some more time will pass, and new guides (perhaps it will be a robot with a cute female voice) will say that we have before us the image of a typical colonial robbery and the intolerant attitude of a more developed nation to another! God forbid, of course, but who knows what could be ...


And here the gun lock is written out just fine, so that we can even determine its type. Today, such castles are called the English term "saphan." It is known that the construction of the shankhan was known to Russian gunsmiths, and based on the development of foreign masters, they created on its basis a "self-made shotgun", or "samopal". The weapon was not too heavy, which allowed to shoot, just resting such a self-propelled gun on the shoulder


It is known that shock castles of this type already existed in 1544, since shakhkhanes were already used at that time. True, at that time they had not yet replaced wheel locks and wicks. At the beginning of the XVII century they were written about as the most convenient castles for hunting rifles, because, they say, they are always ready to shoot and do not give out the shooter with the smell of smoke. But on the battlefield, a wick lock is still better, since it is ... more reliable

Thick clothes made of skins, perhaps, gave the natives at least some protection from knives. But not from bullets! In addition, at that time bullets in Russia were not so much poured as they were chopped - a rod was cast from lead and cylinders were chopped with an ax on a log. Round bullets were used mainly on the hunt, but in the battle they charged three to five of these "cylinders"! That is why some characteristics of Russian firearms of that time are difficult to understand for a non-specialist. "Five cuts on a hryvnia" - how is it? And so that five bullets, chopped from a lead rod with a total weight of one hryvnia, will enter the barrel of such a gun, then 204,75 grams! Divide by five and get 40 grams - the weight of each "bullet". It is clear that it was impossible to hit the target precisely when fired by “this”, but when hit in the body, the wounds were simply terrifying. That is why, by the way, when shooting, A-shaped support posts for a very heavy barrel were often used, which we just see in the picture at Surikov. By the way, the arrow on the far left that uses this stand has a wicked gun, so ... Surikov is well done, that’s all that can be said.


Arkebuz wick-wheel, South Germany, Augsburg, 1585 Overall length: 1160 cm; barrel length: 700 cm. Treasury-shotgun. The barrel in the breech with a charging chamber with a hinged lid, which opens with a lever located at the shank. The lever is made in the form of a male head. The stigma of the Augsburg barrel foreman, who worked in 1585, is engraved at the shank. The chamber lid is fixed with a spring latch. A metal sleeve with a seed hole and a pin protruding from the bottom is inserted into the chamber. The pin provides a rigid fixation of the sleeve in the bore of the barrel so that the seed hole of the sleeve is always aligned with the seed hole in the barrel. That is, in fact, cartridge loading was used here. This is progress! Well, the presence of pre-charged shells could give significant time savings when loading. The combination arquebus lock combining a wick trigger (serpentine) with a trigger of a wheel lock. In the event of a failure of the complex wheel mechanism, a wick charge ignition method could be used. The powder shelf had an automatically closing lid. A key for the wheel mechanism factory was not required. Apparently, his cocking was carried out using a trigger. It is clear that this is a hunting, richly decorated weapon in the hands of the Cossacks could not be. But something simpler and simpler in the device ... Why not? (GIM, Moscow)

But this is a story. And today we have a different task - to consider how, correctly or incorrectly, Surikov depicted weapons and armor on his canvas, what’s from the museum and what ... from the evil one?


Swivel gun of the XVIII century. Total length with wingrad: 29 cm; length without vingrad: 25,5 cm; oarlock length: 26 cm; caliber: 21 mm. Such "guns" could well have stood on the ships of Ermak


Opponents of the Cossacks are armed with bows, spears, and only one has a crossbow, a metal shield and a helmet. Well, everything is exactly the same as Cortes and Pizarro

Of course, the main type of small arms castle for archers and Cossacks, even in 1585, should have been a wick castle. And the artist did the right thing that he didn’t arm any of the Cossacks with a pistol - at that time wheeled pistols were very expensive weapons and were not exported to Russia. That is, we can choose only from the wick castle and the castle-sankhan. Of course, I would try to show the shooters with wick guns, but ... here the artist did not sin too much against the truth, only 50 years of difference. After all, even militiamen and archers of 1612 fired precisely from wick guns, since it was then that more advanced models of guns with shock locks began to appear - trophies taken from Poles and Swedes.


In the picture at one of the Cossacks we see an ax. In the collection of the State Historical Museum there is an ax of the 16,5th century. Length: 95 cm (ax); blade width: 36 mm (blade); shaft length: XNUMX cm (hatchet). You can put logs on a log hut, you can chop heads for Basurmans!


Bakhterets first half of the XVI century. (GIM, Moscow)


XNUMXth century Bakhterets (GIM, Moscow)


Shishak. Western Europe, Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. The second half of the XVI century. Height: 29 cm; base diameter: 23x21,5 cm (State Historical Museum, Moscow) Surikov painted beautiful sabers to many Cossacks. And this is a historical fact. To have a saber in a rich scabbard was prestigious, like a golden chain around our neck in the past 90s among a certain category of the population. And sabers with such scabbards were delivered to Russia and produced locally. But deliveries were also very significant. Persia, Turkey - that's where sabers with a gold notch on blades and a sheath decorated with corals and turquoise came to us.


Broadsword of Skopin Shuisky (State Historical Museum, Moscow)


Saber of Prince Pozharsky. XVII century Length: 105 cm; blade length: 92 cm Steel, turquoise, glass, gold, silver, emeralds, chasing (State Historical Museum, Moscow)


Surikov Vasily Ivanovich (1848-1916)

And as a result: perhaps this picture of Surikov should be considered the same role model, which, in theory, should be equal to every battle painter who came up with the idea of ​​writing paintings of similar sizes. And to write this way, although today you can get portraits of the right people, as well as images of weapons and armor, using the Internet!
Author:
Articles from this series:
Kulikovo battle in images and paintings
“The Battle of Angiari” and “The Battle of Marciano”: student versus teacher, symbolism versus realism
“The Battle of Angiari” and “The Battle of Marciano”. Leonardo da Vinci and Giorgio Vasari
Pavel Korin. "Alexander Nevskiy". The insoluble task of a restless soul
“The Battle of Grunwald” by Jan Matejko: when there is too much epic
"Heroes" Vasnetsov: when the main epic in the picture
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 18 2020 06: 13 New
    +7
    Nice picture. Complicated But all the same it fades in comparison with the "Boyar Morozova."
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2020 08: 59 New
      16
      Good morning!
      Quote: Korsar4
      Nice picture. Complicated But all the same it fades in comparison with the "Boyar Morozova."

      I bet you. In both cases, the author depicts a “tear, a turning point” in Russian history !!! And if the "Boyar Morozova" involves all of our Orthodox society in its "civilizational ecumenical". Relying on the spiritual tablets, the “Conquest of Siberia” makes the hearts beat according to the national-local principle! Leaving indifferent the descendants of Cossacks, Tatars, Urals, Siberians, Nogais, Ostyaks, Votyaks, Voguls and Zyrians, as well as just history buffs! So small-town, but with a size of a dozen France !!!
      In fact, this is the third stroke or the first paradox of World War II after the Battle of Kulikovo and the capture of Kazan !!! Step nowhere and against all odds !!! Which militarily crashed. Ermak died, and his Cossacks left Siberia, but ....
      Siberia with its arrival fell, it became ours - Russian, an integral part of our Fatherland! In fact, despite the subsequent century of eastward expansion and war (centuries-old with the Chukchi, Butarshshikhs with the Pelimets, heroic with the cuffs and undeclared with the Dzhungars) east and west in the painting of Surikov, sailed in the same boat and lived in a single country!
      Many years ago, he was a member of the dispute - "Who is Ermak, what kind of tribe and he is." The paradox of the situation was that all of us supporters of the Russian (Volga or Don) origin of Yermak were driven into the corner by the Tatars and Bashkirs who were chopped off for a fraction of Yermakov’s blood, and in percentage !!!
      Vyacheslav thank you for today's work, straight to the soul !!!
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 18 2020 10: 22 New
        +7
        Nice, Vladislav.

        Yes, not indifferent to the theme of the Great Schism. And “anguish” is that very word. And the strength of the characters.

        Here is a matter of perception. Or maybe that from childhood crashed from the Tretyakov Gallery.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub April 19 2020 10: 50 New
        +1
        The namesake, beautifully said ..
        About Ermak, once on NTV in the cycle: "The Seekers" there was a film: "Yermak's grave." They found the body of Yermak in the river and first let them hit him with spears, and then decided that he should be buried. And then the grave of Ermak was kept as a great secret.
        1. Icelord
          Icelord April 19 2020 12: 57 New
          0
          And do you believe? Sources from?
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 19 2020 13: 48 New
            +3
            Quote: vladcub
            The namesake, beautifully said ..
            About Ermak, once on NTV in the cycle: "The Seekers" there was a film: "Yermak's grave." They found the body of Yermak in the river and first let them hit him with spears, and then decided that he should be buried. And then the grave of Ermak was kept as a great secret.

            Quote: Icelord
            And do you believe? Sources from?

            Surname Skrytnikov, something tells you? No, it means you were not deeply interested in the historian of conquering Siberia.
            The image of Ermak is mythologized in the Urals, the Urals and in the Urals! Bearers of fairy tales about Ermak are not only Russians, but also descendants of the Chuvash, Mordovians, Bashkirs, Tatars, Khanty !!!
            So about the reburial of Yermak, the Tatars were the first to write Remizov !!! Similar data are available in the scripture about the life of the chieftain in Tobolsk, but there in a different way. Siberian lords sought holiness in the deeds of Ataman !!!
            1. Icelord
              Icelord April 19 2020 14: 05 New
              +1
              These are myths and legends, sources where, the grave is finally
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka April 19 2020 16: 13 New
                +1
                Quote: Icelord
                These are myths and legends, sources where, the grave is finally

                In order not to hurt stupid questions, take an interest in funeral rites of the cut inhabitants of the Trans-Urals!
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord April 19 2020 19: 01 New
                  0
                  Well, you know, to justify the lack of evidence with objective reasons, this is not proof
                  1. Icelord
                    Icelord April 19 2020 19: 06 New
                    0
                    And I know the Mongol and their rites well, I have a collection of ho for a very serious amount I had a deep history, including digging, so as not to give a BMW for a piece of Yermak
                    1. Icelord
                      Icelord April 19 2020 19: 14 New
                      +1
                      And the last law in the scientific community who puts forward a hypothesis and proves that no excuses do not exist, there is evidence, this is a theory, no, just silly fantasies
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 19 2020 19: 16 New
                    +2
                    Bravo, Igor! And Vlad (Kote Pan Kokhanka), in his harshness, is wrong!
                    PS. He is my friend, by the way.
                    1. Icelord
                      Icelord April 19 2020 19: 18 New
                      +1
                      Thank you Plato is my friend but truth is dearer (s)
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 19 2020 19: 38 New
                        +2
                        It's not about the truth, which is "always somewhere nearby," it's about the culture of communication, which I, a noteworthy margin of the forum, try to maintain, at least in the environment of communication between like-minded people.
                      2. Icelord
                        Icelord April 19 2020 19: 44 New
                        +1
                        As for me, this and that is important, because of course it is nice to believe in what you like, but there is no rose without thorns. We are not the last, I hope on the earth, it is not good to fool offspring, even with good goals. Well, we don’t know what happened to the body of the Yermak, it happens, although given his armor, he probably went to the bottom
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 19 2020 19: 55 New
                        +2
                        but there is no rose without thorns.
                        It happens! Believe me, a person who worked with "flower workers" for eight years laughing
                      4. Icelord
                        Icelord April 19 2020 19: 58 New
                        +1
                        These are Dutch mutants.
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 19 2020 20: 07 New
                        +1
                        So "rose" is basically a mutant of the rose hips.
                      6. Icelord
                        Icelord April 19 2020 20: 10 New
                        +1
                        Well, actually yes, but I’m not sure there is still a wild rose, but I don’t know if it’s wild or domestic
                      7. Icelord
                        Icelord April 19 2020 20: 11 New
                        0
                        And still there should be thorns on a rose
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 19 2020 20: 17 New
                        +1
                        This question can be addressed to another specialist, Korsar4 (Sergey), too, my friend.
                      9. Icelord
                        Icelord April 19 2020 20: 19 New
                        +1
                        If necessary
  • Bar1
    Bar1 April 18 2020 09: 41 New
    -8


    portrait of Ermak Timoveevich,
    What attracts attention most is of course Yermak's headdress, which looks like the helmets of the Spanish conquistadors.
    Fomenko and Nosovsky suggested that Ermak fought in America with the Ostyaks / Aztecs.
    Somehow Surikov did not rely on historical artifacts in his work. OI is a continuous gap in that story and this.

    It is known that the Russian gunsmiths knew the construction of the shakhkhan, and based on the development of foreign masters, they created on its basis a "self-made shotgun", or "samopal"


    it’s a lie the first who invented the musket were the Russians or Muscovites, as the encyclopedia of Dalamber and Didro wrote




    Persia, Turkey - this is where sabers with a gold notch on blades and a sheath decorated with coral and turquoise came to us.


    this is also a lie. The Russians, who fought several times in each century, could not use Turkish and Persian weapons, simply because the army would not be prepared to wage war alone. The Russians always made weapons for themselves and decorated them with arabesques.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2020 09: 56 New
      16
      Hi Timur!
      I already wept under your comment !!! Ostyaks = Aztecs, Vaguls = Appalachians, Tatars = ...........
      Okay, let them be - Navajo or businessmen, with Magikanins !!!
      Where will we sculpt - Chusovoy? Within America !!! On it is poor, at least four Ermakovskie stones (fighter) and one cave named after Ataman !!!
      Okay, you at least refer to Fomenko and Nasonov, but do not write that support them !!!
      According to the portrait, his story of writing is banal! If thesis: this "portrait" appeared after a half century and in Holland! Where is the Stone Belt, and where ... lol
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 April 18 2020 11: 05 New
        -7
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        this “portrait” appeared after a century and a half in Holland! Where is the stone belt, and where

        from Holland to America closer than from the Urals to America ...
    2. kalibr
      April 18 2020 10: 11 New
      12
      The archives of the Grand Palace and the Armory of the Armory preserved a lot of information regarding where and what weapons came to us. Turkish, Persian ... How accessible would your grief be, Timur, for you to know? Ah, here’s how - go to the GIM’s website, find the virtual exposition of weapons there and read where it comes from, how ... it will help, everything is very detailed there. Here our museum workers are great!
      1. cost
        cost April 18 2020 10: 28 New
        +8
        “The Conquest of Siberia by Ermak Timofeevich” was completed in 1895 and became an important event of the 23rd exhibition of the Association of Wanderers. In March of the same year, the Council of the Academy of Arts awarded the author the title of academician. Although Surikov in Moscow agreed with P. M. Tretyakov on the sale of “Conquest of Siberia” to him for 30 thousand rubles, Emperor Nicholas II, learning about this, said that “this painting should be national and be in the national museum”. The canvas was purchased by the emperor for 40 thousand rubles - according to Mikhail Nesterov, the largest amount for which paintings by Russian artists have ever been bought. Just a few weeks after this, in April 1895, a monarchial decree was signed on the establishment of the Russian Museum of Emperor Alexander III. Since 1897, “The Conquest of Siberia” exhibited in this museum; in the same room as the main canvas, the sketch “Cossacks in a boat” is exhibited. As a sign of respect to Tretyakov, Surikov in 1895 presented a small copy of the painting (103 × 59 cm in size).
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku April 20 2020 09: 50 New
        +1
        But on the battlefield, a wick lock is still better, since it is ... more reliable

        I agree with this postulate, because in France in 1696 an infantry textbook was published by the printing house of Maitre Giffard. Musketeer practiced with wick the musket! That is, before the mass rearmament on the fusee, the wick gun was the main one in the armies! (until the beginning of the 18th century) hi
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 April 18 2020 11: 14 New
      -5
      according to the portrait yet.
      Can you see the part of Ermak's saber in the form of a head? Probably a neck / griffin or even more of an American condor.

      1. cost
        cost April 18 2020 12: 58 New
        +7
        Bar1 (Timur): Is the part of the Ermak saber visible in the form of a head? Probably a neck / griffin or even more of an American condor.

        The handle of the saber is similar to the German blade of the XIV century, the so-called "Spinning Top" of the masters of the German city of Passau, this is evidenced by the shape of the handle and its material (ideally, it should be ivory), but more accurately can be asserted only by looking at the blade itself. Real "Spinning Tops" must have the appropriate stamp:

        The image of the wolf was borrowed from the coat of arms of the city, this image of the wolf in the XIV century Passau gunsmiths got the right to knock out on their products. The stigma of the “running wolf” was carried out by deep incrustation - toushing with copper wire. Since blades with this stigma were in great demand, then in the XVI - XVII centuries. numerous imitations of “tops” appeared, primarily on the works of Solingen masters. The image of the top of the Solingenzians was applied by ordinary engraving, often accompanied by personal stamps of masters and sometimes the inscription "in Solingen". Occasionally, the image of the top is accompanied by the Latin letters “NM” - (pp. 3, 5, 17, 19, E.E. Lenz, St. Petersburg 1911, page 6 E.G. Astvatsaturian M 1982).
        Caucasians especially appreciated these blades. Residents of the Caucasus believed that these were the initials of one of the participants in the Crusades, a representative of the noble French family Henry Monmorancy, in whose family coat of arms there was an image of a wolf. It was assumed that a consignment of blades with the initials “NM” was ordered for his retinue and squire, who, according to the custom of the time, wore the arms of their ruler - (suzerain) on arms.
        According to the Kubachin legend, one of the Templar detachments arrived in the Caucasus during the Crusades and settled in Zirichgeran. . There is a wonderful article on this at VO East wind "Kubachinskaya battle tower. A fragment of the state of Zirikhgeran" (link: https://topwar.ru/169372-kubachinskaja-boevaja-bashnja-oskolok-gosudarstva-zirihgeran.html).
        The soldiers of this detachment had swords with the coat of arms of a wolf; over time, the swords fell to the Kubachins, and they were redone into ters-maimun checkers - the famous Kubachi checkers-tops, which, according to ancient Kubachi legends, originate from the mysterious bachelor soldiers of the crusades.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 18 2020 17: 40 New
          -3
          Quote: Rich
          The saber hilt looks like a German blade of the XIV century, the so-called "Volchok"


          is this also a wolf’s head? Do not make up.

          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri April 18 2020 19: 41 New
            +4
            Quote: Bar1
            is this also a wolf’s head? Do not make up.

            And is this sad Jew exactly Ermak Timofeevich? laughing
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka April 19 2020 13: 54 New
              +4
              Quote: HanTengri
              Quote: Bar1
              is this also a wolf’s head? Do not make up.
              crying
              And is this sad Jew exactly Ermak Timofeevich? laughing

              You would also have a pale appearance, if your descendants, instead of conquering Siberia with ranges, Ostyaks and Tatars, sent to conquer South America with the Aztecs !!!
              good
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 April 19 2020 05: 50 New
          +1
          Quote: Rich
          On the hilt of the saber is similar to a German blade of the XIV century,

          I will contribute to the discord. laughing
          And is it true that Yermak Timofeyevich was from your family and that you have a checker of Yermak himself?

          - In authenticity - I don't know. It’s like that, ”Noah said reluctantly. - And the checker - here it is, with the inscription.

          Celestine jumped up:

          - May I take a look? Well, I am also a Cossack family!

          Noah took his saber off the wall and handed it to Celestine.

          Half the quarter of the scabbard scabbard is trimmed with gold with pockmarks - probably something was interspersed here, the red suede got black. The patterned trim of the scabbard with the same pockmarks, the eyelet is broken off, and instead of it there is a self-made iron ring for the belt. The hilt has two golden fenders, so that the hand does not slide onto the blade. Ephesus bone, sometimes jagged, with a golden bizarre knob.

          “It looks like a bird’s head,” said the commissioner.

          “The head of a swan,” Noah answered.

          “Why a swan?”

          - About that it is said in the inscription ....

          "Ataman, like Swan Jaremei Alenin of the voivodship of Astrakhan, favors."

          - Yareem Alenina? So, from Yaremey passed to Yermak?

          “Not at all.” Yaremey Alenin - this is Yermak. From the Minusinsk Museum, one gentleman also interpreted. And our surname was first Alenina, well, and then, as if from a checker, it was added - Swans. In the inscription you see: "Like a Swan."

          This is from literature. "Red Horse".
          1. Icelord
            Icelord April 19 2020 14: 01 New
            +2
            Oksta, what kind of checker in those years, I have been collecting these checkers for 25 years ... and I also read literature, otherwise I’ll open the Yermak’s checker
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 April 19 2020 14: 33 New
              0
              Quote: Icelord
              Oksta what checker in those years, I have been collecting these checkers for 25 years ...

              So in what century did the checker appear?
              1. Icelord
                Icelord April 19 2020 14: 47 New
                +2
                In the eighteenth, however, read Kulinsky, or asvatsaturyan
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord April 19 2020 14: 49 New
                  +1
                  And even then, in the end and in the Caucasus, and in Russia it was strong after the Patriotic War. Cossacks with sabers with Napoleon’s army were chopped, not drafts
                  1. cost
                    cost April 19 2020 15: 43 New
                    +1
                    Igor, hi With a pradnik. I’ll correct you a little. With sabers they’re flanking - they’re whipping, and they are chopped with checkers. A checker is that type of saber, with a modified balancing point shifted to the hilt and a blade of incomplete sharpening.
                    Accordingly, the sheath is leather. Sabers have wood or metal that protects sharpening. The first to go over the checkers were the dons. The steppe terrain allowed them to expose large lavas of cavalry, overturn the enemy with peaks, and felling of the retreating enemy began. But in the mountains and gorges for an individual fight, the saber is more convenient. Therefore, the Terts and linear Kuban. We had armed sabers
                    It’s easiest to distinguish sabers from drafts in old photos by sheath
                    Like Lermontov’s there:
                    "A coward will not be born here in the mountains
                    All Caucasians are daredevils
                    Well, how to fight on sabers
                    There is no meaner than combers ... "
                    1. Icelord
                      Icelord April 19 2020 15: 51 New
                      +2
                      Well, I didn’t get into the fact that the checker of Ermak is fake from fakes, something like, ak Nevsky
        3. Icelord
          Icelord April 19 2020 13: 55 New
          +3
          Oh, unfortunately, for one real wolf cub, there are hundreds of three low-grade Caucasian and Transcaucasian fakes, it was very popular, and with the hast it’s even worse one Italian blade, for a couple of thousand local
          1. cost
            cost April 19 2020 14: 02 New
            +1
            True truth
        4. vladcub
          vladcub April 19 2020 14: 22 New
          +2
          About "Volchkov" ,,, once read in "Dirk". On the edges of the dagger there were brands: Volchek, lily and scorpion
          1. Icelord
            Icelord April 19 2020 19: 32 New
            +1
            There in the book they explain that the gunsmith wanted to show this that his blade is better than the best
      2. Icelord
        Icelord April 19 2020 13: 52 New
        +1
        For bar 1. Speaking of the scavenger? Not an eagle by accident? Not?
    4. Hantengri
      Hantengri April 18 2020 12: 07 New
      12
      Quote: Bar1
      What attracts attention most is of course Yermak's headdress, which looks like the helmets of the Spanish conquistadors.
      Fomenko and Nosovsky suggested that Ermak fought in America with the Ostyaks / Aztecs.

      It is a pity that Fomenko together with Nosovsky did not bother to tell that a lot of people wore the Morignon helmet, besides the conquistadors (Swiss mercenaries, for example, still do not part with it.
      )
      but no one explained to you that the cloth hat remotely resembling a morignon is just a cloth hat remotely resembling a morignon. No more.
      1. RUSS
        RUSS April 19 2020 12: 23 New
        +3
        Quote: HanTengri
        It is a pity that Fomenko together with Nosovsky did not bother to tell that a lot of people wore the Morignon helmet, besides the conquistadors (Swiss mercenaries, for example, still do not part with it.

        Our musketeers wore similar helmets in the 17th century.
      2. Icelord
        Icelord April 19 2020 14: 03 New
        +2
        Morion is not Morignon
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri April 19 2020 14: 59 New
          +1
          Yes, I agree. The wrong pronunciation stuck to the tongue and does not stick in any way ..
    5. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 18 2020 16: 19 New
      +6
      Quote: Bar1
      portrait of Ermak Timoveevich,
      What attracts attention most is of course Yermak's headdress, which looks like the helmets of the Spanish conquistadors.

      From this you conclude that Ermak fought with the Aztecs? laughing
      However, you do not need much to make a global conclusion ...
      Okay, now for the portrait.
      I don’t know about you, but I see on him a bearded man of eastern appearance with pronounced Semitic features.
      In the hands of a toy peak.
      On the chest is a rectangular metal plate instead of a cuirass, it is unclear how fixed.
      In the left ear an earring in the form of a ring.
      On the head is a cross between an Arab turban and a European beret.
      On the chest is not such a medallion instead of a cross.
      The background indicates that the person depicted in the portrait is indoors.
      From what has been seen, two mutually exclusive conclusions can be drawn.
      First: Ermak posed for an artist sitting in a hat indoors, holding a ritual object in his hands (a magic wand?), Did not carry a cross, looked like a native of the Middle East, Muslim symbolism is absent, respectively, not an Arab or a Turk. One thing remains - a Jew. He holds in his right hand an object that is clearly not of military but of ritual significance (for sacrifices), a metal plate on his chest holds, not otherwise, with the help of magic, a medallion with a cabalistic symbol of the third rebirth of Machaon (a similar symbol on the cockade) - a Jewish sorcerer.
      Second: the author of the portrait never saw Ermak and did not imagine how he might look, so he painted based on his own fantasies, knowing that Yermak acted somewhere far in the east.
      Which conclusion do you like more?
      Regarding the invention of the musket.
      The Didro Encyclopedia is a wonderful and significant work, no one doubts this. Apparently, the information contained in it, you consider the truth undeniable, your right. But besides this paragraph, did you read anything in it? If you read, you will be somewhat surprised. Give it a try. Then share your impressions. laughing
    6. Icelord
      Icelord April 19 2020 12: 59 New
      +3
      For bar1. Yeah, and the elephants were bred, and now here you are nofenko and Ponosovsky bred
    7. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 9 July 2020 19: 00 New
      0
      Quote: Bar1
      portrait of Ermak Timoveevich,
      What attracts attention most is of course Yermak's headdress, which looks like the helmets of the Spanish conquistadors.

      Ahem ... here are two monuments to Peter I.


      Will we build the theory on their basis that the Russian Empire and the Roman Empire are one and the same? wink
  • tlauicol
    tlauicol April 18 2020 06: 28 New
    +7
    And I like Semiradsky, the brightly lit canvases are more to my liking
  • Amateur
    Amateur April 18 2020 06: 31 New
    12
    For the first time in a few days at VO a great article! Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich! good
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 18 2020 07: 18 New
      11
      Good morning! But what about the article- * Back to the Land of Soviets. Bra for a boy *? Great article and what wonderful reviews! An article for people that made us all gathered to plunge into that magical world of childhood. It was wonderful!
      1. Amateur
        Amateur April 18 2020 07: 22 New
        +5
        But what about the article- * Back to the Land of Soviets. Bra for a boy *?

        You liked that article. Good!
        I liked this article. Also good.
        What is the question?
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 18 2020 07: 24 New
          +5
          Quote: Amateur
          What is the question?

          Also good.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2020 10: 04 New
            +8
            In the old "...." brassiere gathered for a boy !!! laughing
            Fortunately, I did not find this time, although honestly in kindergarten age I fought with my mother and her desire to lead tights for the use of my clothes !!! lol
            Do not be offended, I sincerely respect and love you, but every mother in any era has a chip - to besiege the brutal masculine in the period of its formation 3 + !!! good
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 18 2020 17: 05 New
              +2
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              In the old "...." brassiere gathered for a boy !!!

              Hello Vlad! The title of the article is of course slightly provocative, but this is the author’s right. And most importantly, Vyacheslav Olegovich got his way !!!! I won’t repeat it, but it was interesting, interesting and sad. It’s sadly understandable. And the comments with a few exceptions were wonderfully good !
              ps I also wore tights, but .... until the first grade !!! Then a complete and final / decisive! / refusal! My parents understood me and in the winter I wore * training *. laughing hi
  • Gato
    Gato April 18 2020 07: 08 New
    +5
    I decided to write my vision of the drowning by Razin of the Princess - you are floating on the Volga and Don, looking for traits

    Well, yes, on the Volga and on the Don it is simply impossible to push through from Persian princes.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2020 09: 20 New
      +6
      Yeah shoals swim!
      Search for a type by an artist, for a picture when the camera was a rarity, a blue dream, and the Internet has not yet been invented by science fiction writers !!!
      In addition, for one princess, there is one chieftain and a dozen Cossacks !!! Here are their images and the author was looking for. Yes, and no one has canceled the oral art, and the popular rumor “got over” the presence of the Persian princess, more inclined to a Cossack girl !!!
      1. Gato
        Gato April 18 2020 12: 24 New
        +1
        In addition, for one princess, there is one chieftain and a dozen Cossacks!

        Yes, the share of Persian princes is not easy. repeat
        By the way, and if, for example, Surikov would suddenly decide to write a no less epic canvas about the conquest of the Aztecs by Cortes, would he travel to Spain and Mexico in the XNUMXth century? And would he find many authentic characters there? I mean, the Cossacks of the XNUMXth century were different from the Cossacks of the XNUMXth century.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 18 2020 16: 21 New
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        shoals float!

        "Shoals" or "with shoals"? If the second, then I believe unconditionally. smile
      3. Fat
        Fat April 18 2020 20: 15 New
        +2
        when the camera was rare

        I'd like to note. Surikov was a draftsman, as they say, from God. A camera for him is an extra tool.
        Even at a tender age, according to legend, he painted a fly on the counter. The fly was repeatedly and unsuccessfully killed by the clerk .... Parents and the admired merchant had to deal with the further artistic education of the lad. )))
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2020 21: 13 New
          +5
          The end of the century before last gave us a plead of Russian painters from God !!! We still think and live their thoughts, aspirations and work! The images created by them are our everything !!! That is why their work and creativity is delightful that in search of the zest of “images, color and authenticity” they really searched, dug and read. So twist it or not twist, but from bears in a pine forest to three warriors and barge haulers on the Volga, we will think of them with aspirations and desires expressed in paints on canvas !!!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 18 2020 22: 28 New
            +3
            And everyone finds something of their own: from portraits to landscapes. And yet, a certain seasonality, depending on the mood.
          2. Fat
            Fat April 19 2020 02: 29 New
            +2
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            we will think in their aspirations and desires expressed in paints on canvas !!!

            Mistake.
            We see images created by artists. The aspirations of their desires are not available to us. Only emotions, and then if they were "embedded" in the "TTZ", which the master artist often defines himself, if there is no direct indication of the sources, "Libretto". If you want to. We almost inflamed Dmitry Donskoy in images ...
            Realism in the visual arts is a very complex thing. Surikov does not clearly display his emotions in any way, except perhaps "taking a snowball." ...
            "Are there any witnesses? - I am a witness! What happened?" (C)
            Next comes a verbal portrait and the work of the artist.)))))
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 18 2020 07: 11 New
    +7
    Great article! Great artist! Great picture!
    Bravo AUTHOR!
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich April 18 2020 07: 16 New
    +1
    So we will not talk about the "national character" and "national feat." Otherwise, with us every successful "godfather" will be considered a national hero ...

    WE WILL, because not a single "godfather" has ever done anything like that and was not able to commit in principle - a godfather can organize a gop-stop and build raspberries.

    But the national character and national feat were able and built our largest, most beautiful country in the world, Russia.

    right to Soloukhin!
  • Amateur
    Amateur April 18 2020 07: 27 New
    +8
    All authors, readers, admirers and blasphemers of VO with the upcoming holiday - Holy Sunday of Christ - EASTER.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 18 2020 07: 49 New
    +6
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    But I was always surprised by the "tactical" incorrectness of the picture. Was Kuchum really such a mediocre commander to deploy the troops like this? recourse
    1. knn54
      knn54 April 18 2020 08: 23 New
      +7
      Anton, apparently because Surikov wanted to show the countless army of Khan Kuchum. With angry but bewildered faces.
      And who else, no matter how great artists, will tell us about the heroism of our great-grandfathers.
      Thanks to the author for the article about the film dedicated to one of the great victories of the Orthodox army, on the eve of the Bright Holiday.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 18 2020 08: 33 New
        +6
        My regards! Once again, I'm sorry that the mobile version does not reflect the names.
        As far as I remember, initially the cycle was about the historical correspondence of weapons and armor of the characters in the paintings. If in this regard, Surikov is practically flawless, then with "tactics" it is a complete disaster, which I reflected in my commentary. Moreover, this realization did not come this very second.
        1. kalibr
          April 18 2020 08: 50 New
          +7
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          As far as I remember, the initial discussion in the cycle was about the historical conformity of the weapons and armor of the characters of the canvases.

          Exactly. And the fact that it is not clear what Ermak stands on and that the ceiling in the painting "Menshikov in Berezovo" is low - these are well-known facts.
    2. kalibr
      April 18 2020 08: 51 New
      +7
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Was Kuchum really such a mediocre commander to arrange his troops like this?

      I don’t know, Anton, I wasn’t there, I didn’t see ...
    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 18 2020 09: 31 New
      12
      If you follow the notes of Remizov, then Kuchum located his army on the steep bank near Isker! Moreover, after the Tatars failed to use the Kazan guns, they threw them from a steep bank to meet the Yermakovites. As far as I know Surikov traveled to Tobolsk and looked for the place of the battle between Yermak and Kuchum, but for three centuries the river washed the banks of the ancient capital of the Siberian Khanate so much that he did not use it in his work!
      So Surikov was partly right. The ship's army chose the place and time of the landing, the Tatars and their allies walked along the river and tried to fend off the landing.
      And finally, the combat-ready troops of the Siberian Khanate were in the Urals !!!
      Good day Anton!
      1. Alex 1970
        Alex 1970 April 18 2020 09: 49 New
        +7
        In the picture there is a battle near the Cape of Podchevash, it is still there, only naturally it is not at all the same as in the time of Ermak, the river is heavily undermining the bank, although now bank protection has been done and after the filming of "Tobol" In summer, the Tobolsk Drama Theater gives performances in natural scenery based on Ostrovsky's plays.
      2. BAI
        BAI April 18 2020 15: 30 New
        +2
        On the banks of the Lower Tunguska in stones I saw several metal, rusty, solid balls. Various. With a diameter of 5 to 8 cm. But this is the core or the remains of a giant ball bearing - I do not know.
    4. Catfish
      Catfish April 18 2020 16: 19 New
      +6
      Hello Anton! hi
      I somehow doubt at all that at that time and in that place anyone had any idea and knew such words as disposition and tactics. It's just that Ermak had a firearm, but Kuchum didn't have one, the story with the Aztecs repeated itself, though the Spaniards still had horses, but the Indians did not. But the result was the same in both cases. "To any of your questions, our simple answer; we have" Maxim ", but you do not have it. request
      1. Gato
        Gato April 18 2020 17: 04 New
        +2
        For any of your questions, our simple answer

        Our Kudling Rudyard is right in some ways, but in those days the firearm did not yet give a significant advantage over archers. I am inclined to believe that the success of Yermak’s expedition is due to the personal experience of the chieftain (he was about 50), the highest training of the Cossacks — and these are mostly veterans of the Livonian war, as well as in supporting the local population, who are tired of the alien Kuchum with his tumen bitter radish (or what they ate there)
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 18 2020 17: 28 New
          +3
          (or what they ate there)

          Sergei hi , it’s for sure that no matter what they ate there, but Kuchum didn’t want to digest, which played into the hands of Ermak from the Cossacks.
          1. Gato
            Gato April 18 2020 17: 32 New
            +1
            did not want to digest

            hi
            By the way, the similarities with Cortes are the same - the Aztecs also spread rot
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 18 2020 17: 41 New
              +3
              Yes, the Indians, and at a later time, successfully slaughtered each other to the delight of white settlers.
          2. Gato
            Gato April 18 2020 17: 38 New
            +1
            In addition, Kuchum had about 30 thousand male specimens, and this is on a vast territory - that is, they had to be found, caught and squandered. And these 30 thousand were supposed to feed about 10 thousand Kuchumovites. Naturally, they decided that it was easier to feed several hundred Cossacks. lol
        2. Icelord
          Icelord April 19 2020 14: 17 New
          +2
          This is not kipling
          1. Gato
            Gato April 19 2020 18: 44 New
            0
            Guilty, this is Bellock. He himself found out with surprise, always believed that Kipling
            1. Icelord
              Icelord April 19 2020 18: 56 New
              0
              No wonder and really very similar, if I just didn’t know, I would think so too
              1. Gato
                Gato April 19 2020 21: 17 New
                0
                I just recently read "The End of the World for an Encore" by V.Kontrovsky, where one character quotes "some Englishman Kipling" - that's what was deposited in my memory
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord April 19 2020 21: 35 New
                  -1
                  I did not read, I will read
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 18 2020 19: 07 New
        +2
        Of course, they did not know such words, but experience! Which Surikov did not have ...
  • DMB 75
    DMB 75 April 18 2020 08: 01 New
    12
    Thank you, as always interesting and beautifully illustrated .. But I like Kostylev in the battle genre

    When I look, in my head the words from the annals arise by themselves
    “... Prince Oleksandr and Novgorodtsp saw, setting up a regiment on the Chyudskoye lake, on Uzmen, near the Crow Kamen. mines breaking and the sound of a sword-eating, as if the sea was frozen to move. And you don't see the ice: the weight is covered with blood ... "
    1. kalibr
      April 18 2020 08: 48 New
      12
      You will have a detailed analysis of this particular picture in the article about "Massacre". It has already been written and is waiting in line!
      1. DMB 75
        DMB 75 April 18 2020 12: 19 New
        12
        Even so! Thoughts are material, but I'm a psychic, damn it! I will wait impatiently! Here's another thing because .... A year ago I wrote an article on this topic, but I did not dare to press "publish" .. I did not writer, I am a reader .. And you wish you creative success and health to your family!
        1. kalibr
          April 18 2020 13: 10 New
          14
          Quote: DMB 75
          A year ago he himself wrote an article on this topic, but he did not dare to press "publish"

          That is in vain! When I wrote the first article in English in an English journal, too ... I was sweating to cowards and climbed into the dictionary for every word. But ... overpowered herself ... and she went out. And you need not be afraid. I will say more: every smart, old man, educated person ALWAYS (!) Can write a very interesting article, about which he knows. And not even one ... It's hard to write an article every day. But ... some taste. Do not deprive yourself of a chance!
  • Van 16
    Van 16 April 18 2020 08: 04 New
    10
    Many thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich! But it’s a big shame for me, I’ve been to the Russian Museum twice, and this picture somehow passed me by, but the picture is very, very interesting.
    By the way, I join the esteemed Phil 77, thank you for the previous article about the Country of Soviets, it was a very wonderful and warm nostalgia.
    1. kalibr
      April 18 2020 08: 47 New
      +8
      Glad you liked it.
      1. Van 16
        Van 16 April 18 2020 09: 54 New
        +6
        Loved it! In general, for some time now you begin to look forward to the release of your next articles. Especially against the background of all these troubles with the virus.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 18 2020 15: 14 New
          +5
          In opinions a good article by Vyacheslav Olegovich about tanks
          1. kalibr
            April 18 2020 16: 59 New
            +4
            "About tanks with love!"
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 18 2020 19: 53 New
              +3
              I don’t want about tanks, I want about flambergs!
              1. kalibr
                April 18 2020 21: 06 New
                +3
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                I want about flambergs!

                Your wish will come true!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 18 2020 21: 09 New
                  0
                  I don’t know something about your creative plans, Vyacheslav Olegovich?
                  1. kalibr
                    April 19 2020 07: 53 New
                    +2
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    I don’t know something about your creative plans, Vyacheslav Olegovich?

                    Well, you can always write about this sword ... There are a lot of things about swords, but their hands just don’t reach. One Clements book is worth what, but in my opinion there are more interesting topics. Till...
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 18 2020 08: 28 New
    +6
    Today, such castles are called the English term "saphan."
    Sorry, Vyacheslav Olegovich, but there is no such term. There is a term snaphance of Dutch origin, in Russian this type of castle is called snaphenge (although this is somewhat incorrect transcription).
    This is a transitional type of lock from wheeled to flintlock.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 18 2020 16: 12 New
      +9
      Good afternoon, Vic Nikolaitch! hi
      This is a transitional type of lock from wheeled to flintlock.

      The wheeled castle is also flintlock, and it was replaced by a flintlock percussion castle. Did you mean that?
      Wheel Flint:

      Impact Flint:
      1. kalibr
        April 18 2020 16: 59 New
        +5
        You have the bottom rice. this is a French battery lock. And at the top there is a wheel. "My castle" is not here. Will be about him in more detail ...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 18 2020 17: 38 New
          +6
          As far as I understand, here is a "battery" lock, and a much later
          :
          And this is "just" a silicon percussion:

          But categorically I won’t take it; I’m not so special in flint. request
          And about "Your castle" will be interesting to see. And in general, it would be nice to have a detailed article about all types of locks, starting with a wick.
          1. kalibr
            April 18 2020 17: 56 New
            +6
            Quote: Sea Cat
            And in general, a detailed article about all types of locks, starting with a wick, would be nice.

            Everything goes to this.
          2. Icelord
            Icelord April 19 2020 14: 21 New
            +1
            I’m not sure, but from the photo it seems that on your first photo the same shelf from the trigger opens, if so then the battery
      2. Undecim
        Undecim April 18 2020 19: 34 New
        +2
        With regard to the wheel lock, the definition "flint" in the literature of the countries where it was invented does not apply. Sometimes there is a "spark" wheel lock.
        The definition of "percussion" is often omitted in the referenced literature, especially when the two locks appear together.
        By the way, pyrite is used in the wheel lock, not flint.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 18 2020 19: 38 New
          +5
          Thanks, thanks. But somehow I got used to operate with terms that were accepted in our museum environment while I was working there.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 19 2020 00: 04 New
            +2
            And Lilla Konstantinovna supports me.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 19 2020 00: 37 New
              +3
              Well, that's okay, and Emma Grigoryevna, a wonderful woman, always supported me. smile
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 19 2020 00: 52 New
                +2
                Oddly enough, but Emma Grigoryevna also uses the same terminology as I do.
                Maybe there are reverse examples?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 19 2020 00: 58 New
                  +3
                  Where will I find these examples now, thirty years later. We just never argued with her, but as a person, with opponents, she was very tough, with a charming smile and a quiet voice.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim April 19 2020 01: 02 New
                    +2
                    I was in doubt, now I looked through her book on the weapons of the peoples of the Caucasus - everything is in place, a flintlock.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish April 19 2020 01: 21 New
                      +3
                      So I say that it is flint. request But the shock.
        2. Icelord
          Icelord April 19 2020 14: 22 New
          0
          You’re usually right, pyrite, a golden blende, but not always and not everywhere, there was flint
  • Ros 56
    Ros 56 April 18 2020 08: 42 New
    0
    And were the artists of this magnitude striped?
    1. kalibr
      April 18 2020 10: 02 New
      +8
      Quote: Ros 56
      And were the artists of this magnitude striped?

      Do you mean whom? Americans? Everything is a little different there, including painting with military sculpture. If you want, I'll take a look and do something about it. But then your words will have to be taken with an epigraph ...
      1. Ros 56
        Ros 56 April 18 2020 14: 05 New
        0
        Yes, for God's sake, I'm not greedy.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 18 2020 15: 16 New
          +4
          Americans are fewer years old than the Bolshoi Theater. I don’t know how in art (besides music and cinema), but in literature they have such sound values. )))
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 April 18 2020 17: 40 New
            +3
            The Bolshoi Theater was founded in 1776 and .... they are the same age as the USA! I mean the declaration of independence.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar April 18 2020 18: 50 New
              +3
              Bolshoi - March 1776
              States - July 1776 hi
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 00 New
                +2
                Oh! Well, agree, it doesn’t matter. laughing
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 18 2020 19: 08 New
                  +3
                  Nah ...))
                  I even sons of twins born with a difference of fifteen minutes, divide by the eldest and youngest (the eldest is always all bumps) laughing
                  The fact is that the country is young, the culture is also - however quite interesting in almost all directions
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 19 New
                    +2
                    Yes, of course! As for painting, we can confidently say that it was the independence of the USA that served as the watershed. What am I for? The artists who were sympathetic to England left the country / Copley, West /, and the rest made up a peculiar foundation of US art. This also applies to architecture, and to sculpture.
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 23 New
                      +3
                      I add that there is a very interesting site TotalArch. There are very interesting articles about art.
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 18 2020 19: 24 New
                        +3
                        Thank you, I’ll browse the site for pleasure. hi
                      2. Phil77
                        Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 28 New
                        +2
                        Do not regret it, honestly. The only drawback is a lot of emphasis on analytics. hi
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 18 2020 19: 33 New
                        +2
                        Already useful info - did not know that two bucks was an architect hi
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 18 2020 20: 19 New
                        +3
                        And the "Green Mile" would make Fyodor Mikhalych bite his nails with envy.
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 18 2020 20: 26 New
                        +6
                        Hello Anton! hi The most popular foreign writer in the United States is Chekhov. Americans with higher education, obtained in good universities, know Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Gogol ...
                        And not only - starting with ancient authors, they are well versed in foreign literature, not sick, at the same time, with a mania of the exclusivity of their own achievements)).
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 18 2020 20: 29 New
                        +3
                        Albert! hi
                        I wonder what Americans value in Chekhov?
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 18 2020 20: 31 New
                        +4
                        It is considered easy to read, while a very deep author)).
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 18 2020 20: 34 New
                        +3
                        Do you mean "small forms"?
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 18 2020 21: 08 New
                        +3
                        Maybe ))
                        But, most likely, Chekhov was simply well translated into English
                        Shakespeare in the original - dachshund
                        Shakespeare in Marshak's translation - tsimes
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 18 2020 21: 15 New
                        +2
                        Hmmm, English and American, in my opinion, are two different languages. However, there is still a language of international communication, pigeon-English.
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 18 2020 21: 17 New
                        +4
                        Academic English in the States - Oxford))
                        Anton, they have a great higher education.
                      12. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 18 2020 21: 23 New
                        +3
                        Yes, I actually have no doubt.
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 April 19 2020 04: 57 New
          +1
          Here !!!! And we came to visit King. good Anton! And what about the novel * Hearts in Atlantis * what do you have to say? what
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 19 2020 07: 05 New
          0
          Alas, nothing. request S. King read very little.
  • cost
    cost April 18 2020 21: 50 New
    +3
    Krasnodar: I even sons of twins born with a difference of fifteen minutes divide by the older and younger

    Albert hi
    I have twin cousins ​​with a difference of a few minutes. They are already over 50. One is a private entrepreneur, the second is a head of department at a university. Generally respectable aunts. And all the relatives still call them twins' baby nicknames - small and small smile
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 18 2020 23: 08 New
      +4
      Greetings! hi
      I have twins (not twins) - both OOOs are very different)). Outwardly similar - no more. One Greek man himself makes garbage, but he teaches everyone life (comes close to the TV set and yells at his brother - Nezya go to the television show!), The second Jew - two identical toys, so you need to take both, taking the second from your brother, then try to take the third, which he does not need at all. They are three, a little one-year-old - this Russian - gives them both a pump - and we, parents, at the same time. All the blood of the children was distributed evenly laughing
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 18 2020 19: 59 New
    +2
    Mmdaaa ... Perhaps Dostoevsky would have burst into tears over "To Kill a Persian" ...
  • Fat
    Fat April 18 2020 20: 56 New
    +2
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Americans are fewer years old than the Bolshoi Theater. I don’t know how in art (besides music and cinema), but in literature they have such sound values. )))

    The Russian society of traveling exhibitions and, in the place with it, Russian realism in the graphic were organized around the middle of the 60s of the 19th century. The Americans had their own masters, but I personally have little knowledge about them. You can still scrape something along the British ...
    But the Americans .... Who would recall that from the 18-19 centuries. And do not remember the discount.
  • kalibr
    April 18 2020 16: 00 New
    +4
    Great, Yuri, then after 20 days, wait for the article ...
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 18 2020 16: 42 New
    +5
    One of the best artists, John Audubon, specialized in drawings of birds! His most outstanding work is the album * Birds of America *. In historical painting, they had their own high-level masters-Loitse, Healy, Ikins.
    * Washington crosses Delaware * probably seen? The work of Loetz, incidentally German by origin.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 18 2020 19: 00 New
      +6
      Seryoga, hello! hi Special For Comment. wink
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 03 New
        +4
        Hi Konstantin !!! Well, yes! There’s a man in a jacket! And there it is! Tree !!! laughing
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 18 2020 19: 26 New
      +4
      So the largest ethnic group in the USA is the Germans)).
      Saw
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 31 New
        +2
        Ha, ha, ha! But the police are Irish !!!! Well, the criminal world is a solid international and a fraternity of peoples! laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 18 2020 19: 43 New
          +3
          I read that on the East Coast, yes, traditionally the Irish
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 April 18 2020 20: 01 New
            +3
            If we talk about the Irish in the police force, there is such an author, Dennis Lehane. He has terrific * police * novels! Very recommend. Still Michael Connelly is not bad. Typical * police * novels. hi
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar April 18 2020 20: 08 New
              +3
              Connelly read - in my opinion, he had a hero with an ideal wife - a well-prepared deaf-mute orphan-beauty laughing
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 April 18 2020 20: 19 New
                +2
                While I'm reading about Harry Bosch, but he's on the lookout! In every novel he has a new hobby. And what is the connection between the two bucks and architecture? recourse
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 18 2020 23: 25 New
                  +2
                  Jefferson (president on a two-dollar bill) was an amateur architect
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 April 19 2020 05: 07 New
                    +1
                    Ah, here it is! Well, the bill isn’t particularly running. Yes, and Jefferson’s biography wasn’t particularly interested, but thanks for the info! hi
                  2. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 April 19 2020 05: 27 New
                    +2
                    Quote: Phil77
                    Well, the bill is not particularly running.

                    Bullshit. Once I read that one type ran into the bank to change just such a piece of paper.

                    When he was taken by the FSB’s collar, he began to tell him that, like, they repaid a debt ...
            2. Icelord
              Icelord April 19 2020 14: 26 New
              +1
              Lucky however guy
              1. Icelord
                Icelord April 19 2020 14: 27 New
                +1
                I'm talking about a deaf-mute wife, a beautiful woman who knows how to cook
    3. Phil77
      Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 40 New
      +2
      Yes, almost on the topic, but on the other hand, to questions about ethnic groups. You know, the first black in the NHL appeared only in 1958! His name was Willie O'Ree. * Boston Bruins *.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 18 2020 19: 44 New
        +3
        Back in the years of segregation? Probably very talented
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 18 2020 19: 51 New
          +2
          Everything is more complicated there. At that moment, Boston slowed down and the head coach Milt Schmitt decided to shake up the team. Well, and after consulting the owners, he made him a black man! that one could become a star! But at that time it was still not real.
  • Moskovit
    Moskovit April 18 2020 09: 08 New
    +1
    Good article, but "godfather" jarred. Ermak was in the service of the state all his life, he fought valiantly against enemies and carried out, as they say, the tasks of the party and government.
    1. Gato
      Gato April 18 2020 12: 44 New
      +4
      Ermak was in the service of the state all his life

      Ermak’s comrade-in-arms Gavril Ilyin wrote in a petition addressed to the Tsar that for 20 years he “vole” (led a free life) with Ermak in the Wild Field; another veteran Gavrila Ivanov wrote that he was “on the field for twenty years at Yermak in the village” and in the villages of other atamans.
      We can assume that Yermak was in the sovereign service during the Livonian War, and in 1582 he was invited by the Stroganov merchants to protect their possessions from Kuchum’s raids.
      These are the realities of the XNUMXth century.
    2. Icelord
      Icelord April 19 2020 14: 28 New
      0
      He was never in the service of the state, about which you
      1. Icelord
        Icelord April 19 2020 14: 29 New
        0
        The mercenary of the oligarchs if modern
  • Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 April 18 2020 09: 25 New
    +7
    In the Tobolsk Museum we have chain mail, helmets of those times, even a small cannon, but unfortunately there are no guns. Which are presented in the exposition already with silicon locks, although they are in the section "Conquest of Siberia" and not everything goes smoothly in the museum.
    1. Alex 1970
      Alex 1970 April 18 2020 09: 33 New
      +5

      Here is a photo from the exposition
    2. gsev
      gsev April 18 2020 15: 29 New
      +2
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      and the museum is not going smoothly.

      As far as I know Surikov was criticized in the 19th century that he depicted the Cossacks not with wick guns. In Soviet times, during excavations on Chusovaya, details of more modern weapons were found, which Okladnikov attributed to the time of Ermak. On this basis, the image of rifles by Surikov is now considered historically reliable.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 April 18 2020 09: 43 New
    +5

    But it looks like a cannon from a later time, at least the gun carriage for sure.
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 April 18 2020 12: 39 New
    +2
    Nice picture, good artist.

    As for brightness, Surikov’s paintings are all large, grayish, without bright spots.
    Apparently he saw it this way and knew this peculiarity - he did not risk writing brighter so as not to get confused ...
    1. Fat
      Fat April 18 2020 21: 42 New
      0
      Quote: Max1995
      Nice picture, good artist.

      As for brightness, Surikov’s paintings are all large, grayish, without bright spots.
      Apparently he saw it this way and knew this peculiarity - he did not risk writing brighter so as not to get confused ...

      Everything is simple. Surikov was a master of light and shadow and knew very clearly that the sun would just kill the plan ...
      Not a single sharp shadow and a single poisonous color spot can be seen in Surikov on large canvases.
      Either it is cloudy, or the sun "ran behind the cloud." Not "grayish" things with him, but given his visual memory, are deadly naturalistic.
      He knew the laws of aerial perspective, more than many. He never risked, it’s just skill and knowledge and intuition ...
      1. Maks1995
        Maks1995 April 19 2020 00: 08 New
        -2
        Others somehow coped. without poisonous spots, etc. And the light-shadow didn’t interfere

        But in nature, especially when the colors faded over time, it looks a little dirty.
        Although there, watercolors and studies are lighter and brighter.
        So, he knew how, and deliberately put it on. Well, he wanted it, and that’s it. The idea.
        1. Fat
          Fat April 19 2020 00: 34 New
          +1
          Quote: Max1995
          Others somehow coped. without poisonous spots, etc. And the light-shadow didn’t interfere
          But in nature, especially when the colors faded over time, it looks a little dirty.
          Although there, watercolors and studies are lighter and brighter.
          So, he knew how, and deliberately put it on. Well, he wanted it, and that’s it. The idea.


          Who are the others, Max? No one does portraits against the light, only the "most advanced" p. Fools shoot against the lighting - the apotheosis of black and white .... "Uncle! Stand in the profile, I'll take a picture"
          For 200 years, paints have not lost much of the modernity. Zinc white, not darkening, means a lot, more than you even think .... Poisonous color? what? It's just a pure color from 12 standards ... Surikov marks control places on sketches with "clean" control points ... I do the same even now ...
          To forget, to be mistaken ... difficult .... This is the "butter" technique.
          Surikov doesn’t simplify colors ... He works with object lighting ... and very cool, I would ... such a scent.
          1. Maks1995
            Maks1995 April 19 2020 09: 58 New
            -2
            "I do the same even now ..."
            cool.
            Of those who write with light, similar genre paintings are offhand Vereshchagin, Repin, Greeks.
            But IMHO, the argument is nothing.
            This is his style and point. So he wanted to. Him, not us.
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman April 18 2020 14: 56 New
    +7
    Opponents of the Cossacks are armed with bows, spears, and only one has a crossbow, a metal shield and a helmet. Well, everything is exactly the same as Cortes and Pizarro

    Come on! Opponents of Cortes had copper tips at best, but more obsidian and jade, which, indeed, is difficult to break through a cuirass. As for the aliens from Central Asia - Kuchum and his soldiers, it is unlikely that they were armed worse than the Cossacks. Really in Bukhara, there were no good sabers and armor?
    "Fire battle" - yes, it gave an advantage, it was not for nothing that its sale was prohibited in Siberia even under Alexei Mikhailovich. But the Cossacks did not have a decisive superiority in the "cold weather". IMHO essno.
  • Catfish
    Catfish April 18 2020 16: 02 New
    +7
    Thanks to Vyacheslav Olegich, to all friends of a good day and good mood! smile
    I’m wondering what our Tatar brothers can say about this canvas, and how they themselves evaluate that historical period and the campaigns of Yermak Timofeyich, in particular. No kindling, just really it would be interesting to listen to the opposite side. The truth, as you know, walks somewhere in between. hi
  • faterdom
    faterdom April 18 2020 22: 14 New
    +4

    Collected stamps as a child. In the "gallery series" this was my favorite, I looked at it for a long time in a magnifying glass.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 18 2020 22: 31 New
      +2
      Yes, stamp albums are separate worlds. Especially old specimens.
    2. cost
      cost April 19 2020 22: 56 New
      +1
      In childhood, like everyone, he collected stamps. The first thought - and I definitely had one. Not too lazy, climbed into the old bookcase, found the old kleister. In the art section. Here she is dear! As in your photo, only used out.
  • Icelord
    Icelord April 19 2020 21: 47 New
    -1
    Great article, great discussion. Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich
    1. Wolnik
      Wolnik 4 May 2020 13: 43 New
      -4
      Join good
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov April 19 2020 21: 52 New
    0
    Another version of the picture. lol wassat
  • barin
    barin 3 May 2020 09: 37 New
    0
    It's amazing how much you can consider if you wish. I didn’t pay attention before.