Military Review

How top-secret material Fogbank slowed down the modernization of US nuclear weapons

65

Nuclear information weapons The USA, especially the materials used as its components, is still kept in the strictest confidence. Take the same Fogbank - they often write a lot about it, but what it is, until recently, no one figured it out in detail.


Back in 2009, there were reports in the world media that the US National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) did not have enough technological knowledge to produce Fogbank material, and therefore it could be stopped for up to 25 years.

For the first time, Fogbank attracted the attention of world media even earlier, in 2007-2008, when it became known that problems with this material caused technical delays in extending the life of the W76 warhead. W76 Series Used on U.S. Navy and Royal Navy Submarines fleet UK.

There is material that we are currently using, and it is on the site that we built ... on Y-12,

- said in 2007, speaking to members of the House of Representatives of the US Congress, the then director of NNSA Thomas D'Agostino.

Apparently, the official’s statement referred to a nuclear weapons complex located near the National Laboratory in Tennessee.

Details about what Fogbank is, Thomas D'Agostino did not disclose even to congressmen. He only emphasized:

This is very sophisticated stuff that ... call it Fogbank. It is not classified, but it is material that is very important for our W76 life extension activities.

Talking with senators a bit later, the NNSA director called Fogbank “interstage material.” This statement by Thomas D'Agostino allowed experts to build a variety of guesses about the nature of the material. They suggested that we are talking about an airgel, which acts as an intermediate material in a warhead, surrounding the parts of the bomb in which fission and synthesis occur, and ensuring the transfer of energy between them.

How top-secret material Fogbank slowed down the modernization of US nuclear weapons

Clay brick weighing 2,5 kg stands on an airgel block weighing only 2 grams

Missile and nuclear weapons expert Jeffrey Lewis, working at the Middlebury Institute for International Studies in Monterey, said in 2008 that the code name Fogbank could be derived from aerogel names such as “frozen smoke” and “fog over San Francisco”.

According to publicly available information, it is clear that Fogbank was manufactured in the national security complex Y-12 in Tennessee from 1975 to 1989. It was used as the most important material in W76.


Tennessee facility

When, in 1996, the White House decided to replace or modernize some of the US nuclear weapons, and some to decommission, the development of a reconstruction program began, which envisaged an increase in the life of old nuclear weapons.

As a result, in 2000, the NNSA introduced the W76 warhead extension program, but it soon became clear: Fogbank material will become a source of inevitable problems in implementing the program. The thing is that during the initial production of this material in the 1980s, the production process was practically not fixed, and all the specialists who participated in its production several decades ago retired.

However, NNSA decided that they could repeat the production process once the material had already been produced. But the organization’s engineers have repeatedly faced many obstacles, despite the fact that the NNSA allocated $ 23 million to achieve this goal.

Only by March 2007, NNSA engineers were able to develop the production process for the creation of Fogbank, but problems started again during testing. In September 2007, the status of the project was increased, and only in 2008, having spent another 69 million dollars, NNSA manufactured Fogbank and handed over the first repaired warhead to the US Navy seven months later. But then, strangely enough, a spokesman for the Navy said the fleet had never received recovered weapons.

Also in 2008, it became known that President Barack Obama has canceled a program to modernize nuclear warheads. NNSA talked about the need to develop new material that could replace very expensive and complex components in production.

Work on the new W93 nuclear warhead made the American leadership wonder if serious delays in the production of large quantities of weapons would again occur. In March 2020, the US Government Accountability Office recalled past difficulties with producing Fogbank top-secret material:

Future weapons programs will require new manufactured explosives, including those that the NNSA has not produced on a scale since 1993.

Since W93 production is based on old technologies, there is no doubt that NNSA will return (or have already returned) to Fogbank. For example stories of this material, we see how the increased secrecy of development and the production process not only protects the technologies used in the defense sector, but also acts as an obstacle to their reuse: the production process has not been documented and it has to be restored practically again.
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  1. knn54
    knn54 April 4 2020 12: 06 New
    -3
    It remains to develop a new technology to undermine nuclear weapons. For without a “gel” a nuclear (spontaneous) reaction cannot be obtained
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka April 4 2020 12: 44 New
      +8
      [quote] For without a “gel” a nuclear (spontaneous) reaction cannot be obtained [quote]
      Colleague, the reaction is not spontaneous, it is chain.
      1. knn54
        knn54 April 4 2020 13: 42 New
        +4
        Nuclear Fission reaction .. Fission is spontaneous — spontaneous and forced — interaction with other particles, usually with neutrons.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 4 2020 15: 12 New
          +6
          This material is needed not for division, but as a filler for the hydrogen bomb body
          in nuclear fusion.
        2. Akuzenka
          Akuzenka April 4 2020 15: 48 New
          +7
          The fission reaction in radioactive materials is ongoing. While the mass of the radioactive substance is small. If the mass of the radioactive substance reaches a critical point, there is a sharp increase in the number of fissile particles, the fission reaction goes into the stage of self-support and is called a chain reaction. If you do this and hold it (microseconds), then a nuclear explosion will occur. Otherwise, the mass will simply fly apart and there will be no nuclear explosion. There will be a zilch with subsequent infection of the area with long-lived radioactive substances.
  2. Zufei
    Zufei April 4 2020 12: 13 New
    +6
    It’s just not pulling on the head. Production of strategic materials and products without a documented process technology and control operations. According to Stanislavsky: I DO NOT BELIEVE. Desa and cut.
    1. paul3390
      paul3390 April 4 2020 12: 28 New
      +7
      Well - they don’t seem to be able to repeat much .. For example - the mystical engine F-1, and many other components such as flights to the moon ..
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 April 4 2020 18: 35 New
        0
        This engine is outdated both physically and mentally - now they have RS 25, turbojet engines, methane Raptor, all single-chamber and gluttonous monsters of rocket science have gone down in history.
    2. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A April 4 2020 20: 41 New
      +1
      Quote: Zufei
      It’s just not pulling on the head. Production of strategic materials and products without a documented process technology and control operations. According to Stanislavsky: I DO NOT BELIEVE. Desa and cut.


      Our similar example is the NK-32 engines.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 April 4 2020 21: 22 New
        0
        And where in Russia did they lose documentation and forget the chick of the technological process for the production of NK 32?
        1. SovAr238A
          SovAr238A April 4 2020 21: 37 New
          +4
          Quote: Vadim237
          And where in Russia did they lose documentation and forget the chick of the technological process for the production of NK 32?


          Now ...
          From 2014 to 2020, full-scale documentation for the NK-32 has not yet been restored.
          Accordingly, it is not possible to start production of a modernized version of NK-32-02.

          In 2014, the task for the creation of the modernized NK-32-02 was learned.
          In 2016, 5 new NK-32-02 engines were to be delivered.
          But the technical documentation has not yet been restored.
          There is no production, not a single engine has been built. and do not try.
          And starting in 2018, there are contracts only for overhaul (extension of terms) of old engines.

          a month ago, a big rank came to the factory and very much requested with all his might. at least somehow accelerate R&D for modernization.
          And without the documentation for the NK-32, you won’t be able to modernize it.

          Alas.

          These are actual realities.
          And yes, the engine finished producing in 93.

          And they all "burned".


          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 April 4 2020 21: 54 New
            -4
            Now there is no problem at all to disassemble one engine and give it in detail for measurements with a 3D scan and material scientists to determine the alloy grades of the types of heat treatment and other things. For this, create a 3D model of the engine and make its computer tests, and then, based on the results of these tests, create a working model. I will not believe that in the SNTK continuous fools work.
            1. nPuBaTuP
              nPuBaTuP April 4 2020 22: 31 New
              +3
              Why then the Chinese can not copy engines normal for their aircraft? ....
              3D scanning and material science measurements to determine alloy grades of heat treatment types and other.

              Maybe because this is not an option?
              1. Vadim237
                Vadim237 April 5 2020 00: 08 New
                -4
                Because they do not have the necessary equipment for this, they don’t have to admit the design experience that the USSR had with its engineering school - they live by stupid copying and hybridization most of the achievements in the citizen due to the development equipment and finances that the West provided them. And the fact that they wrote above rather the problem is that they didn’t lose the documentation — and the problems in upgrading the engine — a complex one that needs to be worked out again, the production of new units and assemblies to be tested, and to test them in a complex — are not quickly done.
    3. boriz
      boriz April 6 2020 12: 45 New
      +3
      For zufei
      I just willingly believe. In the early 90's he worked at a factory that was originally a radio tube. Then came the microcircuit, p / p lasers, etc. But for spare parts they continued to produce radio tubes. Then, unexpectedly, a private company from China began to order lamps. With some investigation, it turned out that the company resells lamps in the United States. The Americans, when switching to electronic electronics, quickly eliminated the production of radio tubes, as inadequate for time.
      But then, it suddenly turned out that in the production of HiFi sound reproduction equipment, there is no way to do without lamps. From the word "completely."
      The fact is that transistors, due to non-linear distortions, add up to the fifth and even the seventh when amplifying harmonics. And the lamps - the third, maximum fourth. And it is impossible to correct this matter neither by feedbacks, in any way.
      And when they rushed to the manufacturer, it turned out that the equipment had been turned over to metal, the employees were fired, the documentation was destroyed. I just worked as a deputy for technical training in the workshop where they produced bulbs for lamps, with dumbbells soldered to them (for pumping air) and bottoms, with contact legs sealed in them. Equipment for this you just need to see. A purely automatic automatic carousel line, mechanical grips grab parts, rearrange gas burners around, everything seals up ... And a constant creak from all this. A spectacle, I tell you ... The current robotic lines nervously smoke on the sidelines. And the Americans destroyed it all. There is no one to make these lines for a long time, and the attendants managed to scatter or retire.
      What do you want? Capitalism.
      I worked in this workshop for more than two years, I was responsible for technologies, of which there was an unmeasured assortment. But the most difficult moment for me was just the “glass”. He coped with the rest easily.
      Ours went to the amers, talked and, on the basis of their 6H1P, began to produce lamps for preamplifier cascades. And the Saratov colleagues did the same for the final cascades, based on their GU-50.
      And while I was working there, they delivered this lamp for a dollar thing.
      So don't be surprised.
      1. meandr51
        meandr51 18 June 2020 14: 49 New
        0
        I don’t know how it goes with harmonics, but tube amplifiers have a THD of about 5%, and THEM 10%. This is against the background of transistor 0,001%. Just someone likes distortion ... There are special programs for creating them for a "warm tube sound." I worked in the radio center of the Institute of Culture with amplifiers UM-50 and TU-100 using GU-50 lamps. Well, and disgusting ... After that, I just love the transistor!
    4. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 7 2020 19: 11 New
      0
      Quote: Zufei
      The thing is that during the initial production of this material in the 1980s, the production process was practically not fixed, and all the specialists who participated in its production several decades ago retired.

      It could have been easier - the documentation was there, but over the past ten years it has been archived, moved, divided, partially written off as unimportant, in general - it’s loved.
      Below in the comments there is a link to an enchanting story about the restoration of documentation for a petrochemical plant, about which at first it was not even known what it was called exactly. In the end, technoarchaeologists were very lucky - they found one of the retired developers, who also had their own copies of documents about the plant (illegally made).
      Corporate amnesia in action. Giant cars built by aliens using their alien technology, champing like a wreck, giving out piles of polymers to the mountain. The company has a rough idea how to service these machines, but has no idea what kind of amazing magic is going on inside, and no one has the slightest idea of ​​how they were created. In general, people are not even sure what to look for, and do not know which side should unravel this tangle of.
  3. Mytholog
    Mytholog April 4 2020 12: 31 New
    +9
    Sophisticated technical process without a routing? Even if sov.secretnoy?
    The fact that she was about ..ali is somehow easier to believe than in her absence initially.
  4. Lopatov
    Lopatov April 4 2020 12: 39 New
    +7
    I have only two options.
    Or it’s cut, and the Americans are knocking out money to develop a finished process. Or is it degradation.

    Things according to the assurances of the Americanophiles are simply impossible, both of them. laughing
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka April 4 2020 16: 01 New
      +2
      I think that is not degradation. Everything is simpler, the material was invented by a commercial organization. They received the money and put their archive of the task lists. And they forgot. And they’re sawing money. "Ours" do not stand close in scope, but confidently catch up.
  5. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 April 4 2020 13: 03 New
    13
    Man developed the material. They promised him money. He started the production process of his material, it was produced in sufficient quantities, after which the person was thrown, citing national security, patriotism, corporate property, etc. etc. Surprisingly ordinary story.
    That's only part of the process was "documented" only in the head of this person. So most likely the airgel that seems to have been produced anew, was simply blown away. He lived a little, and the suspension decomposed. And that man, apparently, has already died ... Ay-yai-yay, how awkward it happened))
    1. knn54
      knn54 April 4 2020 14: 02 New
      +1
      Mikhail, most likely it was. Otherwise, they would hasten to accuse the Russian Federation of theft, as was the case with a rocket engine, a hypersonic unit, etc.
    2. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A April 4 2020 20: 43 New
      +2
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Man developed the material. They promised him money. He started the production process of his material, it was produced in sufficient quantities, after which the person was thrown, citing national security, patriotism, corporate property, etc. etc. Surprisingly ordinary story.
      That's only part of the process was "documented" only in the head of this person. So most likely the airgel that seems to have been produced anew, was simply blown away. He lived a little, and the suspension decomposed. And that man, apparently, has already died ... Ay-yai-yay, how awkward it happened))


      Mikhail3 - didn’t you prove to me literally 2 hours that this is impossible?
      Patents there, in which everything is described in detail ...
      What are you doing in another article - changed your shoes so quickly?
      I’m not flying just ..
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 April 5 2020 11: 28 New
        +2
        No, not me)) THIS is very possible. The author of the material complied with all the requirements, that is, he transferred the description of the process as it should, designed all the papers, and this description is available, not "lost". See - they tried to apply it there, but it didn’t work out! Just part of the description is incorrect or missing.
        The production of these bombs was started just when the lunar epic ended, that is, projects count as peers. And, unlike any components of lunar missions, a bomb can be repeated, although it is not much simpler than a rocket. Yes, there are technological problems with one of the components. In factories such problems every day, even with long-established. The supplier, a good man, changed the recipe (titanium sponge with argon welding began to melt, for example) and the soul went to heaven!
        Of course, we must cuddle, try to squeeze out additional financing, scare us with frustrated deadlines ...
        In fact, they will solve the problem, and soon, nothing irreparable happened. No one is trying to close the project because "all the papers are lost, and we can’t build ANYTHING!"
  6. Operator
    Operator April 4 2020 13: 18 New
    +7
    We are talking about airgel, which fixes the position inside the outer shell of the first and second steps of the thermonuclear charge - plutonium and deuterium-lithium, respectively. Airgel freely passes x-rays from the explosion of the first stage to compress the second.

    Airgel "suspends" the steps in the internal volume of the charge, protecting them from displacement in the event of shock loads in emergency situations. Instead of airgel, you can use various types of foams (also transparent to x-rays), which is done in reality.

    So what about an American fuss about Fogbank - nothing laughing
    1. Peter Tverdokhlebov
      Peter Tverdokhlebov April 4 2020 13: 29 New
      0
      Airgel has a low density and thermal conductivity, and what are the characteristics of foams?
      1. Operator
        Operator April 4 2020 13: 41 New
        +4
        The mass of the airgel / foam in the composition of the nuclear charge assembly is small - of the order of several percent. Nitrogen filling the pores of the airgel / foam has a greater effect on thermal conductivity than this material itself (despite the fact that the heat transfer rate is negligible compared to the propagation speed of electromagnetic radiation).

        The light base of the airgel / foam is transparent by default for x-ray radiation, therefore, the main indicator of the airgel / foam in the composition of the nuclear charge is the impact strength during falls during operation.
        1. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 April 4 2020 15: 27 New
          +5
          Once, in the golshshtannoy decve, for outstanding success in harvesting potatoes and knitting sheaves, my parents bought me (with the money I earned) an underwater gun on rubber bands. That's just the attachment point of these same cords, located on the edge of the gun, and at the same time serving as an aiming device for the arrow, has been modernized. In it, the old and “too expensive” aluminum was replaced with a new plastic, “not inferior to the best foreign models”. And this plastic, of course, was broken by a heavy arrow in the third shot. I had to wind a lot of steel wire in order to make the gun work in half with sin.
          Since then, I have managed to make sure hundreds of times that the Soviet habit of replacing good materials with "not inferior to the best foreign models" is a disaster that is not inferior to the destructive consequences of Mamaev’s battle. And the resulting sample becomes a clumsy abode ...
          So it’s quite possible to understand the Americans who do not want to exchange good for shit ...
          1. Operator
            Operator April 4 2020 15: 34 New
            +7
            The Americans "shit" (polystyrene) is used in all nuclear charges, with the exception of W76 laughing

            About once every 25 years, the charges must be disassembled and the plutonium step removed to remove the short-lived isotopes of plutonium, americium, etc., which are formed during the spontaneous decay of plutonium 239 and make the fission reaction unstable.

            After that, an attempt to assemble W76 to its original state with the replacement of the airgel by foam leads to a several kg pull and worsens the performance characteristics of the warhead.
            1. bk0010
              bk0010 April 4 2020 19: 58 New
              +1
              Why is everyone writing "polystyrene"? Polyethylene is there.
              1. Operator
                Operator April 4 2020 20: 27 New
                +6
                Polyfoam - any foamed plastic, including polyethylene.

                As far as I understand, in nuclear charges, more heat-resistant plastics are used as the basis of polystyrene foam (to maintain strength in the event of a charge entering the fire, for example, from aviation kerosene).

                By the way, if Fogbank airgel was made on the basis of silicon dioxide, then its heat resistance exceeds any plastic.
              2. SovAr238A
                SovAr238A April 4 2020 20: 58 New
                0
                Quote: bk0010
                Why is everyone writing "polystyrene"? Polyethylene is there.


                And it also serves to reduce gamma radiation, in order to avoid the degradation of materials during long-term storage. and lowering the background itself.
            2. Boa kaa
              Boa kaa April 5 2020 01: 32 New
              +5
              Quote: Operator
              The Americans "shit" (polystyrene) is used in all nuclear charges, with the exception of W76
              Andrey, there was not polystyrene, but polystyrene. Too heavy ... compared to the "fog". And the cast weight for Trident-2 is of great importance, because critically affects range. Here, either reduce the number of BBs, or its weight, in order to ensure that D is given. And in the W76 charge (assembled according to the Teller-Ulam scheme), the Fogbank airgel was a “filler” of the internal volume, while performing the function of thermal insulation, amortization (protection from thermal and dynamic loads of electronics and power internal structures of nuclear warheads).
              And all would be nothing. But the Yankees decided to make a new W93 mallet, and with a “filler” the shutter turns out ... The weight of the product immediately crawled, and behind it all the technical and technical characteristics of the new SLBM combat equipment for Colombia. And the mines are already sculpting, believing in rocket launchers: the length and diameter were agreed in advance. The British and cook them in 4x2 sections. True to marriage, but that's another story.
              That is the problem, however.
              1. Operator
                Operator April 5 2020 12: 42 New
                +2
                So I just talked about it (LTX BB).

                Once again: polystyrene is a structural material (foamed plastic), not a polymeric compound (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide, etc.). Almost any polymer can be foamed and turned into foam. It is likely that polystyrene served as the basis for the polystyrene used by W76.

                Neither airgel, nor polystyrene, nor polystyrene are an obstacle to the propagation of electromagnetic radiation (including gamma). Polystyrene, like any other hydrogen-containing plastic, partially delays the neutron flux, but lithium deuteride in the second stage is not destroyed by neutrons, and therefore does not need protection.
            3. Mikhail3
              Mikhail3 April 5 2020 11: 37 New
              +1
              Well, here you are, in the same post and write that the performance characteristics are getting worse. It is nevertheless advisable to prevent the replacement of good with shit, and somehow repeat the airgel. Here the factory workers are whining that they have to “postpone until the age of 25”, they are trying to dislodge financing for the restoration of technology. It is highly desirable to use the same airgel, and in other bombs too!
              I’ll say more if our country is abrupt, and its management is better, it would be desirable for us to steal this technology for ourselves! And do not say that "from shit and sticks a little worse."
              1. Operator
                Operator April 5 2020 12: 48 New
                +1
                In the case of specific W76s, two options are possible - restoration of the airgel production technology or replacement of the outer case of warheads with a new lower weight - for example, by replacing an aluminum alloy with carbon fiber.

                In connection with the degradation of the scientific and technological potential of the United States, the second option is likely to be used.
                1. Boa kaa
                  Boa kaa April 5 2020 14: 25 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Operator
                  replacing the outer case of warheads with a new one of lower weight - for example, by replacing an aluminum alloy with carbon fiber.

                  Andrei, I might have missed something, but the BB’s “outer case” didn’t seem to be made of Al alloys ... There, exclusively heat-resistant materials in the form of cermets or tungsten were used ... Ceramics based on carbon-carbon nano-inventions can now will deliver. (Who knows their "haritonchiks" mom!)
                  But Al (duralumin, as a compromise of weight and cost in relation to titanium structures) was used inside the BB as a power frame for electronics and the rest of the stuffing.
                  Somehow, however, it was ...
                  1. Operator
                    Operator April 5 2020 15: 11 New
                    +1
                    The descent capsules of manned spacecraft are made of aluminum alloys and covered with an ablative layer, which is enough from heating the body during the descent from orbit.

                    The outer shell of the BB (at least until recently) was also made of duralumin and densely coated with ablative paste from a mixture of phenol-formaldehyde resin with basalt and other heat-resistant fibers. When heated, the coating sublimates - it passes from the solid phase directly to the gaseous one. The thickness of the ablation coating is calculated based on the time the BB descends in the atmosphere, starting from about 60 km - within 20 seconds.

                    In addition, the BB after separation from the last stage of the ICBM / SLBM is slightly twisted using diagonal compressed air rocket engines to uniformly sublimate the ablation coating during descent. The nose of the BB is rounded for the shock wave to move away from the housing and the absence of direct heat transfer from the plasma to the housing.
  7. _Ugene_
    _Ugene_ April 4 2020 15: 21 New
    +2
    The thing is that during the initial production of this material in the 1980s, the production process was practically not fixed, and all the specialists who participated in its production several decades ago retired.
    Well, only recently here, one of the Israeli comrades, it seems Voyaka, said that it could only be in Russia when old locksmiths leave the factory there are big problems, since no one can replace them, it turns out not only we have this
    1. Operator
      Operator April 4 2020 16: 11 New
      +2
      Warrior-Uh and Professor serve in the censorship department of Israeli military intelligence AMAN bully

      The United States faced the problem of completing the reassembled W76 due to a lack of funds for the development of new 100-Kt nuclear charges in a form factor consistent with the dimensions of the Trident-2 SLBM dilution stage, or for the creation from scratch of capacities for the production of the notorious airgel (former technologists managed to die, leaving no written documentation).

      American printing press broke down - Voyaka-Ukh and Professor join the censorship department of the Chinese military intelligence GRU GSH PLA laughing
  8. Pandiurin
    Pandiurin April 4 2020 16: 31 New
    +4
    I don’t know why they are suffering with this.
    At least three decisions on the go:
    1. It is obvious that in a postindustrial, information society, a gel should not be any molecular but informational. If someone does not believe in the information gel, then this is a retrograde and obscurantist or even a Kremlin agent.
    2. You can hear Ilon Mask on this issue, he between the second and third jamb, will tell you how many yards easily and naturally make hyper-cosmic X smoky gel.
    3. If there were technologies, but now they are not, then they were stolen. Hiley-Likely, Kreks-Peks of course Chinese and Russians. Introduce new sanctions.
    4. On Twitter, Trump should write that the Democratic Party is to blame for the attempts at impeachment.

    The fourth paragraph needs to be finalized.
  9. Svetlana
    Svetlana April 4 2020 17: 46 New
    0
    Quote: Operator
    The thermal conductivity is more influenced by nitrogen filling the pores of the airgel / foam,

    To fill the pores of the airgel / foam, it is better to use helium than nitrogen, since helium is more transparent to soft x-rays compared to nitrogen. Through the metal shells surrounding the airgel / polystyrene, the helium from the pores of the airgel / polystyrene also does not diffuse rapidly, like nitrogen, from the inside and outside of the product.
    1. Operator
      Operator April 4 2020 17: 55 New
      +4
      The density of x-ray radiation (pressure per square centimeter) at the time of the explosion of the first plutonium stage is equal to the density of aluminum 2,7 g / square cm. Therefore, the type of gas is not indifferent to the radiation (helium is also possible).

      By the way, because of its lightness and inertness, helium diffuses much better through any obstacles than nitrogen.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 April 4 2020 21: 28 New
        0
        With such a neutron radiation density during an explosion, a thermonuclear charge in a warhead can be fixed using ultrafarf microspheres.
        1. Operator
          Operator April 4 2020 22: 09 New
          0
          The density is not of the neutron flux (speed of 10 thousand kilometers per second), but of X-ray radiation ahead of it (speed of 300 thousand kilometers per second).
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 April 5 2020 00: 22 New
            +1
            Neutron radiation plays the most important role in the thermonuclear reaction - fast neutrons do not participate in x-rays in any way; through their density, at the moment of explosion, they pass through the beryllium reflector - the shell and “squeeze” the capsule with lithium deuteride and uranium.
            1. bk0010
              bk0010 April 5 2020 01: 58 New
              +1
              Compression produces just radiation, massive particles simply would not have time before the assembly decay
              1. Vadim237
                Vadim237 April 5 2020 13: 49 New
                0
                Just a stream of fast neutrons compresses and heats the capsule to 100 million degrees.
            2. Operator
              Operator April 5 2020 13: 12 New
              0
              In a thermonuclear charge, x-ray radiation from the fission reaction of the first plutonium step is used to compress the second step from lithium deuteride, the density and temperature of which as a result of compression becomes sufficient for the synthesis reaction.
              1. Svetlana
                Svetlana April 5 2020 23: 23 New
                0
                Quote: Operator
                X-ray radiation from the fission reaction of the first plutonium stage is used to compress the second stage from lithium deuteride,
                Moreover, it compresses not the pressure of x-ray light 2.7 g / cm2, but the reactive force arising from the evaporation of the inner shell of Be and a heavy metal - an opaque substance. Evaporation of the inner shell - under the influence of x-ray heat
                1. Operator
                  Operator April 6 2020 10: 40 New
                  +2
                  Radiation implosion of the second stage of a thermonuclear charge is carried out due to the complex effect of x-ray radiation (from the explosion of the first stage):
                  - pressure of x-ray radiation per se;
                  - evaporation of the plutonium coating (opaque to x-ray radiation) of the second stage with the occurrence of a reactive force directed inside the assembly of a deuterium-lithium core and a beryllium shell.
      2. Svetlana
        Svetlana April 7 2020 21: 35 New
        0
        Quote: Operator
        equal to the density of aluminum 2,7 g / cmXNUMX

        You have an inaccuracy: the density of aluminum is 2,7 g / cm3 and not per square centimeter. According to the equation of state of the photon gas P = U / 4 = 3/4 * sigma / c * T ^ 2 the density of the photon gas is ro = U / c ^ 10 is equal to the density of aluminum at a photon gas temperature of the order of 8 ^ 10 Kelvin (average photon temperature is 5,67 kiloelectron-volts), where sigma = 10 * 8 ^ (- 2) W / m ^ 4 / K ^ 3, c = 10 * 8 ^ XNUMX m / s
        1. Operator
          Operator April 7 2020 21: 42 New
          0
          I apologize - of course per cubic centimeter (I didn’t count it myself, I took the finished value from the profile treatise).
  10. Out
    Out April 4 2020 18: 30 New
    +2
    On this occasion, I found in LJ such a note about the so-called industrial archeology, any enterprise may encounter this - something on paper, something burned out or decayed, digital media lost and here: https://ved-mara.livejournal.com /135910.html
    1. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A April 4 2020 21: 06 New
      +2
      Quote: Out
      On this occasion, I found in LJ such a note about the so-called industrial archeology, any enterprise may encounter this - something on paper, something burned out or decayed, digital media lost and here: https://ved-mara.livejournal.com /135910.html

      oh ... but in this example. generally lost the plant ...
  11. SovAr238A
    SovAr238A April 4 2020 20: 40 New
    +1
    And where is the "self-taught technologist"
    orionvitt
    и
    Mikhail3
    who persistently prove that technology is not lost, that everything is in patents and so on ...
    They lack an example with NK-32, here is another example with a “smoke-fog strip”.
  12. acetophenon
    acetophenon April 4 2020 22: 01 New
    +7
    After the university, for the first 8 years, I was involved in retro-racemization of amino acids. And if suddenly someone needs it, they will have to have some fun, since there are copyright ones, I wrote them myself, but they are designed to protect rights, and not to reproduce the process.
  13. Fitter65
    Fitter65 April 5 2020 02: 28 New
    +1
    Wow. After all, this is the work of the American assembly team for the maintenance of special products! As far as I remember, it was usually under the heading, but then look, please.
    1. Prole
      Prole 2 July 2020 14: 20 New
      0
      This is what they like to secret with us all that is necessary and not necessary. And then they wonder why we are so backward in something there. It’s necessary to catch up .. and then again to classify
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 2 July 2020 17: 25 New
        0
        Quote: Prole
        This is what they like to secret with us all that is necessary and not necessary. And then they wonder why we are so backward in something there. It’s necessary to catch up .. and then again to classify

        Do you know what is in this picture?
        1. Prole
          Prole 3 July 2020 08: 29 New
          0
          I will assume that the model of the warhead fairing in the training class is laid in the launch container by some hard workers from the USA. Photo taken for a military magazine for propaganda purposes. maybe they get it.
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 4 July 2020 08: 30 New
            0
            Quote: Prole
            I will assume that the model of the warhead fairing in the training class is laid in the launch container by some hard workers from the USA. Photo taken for a military magazine for propaganda purposes. maybe they get it.

            So this is not some kind of propaganda photo, but a photo from the maintenance process or the training process for servicing nuclear weapons.
  14. Protos
    Protos April 6 2020 17: 08 New
    0
    Quote: SovAr238A
    Quote: Zufei
    It’s just not pulling on the head. Production of strategic materials and products without a documented process technology and control operations. According to Stanislavsky: I DO NOT BELIEVE. Desa and cut.


    Our similar example is the NK-32 engines.

    Don't sound those bully
    “In 2016, PJSC Kuznetsov announced that it would resume serial production of NK-32 engines for Tu-160 missile carriers. [8] In the summer of 2017, the NK-32-02 engines of the installation batch were to be tested, [9] in November of the same year, the new Tu-160M2 was handed over for flight tests. [10] In 2018, it is expected to conclude a contract for the serial production of engines. "
    "February 5, 2020, AEX.RU - The production of the NK-32 engines of the second series for the strategic missile carriers Tu-160M ​​and Tu-160M2 is going on as planned, but their progress needs to be accelerated. This was stated by Deputy Minister of Defense Alexei Krivoruchko, TASS reports. .

    "As for the work on NK-32 series 02, the work is proceeding according to the schedule. We will discuss today the measures necessary to accelerate the work on this project," Krivoruchko said during a visit to PJSC Kuznetsov as part of checking the progress of the state defense order 2020 defense industry enterprises. "
    yes
  15. Jager
    Jager 21 June 2020 21: 08 New
    0
    I read the comments ... In my opinion, the first North Korean nuclear bomb was assembled! The guys just went to the Military Review in the comments and carefully took notes soldier
  16. Prole
    Prole 2 July 2020 14: 16 New
    0
    It's probably about x-ray compression of lithium. Nearby, an atomic bomb explodes and the gel maintains lithium pumping in a radiolucent state of zero gravity. And allowed to evenly compress with x-ray irradiation. So the evil heads of the world terrorist community blabbed about the design.