Krasnodar, 1942. Occupation through eyewitnesses

Krasnodar, 1942. Occupation through eyewitnesses

German units on the background of a burning tank farm in Krasnodar. 1942 year


On a hot day on August 9, 1942, our troops left Krasnodar in a hurry and retreated beyond the Kuban, towards the foothills of the Hot Key. The construction of the defensive fortifications of the city did not have time to finish when the German motorized units broke through the front and advanced to the outskirts of the city. Over Krasnodar, high in the sky, covering the sun, clouds of black smoke rose from the burning tank farm. The distorted remains of the blown up railway bridge over the Kuban River pounded angrily on the supports nearby. The city elevator was burning with grain that did not reach the enemy. The city froze in suspense.

It so happened that my parents at that time remained in Krasnodar, unable to evacuate. They saw everything with their own eyes, experienced those events that forever engraved in their childhood memory.

To convey the full picture of what is happening, I supplemented their stories with known facts.

Feat of Stepan Perederiya



The 56th army, which included the 1195th mixed artillery regiment of the reserve of the High Command, in which the Red Army soldier Stepan Dmitrievich Perederi fought, restrained the enemy’s summer offensive near Rostov-on-Don. In July 1942, the army moved south, where it participated in defensive battles near Krasnodar. Motorized units of the enemy were moving along the heels of our retreating units, trying to catch up, surround and destroy the main forces of the Red Army. The construction of urban defensive fortifications did not have time to complete. To avoid unnecessary losses, a difficult decision was made to leave the regional center. But they also didn’t have time to transport everyone to the Kuban. The Germans sought to cut off the retreating units, capturing the Yablonovsky bridge and the Pashkovskaya crossing, in order to cross the Kuban on the move and defeat the retreating army.

Wilhelm Tike in his book “March to the Caucasus. The battle for oil 1942-1943. " will write:

“The battle for Krasnodar began in the morning. The rearguards of the 56th Army, skillfully operating in gardens and city blocks, fought for time gain. They needed to ensure the withdrawal of columns of Soviet troops along bridges beyond the Kuban. Large warehouses of military property, food and fuel were taken out or set on fire. On August XNUMX, German radio announced: “Today, Krasnodar was captured by our troops ...” But this was only half true. The eastern suburbs of Pashkovskaya were still stubbornly defended by the Soviet units. Numerous Soviet columns continued to cross the bridge across the bridge. ”


My father, Viktor Ivanovich Kantemirov, recalled how he saw on the street on the morning of August 9 that two army trucks ZIS-5 were moving from the north-western outskirts towards the center of Krasnodar. The first car, with the military in the back, drove on, and the second, with a 45 mm anti-tank gun attached to it from behind, stopped at the intersection of the former Lugovoi Street and the Barracks Lane. The tall and broad-shouldered driver unhooked the gun and began to unload shells from the body. This Red Army soldier was a 33-year-old tractor driver from the village of Ivanovskaya Stepan Dmitrievich Perederiy. Several other local big-eyed boys appeared immediately and began to help carry boxes with shells and hastily equip a firing position. Together with my father were his peers, 14-15-year-old boys Nikolai Koval, Fedor Sychev, Alexander Repalov.

Soon the sound of approaching technology was heard. Quickly thanking the boys for their help, Stepan strictly ordered them to go home, and drove the first shell into the cannon. But where is it, the guys just managed to take cover nearby in the trench, when a shot crashed. They did not think to run away. From their shelter the boys did not see the whole picture of the battle. As they later wrote in various articles, that there was an armored car, motorcyclists with machine guns and Tanks. Although both my father and Nikolai Koval talked about two German tanks. The gun hit direct fire, and the first shot hit German technology. The gunner fired non-stop, his "forty-five" could produce up to 20 rounds per minute. Armor-piercing shells gave way to high-explosive fragmentation, according to infantry. The machine gun was also used. The Germans were stunned to run into such a furious rebuff. They could not know that only one man was fighting against them.

In moments of calm the boys brought shells. It is believed that an unequal battle lasted more than three hours, but for the boys the time seemed to stop. And when tanks appeared on the street, a deadly duel began. Stepan managed to knock out one tank, but his gun was damaged in return shots. The gunner was thrown back by the explosion - shell-shocked. Then he jumped into the car and was already leaving when he was overtaken by a shot from the second tank. My father saw a dead gunner fall to the ground from a broken cab of a stopped truck with a bloodied wound in his side. The Germans, astounded by the courage of our fighter, allowed local women to pick him up and bury him. A letter was found in his pocket to his wife, who remained in Ivanovo with three children:

“Masha, don’t worry. I am alive and well, victory will still be ours, a kiss for me children. "

At the place where Stepan Perederiy was buried, there was a tablet on which someone had drawn with a chemical pencil: "Here lies a Russian soldier from Ivanovka." After the war, it was possible to establish the name of the hero and rebury him in his native village of Ivanovo.

For this feat, Stepan Dmitrievich Perederi was awarded posthumously the Order of the Red Banner.


My father near the monument to Stepan Perederey, installed at the battlefield

The occupation of Krasnodar


During the German occupation of Krasnodar, my father and local guys obtained important information about the location of German technology in the city for the Krasnodar underground. Using their intelligence data, our night bombers inflicted airstrikes. And in the afternoon he, lying on the roof of the barn, watched numerous air battles that took place in the sky above the city. Then he dreamed of becoming a pilot in order to take revenge on the fascists who ruled in the city. At the Dynamo city stadium, surrounded by a barbed wire fence, they held our prisoners. Father said that the German soldiers passing along their street looked with interest at the wooden gates of their house along Artilleriyskaya Street. At the gate, with the help of a magnifying glass, he burned the Aurora cruiser the previous summer.


Kantemirov family. My grandfather served as a nurse in the 36th Red Banner Plastun Regiment, part of the 18th Army. After the hospital (a wound to his lower leg) he arrived home for a visit. Victor in the helmet of a pilot stands behind him. 1943

My mother, Inna Ivanovna, was also in Krasnodar at that time. Grandfather went to the front, and grandmother remained in the city occupied by the Nazis alone with three daughters. Mom was then three years old, the older sister Alla was eleven, and the younger sister Elea was only a year old. A Romanian officer settled in their house, and he “graciously permitted” his grandmother to dig a dugout in the yard with his children and live there. Mom was then in the hospital when one of the staff warned her grandmother to be taken away from there urgently. In the morning, a "gas chamber" drove up to the hospital and took all the patients to the outskirts of the city, where their bodies were thrown into a deep ditch beyond Chistyakovskaya Grove and buried. Under the guise of a regular bus with simulated windows in these "death machines", exhaust fumes poisoned people in a closed box. If mom stayed in the hospital, do not write me these lines ...


Podgorny family from left to right: little Elvira, Alla (behind), their mother Nadezhda Nikolaevna and my mother Inna. 1945

The occupation lasted nine months, until the Red Army entered the city again. A terrible find on the outskirts of the city was discovered after the liberation of the city from the Nazis. And my mother told me how during the war they were robbed, stealing all grocery cards with things. As a grandmother walked from the city on foot for 40 kilometers to neighboring villages and exchanged the remaining things for food.

Father told how as a boy he collected his own collection of live ammunition and could identify the type of ammunition and the country of origin from the marking. Not only Germany, but also Romania, Italy, and almost all of Europe supplied the Nazis with ammunition. Together with the same boys, at his own peril and risk, he dismantled some mines with a clockwork abandoned by the Germans. We agreed so that if the mechanism suddenly starts, then you need to have time to throw a mine over an earthen mound. Desperate games with death were not just fun. The guys handed over the removed mechanism to the watchmakers for parts that paid them something. While their fathers fought, the sons procured food for their family.

In 1944, his father turned 17 years old, and he went from Krasnodar to the Western Front to catch up with the advancing units of the Red Army, but this is another история.


Forty-gun on the battle march



Map of the fighting in August 1942


And some more archive photos:


German mechanized units in the fields near Krasnodar. 1942





German mechanized units near the Krasnodar-1 station. 1942



The blown up Yablonovsky railway bridge across the Kuban river



German aerial photography of Krasnodar. Visible smoke from a burning tank farm. 1942



The Germans on the street Krasnaya. Center of Krasnodar. 1942



Damaged German tank on the outskirts of Krasnodar
Author:
Photos used:
author’s family archive, myekaterinodar.ru, forums.kuban.ru
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  1. Ingvar 72 30 March 2020 08: 29 New
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    Great article! Thank you Victor!
  2. Same lech 30 March 2020 08: 30 New
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    Thanks Victor for the article and the photos. hi .
    Such stories help us preserve the history of our people.
    1. Shelest2000 30 March 2020 11: 59 New
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      And then in Krasnodar they were fairly distributed "to all sisters by earrings."
  3. The leader of the Redskins 30 March 2020 08: 34 New
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    Thanks for the story. What a touching feat, proving that there is one warrior in the field ... It’s hard to believe such people when they are shown in the movies, but you have no doubt when all this is told by a loved one.
    1. knn54 30 March 2020 12: 33 New
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      "And one warrior in the field, if he is tailored in Russian"!
  4. Vladimir_2U 30 March 2020 09: 16 New
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    Nazi creatures, they did not sit in their gad Europe.
  5. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 09: 40 New
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    Photos - already goosebumps. Yablunovsk bridge and Krasnaya Gymnasium from me within walking distance ..
    1. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 09: 53 New
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      Albert, did the policeman- "traffic controller" notice? Critters.
      And for the Red, tram tracks. They say that after the war, overnight, the roads were transferred to the Communards.
      1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 10: 26 New
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        Greetings! hi
        Only after your message drew attention to the tram tracks)).
        About Politsay - they were hanged in the 44th where now the Regional Court and the monument to Pushkin. The wife’s grandfather survived the occupation by a child, told how they blocked the roads from the villages to Novoros, from the townspeople who exchanged food, they collected “tax”, dodges
        1. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 10: 57 New
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          This is the first thing. The second in 1963.
          1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 12: 00 New
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            It will be necessary to read - I did not hear about the second
            1. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 12: 58 New
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              How? The famous Krasnodar affair? I remember when I was a young man - this was shown on TV on television under the USSR.
              1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 13: 25 New
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                Now I read I was born in 1976))
  6. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 09: 50 New
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    Victor, thanks, I remembered my mother, her stories for life in the occupation (8 months), a month less than Krasnodar, the village of Ladoga. By the way, for the murderers, my mother also told me that we saw them in the village.
    1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 10: 27 New
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      Their first application in Krasnodar was
      1. Zaurbek 30 March 2020 12: 03 New
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        Their first application was in the USSR .... He applied the Jewish rationalizer to the NKVD. But mass Germans in Krasnodar.
        1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 12: 17 New
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          Where can I read more about this - are there any links?
          1. Zaurbek 30 March 2020 13: 23 New
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            https://warhead.su/2020/02/05/gazenvagen-sovetskiy-mif-i-natsistskaya-istoriya
            1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 13: 31 New
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              Thirty years ago, the myth appeared that the USSR was the first to invent and use the "gas chamber". Allegedly, the Nazi Reich just borrowed this invention. What really happened and how gazenvagen was created is in our material.

              This is a quote from an article that you provided a link to. Please read the article itself. hi
              1. Zaurbek 30 March 2020 13: 36 New
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                Their mass ... is without such a reservation ....
                1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 13: 48 New
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                  published in 1995, the head of the militia of the Ivanovo region M.P. Shreider: “A closed car arrived at the place of execution, all the convicts were dragged out of the cars almost in an unconscious state. On the way, they were stupefied and almost poisoned by exhaust fumes specially allocated through a special wire to a closed truck body. ” After brought, they were taken out and shot at a specially equipped place. Finally, the oddities went with quoting the case of Berg himself. It was alleged, for example, that at one time the "red gazenvagen" immediately strangled 50 people and more.

                  The development is attributed to a certain Isaiah Berg
                  Next
                  [The memories of Schrader indicate that in the Union (probably not only in it), they understood the principle. And at the same time they show what forms the initiative can take on the ground, if it is not limited.
                  But the creation of a killing machine requires engineering calculations. The manager Berg may have been a nugget inventor, but left no technical calculations and schemes. And questions remain.
                  What and how were gas-tight enclosures for trucks built from? How did the engine design change, which gas cylinders were used? No source reports this. But what is it: those who talked about the “Berg case” confused carbon monoxide (CO) and car exhaust, thinking that it was the same thing.
                  And then - where did the NKVD find such a huge number of three-, four- and six-ton ​​trucks to put on stream traffic poisoning with 50 or more people?

                  Further there is evidence that Berg was the head of the district department of the NKVD in the city of Vereya - a small fry and not a fig not Kulibin

                  Murder in a Coffee Van
                  Of course, the Nazis even without the USSR knew about the possibility of poisoning prisoners with carbon monoxide.
                  The use of various means to cleanse the German race from inferior elements was discussed immediately after the Nazis came to power. In September 1939, the specialized Institute of Forensic Technology (ICT), which was directly subordinate to the RSHA, reported to the top leadership of the Reich and the SS that carbon monoxide was the best means of destroying "inferior" individuals.
                  In Polish Poznan on October 9, 1939, several mentally ill people were killed with the help of carbon monoxide, which was pumped into the room where they were locked. This method of killing was again tested on October 12 - and again successfully, after which carbon monoxide was most widely used in the framework of the Nazi euthanasia program T-4.

                  And this is already on the topic
                  In conclusion:
                  [The exact number of victims killed with gazenvagena is unknown. The numbers are called different: 300-700 thousand people. The method of killing, even for the Reich, required almost a year of work by technical specialists - from chemists to engineers. The gazenwagens themselves were served by a whole institute - the SS men were not trusted, they still would break the wunderwafel.
                  But for the USSR in 1937-1938, such a machine, or even just something like that, was technically unrealistic.
                  1. Zaurbek 30 March 2020 15: 18 New
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                    What is a complicated design with an Euro-50 engine? And what is a complex box without windows?
                    1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 15: 31 New
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                      Please read the full article
        2. avdkrd April 1 2020 04: 40 New
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          Zaurbek, dirty manipulation, characterizes the source. Isn’t you tired of pulling an owl on the globe? Goebbels apprentice?
    2. Katran 30 March 2020 10: 43 New
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      It’s good that people remember that! But I didn’t know that “gas chambers” were jackals around the villages, creatures ... I remember how my father walked me along the Chistyakovskaya (Pervomaiskaya) grove, then the memorial to the townspeople tortured by the Nazis was just starting to build, the land was bulldozed. So we found a small mortar mine turned out of the ground, without a fuse. And in some old oaks there are hammered nails driven by the Germans. In the area of ​​the station for youngsters, we captured trophy sleeves and bullets in our childhood after plowing the land.
      Bati is gone, he died in 2015. in the Krasnodar military hospital. Mom lives with us, she is already over 80.
      1. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 10: 55 New
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        And I did not know that the "gas chamber" and jacked the villages

        Mom told me she was 9 years old. At first, the children did not understand when the car was driving through the streets, the parents drove the children into the yards. "National Telegraph". Whether they were used in our village - I won’t lie, I don’t know. But they went.
      2. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 11: 03 New
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        And I also remember from the stories - German officers lived in their house at a standstill. Grandmother with three children and her mother (great-grandmother) lived in the basement. In the house, in closets, things were stored, including the things of his great-grandfather (he was repressed), his handkerchiefs. The Germans wiped them ... Grandmother with great-grandmother, picked up, lined up and hid as a memory of great-grandfather.
      3. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 12: 02 New
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        Quote: Katran
        It’s good that people remember that! But I didn’t know that “gas chambers” were jackals around the villages, creatures ... I remember how my father walked me along the Chistyakovskaya (Pervomaiskaya) grove, then the memorial to the townspeople tortured by the Nazis was just starting to build, the land was bulldozed. So we found a small mortar mine turned out of the ground, without a fuse. And in some old oaks there are hammered nails driven by the Germans. In the area of ​​the station for youngsters, we captured trophy sleeves and bullets in our childhood after plowing the land.
        Bati is gone, he died in 2015. in the Krasnodar military hospital. Mom lives with us, she is already over 80.

        Bright Memory, mom live to 120!
        About the village also did not hear
  7. Grim Reaper 30 March 2020 11: 24 New
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    Uv.Victor. My father just fell under this "distribution" the village of Otradnaya. There is a photo, and how he managed to escape from the train and how he lived with the Poles for six months, that he was sheltered by a 14-year-old. But who needs this this hour?
    1. Katran 30 March 2020 11: 40 New
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      First of all, we descendants need this. From such personal memories, the whole mosaic of what happened during that war is hiding. Not a common opinion from the media, but everyone has their own, objective.
      We know that history repeats itself for those who have not learned its lessons.
      1. Grim Reaper 30 March 2020 15: 08 New
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        Only these are the memories of my dad. What left in 1995. Like my mother 1925-2006.
        Yes, only these memories are valuable to me. Not even for children.
        They do not take it seriously.
        1. Katran 30 March 2020 18: 37 New
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          Yes, do not live by the principle of "I know a lot, but I will not say anything." I know that it is difficult for us to communicate with modern children, the very same problem. But we need to be a personal example for them, and if we keep the memory of our fathers, then the children should absorb it from us. But if we are brought up not by us and not in those lessons, then it will be just as bad as in the neighboring country.
          1. Grim Reaper 31 March 2020 00: 19 New
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            I'm talking about the fact that the current generation, which has already taken place completely, refers to the Second World War, as a beautiful fairy tale. "My grandfather fought, wet the Fritz." I have a son 29, daughter 25, brought up as I could. They certainly will not, as in a neighboring state. Nevertheless, the theme of the Second World War is not perceived as I am. However, I also do not perceive Borodino as my ancestors .....
            1. Katran 31 March 2020 09: 32 New
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              I have a daughter 20, and also missed a little ... He went to work - she was still sleeping, and when she returned - she was already sleeping. Yes, the Second World War for them is somewhere very far away, but she even saw her grandfather in orders and medals and grew up a normal little man.
              1. Okolotochny 31 March 2020 10: 31 New
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                Wow! Order of Kutuzov or Suvorov? The military commanders were awarded them.
                1. Katran 31 March 2020 11: 20 New
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                  No)) This is a commemorative sign "Marshal G.K. Zhukov" 1896-1996, released to the 100th anniversary of the great commander. This is a painting by Krasnodar artist Biryukov Vasily Ilyich, in a series of portraits of Cossacks KKV
          2. Grim Reaper 31 March 2020 00: 37 New
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            And let’s go if it’s gone. Here, on the topwar, movies are often recalled. But here it is somehow selective. But why no one remembered the fate of man? Why didn’t anyone remember the Great Patriotic War series ???
            1. Katran 31 March 2020 09: 46 New
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              We remember them with you. Good movies, with bitter truth. Their mass media do not show, but why do the unnecessary thoughts for the generation of consumers. I will supplement the list of "Hot Snow", "They Fought for the Homeland," "Father of a Soldier," "How Steel Was Tempered," and "Red Diplomatic Couriers." It's easier to show "Elusive Avengers" - a game action game on the theme of red against white.
              1. Grim Reaper 31 March 2020 12: 17 New
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                We remember that. Yes.
              2. Grim Reaper 31 March 2020 12: 27 New
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                Exactly, kurva mother ...
              3. Grim Reaper April 1 2020 10: 17 New
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                That's for "How steel was tempered," I will kiss you on both cheeks. Do not get it wrong.
                From SW.
                1. Katran April 1 2020 15: 06 New
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                  Well, not so you and "gloomy" good
                  Talk more often with normal people and everything will be fine. yes Palagin Sergei Vyacheslavovich, Hero of Russia, you probably know? So I am proud that I know him personally. He is a real Hero and a wonderful person.
                  Read about it in my 2 articles here on VO, if you have not read it yet:
                  The same "Brother" и That same "Brother". Star of Hero of Russia
                  1. Grim Reaper April 1 2020 15: 36 New
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                    Uv Victor. I unfortunately go to the topvar only from a smartphone. Which sharply limits me in terms of communication.
                    If it’s not difficult for you, [email protected]
                  2. Grim Reaper April 2 2020 00: 51 New
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                    Uv Victor. I read many of your articles with interest. Thank you for prompting. Alas, Palagina S.V. I didn’t know before I read it. It's a shame. Thank you for prompting.
                  3. Grim Reaper April 2 2020 01: 00 New
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                    Most of all I liked "Why should a man sword" Everything, I will not bore you anymore. I'm leaving, I'm leaving, I'm leaving ..... smile
                    1. Katran April 2 2020 10: 16 New
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                      Thank! We work for you, we collect all the most interesting. You write in a personal, if that hi
            2. Okolotochny 31 March 2020 10: 24 New
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              remembered the series Great Patriotic ???

              The kid watched without stopping the documentary series of Roman Carmen "The Great Patriotic War", showed on weekends.
              1. Grim Reaper 31 March 2020 12: 19 New
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                Shown by May 9th.
        2. polar fox April 1 2020 23: 14 New
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          Quote: Grim Reaper
          Not even for children.
          They do not take it seriously.

          I don’t agree ... they perceive it, and how! Then they begin to take an interest in their grandfathers and fuss. The main thing is to affect their interests.
          1. Grim Reaper April 2 2020 00: 39 New
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            Interested in. But, you must admit, be interested in and perceive two big differences. I also can’t imagine what my parents survived. I understand intellectually that they drank to the fullest. But I can’t imagine. I did not survive all these years. And thank God. And the children, too, did not see this, only in the movies. But you don’t feel it yourself. Do not need.
            From SW.
  8. parusnik 30 March 2020 11: 42 New
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    The policeman is a traffic controller ... how many of them got out during the occupation ..
    1. Krasnodar 30 March 2020 12: 05 New
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      There is no intersection - just Germans like guarded, those most likely drove up to some headquarters. Now on this side of the building is the edge of the administration, then probably there was also something administrative.
    2. Grim Reaper April 2 2020 00: 41 New
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      Quote: parusnik
      The policeman is a traffic controller ... how many of them got out during the occupation ..

      And then to Canada.
  9. Zaurbek 30 March 2020 12: 01 New
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    The tank farm there now ... on the site of the blown up bridge began to build a second Yablonovsky bridge.
    1. Okolotochny 30 March 2020 22: 12 New
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      I’ll clarify hi , this is not a tank farm, but the Krasnodar refinery.
  10. bubalik 30 March 2020 14: 04 New
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    Thanks to the author hi
  11. georggy 30 March 2020 17: 20 New
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    Glory to the Hero!
    Eternal memory to the fallen!
  12. avia12005 31 March 2020 21: 04 New
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    How many such lonely artillery heroes with forty-five perished, covering the retreat of the comrades. Sergeant Sirotinin, now Peredery ... And our filmmakers, instead of making films about such heroes, rivet a different mess that is impossible to watch. Oh ...
  13. AndreyT April 4 2020 16: 54 New
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    Thanks, Victor. As always interesting.
  14. demo April 13 2020 13: 32 New
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    In the mid-50s, my father was sent to Krasnodar to work from Rostov.
    By this time he had graduated after having won 4 years and having served 4 more years in the army, school (volunteered for 16 years), evening technical school and entered the correspondence institute in the city of Moscow.
    In Krasnodar he was hired by the chief mechanic in a construction organization.
    The task was to start laying temporary water supply along Babushkina Street.
    One day the phone rings and the bulldozer says hysterically that when moving the soil he opened a burial place, which was not on any maps.
    Urgent father leaves for the address.
    It turned out to be the intersection of Babushkin and Kotovsky streets.
    He later told me that under a layer of earth of 20-30 cm are half-decomposed people.
    Women and men, old people and children.
    Police were called, representatives of the prosecutor's office and the MGB arrived.
    The work was suspended.
    Took readings.
    It turned out that this is the place of execution of Jews - residents of Krasnodar, who remained in the city during the occupation.
    Father fought long enough, seen enough deaths.
    But at that moment, he says, give a gun to your hands and say who was to blame, he would have shot to hell. And the hand would not flinch.
    Then my father was instructed to create a small churchyard and bury people according to all the rules.

    Now there is a small Jewish cemetery on this place.
    But for no apparent reason, our local Jews are not very caring for him.
    1. Katran April 14 2020 18: 32 New
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      Yes, I know this place. There, part of the cemetery was occupied by the Krasnodar NESK under the auto fleet. The deceased were compactly reburied back in the 80s. And they do not care, so probably there were no relatives left, and those who stayed left the city or country.
  15. nalogoplatelschik 9 June 2020 12: 24 New
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    I want to cry.