Military Review

Tulunbek Khanum. The only hansh of the Golden Horde

17

Since 1359, the Horde enters into a period of internal strife. Khans and impostors succeed each other with astonishing speed. And the departure of the previous one was invariably accompanied by a bloody massacre. Naturally, against the backdrop of this discord and turmoil, numerous areas (uluses) of the once united empire increasingly declare their independence. This period entered the Russian history called the Great Jam. This bloody time became a springboard for the exaltation of an unprecedented ruler - Hanshi Tulunbek-khanum, whose whole life is shrouded in myths and riddles.


Who are you, the mysterious hansha?


A variety of disputes among historians still go on about the personality of Tulunbek. A stumbling block is even its origin. It is believed that Tulunbek was the daughter of Khan Berdibek. Berdibek was a Genghiside, i.e. a descendant of Genghis Khan. It was his death during the ascension to the throne of the impostor, the "Khan" of Kulp, that laid the foundation for the feud in the Horde.

Proponents of this version believe that only Tulunbek’s belonging to the genus of Genghisides became the reason for Mamai’s marriage to Tulunbek. Mamai, as you know, was an unusually powerful and ambitious person, holding the posts of Temnik (Tumenbashi - a military leader, personally reporting to the khan) and beclarbek (managing the administration of the khan, actually the second person in the Horde). But he could not become a khan because of his origin, so he decided to rule through the puppet - the weak Abdullah Khan, the son of Uzbek Khan, whom he saved. Abdullah Khan became the head of only half of all the possessions of the Horde, because Mamai could not take control of the entire Horde.

However, despite the colossal power, Mamai understood that during the period of civil strife it would be inexpensive, so he decided to reinforce his status with a successful marriage. In addition, candidates for the throne, both Genghisides and non-Genghisides, were more than enough. However, Tulunbek herself, judging by the opinion of some historians, was more than not bad by herself and made a strong impression on men.

Tulunbek Khanum. The only hansh of the Golden Horde

Mom

One way or another, but, relying on the Tulunbek pedigree and his own talent as an intriguer and military leader, Mamai continued to strengthen his power, trying to control the whole empire. In this light, the interpretation of the name Tulunbek-khanum looks very ironic. So, Tulunbek means “the perfect ruler”, and the prefix “khanum” speaks of her title as hanshi.

Hansha or regent?


In 1367, Mamai once again captured the Golden Horde capital Sarai, hoping to put an end to the clutter through his puppet. But already next year a new uprising broke out against Abdullah Khan, i.e. Mom, in the Crimea. Mamai was forced to leave the capital.

As expected, Abdullah Khan almost immediately lost power. And for a whole year, the capital of the powerful Golden Horde walked on the hands of both completely legitimate and simple impostor applicants. Only in 1369, Mamai, who returned from Crimea, recaptured Sarai and returned his protege to the throne. But as luck would have it, Abdullah Khan was not only a weak-willed person, but also could not boast of good health. The nominal ruler of the Golden Horde, which some authors later vaguely called the Mamaev Horde, died in 1370.


Coins of Tulunbek Khanum

The enterprising and powerful Mamaia again faced the question: whom to take to the throne. Of course, Abdullah Khan had offspring in the form of the 8-year-old son of Muhammad Bulak. However, was it reasonable to trust even a nominal power to a young child if even his 30-year-old father could not hold it. And here Tulunbek entered the historical arena again. Having weighed all the pros and cons, Mamai decided nevertheless to elevate Bulak to the throne of the Horde, but with minor status changes.

Both around the origin of Tulunbek, and around its official rank, there is heated debate. On the one hand, Bulak became khan, and Tulunbek from the Genghisids clan became regent. However, researchers were aware of the existence of copper coins minted on behalf of Tulunbek Khanum under the name of pools. At the same time, the pools were minted not only in Sarai, but also in the Ulus of Mohshi, which was once the temporary residence of the Uzbek Khan himself, one of the last fully legitimate rulers of the Golden Horde. Such an honor could not be rendered to a simple regent, which means that the opinion that Tulunbek was just a khan was not only justified, but also materially confirmed.

One way or another, but around 1371, after several military campaigns to strengthen power, Mamai finally declared Bulak khan. Tulunbek again appeared at the margins of world politics, but retained its status, because the pools with her image went throughout the Horde and beyond.

Former Hansha - Loose Change


For several years, the name Tulunbek completely disappears from history. The Great Jamming continued. Good luck began to change Mamaia. In 1372, Urus Khan, the owner of the Sardarya ulus, knocked out a protege of Mamay Bulak from Sarai. Bulak fled to Mamai in the Crimea. Having gathered strength, Mamai only in 1375 returned the throne to Bulak, but not for long. The once omnipotent temnik quarreled with Moscow, sowed strife in its own ranks and did not make out a powerful enemy from the east - Tokhtamysh.


Tokhtamysh

Having suffered a defeat on the Kulikovo field, where the formal khan Bulak was also supposedly killed, Mamai rushed to gather a new army. But at the same time, in 1380, Tokhtamysh, cracking down on the eastern part of the Horde, headed west, hoping to become a khan of the Golden Horde. In the same year, Tokhtamysh defeated Mamai, who was betrayed by his own military leaders.

The reward to the winner went to all the “wives” of Mamai, including Tulunbek, whom the new khan took as his wife. Apparently, Tokhtamysh regarded Tulunbek as a very valuable trophy. In addition, this trophy was of khan's blood, so it could in the future strengthen its legitimacy in order to stop the clutter. And he succeeded. Tokhtamysh restored the Golden Horde.

However, in 1386, Tokhtamysh executed Tulunbek. However, many historians indicate that the execution was a retribution for participation (or suspicion of participation) in the conspiracy. One way or another, but the only woman who flew to the unattainable Golden Horde heights, was deleted from the list of living.

Versions, Versions, Versions ...


Due to the fact that only tiny grains of mentions in the annals and the Golden Horde pools remained in history about Tulunbek, which automatically spoke about the extraordinary significance of this woman in the history of the Horde, there are a great many versions of who was hiding under this name. The above is only average.


A small tablet on the site of the wasteland where once was the capital of the empire

So, according to one version, Tulunbek was the daughter of an influential Bey from the Yashlau clan (clan prince of the Turkic tribe Yashlau) Hadzhibek. And she was not Mamaia’s wife at all. On the contrary, Tulunbek won the heart of Tokhtamysh, who showered his wife with all kinds of gifts and did not think to kill her. Over the years with her beloved spouse, she gave him seven children, including the eldest - Jalal ad-Din-khan.

Another version even says that Tulunbek was ... a man, and the trouble is in spelling and reading the name of the new khan. In this light, Tulunbek becomes another protege of Mamai.

But the most romantic version represents Tulunbek in the form of a true warrior. In this version, the Genghis Tidulek Khanum was the wife of Khan Aziz-sheikh (the Genghisid who ruled in the Horde from 1365 to 1367). When the dear spouse was killed by the conspirators, she managed to survive. Moreover, having gathered strength and allies, the brave Hansha not only punished the impostors and conspirators, but also ascended the throne. And her three-year rule was peaceful and calm, until the next applicant killed the Hansha.

Apparently, the “jam” with the versions will continue much longer than the historical civil strife of the Golden Horde continued ...
Author:
17 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 31 March 2020 06: 02 New
    +5
    Thank. Time is vague and the throne is staggering.
    A copper coin is a weighty argument, but I do not believe that Hanum could be a legitimate sovereign ruler.
    1. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 31 March 2020 08: 47 New
      +5
      Quote: Korsar4
      Copper coin - a weighty argument,

      Was she - she, or was he - he, is unknown, but here is a coin - just her! Horror!
      1. Aleksandr72
        Aleksandr72 31 March 2020 10: 20 New
        +4
        Only copper coins are known on which the name Tulunbek Khanum is minted. But in the same period of time (1370-1371) in the cities of the Golden Horde, silver coins were minted on behalf of Khan Bulak. This is what he should be considered a completely legitimate ruler, who would not stand behind him. Only Genghisides had the right to mint a silver coin in their own name. And the release of copper pools on behalf of Tulunbek-khanum, modern researchers believe that it was an “auxiliary” or “emergency” release, and he can only say that a certain Tulunbek-khanum was the maximum regent under the ruler, or even more likely a “screen "for a real, but not entirely legitimate regent. As is known in the Golden Horde, exchangeable copper coins, unlike silver ones, were not strictly regulated in size and weight, and at the same time were subject to obligatory exchange for new ones during circulation.
        In addition, Tulunbek-Khatun was not the only female ruler (and this is far from a fact) in the Golden Horde. It is well known that in 1256-1257, the regent of ulus Juchi, after the death of Batu Khan and his son and heir Sartak, under the young Khan Ulagchi (son of Sartak and grandson of Batu) was the eldest wife of Batu Khan Borakchin Khatun (this is what the title sounds Khan’s wife, not Khanum, which in the East most often means respectful treatment of a woman, including of high descent). However, after the death of Ulagchi, Khan Berke came to power in the Horde, who executed Borakchin-Khatun for organizing and participating in a conspiracy against his "holy" person.
        In the history of the Mongol Khanate there was another woman-Khatun. become regent. The truth is not in the Golden Horde, but in the capital of all the Mongols - Karakorum. After the death of Khan Guyuk in 1248, his widow Khatun Ogul-Gaimysh (Ogul-Kaimish) became the regent of the state. Until in 1251 a new Khan Munke, who, fearing a very real conspiracy on the part of Ogul-Gaimysh and her sons, was elected in Kurultai, he organized an investigation followed by a demonstration court, by the judgment of which the former regent was traditionally accused of witchcraft and also traditionally executed - she was wrapped up in a nightmare and drowned (the law prohibited the shedding of the blood of Genghisides and they were executed without spilling it).
  2. Talgarets
    Talgarets 31 March 2020 06: 25 New
    +1
    However, the researchers were aware of the existence of copper coins minted on behalf of Tulunbek Khanum under the name of pools

    A curious fact. In the Muslim world, as far as I know, only an independent ruler could mint a coin. If any emir began to issue his money, this was considered a declaration of his independence.
    1. Hyperborean
      Hyperborean 31 March 2020 09: 08 New
      +1
      In any world, coin production is a declaration of independence.
      1. Talgarets
        Talgarets 31 March 2020 10: 56 New
        +1
        Not really. In medieval Europe, until a certain period, feudal lords and cities could mint their coin.
        In the east, if Tulunbek-khanum minted his coin, then she declares that she is the supreme ruler in her territory. Above her bosses are not.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 31 March 2020 18: 31 New
        +2
        Or at least about ambition. For example, Kaledin printed his money, the so-called "bells", with the image of the King of the bell. Kolchak printed his money, but they were not heads of sovereign states
  3. Boozer
    Boozer 31 March 2020 10: 01 New
    +1
    Tulunbek hanym .... Male name, female title .... Maybe it was a woman, the wife of a man named Tulunbek? I mean in Russian - the wife of Tulunbek? ...
  4. knn54
    knn54 31 March 2020 10: 16 New
    +1
    I think that she was the daughter of Berdibek Khan, the LAST legitimate khan on the throne of the Golden Horde, who inherited power .. The emirs would simply not have recognized another.
    Mamai also had the title “titi”, or, as the Genoese-lo Titano said, the Horde governor in Crimea. This reflected the status of Mamai on the peninsula.
    1. rich
      rich 31 March 2020 11: 31 New
      +2
      Tokhtamysh defeated Mamai, who was betrayed by his own generals.
      The reward to the winner went to all the “wives” of Mamai, including Tulunbek, whom the new khan took as his wife. Apparently, Tokhtamysh regarded Tulunbek as a very valuable trophy. In addition, this trophy was of khan's blood, so it could in the future strengthen its legitimacy in order to stop the clutter. And he succeeded. Tokhtamysh restored the Golden Horde.

      In 1386 a conspiracy was drawn up against Tokhtamysh, about which little information has been preserved. It is known that conspirators issued coins with the name of Khan Berdibek
      It is also known that the conspiracy was suppressed by Tokhtamysh, and that the khan executed his wife Tulunbek. . Probably, a conspiracy was drawn up against Tokhtamysh with the aim of replacing him on the throne with a descendant of Batu, former members of Mamaia headed by his widow could become its participants. Some participants in this conspiracy led by the Mangyt emir Idigu fled to Maverannahr, to the emir Timur, who began to willingly accept (earlier he supported Tokhtamysh) horde emigrants who were not happy with Tokhtamysh Khan.
      1. rich
        rich 31 March 2020 11: 38 New
        +3
        Thank you, Sergey. The forum again pleased with an interesting article
  5. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 31 March 2020 15: 49 New
    +9
    Not for the first time I want to note the superficiality of the author's study of materials for the article. The blind trust of Wikipedia, which is good only for the initial stage of the study - to get a general picture and an initial list of literature on the issue of interest - let the author down, as many have let down before.
    Proponents of this version believe that only Tulunbek’s belonging to the genus of Genghisides became the reason for Mamai’s marriage to Tulunbek. Mamai, as you know, was an unusually powerful and ambitious person, holding the posts of Temnik (Tumenbashi - a military leader, personally reporting to the Khan) and beclarbek (managing the administration of the Khan, actually the second person in the Horde).

    Momai understood that during the period of civil strife, it would be inexpensive, so he decided to reinforce his status with a successful marriage.

    Mamai married Tulunbek when she was just the granddaughter of the acting Khan Dzhanibek and he was then still a very young man - about 20 years old. His exaltation began only during the reign of Berdibek, the son of Janibek and the father of his wife - from 1357, when Mamay himself was about 25 years old.
    Abdullah Khan, the son of Uzbek Khan rescued by him.

    Uzbek (father of Dzhanibek, grandfather of Berdibek and great-grandfather of Tulunbek) died in 1341, at the same time there was a massacre among his sons. Mom in that year was no more than 8-10 years old. Who could he save at that age? Abdullah theoretically could be the son of Uzbek (born in the year of the latter’s death), but precisely that he “could be” and not “was” (it is likely that this was an impostor like Grishka Otrepyev, why he did not enjoy authority in the steppe), but Mamai certainly could not have any relation to his salvation from the massacre arranged by the Janibek brothers.
    Uzbek Khan, one of the last fully legitimate rulers of the Golden Horde

    The Uzbek died in 1341. After him, his son Janibek ruled for 15 years, then his grandson Berdibek. Well ... in general, yes, one of the last, but somehow it hurts for such an assertion to take a big stretch - in almost twenty years, especially when you consider that Uzbekistan himself ruled for almost thirty years.
    This is just what lies on the surface itself. I didn’t dig deeper.
    Thanks to the author even for not calling Uzbek and his descendants batuids, as Wikipedia does. Rod Batu stopped on his grandson. Subsequent khans came from his brother Burke. It is more correct to call them Juchids.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 31 March 2020 18: 25 New
      +1
      Michael, are you not afraid that the author might be offended? Joke
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 31 March 2020 18: 35 New
        +1
        Quote: Astra wild
        the author may be offended

        Is it possible to be offended by constructive criticism? smile
        The author is a man, I believe, not stupid, so there is every reason to believe that he will take criticism correctly and will approach his future creations more responsibly.
        Well, if, like Samsonov, everything is like water off a duck, then ... it’s very sorry, but I can’t help in this case.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 31 March 2020 19: 26 New
          +1
          Good evening Michael, Oh, and you have a character: be sure to bite someone.
          However, according to Samsonov, 100% agree. He has "creations" still those
  6. Astra wild
    Astra wild 31 March 2020 18: 19 New
    +1
    "the only woman soaring to the unattainable Golden Horde heights" like Icarus?
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 31 March 2020 19: 20 New
    0
    "besides this trophy was of khan's blood" - more precisely from Genghisides. Tulunbek Khanum became a challenge cup. To a certain extent, such a "prize" was Taydula