Military Review

"For the good of mankind." Doctors of Nazi Germany

39

Karl Brandt in the courtroom. Source: en.wikipedia.org


Experiments and animal care


For a full understanding of what is happening in the medical sphere of fascist Germany, it is necessary to get acquainted with some preliminary facts that characterize the medical ethics of that time. Man, as an object of medical research, began to enter medical practice long before the practices of Hitler’s doctors. One of the followers of anti-smallpox inoculation (rubbing pox pustules into the skin, an analogue of vaccination), Mary Worthley Montegru, in 1721 tried the novelty on prisoners. They remained alive and received a ticket to freedom, obviously, also with immunity to deadly smallpox then. Often, death row prisoners were used to solve medical issues, especially when a post-mortem autopsy was required. Suicide bombers had nothing to lose, and they usually agreed to infect themselves in exchange for good conditions and an extension of life. Often, prisoners were not even informed that they briefly became experimental. So, the Dresden parasitologist Friedrich Küchenmeister in 1855 infected several pork tapeworms sentenced to death in a city prison. At that time, their origin was not entirely clear, and the theory that these were larvae of pork tapeworm required practical verification. History says that once during dinner, Küchenmeister discovered cooked pieces of pork with several tapeworms in a plate. Naturally, modern man immediately fainted from such a find, but a seasoned doctor-researcher of the mid-XNUMXth century cannot be penetrated with such a trifle. The scientist calmly finished lunch and rushed to the butcher shop, where he bought for the future meat full of worms.

"For the good of mankind." Doctors of Nazi Germany

Karl Brandt is on the far right in the second row. Source: en.wikipedia.org

In the first experiment, they managed to feed a suicide bomber with food with cercariae from a butcher’s shop just three days before his death. But even this was enough to confirm the theory: Küchenmeister opened the executed and found in the intestines of young individuals of pork chains. It would seem that the proof is more than sufficient. But five years later, the scientist repeats his experiment on several prisoners and selects a longer period of time - four months before the execution. Here, after the autopsy, the doctor discovered one and a half meter worms of pork tapeworm. The discovery remained with Küchenmeister and was included in all textbooks on medicine and biology. Several contemporaries of the scientist expressed their dissatisfaction with the methods of work and even branded it with a poem in which there were the words "the herbarium is ready to be collected at the mother’s grave".

This is far from the only example of using people as guinea pigs. With medical ethics in Europe has always been difficult. What can we say about the 30-40s, when the Nazis came to power! ..


Nazi doctor Karl Klauberg (left) and colleagues are conducting medical experiments on Auschwitz prisoners. Klauberg is notorious for experimenting with sterilizing women by injecting formaldehyde directly into the uterus. After the war he ended up in Soviet captivity, served a sentence, was returned to Germany, where he was again sent to prison. He rotted in custody in 1957. Source: ushmm.org



American medical expert Dr. Leo Alexander points to the scars on the leg of Jadwiga Jido. Jido, a member of the Polish underground, was the victim of medical experiments at the Ravensbrück concentration camp. Source: ushmm.org

At the same time, one of the first bills adopted in Germany in 1933 was the ban on vivisection of animals. On August 16, 1933, German Goering proclaimed by radio (a quote from Peter Talantov’s book “0,05. Evidence-Based Medicine from Magic to the Search for Immortality”):

“An absolute and permanent ban on vivisection is a law that is necessary not only to protect animals, but humanity itself needs it ... Until we determine the punishment, violators will go to concentration camps.”

The Germans at that time were the first in the world who legally banned live-cutting for research purposes. In fairness, it is worth saying that a few weeks later at the very beginning of September 1933, Hitler, under the pressure of doctors, nevertheless allowed medical vivisection of animals under anesthesia and for strictly defined purposes. The “humanistic” initiatives of the Third Reich also include general anesthesia of fur-bearing animals before slaughter, new ways to painlessly shoe horses, a ban on boiling live lobsters, and even Himmler's recommendation for senior SS officers (cannibals from cannibals) to be faithful to a vegetarian diet.

The attempts of the Nazis to improve the genetic portrait of the nation by destroying "subhumans" and mentally disabled citizens are well known. As part of their health care, the Germans, by the way, were the first to discover the dependence of the incidence of lung cancer on smoking. Over time, such work of German doctors began to overflow and go beyond common sense.

USA vs Karl Brandt


At the end of the last century, the Germans decided to check the origin of the preparations of the anatomical departments of their medical universities - most of them were parts of the body of the mortally mentally ill. That is, they got rid of the famous collection of Jewish skeletons of August Hirt in Strasbourg, but the rest of the “material” was taught anatomy to medical students for another half a century. All this suggests that medicine in the Third Reich received a complete ethical carte blanche - it was possible at the expense of the state to verify its theoretical views and satisfy sadistic inclinations. The only attempt to somehow pay tribute to the murderers in white coats was the Nuremberg trial of the main Nazi doctors, which began on December 9, 1946. All this took place during the year in the American zone of occupation and, of course, the only accusers were judges from the United States - they did not allow any of the allies to proceed. Actually, the court itself was called “the USA against Karl Brandt” - this is one of the twelve small (and little-known) Nuremberg trials that the Americans led individually and which tried lawyers, SS men, German industrialists and senior Wehrmacht officers.


The chart prepared by the prosecutors during the trial of the case of doctors with the placement of the accused in the command structure. Source: ushmm.org

The main defendant in the case of doctors, judging by the name, was Karl Brandt, the first doctor of the Third Reich and Hitler's personal doctor. Since 1939, he led the program for the mentally disabled euthanasia (T4 program), in the framework of which he developed the system of the most effective killing. Brandt initially offered lethal injections of phenol with gasoline, but that was too troublesome in the case of massacres. Therefore, it was decided to switch to Cyclone B gas and gas turbines. Brandt was hanged as a result of the process. A total of 177 doctors passed before the judges, of which seven, including Brandt, were executed. Among them was the doctor Wolfram Sievers, the head of Anenerbe, obsessed with the idea of ​​collecting a collection of skeletons of racially inferior people. They also hanged Victor Braque, one of Karl Brandt’s associates under the T4 program. He, among other things, proposed a conveyor method of castrating people with powerful sources of radiation - unfortunate people of both sexes were brought into a room, where they sat on benches for several minutes under which there were radioactive materials. The problem was not to overdo it with the dose rate and not to leave characteristic burns - after all, the procedure was planned to be hidden. Brandt's namesake Rudolph had nothing to do with medicine (he was Himmler's personal assistant), but his Americans also sent him to the scaffold for complicity in experiments on people in concentration camps.


Karl Gebhardt. Source: pinterest.es




Karl Gebhardt. Source: en.wikipedia.org

The next accused, executed following the trial, was surgeon Karl Gebhardt, Himmler's personal doctor, whose merits include the death of Reinhard Heydrich. After not the most dangerous injury, Gebhardt was treating the official, and senior comrades advised him to inject the newly created antimicrobial sulfonamide drugs to the Nazi. Karl refused, and the Obergruppenführer SS died of blood poisoning. Himmler suggested that his personal doctor answer for his words and prove that sulfonamides are ineffective. For this purpose, women were allocated from Ravensbyuk, who suffered wounds similar to military ones, and then were treated with a new drug. I must say that Gebhardt even tried to give his research an area of ​​science and formed a control group of unhappy women who suffered similar injuries but were not treated with sulfonamides. But what would Himmler have done if his doctor had proved the effectiveness of new antimicrobials? In fear of retribution, Gebhardt did everything to make sulfanilamides a dummy - the control group lived in good conditions (for Ravensbrück, of course), and the experimental group was in complete unsanitary conditions. As a result, the new tool was expectedly useless, and Gebhardt was able to calmly do his favorite thing - amputations of the limbs of prisoners of concentration camps. His inhuman experiments left people with disabilities, and most of them were subsequently killed.

The next on the list of hanged war criminals in Landsberg prison was Joachim Mrugovsky, head of the SS Hygiene Institute and one of the organizers of medical trials in Sachsenhausen. Waldemar Hoven, who worked as chief physician in Buchenwald during the war, was the last to be executed. Actually, for this position, Hoven was worthy of death, but he still managed to infect people with typhus for the purpose of "science", and then he tested vaccines.


Waldemar Hoven talks to a lawyer. Source: waralbum.ru


Waldemar Hoven. Source: gettyimages.com

In addition to those executed above, five Hitler doctors were sentenced to life imprisonment, four to various prison terms (from 10 to 20 years), and seven were acquitted. As was often the case with German war criminals, some of them exceeded previously agreed deadlines. So it happened with Hertha Oberheuser, Gebhardt's comrade-in-arms in work on sulfanilamide: she was released after only five years out of twenty laid down. Probably, they took into account her acquittal in court regarding lethal injections for victims of experiments (she allegedly did this in Ravensbrück out of mercy).


Hertha Oberhuiser. Source: ushmm.org


Gerhard Rose. Source: ushmm.org

Most likely, most of the accused could not fully understand why they were being tried at all. An indicative speech was Gerhard Rose, an infectious disease specialist, head of the department of tropical medicine at the Robert Koch Institute, who stained himself by forcibly infecting people with typhoid in the framework of the Luftwaffe projects:

“The subject of personal accusations against me is my attitude to human experiments ordered by the state and carried out by German scientists in the field of typhoid and malaria. Works of this nature had nothing to do with politics or ideology, but served for the benefit of mankind, and these same problems and "needs everywhere can be understood independently of any political ideology, where one should also deal with the dangers of epidemics."

Rosa escaped the death penalty, and in 1977 received a medal of scientific merit in Germany.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 April 7 2020 05: 21 New
    23
    It is a pity that they themselves were not given up for experiments ... that would be fairer
    1. DMB 75
      DMB 75 April 7 2020 05: 59 New
      18
      The same thought was when I read.
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 April 7 2020 06: 07 New
      +9
      The article only * medical * experiments.
      But there was a lot of things, including human sacrifices in various forms.
      The British and French also conducted their * research * in public but in the colonies.
      The only difference is that the Germans used in the experiments and sacrifices of the British and French without any hesitation.
      1. svp67
        svp67 April 7 2020 06: 11 New
        +1
        Quote: Vasily50
        The British and French also conducted their * research * in public but in the colonies.

        Unfortunately in the USSR, in the structures of the NKVD, the same was carried out by some "experiments" ...
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 7 2020 07: 23 New
          -12
          Quote: svp67
          Unfortunately, in the USSR, in the structures of the NKVD, the same was carried out by some "experiments" ..

          From the verdict of the USSR Armed Forces:
          “Other inhuman crimes of the defendants Beria, Merkulov, Kobulov, including in the production of experiments to test poisons on convicts of capital punishment and experiments on the use of narcotic substances during interrogations. "

          The performer gave up (not though) the bosses, he himself was arrested (as a Zionist lol ) Colonel medical service Mairanovsky developer of poisons. he wrote to Beria, who was still in power in February 1953:
          "With my hand, more than a dozen sworn enemies of the Soviet government were destroyed, ready to fulfill all your tasks for the benefit of our mighty Motherland."

          The document fell into the hands of the investigation and inquiry began ...
          Beria during interrogation:
          «I admitthat what Mairanovsky testifies to, is a terrible, bloody crime. I gave Mairanovsky the task of conducting experiments on prisoners sentenced to VMN, but that was not my idea. ”
          1. zenion
            zenion April 7 2020 14: 13 New
            +6
            Who and where did Beria be judged if he was immediately killed. Posthumously confessed? As they said at the front about some newspaper articles, the murdered German corporal said Toto and Toto!
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich April 7 2020 14: 16 New
              -6
              Quote: zenion
              Who and where did Beria be judged if he was immediately killed. Posthumously confessed?

              belay lol
              Go to ISTMAT-there are interrogations laid out
        2. bandabas
          bandabas April 7 2020 08: 18 New
          +8
          Unfortunately, in the 90s, the experience of "shock therapy" was performed over an entire state. And those who produced it, now they feel pretty good. And, further "experiments" are continued.
      2. Basil50
        Basil50 April 7 2020 14: 24 New
        +3
        Here it is. There are commentators for whom to interpret the essence of the event as * a finger on the asphalt *.
        The NKVD conducted many experiments, including the shooting of enemies of the people, BUT ONLY BY RESOLUTION OF THE COURT.
        The frank nonsense of the followers of Khrushchev and those whom these .... (liberalists and crystal bakers) rehabilitated is perceived as information only in openly mournful reason.
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U April 7 2020 05: 57 New
    12
    He, among other things, proposed a conveyor method of castrating people with powerful sources of radiation - unfortunate people of both sexes were brought into a room, where they sat on benches for several minutes under which there were radioactive materials.
    I remember in the comments to the article "Nikolai Timofeev-Ressovsky: Genetics, Nazis and Lenin's Brain" strongly sympathized with this scientist that he was imprisoned after the war. Isn't it because he got dirty in the one described above?
    the researcher oversaw the program of radiation mutagenesis at the institute, and already from the end of the 30s, the Nazis clearly showed an interest in the atomic problem. Timofeev-Resovsky (or, as Daniil Granin called it in his book, the Bison) was even presented with a fast neutron generator to continue experiments on Drosophila.
  3. Free wind
    Free wind April 7 2020 06: 00 New
    +8
    Yeah .... The Nazis were not such pioneers, in the 19th century experiments were conducted on blacks, trying to prove that they are such monkeys, some of our scientists also noted. World War I toxic agents were tested in humans. Gas masks as well, and not everyone had a successful design. Well, after the war, in France, exactly, until the mid-fifties, car crash tests were conducted, with the participation of prisoners. There were no dummies yet, or they were expensive.
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 April 7 2020 11: 16 New
      +1
      As far as I know, Hitler's personal physician was Theo Morell. Although I admit that he had several doctors.
      It is not known whether doctors in other countries take the Hippocratic oath at the end of a medical institution.
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 7 2020 23: 19 New
      +2
      Compassionate American women offered to send black children instead of dogs to space - it was like that in the 60s.
  4. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 April 7 2020 06: 08 New
    12
    Nazi doctor Karl Klauberg (left) and colleagues are conducting medical experiments on Auschwitz prisoners. Klauberg is notorious for experimenting with sterilizing women by injecting formaldehyde directly into the uterus. After the war he ended up in Soviet captivity, served a sentence, was returned to Germany, where he was again sent to prison. He rotted in custody in 1957.

    This is for those who portray the horrors of Soviet captivity and the exorbitant suffering of German prisoners of war. This ghoul completely survived in Soviet captivity and even returned to his homeland. The main thing is that he did not leave the well-deserved punishment, unlike many other cannibals in white coats.
  5. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 7 2020 07: 03 New
    +3
    VV Veresaev "Doctor's notes" chapter √ |||.
    "It is with a heavy feeling that I begin this chapter ...
    I mean medical experiments on living people "
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 7 2020 07: 09 New
    -7
    Only attempt the Nuremberg trial of the main Nazi doctors, which began on December 9, 1946, somehow paid tribute to the murderers in white coats. All this took place during the year in the American zone of occupation and, of course, sole accusers there were judges from the USA - none of the allies before the process was not allowed

    Nobody prevented OTHER Allies from organizing such processes, while the Americans acted within the competence defined by the Allied Agreements:
    Justice over the ruling clique of Nazi Germany carried out International Military Tribunalcreated in accordance with the Agreement of August 8, 1945 between the governments of the USSR, the United States of America, Great Britain and France, to which 19 more states have joined.

    The organization and procedure of the Tribunal, which included representatives of the four countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, were determined by the Charter, which is an integral part of the Agreement.

    In accordance with these documents, as well as the "Law No. 10 on the punishment of persons guilty of war crimes, crimes against peace and against humanity" of December 20, 1945, signed by the Commanders-in-chief of the armies of the coalition countries, International Military Tribunal prosecutes major war criminals, the classification criteria to which was the commission of crimes, not associated with a specific geographical location.

    Other personswho have committed crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, as well as convicted of belonging to certain categories of a criminal group or organization declared criminal by the International Military Tribunal, pursued by occupation authorities in their area.
    From the website of the Prosecutor's Office of Russia)

    Those. Both the USSR, the South Caucasus, and France had the right to organize a similar trial of animal doctors in their area.
    Why they didn’t, I think that it was simply not planned to specifically select such non-humans into a separate category from the whole mass of Nazi criminals.
    Although, probably, it would be worth it, for clarity
  7. Operator
    Operator April 7 2020 08: 46 New
    +6
    Medical experiments on people sentenced to death and the same experiments on prisoners that no one sentenced to death are completely different things. In the second case, the doctors who conducted them were aggravated killers (sadism).
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 7 2020 14: 21 New
      -3
      Quote: Operator
      Medical experiments on people sentenced to death and the same experiments on prisoners that no one sentenced to death are completely different things.

      Sentenced sentenced to ...experiments on them? Those. to wild torment? belay request
      1. Operator
        Operator April 7 2020 16: 35 New
        -3
        What kind of torment?

        For example, you have now been sentenced to quarantine, which inflicts wild moral torment on you, but for the benefit of your population bully
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 8 2020 08: 45 New
          -2
          Quote: Operator
          What kind of torment?

          Are you joking?

          these are EXPERIMENTS: someone does not die, but experiences severe pain. someone becomes crippled, someone goes crazy, etc.

          This is, in fact, terrible torture!

          By the way, try to torture the animal, which may be assigned to the slaughterhouse: you will earn a real term!
          1. Operator
            Operator April 8 2020 09: 48 New
            -2
            Sentenced to execution, who agreed to participate in medical experiments, the execution was postponed in time, conditions of detention were softened, etc. etc.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich April 8 2020 09: 54 New
              -2
              Quote: Operator
              Sentenced to execution, who agreed to participate in medical experiments, the execution was postponed in time, conditions of detention were softened, etc. etc.

              give consent to torture
              1. Operator
                Operator April 8 2020 10: 09 New
                0
                Damn, what kind of torture - we are talking only about previously legalized in some countries during a certain period of time medical experiments.

                And the vivisection that you mentioned earlier is also out of the question in this case - the current international and national legislation allows animal testing of new drugs, vaccines and serums (according to established protocols, of course).

                Plus volunteers who contractually participate in testing in the next stage. They take risks, but the risk is compensated by high payment, medical insurance and insurance for loved ones in the event of the death of a volunteer.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich April 8 2020 10: 24 New
                  -3
                  Quote: Operator
                  Damn what torture it is an excluserbut about previously legalized in some countries in a certain period of time medical experiments.

                  it is exclusively about experiments with poisons over prisoners sentenced to VMN
                  Quote: Operator
                  And the vivisection that you mentioned earlier is also out of the question in this case - the current international and national legislation allows animal testing of new drugs, vaccines and serums (according to established protocols, of course).

                  Plus volunteers who contractually participate in testing in the next stage. They take risks, but the risk is compensated by high payment, medical insurance and insurance for loved ones in the event of the death of a volunteer.

                  it's all from another opera in general.
  8. Lamata
    Lamata April 7 2020 10: 18 New
    +4
    Not the topic, now, DOCTORS, NURSES, SANITARIANS, MEDICAL WORKERS - THANKS.
  9. hohol95
    hohol95 April 7 2020 10: 28 New
    -2
    Dear Author!
    Can you tell me who tested the cholera vaccine developed by Vladimir (Valdemar, Markus-Wolf) Aronovich Khavkin in 1893.
    Wiki -
    As a Jew, Khavkin was not able to conduct scientific research in Russia. The university leadership, trying to open the way for a talented student to a scientific career, suggested Khavkin to accept Orthodoxy. However, Khavkin rejected this offer. In 1881, Mechnikov moved to Switzerland. In 1888, Khavkin followed Mechnikov and took the post of privat-docent of the University of Lausanne.
    1. Evgeny Fedorov
      April 7 2020 10: 38 New
      +8
      https://hij.ru/read/11413/
      To test the vaccine in humans, Khavkin brought three of his comrades, Russian political emigrants, to the Pasteur Institute. The head of the laboratory in which Khavkin worked, Professor Emil Roux did not immediately allow the experimental introduction of the vaccine to people. Khavkin himself was the first to receive the vaccine dose, then his comrades, two of whom were doctors. The tests were favorable. Khavkin reported at a meeting of the Biological Society that the cholera vaccine he created was safe, and six days after its introduction, immunity developed.

      Great was a man by the way
      1. Lamata
        Lamata April 7 2020 10: 44 New
        0
        This is a feat !!!
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 April 7 2020 14: 18 New
        0
        When Khavkin arrived in India, then on whom did he prove the effectiveness of his vaccine?
        There was information that this was carried out on the prisoners of one of the Indian prisons!
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 7 2020 23: 26 New
          +1
          So for starters, he proved it to himself and friends, about prisoners - there was an epidemic in India, there seemed to be no shortage of volunteers ..
  10. AllBiBek
    AllBiBek April 7 2020 13: 15 New
    +2
    In the sense of "newly invented sulfa drugs"? They were invented in 1919 and were clinically tested by 1921. Bayer AG was stupidly biding its time to release them to the market at the maximum price.
  11. zenion
    zenion April 7 2020 14: 10 New
    +1
    After serving hertha, Oberhuiser became a pediatrician.
  12. Lamata
    Lamata April 7 2020 14: 23 New
    0
    Put such a doctor in a bathtub with cold water, see how freezing occurs. Give your life for the good of science.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 7 2020 16: 47 New
      +1
      The Nazis did this in the interests of the Luftwaffe. They dressed the prisoners in pilot overalls and a life jacket, and covered them with ice in the bath. After a certain time, they took out and put them in bed with several naked women, and checked how quickly the temperature of their bodies brought the frozen person to life. "Doctor" Sigmund Ruscher mocked people.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 7 2020 18: 20 New
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        The Nazis did this in the interests of the Luftwaffe.

        And in the interest of the kriegsmarine. hi
  13. bubalik
    bubalik April 7 2020 21: 44 New
    +2
    and seven are justified

    ,,, not justified them.
    One of them is Kurt Blome. In 1943, under the guise of research on cancer, Blomé studied methods and methods of biological warfare. During the investigation, Blomé admitted that he was experimenting with a plague vaccine and tested sarin nerve gas on Auschwitz prisoners. According to the American program “Paperclip”, in 1951, Major General Kurt Blome, a specialist in biological warfare, became an employee of the chemical corps of the US Army. He was engaged in chemical weapons and biological weapons of mass destruction.
  14. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus April 8 2020 22: 14 New
    0
    Quote: Sea Cat
    The Nazis did this in the interests of the Luftwaffe. They dressed the prisoners in pilot overalls and a life jacket, and covered them with ice in the bath. After a certain time, they took out and put them in bed with several naked women, and checked how quickly the temperature of their bodies brought the frozen person to life. "Doctor" Sigmund Ruscher mocked people.

    and by the way ... in 2005 I saved one ... a "not good-stupid" man ... who, after swimming in ice-cold water, was already falling asleep ... specifically - rubbing off the limbs, wrapping in warm blankets together with two female bodies ( cynically said, but thanks for the cook and the barmaid agreed) .. the boatswain and I - Dima Korzh hello if you read it! - this ******** about five hours was brought back to life ... maybe more ... almost a liter of Smornovskaya (from Japan) wasted ... both for rubdowns and inside (for myself and everyone involved). This is a fact. It happened somewhere in January-February 2005 in the Rudnaya pier tcho bay in the Primorsky Territory near the city of Dalnegorsk. And yes ... all the same, the rescued's fingers on his left hand and left ear remained blackened and twisted
    1. zenion
      zenion 5 June 2020 19: 29 New
      0
      By the way, Russians have always been used for cooling as a factor in the fact that they are more hardy. They also found that "after intercourse, a person's body temperature rose very quickly. To do this, one woman should be laid down with the subject, and not two, so she shows more desire than when there are two of them and this helps the subject to quickly restore normal temperature." If you write about such cases, then you need to write everything, to the end and do not hesitate, this is medicine, not a massage house.
  15. zenion
    zenion 5 June 2020 19: 22 New
    0
    It's great that these "studies" got to the Americans. They use them "for the good of humanity", moreover, completely.