Algerian pirate against Rear Admiral Ushakov and Russian corsair Kachioni


Willem van de Velde the Younger. The battle between the English ship and the Barbary pirates on boats


The fierce confrontation of the Christian states of Europe with the Barbary pirates, which was described in previous articles, continued throughout the XVII century. At that time, the Maghreb corsairs were already active in the Atlantic Ocean, raiding the shores of Britain, Ireland, Iceland, the Canary Islands and the island of Madeira. In the article "European Corsairs of the Islamic Maghreb" we talked about the “exploits” of Simon de Dancer and Peter Easton who marched over Gibraltar, the expeditions of Murat Reis the Younger to the shores of Iceland, Ireland and England. But there were others. In 1645, a renegade from Cornwall even visited his hometown - only to capture several hundred prisoners, including 200 women. Pirates from Sale also captured ships of European immigrants sailing to the shores of America. So, in 1636 the ship “Little David” became their prey, on which 50 men and 7 women headed for Virginia. And on October 16, 1670, 40 men and 4 women were captured already on a French ship.


Jean Antoine Theodore Guden. Barbary pirate attack on a French ship

The Ottoman Empire was weakening before our eyes, and the rulers of the Maghreb states paid less attention to instructions from Constantinople. Algeria, Tunisia, Tripoli from the Turkish provinces turned into semi-independent pirate states, which claimed to establish their own rules of war on the Mediterranean Sea.

France and the pirate states of Maghreb


At that time, relations between the pirate states of the Maghreb and France sharply worsened, which until then were rather friendly: despite some excesses and constant friction, since 1561, a flourishing French trading post existed on the border of Algeria and Tunisia, in which purchase operations were quite legal looted goods. However, times have changed, and the French were forced to seek alliance with their traditional Spanish enemies. In 1609, the Franco-Spanish squadron struck at Goleta, where many Tunisian ships were destroyed. This did not solve the problem of Barbary piracy, and on September 19, 1628 the French signed a peace treaty with Algeria, according to which they pledged to pay an annual tribute of 16 thousand livres. The French trading post resumed operations on the North African coast, and the Maghreb corsairs, including Algerian ones, continued to attack French ships.


XNUMXth century Shebek, model

Not hoping for their own government, one of the "noble" French families launched their own war against pirates. A ship equipped with private funds in 1635 captured two Algerian ships, but that was the end of the battle: in the battle against two corsair ships, to which another five came to help, the French were defeated, captured and sold into slavery. The surviving sailors of that ship returned only after 7 years.

France launched large-scale military operations against the corsairs of the Maghreb during the time of Louis XIV, who organized 9 campaigns against Algeria. During the first of them, in 1681, a squadron of the Marquis de Kufne attacked a pirate base on the Tripolitanian island of Szio: the walls of the fortress were destroyed by bombardment, 14 pirate ships were burned in the harbor.

In 1682, Algerian corsairs captured a French warship, the crew of which was sold into slavery. Admiral Abraham Ducon, in retaliation, attacked Algeria. During the shelling, he used new explosive shells, which caused great damage to the city, but could not capitulate the fortress. His actions in 1683-1684. were more successful: Algeria was now fired at by the mortars of the specially created "bomb galliots."


Bombic galliot in the harbor of Marseille

Day Baba Hassan flinched, began negotiations with Dukon and even released part of the captured French (142 people).


F. Biard. Admiral Ducon frees Christian slaves from captivity after the shelling of Algeria in 1683

But the morale of the defenders of the fortress was very high, they were not going to give up. Hassan's behavior provoked an outburst of indignation in Algeria, and the cowardly day was overthrown. Admiral Ali Metsomorto, who replaced him as ruler of Algeria, informed Ducont that, if the shelling continued, he would order the fortifications to be charged with the French left at his disposal - and he fulfilled his promise: not only the captives, but also the consul had to play the “core” role . The bitterness reached its peak: the city, almost destroyed by Dukonem, held out until the French ships consumed all the shells.

On October 25, 1683, Ducon was forced to take his ships to Toulon. Another admiral managed to force Algeria to peace - de Tourville, who led the French squadron to Algeria in April 1684. With the mediation of the Ambassador of the Ottoman Port, an agreement was concluded according to which the Algerians freed all Christians and paid compensation to French citizens for the lost property.

Algerian pirate against Rear Admiral Ushakov and Russian corsair Kachioni

Eugene Delacroix. Ann Hilarion de Tourville

In 1683 and in 1685 similarly, the French bombarded Tripoli harbor - and also without much success.

The peace agreement with Algeria was already violated in 1686, when attacks on French ships were resumed, and the new consul was arrested and thrown into prison. Tourville, already familiar to us, took his ships to bombard Tripoli in 1687 and defeated the Algerian squadron in a naval battle.


Jean Antoine Theodore Guden. The battle between the French battleship and two galleys of Barbary corsairs

And on the assault of Algeria in 1688, the French fleet was led by Admiral d'Esgret. Here the events of 5 years ago were repeated: the squadron d'Esgre subjected Algeria to destructive bombings, during one of which even Ali Metsomorto was wounded, the Algerians loaded their guns with the French - the consul, two priests, seven captains and 30 sailors were used as cores. D'Esgrez answered with the execution of 17 corsairs, whose bodies he sent on rafts to the city harbor. It was not possible to seize Algeria or force it to surrender this time.

These victories, however, did not have much significance. And the defeat of the French fleet (which was commanded by Tourville) in a naval battle against the English at La Hogue in 1692 led to a new round of confrontation between the Barbarian pirates and France in the Mediterranean.

Actions of the English and Dutch squadrons


In 1620, England, Spain and Holland sent their battle squadrons to the Mediterranean Sea: there were no significant clashes with the ships of the Barbary pirates this year. The British, mainly patrolled the caravan routes. The shelling of Algeria, undertaken by the Spaniards, almost did not cause damage to the fortress. The attack of the English firemen in May 1621 was unsuccessful due to the rain, which helped the Algerians put out the ships that were on fire.

More effective were the actions of the Dutch admiral Lambert, whose squadron came to the Mediterranean Sea in 1624. Each time, capturing a pirate ship, his ships approached Algeria or Tunisia and hung prisoners in the springs in the sight of the city. These psychological attacks, which lasted until 1626, forced Algeria and Tunisia to release the Dutch captives and recognize the merchant ships of this country as neutral.


Live Petersson Vershur. "Dutch ships bombard Tripoli during a punitive expedition against the Barbary pirates"


G. Cornelius. Dutch ship rams galley

In 1637, an English squadron blocked the port of Sale in Morocco: 12 pirate ships were destroyed and an agreement was reached on the release of 348 Christian slaves.

In 1655, the British managed to burn 9 corsair ships in the Tunisian harbor of Porto Farina, but in Tunisia and Algeria, English prisoners had to be redeemed, spending £ 2700 on this.

In 1663, a significant event took place: the government of the Ottoman Port officially authorized the British to carry out punitive operations against Algerian pirates, thereby, in fact, recognizing Algeria's non-control of the power of the Sultan. And in 1670, an allied Anglo-Dutch squadron under the command of the Duke of York (future King James II) at the battle of Cape Sparel (Spartel - about 10 km from the city of Tangier) destroyed seven large pirate ships, four of which were 44-gun.


Peter Lely. Portrait of King James II Stuart

The following year, a new British squadron burned seven more ships, one of which was the commander in chief of the Algerian fleet. The corsairs of this state temporarily weakened the onslaught, but the pirates of Tunisia and Tripoli continued to host the Mediterranean. In 1675, the squadron of Admiral Narbro bombarded Tripoli and burned four ships, which forced the Pasha of this city to agree to pay British merchants compensation in the amount of 18 thousand pounds. But by this time, Algerians, who in 1677-1680, had restored their activity. captured 153 British merchant ships. The attacks were carried out until 1695, when the squadron of Captain Beach ravaged the coast of Algeria, destroying 5 ships and forcing the local Pasha to conclude another agreement.

Barbary Pirates in the XNUMXth Century


At the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries, relations between the Islamic states of the Maghreb escalated. This has caused several wars. In 1705, Algerian dei Haji Mustafa attacked Tunisia and defeated the army of the local Bey Ibrahim, but could not take the city (Tunisia was subordinated to Algeria in 1755). And in 1708, Algerians repelled Oran from the Spaniards.

In 1710, three thousand Turks were killed in Algeria, and in 1711 the last Ottoman governor was expelled to Constantinople - Algeria, in fact, became an independent state governed by the deeds chosen by the Janissaries.

Meanwhile, the qualitative composition of the military fleets of European states has been steadily changing. The galleys were replaced by large sailing ships, on which the labor of rowers was no longer used. Earlier than all, galleys in Spain ceased to be used - in the 20s of the 1748th century. In France, the last galleys were decommissioned in XNUMX. The sailing and rowing vessels still used the Islamic states of Maghreb and Venice, which until the end of the XNUMXth century kept a galley squadron on the island of Corfu.


Shipbuilding in Venice


Spanish ship construction

And in the Islamic states of the "Barbarian Coast" at this time, one could observe some degradation of the combat fleet. In Algeria, for example, the number of large sailing ships, of which there were quite a lot in the XNUMXth century, decreased. Now the basis of the combat fleet was small sailing-rowing kicks, shebeks and galliots, perfectly adapted to actions in coastal waters, but unsuitable for swimming in the ocean.


Spanish pink next to a three-masted Danish ship


Mediterranean Shebek, 1796


Genoese Shebek


Spanish shebek (center) attacks 2 Algerian galliots, 1738

Thus, the fleet of Algeria in 1676 consisted of two 50-gun ships, five 40-guns, one 38-guns, two 36-guns, three 34-guns, three 30-guns, one 24-gun and a large number of smaller vessels having in service from 10 to 20 guns. And in 1737, the largest warships of Algeria had 16 and 18 guns. There were eight to ten guns at the kicks, 4-6 at the shebeks, galliots carried from one to six guns. In 1790, Algeria's largest ship had 26 guns.

The fact is that, after the capture of Gibraltar by the Anglo-Dutch squadron in 1704, the corsairs of Algeria and Tunisia were no longer able to freely enter the Atlantic, and concentrated on the robbery of merchant ships in the Mediterranean Sea. And, in order to rob merchant ships here, large warships were not needed. Corsairs hid from European military squadrons in shallow water or in their well-fortified ports, which they could not take for a long time. Yielding to the European fleets in size, tonnage and armed ships, the Maghreb pirates still ruled the Mediterranean Sea with almost impunity, and the Christian states of Europe showed powerlessness in the fight against them.

In the open spaces of the Atlantic Ocean, corsairs of Morocco, based in Sala, were still trying to hunt: this city had a squadron in which there were from 6 to 8 frigates and 18 galleys.


Stefano della Bella. Galley unloading. Engraving 1645. In the foreground - three galley slaves.

Pirates of Sale honestly paid "taxes" to the Moroccan sultans, and for the time being they were not particularly interested in the origin of the funds coming into their treasury. But the key port of the Moroccan coast - Ceuta, was in the hands of the Europeans (at first it was owned by Portugal, then - by Spain), so the Salians did not feel very confident either.

The main opponents of the Barbary pirates at that time were Spain, the Kingdom of both Sicilies, Venice and the Order of Malta.


Venetian fleet


Spanish galeas and venetian galley. From the fresco on the wall of the naval battle hall at Escorial Monastery


The battle between the Maltese and Turkish galleys

In 1775, the Spaniards sent an army of 22 thousand soldiers against Algeria, but could not capture the fortress. In 1783, their fleet was shelled by Algeria, but it was not possible to inflict heavy damage on this pirate stronghold, already independent of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1784, the allied squadron against Algeria, consisting of Spanish, Portuguese, Neapolitan, and Maltese ships, did not achieve much success.

The unexpected battle of Russian sailors with the pirates of the Maghreb


In 1787, the next Russo-Turkish war began (the 7th in a row, if you count from Kashima Pasha’s Astrakhan campaign). By this time, the Russian troops and the Russian fleet had already won victories, which forever entered history military art.

A.V. Suvorov defeated the Turks on the Kinburn Spit, in alliance with the Austrians defeated Fokshany and Rymnik, captured Izmail. In 1788, Khotin and Ochakov fell, in 1789 - Bender. In 1790, the Turkish landing at Anapa was defeated and the uprising of the highlanders was crushed.

On the Black Sea, the Russian fleet defeated at Fedonisi (Snake Island), in the Strait of Kerch, at Tendra Island.

In August 1790, the last Russo-Swedish war ended in a draw, and Russia was able to concentrate all efforts on the struggle against the Ottomans. But, in the same year, Russia's ally, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, died, and Prince Coburg was defeated at Georges. The new emperor went to sign a separate peace. The Sist peace treaty, which was concluded in August 1791, turned out to be very beneficial for Turkey: Austria refused all the conquests of this war. Sultan Selim III hoped that at least one high-profile victory of the Turkish troops over the Russians would change the balance of power and the Ottoman Empire would be able to adequately emerge from the war by concluding an honorable peace.


Sultan Selim III, portrait, Austrian National Library

This sultan associated great hopes with the actions of his fleet, which Algerian and Tunisian ships had to strengthen. The Ottoman fleet was commanded by Kapudan Pasha Giritli Hussein, the Maghreb fleet was by the famous pirate admiral Seydi Ali (Said Ali, Seit Ali), who had experience of battles with European squadrons and wore the nickname "Thunderstorm" and "Lion of the Crescent." Hussein carried out the general command, Sadie-Ali was the senior vice admiral ("chief patron").


Shot from the Soviet film "Admiral Ushakov", 1953. Vladimir Etush as Algerian Admiral Sadi Ali

In May 1790, Sadi-Ali defeated the Greek privateer squadron, which since 1788 intercepted Turkish ships in the Mediterranean Sea, making it difficult to supply both the army and Constantinople.

Russian privateer and Greek corsair Lambro Kachioni


In Russia, this man is known under the name Lambro Kachioni, in Greece he is called Lambros Katsonis. He was a native of the city of Livadia, located in the region of Boeotia (Central Greece).


Levadia city on a map of Greece

At the age of 17, he and his brother and “other co-religionists” joined the volunteer service in Admiral G. Spiridov’s Mediterranean squadron. Then he served in the jaeger corps, in 1785 received the noble title. With the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War, at first it fought on the Black Sea and on the night of October 10 to 11, 1787 near Hadzhibey (Odessa), his detachment, boarded boats, captured a large Turkish ship, named after him nobleman, who sympathized with this Greek - "Prince Potemkin-Tauride."

In February 1788, with a privateer certificate issued by Potemkin, he reached the Austrian port of Trieste, where he equipped the first corsair ship. Soon in his squadron there were already 10 privateer ships, he said: “It rattles throughout Turkey that the Archipelago is filled with Russian ships, but in fact there are no more corsairs in the Archipelago than I and 10 of my ships.”


"Turkish prisoners worship Katsonis." Painting by an unknown artist. National History Museum, Athens

To protect the trade routes, the Turks had to send 23 ships to the Archipelago, but it was Algerian admiral Seit-Ali who was lucky, who managed to sink 6 Kachioni ships, including the flagship 28-gun Minerva Severnaya.

The Turks failed to completely stop the privateer actions of Kachione - albeit on a smaller scale, he still continued to bother them on trade routes.

After the conclusion of the Iasi Peace in 1791, this adventurer ignored the order to disarm his ships, declared himself king of Sparta and engaged in overt piracy, seized even 2 French merchant ships. In June 1792, his squadron was defeated, he himself arrived in Russia in 1794. Despite some “dark spots” in his biography, Kachioni enjoyed the patronage of Catherine II, who was presented at the ball on September 20, 1795. The Greek corsair made such an impression on the empress that he was allowed to wear a fez with silver embroidered image of a woman's hand and the inscription "Under the hand of Catherine."


Portrait of Lambro Cachioni in the same fez with the empress's embroidered hand

In 1796, the empress invited the former Greek corsair (now the Russian colonel) 5 times to her table, which caused bewilderment and envy among the more senior and titled persons. Catherine began to feel a special affection for him after she was able to cure some rash on her legs with baths of sea water, which Kachioni recommended to her. The ill-wishers of the Greek (in particular, the court physician Robertson) claimed that it was these baths that contributed to the apoplexy blow, which caused the death of the empress. However, these accusations turned out to be unproven, and no repressive measures were taken with the accession of Paul I against Cachioni.


Monument to L. Katsonis in Livadia, Greece

Let us return now to the Algerian Sadi-Ali, who promised the Sultan that he would bring the Russian Admiral F. Ushakov to him in Istanbul in a cage or with a noose around his neck.

The battle at Cape Kaliakria


In the Ottoman fleet at that time, there were 19 battleships, 17 frigates and 43 small ships. Selim III’s appeal for help to the Maghreb corsairs, the majority of the ships of which, as we recall, were small and weakly armed, says a lot: about the high “bets” made on the new naval battle, and about the fear and uncertainty of the Sultan in its outcome.

The Turkish fleet went to sea in early May 1791. 20 battleships, 25 frigates, six shebeks, five bombing ships, ten kirlangichi and 15 transport ships set off on a campaign. The purpose of his movement was Anapa: the Ottoman squadron was to deliver supplies and reinforcements to this fortress, and provide support to the garrison from the sea.

On June 10, having received information that a large enemy fleet had been discovered near the Dniester Liman, a squadron of Rear Admiral F. Ushakov came out to meet him. He had at his disposal 16 battleships, two frigates, three bombing ships, nine cruising ships, 13 brigantines and three firewalls.


Intravital portrait of Admiral F.F. Ushakova. Unknown artist. Hermitage. 1807 g

According to Russian historical sources, the Turkish fleet was discovered on June 11 off the southern coast of Crimea (Cape Ayia), and was persecuted by Ushakov's squadron for 4 days. Turkish historians claim that during these days the squadrons were inactive due to the calm. The battle did not take place then, since, according to Ushakov, 6 battleships lagged behind his squadron due to various breakdowns. On June 16, the Russian squadron returned to Sevastopol, where damaged ships were repaired for more than a month.

Ushakov was able to go out to sea again only on July 29. This time he had 16 battleships, two bombing ships, two frigates, one fireman, one repository ship and 17 cruising ships. He held the flagship flag on the 84-gun battleship Christmas of Christ, the most powerful in the squadron. This ship was built at the Kherson shipyard; at the ceremony of launching it in 1787, Catherine II and the Austrian Emperor Joseph II were present, in whose honor he received his first name. It would be renamed at the initiative of Ushakov - March 15, 1790. Then he received the motto “God is with us, God is with us!” Remember, heathens, and submit, as God is with us! ” (words from the Christmas Great Compline).


The battleship "Christmas". Illustration from the book of A. A. Chernyshev “Russian Sailing Fleet”

The Turkish fleet was discovered on July 31 at Cape Kaliakria.


Mys Kaliakra, Bulgaria

Kapudan Pasha Hussein was on the battleship Bahr-i Zafer (the number of artillery pieces of this ship, according to various estimates, ranged from 72 to 82). The Lion of the Crescent, Sadi Ali held the flag at the 74-gun Mukkaddim-i Nusret. The Patrona Tunus (Tunisian vice-admiral) sailed on a 48-gun battleship, the riyal Dzhezair (Algerian rear admiral) had a 60-gun ship, the patron Jazair (Algerian vice-admiral) was driving a privatian ship, whose number of guns is unknown.

The Turkish squadron consisted of more ships, but it was heterogeneous, consisted of ships of various ranks, the corsair’s crews, to put it mildly, did not differ in discipline. In addition, due to heavy losses suffered in the years 1780-1790 and desertion, the crews of many Ottoman ships were understaffed (even the team of Hussein's flagship).

At the time of the meeting, the direction of the wind was north. The Turkish fleet stood behind Cape Kaliakria in three columns, elongated from the south-west to north-east. Ushakov's squadron, also in three columns, moved west.

Instead of lining up his ships in a line, Ushakov directed them between the shore (where the Turkish batteries stood) and the enemy ships - it was 14 hours and 45 minutes. This maneuver, in which the ships near the shore of the column, covered the ships of the other two from the fire of the coastal batteries, and the Russian squadron was in the windward position, came as a complete surprise for the Turks: they tried to line their ships, but they managed to do this only about 16.30. Then the Russian ships turned in line.

Ushakov attacked Seydi-Ali at the Nativity of Christ, whose ship he considered “capudation” (flagship): a bowsprit and a rudder were broken on this ship, a fort-post and grotto-ray were shot down. Sadi-Ali was seriously wounded (they say that the chips from the fore-post wounded him in the chin), but, covered by two frigates, the “Mukkaddime-i Nusret” left the battle. His retreat by the crews of other Turkish ships was seen as a signal to escape, and at 20.00 the Ottoman fleet fled, at 20.30 the battle stopped.


The Battle of Kaliakria

Turkish historians blame it on Sadie Ali: allegedly, contrary to Hussein’s orders, he withdrew to the south with Algerian and Tunisian ships, which caused the Ottoman fleet to be divided into two parts. And then, also arbitrarily, attacked the vanguard of the Russians and was surrounded. Some Turkish ships rushed to the aid of the defeated allies, and finally broke the system. Then 8 Turkish ships followed the “Lion of the Crescent” running towards Constantinople, depriving Hussein's Kapudan Pasha of the opportunity to regroup his forces and continue the battle the next day.


A. Depaldo. “The battle at Cape Kaliakriya”

As a result, having lost 28 ships, the Ottoman fleet was scattered along the Anatolian and Rumeliysky coast. Ten ships (5 of them linear ships) came to Constantinople, where the Mukkaddime-i Nusret, the flagship of Sadi Ali, sank before the eyes of the shocked residents of the city. The sight of the others was pathetic and terrible at the same time.

Selim III was notified of the defeat by the words:

"Great! Your fleet is gone. ”

The Sultan replied:

“My fleet commander and the captains of my ships simply insulted me. I did not expect such behavior from them. Woe to my respect, which I had for them! ”

Some argue that the unsuccessful Algerian admiral Seydi Ali was put in a cage prepared for Ushakov. And Kapudan Pasha Hussein for a long time did not dare to appear in the eyes of the angry Sultan.

The Russian squadron in this battle did not lose a single ship. The casualties were small: 17 people were killed and 27 wounded, while 450 people died on the Sadi Ali ship.


F.F.Ushakov, a monument at Cape Kaliakria, Bulgaria

G. Potemkin, having received news of the victory at Kaliakria, tore off an almost ready peace treaty, hoping to sign a new, more profitable one.

The final article of the series will talk about the Barbary wars of the United States and the final defeat of the pirate states of the Maghreb.
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  1. KVU-NSVD April 1 2020 07: 18 New
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    In 1796, the empress invited the former Greek corsair (now the Russian colonel) 5 times to her table, which caused bewilderment and envy among the more senior and titled persons. Catherine began to feel a special affection for him after she was able to cure some rash on her feet with baths of sea water, which Kachioni recommended to her.
    The true reasons for flirting with Caccioni in particular, and the Greek freedom fighters (at the same time adventurers) in general, was Catherine’s dream of the Greek kingdom with one of her grandchildren on the throne. And to achieve such goals, we need the appropriate allies from the inside.
    1. Slavutich April 1 2020 08: 12 New
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      One another is not a hindrance
    2. Bar1 April 1 2020 09: 15 New
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      actually this is an image of the assault by the Turks of Constantinople. The miniature is taken from a XNUMXth century book: Jean Meilot, "Passages d'Outremer", stored in the National Library of Paris. And where Ryzhov saw the Venetian fleet there is a riddle.
      1. Trilobite Master April 1 2020 14: 48 New
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        Quote: Bar1
        image of the assault by the Turks of Constantinople.

        For once, I have to agree with you. The only amendment: the author of the miniature is Jean Colombe.
        And, I remember, it was you who some time ago here claimed that this miniature irrefutably proves that Constantinople in the XNUMXth century. was taken by Russian Cossacks.
        Something has changed? smile
        1. Bar1 April 1 2020 18: 13 New
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          the Byzantines and Turks don’t see half a month’s symbolism in the picture. The besieging troops are dressed in both short European clothes and armor. One can see some dragons on the flags, like the Chinese.
          St. Sophia Cathedral looks like a European cathedral. This is probably the case when the artist really was not present at the real event. And it happens.
          Image taken from HX website.
          1. Trilobite Master April 1 2020 18: 53 New
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            This image is quite common on the network, it can be obtained at the request of "Jean Colomb". And you are right, of course, he was not present at the real event, his biography can also be viewed and studied. He painted on the basis of their own experience - architecture, weapons, ships painted the way he could see them with his own eyes. Plus eyewitness accounts, apparently inconsistent and incomplete.
            That is why medieval maps and miniatures, in principle, cannot serve as a source of reliable information about places or events. They only reflect the ideas of the authors about them. Often, these ideas were very far from reality.
            1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 20: 49 New
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              "Catalan Atlas" is nothing to itself, source.
              1. Trilobite Master April 1 2020 21: 15 New
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                Quote: 3x3zsave
                "Catalan Atlas" is nothing to itself, source.

                It is about how its author represented the world. I would not personally navigate such an atlas. smile
                1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 21: 25 New
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                  This is an atlas, not a lotion. For its time, very good.
      2. vladcub April 1 2020 15: 49 New
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        "where there Ryzhov saw the Venetian fleet" the author probably hastened and did not verify that it
        1. Trilobite Master April 1 2020 17: 11 New
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          Quote: vladcub
          probably the author hastened

          That’s why I don’t like to insert pictures into articles. You’ll find them while you attribute them, check them out ... And there’s so much trash on the network ... And then readers will begin to sort them out - it’s not like that, it’s not like that, it’s not that ...
          1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 20: 50 New
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            You’ll find them while you attribute them, check them ...
            Lazy, huh? laughing
            1. Trilobite Master April 1 2020 21: 08 New
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              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Lazy, huh?

              And that too. But the main thing is that on my subject matter there is practically no illustrative material, and the reliable one - in general, the cat wept. So you have to take either the Facial Chronicle Code or the Radziwill Chronicle. smile By reliability - shaky, but at least you can refer to the author - he saw so, I have nothing to do with it. smile And then, I’m not a great connoisseur of material culture and I can so mess up with illustrations that the local sophisticated gut reader will laugh with laughter
              and I will be ashamed, I will cry and tear my hair out, and then go into a bout. I’m creative, vulnerable. smile
              1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 21: 22 New
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                There are sophisticated, except that Vashchenko! Well, VikNick can still clean the chakras.
                As for the “vulnerable nature”, about your creative karma, if you do not need to kill young Samsonovs, they won’t even need to take off, so they die, standing next to them, from the influence of the aura. laughing
                1. Trilobite Master April 1 2020 22: 49 New
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                  Sophisticated enough. I won’t call everyone by name, I’m afraid to forget someone and offend them, but there are ten or more people who can clearly and politely with all due respect demonstrate that the author is an amateur and that he needs to better prepare for the presentation of the material . smile I know you, dear colleagues. smile
                  1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 23: 03 New
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                    So. Right now, my ability to read between the lines has strained me to the limit!
                    "I read the Criminal Code!" (WITH)
                    "You are not sewing me, boss" laughing
              2. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 00 New
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                so generally the cat wept

                I have nothing to do with it, and Kote too. am
    3. Bar1 April 1 2020 18: 20 New
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      how many corsair bases were there in the Mediterranean-White Sea? At least two this
      -Corsica
      Corfu Corsu
      In some ancient texts of the beech S reads like F. So it is Corso that is the island of corsairs.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 20: 11 New
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        Pi, pi, pi, Bar, they paid you money so that I would die of laughter !!!
        Quote: Bar1
        how many corsair bases were there in the Mediterranean-White Sea? At least two this
        -Corsica
        Corfu Corsu
        In some ancient texts of the beech S reads like F. So it is Corso that is the island of corsairs.

        Do you happen to happen, in a dream, the synonym of the heroes of the Punic Wars does not pursue? Barca, Skopion, Cilius, Cassius and Bonaparte do not dream of such studies in linguistics!
        1. Bar1 April 1 2020 22: 58 New
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          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Do you happen to happen, in a dream, the synonym of the heroes of the Punic Wars does not pursue? Barca, Skopion, Cilius, Cassius and Bonaparte do not dream of such studies in linguistics!


          it doesn't concern you ...
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 2 2020 04: 36 New
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            Yes Timur, Corsica = Corsairs, this is tough, even for an elementary school teacher!
            Ecology of the word Corsair:
            It comes from the French corsaire, further from the Italian corsaro, from Wed-lat. cursarius "pirate", from the Latin cursus "running, riding; way, course, "from currere" run away. "

            The origin of the name of the island of Corsica. Corsica is the fourth largest island of the Mediterranean Sea (an area of ​​8,7 thousand km2). The name is associated with the Phoenician word chorea - "wooded"; according to another version, the island got its name from the Corsi tribe that lived on it.

            Regards, Kote!
            1. Bar1 April 2 2020 08: 33 New
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              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Ecology of the word Corsair:

              why so hurry? etymology can?

              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              according to another version, the island got its name from the Corsi tribe that lived on it.


              etymologists usually do not bother, the name from the people living there, or vice versa the people from the name of the toponym.
              For example, the Caspian Sea, what is it? And it was the Caspian tribes that sailed, some of which no one knows about, here you have the Caspian. Damn something, this is your "science".
  2. Mavrikiy April 1 2020 07: 39 New
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    F.F.Ushakov, a monument at Cape Kaliakria, Bulgaria
    I thought it was a monument to the Lumberjack.
    1. Phil77 April 1 2020 08: 18 New
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      Good morning! The author of the monument is Nikola Bogdanov, a Bulgarian sculptor.
      1. Mavrikiy April 1 2020 08: 45 New
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        Quote: Phil77
        Good morning! The author of the monument is Nikola Bogdanov, a Bulgarian sculptor.

        Oh, this all changes and enhances its artistic value. repeat
        1. Phil77 April 1 2020 09: 46 New
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          Quote: Mavrikiy

          Oh, this all changes and enhances its artistic value.

          Absolutely does not change anything. Does not add, does not reduce, just called the sculptor. Nothing personal. soldier
        2. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 19: 08 New
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          Quote: Mavrikiy
          Oh, this all changes and enhances its artistic value.

          Oh, plin, they made fun. laughing
  3. Slavutich April 1 2020 08: 11 New
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    Great article: thanks!
  4. ddmm09 April 1 2020 08: 20 New
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    Glory to Ushakov!
  5. Pane Kohanku April 1 2020 11: 19 New
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    Algerians loaded their guns with the French - the consul, two priests, seven captains and 30 sailors were used as cores.

    sorry for importunity, as it was expressed? tied to the barrel, like the British Hindus after a hundred and fifty years? what
    1. VLR
      VLR April 1 2020 12: 02 New
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      Probably. Details are not specified.
      1. Pane Kohanku April 1 2020 12: 15 New
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        Probably. Details are not specified.

        Well, okay... what hmm ... when people fight, they expose the most non-human in themselves .. hi
    2. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 19: 09 New
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      Quote: Pan Kohanku
      tied to the barrel, like the British Hindus after a hundred and fifty years?

      No, they hung on a knock-rea.
      1. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 16 New
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        Volodya, hello. hi
        No, they hung on a knock-rea.

        So it depends on what kind of rhea hang on the night ... If you take a galleon so there on each mast you can hang grapes in clusters, and God forbid that he withstands two hangers on some tattered shebek. laughing drinks
        1. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 22: 39 New
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          Quote: Sea Cat
          , and on some tattered shebek, God forbid that he could withstand two hangs.

          I read Captain Blood, that's why I remembered it.
          1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 10: 57 New
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            Vladimir, it was said there precisely - "they loaded their guns." hi Maybe unsuccessful Frenchmen were chopped into noodles altogether, and parts of bodies were used as buckshot! request
  6. faterdom April 1 2020 12: 58 New
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    In my opinion, this Greek, Kaccioni, discovered for Catherine, and with her for the aristocrats of the Russian Empire, Caspian black caviar.
    Well, Fedor Fedorovich planted a huge pig for the Turks with this victory.
    Having plenty of cuffs on land from Suvorov, they thought they would win back at sea (like the Swedish king Charles XII having lost his entire land army near Poltava for another 12 years, he “fought” the Northern War, having the superiority of the fleet). It turned out inconveniently for both admirals and the sultan.
    1. Undecim April 1 2020 13: 21 New
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      In my opinion, this Greek, Kaccioni, discovered for Catherine, and with her for the aristocrats of the Russian Empire, Caspian black caviar.
      In 1590, 6 thousand sturgeons and stellate sturgeons and 600 pounds of black caviar were delivered from Astrakhan to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. Before the beginning of the Time of Troubles - the annual norm of consumption of the monastery.
      Prokofy Akinfievich Demidov used to lubricate boots with caviar for moisture resistance, which is why the best black caviar was called "Prokopyevsky."
      In the field of trade in Caspian caviar in Catherine’s times, a famous pirate held a monopoly, for whose head the sultan promised a thousand piastres, a Russian merchant and nobleman, the hero of Chesma Ioannis Varvakis.
      1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 11: 08 New
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        Prokofy Akinfievich Demidov used to lubricate boots with caviar for moisture resistance, which is why the best black caviar was called "Prokopyevsky."

        he was generally a great original. Bonvivan and Sybarite, although a talented nerd. And yes, philanthropist. It seems to me that his portrait is the most detailed showing the inner content of man. drinks

        Nevertheless, I think that Old Man Akinfiy took a closer look at his sons, after which he divided the inheritance by mind. what The two seniors could become talented scientists and art collectors (both became good nerds), but apparently they could not manage the factories by character. request The main buns received the youngest - Nikita. True, then the will was revised. And Nikita - yes, he became a successful industrialist. hi
        1. Undecim April 2 2020 12: 49 New
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          By the way, a man deserves an article, because he not only put on glasses and soldered to death the population on his dogs and horses. He also founded the first commercial school in Europe and donated millions to charity. A colorful personality, part of the history of Russia. Clearly more interesting than delirium about superethnos.
          1. Liam April 2 2020 13: 28 New
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            Quote: Undecim
            Europe's first commercial school founded

            A bold statement. Such schools existed in dozens in all European cities since the minimum of the 13th century. It is strange to think that entire states that existed for centuries due to the merchants did without such schools. In Italy were called scuole d'abaco
            1. Undecim April 2 2020 16: 15 New
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              Before making a statement with such an aplomb, try to ask how the abacus school, where they taught practical arithmetic, differs from an educational institution that provides commercial education.
              In Italy, by the end of the 18th century, the commercial schools you mentioned were 861. Volume XVa of Brockhaus on page XNUMX, open, for starters.
              1. Liam April 2 2020 17: 37 New
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                Suspicion is a bad little spy. Everywhere aplomb seem.
                Read at your leisure what is an abacus school in reality
                https://php.math.unifi.it/archimede/archimede/fibonacci/catalogo/ulivi.php
                1. Undecim April 2 2020 17: 52 New
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                  Here at your leisure and re-read it again, you can understand that since the XNUMXth century, any school in which the children of merchants and artisans taught reading and writing, practical arithmetic, algebra and geometry was called an abacus school in Italy.
                  For fixing read Black, Robert. “Italian Renaissance Education: Changing Perspectives and Continuing Controversies.” Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 52. No. 2. University of Pennsylvania Press. April - June 1991.
                  Well, Brockhaus still read to understand the difference between an abacus school and a commercial education.
                  All the best and success.
                  1. Liam April 2 2020 18: 33 New
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                    ))) and in the "first in Europe" school of Demidov, they probably taught nuclear physics and not
                    reading and writing, practical arithmetic, algebra and geometry
                    .
                    It is interesting why the merchants themselves did not consider this school a worthy training for their children and did not rush to give offsprings there.
                    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Frontespizio-della-Prattica-dAritmetica-mercantile-1627_fig1_301562938
                    1. Undecim April 2 2020 18: 59 New
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                      Do not so clearly demonstrate your ignorance and unwillingness to exert yourself to gain knowledge.
                      In 1772, nuclear physics did not exist.
                      They studied at a commercial school from 6 to 21 years old, only those who completed the full course received a diploma.
                      Subjects from 6 to 9 years old - "knowledge of the faith", education, reading, drawing, dancing, writing and simple counting, from 9 to 12 years old - arithmetic, geometry, history and geography, Slavic language, according to ability - musical education (singing, playing musical instruments).
                      From 12 to 15 years, mathematics and mechanics were studied, navigation, foreign languages, eloquence, accounting, the basics of commerce, garden and garden plants, agriculture, "house-building".
                      From 15 to 18 years - improved in commerce and accounting, studied state law and the economy.
                      From 18 to 21 years, the Law of God was separately studied, they passed from theory to practice, and the first transactions were made.
                      Since 1871, a program in the field of engineering and technology was introduced into the program. Introduced the course "Commodity". The objective of the course was to familiarize students with the origin of the product, to study its chemical and physical properties, how good the product is. A significant part of the course "Commodity Science" was devoted to technologies for the production and storage of food
                      And merchants for 15 years in the XNUMXth century considered it unnecessary to tear children away from home in the darkness of their own, to overcome which Demidov created the first such educational institution in Europe.
                      Read the book "History of the Moscow Merchants Society" edition of 1914 in addition to Brockhaus. There you will find everything in volume 4.
                      1. Liam April 2 2020 19: 13 New
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                        I don’t know how it’s with aplomb, but you are rudely worse than Barov and other Fomenkovniks. The secularism is not doing well, but the habit of singing hosiens and degradation in behavior, coupled with the inability to normal discussion and opposition, is a pity. .
                        As for the subject of discussion, by the time this school appeared in the world, entire trading states and such multinational trading companies as OstIndian existed for centuries. If you think that all these millions of merchants studied in the gateways and not in specialized schools and universities, I can only shrug. They studied textbooks at the Demidov school? Or was there a pioneer there too?
                      2. Undecim April 2 2020 19: 27 New
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                        Everything, everything, dear, to the garden. You will listen there, and so I have devoted you a lot of time. Sorry for the harshness, it happens in discussions with individuals like you, here you are right. Once again, all the best.
                      3. Liam April 2 2020 19: 36 New
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                        And you do not get sick. At your leisure, re-read the topic in explanatory dictionaries:
                        swagger
                        n.
                        • arrogance
                        • arrogance
                        • pride
                        • pride
                        • arrogance
                        • arrogance
                        • swagger
                        • puffiness
                        • arrogance
                        • fanaberiya
                        human quality, caused by an exaggeratedly high opinion of oneself and expressed in a neglect of others).
      2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 24 New
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        Clearly more interesting than delirium about superethnos.

        a true story is always more interesting than a beautiful but implausible fairy tale. soldier Messir, I join you. hi
        By the way, a man deserves an article, because he not only put on glasses and soldered to death the population on his dogs and horses.

        By the way, the topic is clearly for Valery or Vyacheslav Olegovich. yes yes
      3. Korsar4 April 2 2020 15: 35 New
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        One Neskuchny garden is worth. And he competed with his brother Grigory in Solikamsk - who has a better collection of plants. And he was a correspondent and, in fact, a student of Linnaeus himself.
  • Operator April 1 2020 13: 13 New
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    The final defeat of the North African pirates occurred in the 19th century after the colonization by Spain, France and Italy of the local Arab states.

    The colonialists were drawn out to the fullest extent on the descendants of the pirates until the middle of the 20th century (for example, they burned napalm in commercial quantities) until the USA and the USSR started a company to decolonize European conquests around the world.
    1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 19: 01 New
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      The first process of decolonization was started by the nosed Belgium.
      1. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 19: 12 New
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        Quote: 3x3zsave
        The first process of decolonization was started by the nosed Belgium.

        In Belgium, everything was fine. Pregnant women were given a roll.
        1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 19: 24 New
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          The main question: when was it issued?
          Well, pregnant women are women (!). Come on, Vladimir (by the way hi ), all the same we will give them their due, despite our personal circumstances, they give birth to us, grow and love us.
          1. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 19: 27 New
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            Quote: 3x3zsave
            The main question: when was it issued?

            Before the First World War. There, the queen still ruled. Relatives of Nikolashka. Either cousin, or second cousin, I forgot ..
          2. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 19 New
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            Yes, it would be better not to raise all those born, and it’s not worth sparing money on abortion. request
            1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 22: 23 New
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              Well, they grew me up, to spite everyone.
              1. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 35 New
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                Well, it wasn’t about you. smile drinks
                1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 22: 41 New
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                  Well! request And I was so hoping to increase self-esteem, amuse pride ...
                  "Again, no one from the rostrum noticed me" (C)
                  crying crying crying
                  1. Catfish April 1 2020 23: 04 New
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                    "Pass us through all sorrows
                    And royal anger and royal love ... "
                    Slightly changed, but, I think, the author will not file a lawsuit. drinks
                  2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 28 New
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                    And I was so hoping to increase self-esteem, amuse pride ...
                    "Again, no one from the rostrum noticed me"

                    Anton, you are normal, well-groomed and talented. And we always notice you! love love
                    (aside, quietly: yeah, you will not notice him .... storyteller ...) laughing drinks
        2. VLR
          VLR April 2 2020 08: 17 New
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          In fact, the Belgian colonial system, as I recall, was one of the toughest and most cruel in the world. And in Africa, the “plush” Belgians “came off” in full - on the verge of genocide.
          1. 3x3zsave April 2 2020 19: 02 New
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            That's right, Valery! Severed hands and feet of aborigines convicted of insufficient development on the plantations of heveys were counted in dozens of bags. However, why cut hands to an employee who has a dozen children? It is enough to do this with his five-year-old daughter ...
            1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 22: 34 New
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              But what kind of income on almost all types of plantations.

              As far as I remember, a slave on a sugarcane plantation paid off in a week.
              1. Pane Kohanku April 3 2020 11: 28 New
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                As far as I remember, a slave on a sugarcane plantation paid off in a week.

                Not always, and not any. At Espanyol, the Spaniards also immediately imposed a heavy tax on the Indians, and their hands were cut in punishment. What happened The Indians simply became extinct / were destroyed.
                Therefore, they began to import blacks!
      2. Operator April 1 2020 19: 39 New
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        The United States was the first to start the decolonization process, having shown initiative in creating the UN and since 1945 began to pressure European countries to leave their colonies in order to “liberate the oppressed peoples of Asia and Africa” (and essentially to capture markets).

        In early 1945, the United States overthrew Saudi Arabia from Britain, later Iran and Iraq, putting under its control all commodity oil production in the world.

        In 1947, the United States squeezed Britain out of India, Pakistan and Palestine. Then they squeezed Holland out of Indonesia, then switched to Africa.

        The USSR acted hand in hand with the USA, diverging from America in only one way - a form of state system in countries freed from colonialism. The Belgian Congo with Patrice Lumumba is the most famous example of a different view of the development prospects of new countries. A less vivid example is Vietnam, where the United States armed the Vietnamese who fought against the French colonialists until the late 1950s. Unlike the Belgian Congo, the Vietnamese chose socialism, which was helped by material assistance to the USSR.
        1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 20: 19 New
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          The USSR acted hand in hand with the USA, diverging from America in only one way - a form of state system in countries freed from colonialism.
          Hmmm, Andrei, in this matter, you would like to oppose the local Communists, for example, Alexander Green laughing
          1. Operator April 1 2020 20: 31 New
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            I forgot to say about China - from the beginning of the 1920s between the USSR and the USA, a struggle was launched for the decolonization of China from Japan and its inclusion in the sphere of influence of one of the countries. The United States encouraged bilateral trade, the immigration of the Chinese, the study of students at American universities in China, and developed the national identity of the Chinese (to the detriment of the colonizers - Britain, France and Japan).

            In 1949, the USSR won the struggle for China, in 1972 - the United States, in 2020 - China itself bully
          2. Phil77 April 1 2020 21: 25 New
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            Yeah! And there is another iconic aunt. God forbid, read. There will be a screech! laughing
            1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 21: 30 New
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              "tatra"? She is a child in front of the "Red Malificent" Diana Ilyina !!!
              1. Phil77 April 1 2020 21: 32 New
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                Perhaps. But constantly to carry this nonsense with such a serious / there is such confidence! / Facial expression?! It is worth a lot. recourse
                1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 21: 48 New
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                  Sergey, during my time on this resource, I met here three types of women: smart, bored and obsessed. Various combinations are possible. But smart people for some reason prevail in the “history” section, and obsessed ones prevail in “opinions” and “analytics”.
                  1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 32 New
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                    and the obsessed into "opinions" and "analytics."

                    Unfortunately, the temples are closed, and the exorcist cannot be called for the possessed - he is on a distance! request drinks
              2. Phil77 April 2 2020 18: 31 New
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                Greetings Anton! But you know, Diana is at least distinguished by a variety of thoughts and her own comments. And here is a clean clinic! The same thing from morning to night! Well, you know. no
                1. 3x3zsave April 2 2020 18: 36 New
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                  Unfortunately, I know. request
                  1. Phil77 April 2 2020 18: 37 New
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                    How is it in your city? Is it also deserted?
                    1. 3x3zsave April 2 2020 18: 50 New
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                      In general, yes. I think the picture is less bleak than in Moscow, but it is better than in the Murmansk region.
      3. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 17 New
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        Patrice Lumumba or Congo-Muller? drinks
        1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 22: 36 New
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          Uncle Kostya, do you want to talk in riddles?
          I will answer in tone: Haile Selasiu, damn it! laughing
          1. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 59 New
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            So it was about the Belgian Congo, right? Where was Lumumba the Prime Minister? And Major Müller in the Belgian Congo and atrocities, commanding mercenaries. soldier

            1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 23: 12 New
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              Actually, I meant the events that happened half a century earlier.
              1. Catfish April 1 2020 23: 26 New
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                Ahhh ... Well then, then again, I got everything right-angled. repeat
                1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 35 New
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                  Ahhh ... Well then, then again, I got everything right-angled.

                  but I’m wondering ... Leonid Ilyich met with Bokassa? what Wikipedia writes that the connoisseur of "sugar pork" in Artek was accepted into pioneers ... belay
                  1. Catfish April 2 2020 14: 42 New
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                    Admission of the cannibal to the pioneers, not a single photo was found near Lena. drinks
                    1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 46 New
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                      Admission of the cannibal to the pioneers, not a single photo was found near Lena.

                      I hope they later counted the children in Artek? what black joke, please do not severely punish ... drinks hmm already .. Picture "The Emperor of the Central African Empire affectionately looks at the pioneer as a snack". belay
                      1. Catfish April 2 2020 15: 12 New
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                        I hope nothing like this happened ... laughing
                      2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 18 New
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                        I hope nothing like this happened ...

                        Konstantin, self portrait? wink drinks
                      3. Catfish April 2 2020 16: 14 New
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                        ... self portrait? wink drinks

                        Well, if only to the Kherson period of my odyssey. Everything happened there. There, on the territory of the museum-reserve, there was a large bell suspended on stone pillars, at night and in fog the monks banged ships with their ringing about the proximity of the coast. For some reason, the name of the bell was "Natasha", and among archaeologists there was such a saying: "Fucked a woman - call." The rope to the language was not there, but sometimes, at night, it was bombed with stones until morning, the ringing rang all over Sevastopol. Yes, this bell was shot in the Land of Fools in "The Adventures of Pinocchio." smile
                      4. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 16: 16 New
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                        Yes, this bell was shot in the Land of Fools in "The Adventures of Pinocchio."

                        did not know! hi but in general .. I think the place there is too memorable .. and bloody ..
                      5. Catfish April 2 2020 16: 31 New
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                        ... the place there is too memorable .. and bloody ..

                        That which is memorable, for sure, is double for me, anyway. And blood was shed there not only in battles ... smile
    2. Phil77 April 2 2020 18: 28 New
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      That's because the muzzle is Aryan, unfinished! am
      1. Catfish April 2 2020 19: 23 New
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        Seryozha, he also gave out interviews, there is a dock. film about him "Laughing man - the confession of the killer" (1966)
        It is interesting how a simple Lieutenant of the Wehrmacht (not the SS) took and went down in history. This abrupt Herostratus will be.

        A shot from the film, already in Germany.
        1. Phil77 April 2 2020 19: 27 New
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          I add that Mike Hoar considered him a typical Prussian. They say that having gained the right to wear an iron cross, he acquired a second copy and wore it in his pajamas. Evil tongues?
          1. Catfish April 2 2020 19: 34 New
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            I didn’t hear about the second cross, but they said that in any situation he was always pulled up in polished shoes and gloves. And about the “Prussian” - he is not from the “backgrounds”, Müller, this is like Ivanov or Smith in England. And yet, he himself said that he always dragged in the lower right pocket of his jacket removed from the fuse "Walter" barrel up.
            1. Phil77 April 2 2020 19: 36 New
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              And I would not say that it’s not from * backgrounds *! Dad-cadre military, Colonel. So not from plow!
              1. Catfish April 2 2020 20: 00 New
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                Well, there is no prefix in front of the surname, which means not from Prussian cadets, not from barons, although he could have lived there before the war. And it doesn’t matter if only for history, it’s a pity none of ours undertakes the theme of Africa and the mercenarism of that time, a rich topic ...
  • Fat
    Fat April 1 2020 13: 52 New
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    I read it with great interest. I didn’t say that .. I don’t know how to display the impression. Soundly. We must take cards and think. Thanks to the author ... About a lot ... Well ...
    Did not know...
  • Aviator_ April 1 2020 14: 59 New
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    An interesting article, respect to the author. How many times did he watch the film "Admiral Ushakov", but did not suspect that the role of Sadi Ali was "Comrade Saakhov."
    1. VLR
      VLR April 1 2020 16: 11 New
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      This is also the first role of Etush in the movie! smile
      1. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 19: 13 New
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        Quote: VlR
        This is also the first role of Etush in the movie!

        Remind please.
  • albert April 1 2020 15: 17 New
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    A good pirate, the one that hangs on the yard, in a word.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 16: 53 New
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      Quote: albert
      A good pirate, the one that hangs on the yard, in a word.

      A good pirate is his own pirate, hmm, that is, a privatir or cameras !!! yes
      1. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 19: 14 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        A good pirate is his own pirate

        Dohtur Blood. laughing
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 20: 04 New
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          One of the best computer games of this genre - Pirates of the Caribbean - the city of lost ships, is just about the "Odyssey of Captain Blood."
          I have a weakness, sometimes I drive a toy in the country !!! recourse
          By the way, a domestic product!
          1. Mordvin 3 April 1 2020 20: 08 New
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            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
            One of the best computer games of this genre - Pirates of the Caribbean - the city of lost ships, is just about the "Odyssey of Captain Blood."
            I have a weakness, sometimes I drive a toy in the country !!!

            I had fun in this game about thirty years ago. When they hit me on the head with a saber, it calmed down.
        2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 36 New
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          Dohtur Blood.

          Good Doctor Blood! drinks And the best corsair is Corsair4! drinks
          1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 15: 00 New
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            "The most powerful, the best,
            You will not say anything - well done ”(c).
            1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 16 New
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              "The most powerful, the best,
              You will not say anything - well done ”(c).

              There is another verse:
              No one is more modest
              Hah Hassan!

              Very correct verse,
              No one is more modest
              Your Hassan ...
              Your ... me-i-i-i-i ...
              drinks
              1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 15: 29 New
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                “What will the wisest say?” (with).
                1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 30 New
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                  “What will the wisest say?” (with).

                  Well, what does Masik want Kusenka to bring to him?
                  - Masik wants ... vodka.
                  repeat
                  1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 15: 38 New
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                    “I hold a glass in one hand,
                    I keep it so that I don’t fall
                    He embraced another gentle camp -
                    Now I am the pope and the sultan ”(c).
                    1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 46 New
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                      He embraced another gentle camp -
                      Now I’m Dad and Sultan ”

                      Turkish Pasha broke the knife in half,
                      When I told him: "Pasha! Salam!"
                      And just kondrashka grabbed a pasha,
                      When he found out what else I was writing,
                      I think, I sing and dance.
                      fellow
                      1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 16: 58 New
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                        “I will gather you all together, if in a foreign land
                        I, by chance, will not die from my Latin ”(c).
                      2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 17: 11 New
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                        “I will gather you all together, if in a foreign land
                        I, by chance, will not die from my Latin ”(c).

                        I didn’t want to pull the barge
                        So I walk, wander
                        If I get to the end of the Earth -
                        I’m going to roam the sea.
                        If the device breaks,
                        Become a pirate and be glad
                        I’ll drink the battleship without hesitation,
                        But the fleet will not disgrace!
                        soldier
                      3. Korsar4 April 2 2020 17: 17 New
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                        “Inside him - if a man.
                        If not, grind ”(c).
                      4. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 17: 34 New
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                        “Inside him - if a man.
                        If not, grind ”

                        If mentally wounded, if trouble is with you,
                        You will not go to the bathhouse, you will come here.
                        You will breathe happily here, grunt and say: yes!
                        People are not ruining beer, people are ruining water. wink
                      5. Korsar4 April 2 2020 17: 50 New
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                        “Red Hot Chili Peppers - I Sing Alone” (c).
                      6. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 18: 02 New
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                        “Red Hot Chili Peppers - I Sing Alone” (c).

                        Tears flow from the ceiling, the fruit house melts ...
                        Bon appetit to everyone who loves strawberries with ice!
                        drinks
                      7. Korsar4 April 2 2020 18: 27 New
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                        "We are over thirty already, but all that was
                        Do not wash off vodka or soap from our souls ”(c).
  • Korsar4 April 1 2020 20: 34 New
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    “Two villains pulled into the yards.
    But not enough. Four were needed ”(c).
    1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 14: 52 New
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      “Two villains pulled into the yards.
      But not enough. Four were needed ”(c).

      And right in the chest, puzzling the pirates,
      He defused a hot gun ...
      He was the last gentleman of fortune,
      The end of good luck - there are no gentlemen!
      soldier
      1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 14: 58 New
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        “The forward looking one only looks forward.
        He doesn’t care that the man is overboard ”(c).
        1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 15 New
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          “The forward looking one only looks forward.
          He doesn’t care that the man is overboard ”(c).

          They gave me coffee, cocoa, food,
          So that I welcomed them: "How do you do!"
          But I repeated from dawn to dawn:
          "Karamba!", "Bullfighting !!" and "Damn it !!!"

          Listen to everything - oh-hoo! uh gay! -
          Me, a parrot, a pirate of the seas.
          fellow
          1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 15: 27 New
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            "This promised, desired -
            And Columbus, and Magellanic "(c).
            1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 38 New
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              "This promised, desired -
              And Columbus, and Magellanic "(c).

              This fair of paint, colorful dances,
              Wooden swing, painted carousels.
              laughing
              1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 15: 45 New
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                “Lollipops in ice - like ice floes,
                And the Firebird is in the form of fried! ” (with).
                1. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 48 New
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                  “Lollipops in ice - like ice floes,
                  And the Firebird is in the form of fried! ” (with).

                  But like this? wink drinks
                  Look - beauty! What is bad? -
                  Tan and patla to the knees.
                  Her wrapped in furs,
                  Caresses a languid mannequin.
                  yes
                  1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 17: 00 New
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                    "How merrily shone snowflakes
                    Yours is gray, mine is sable fur ”(c).
                  2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 17: 13 New
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                    "How merrily shone snowflakes
                    Yours is gray, mine is sable fur ”(c).

                    Good that the widow
                    I could survive everything
                    Pity me
                    And took to live.
                    wink
                  3. Korsar4 April 2 2020 17: 25 New
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                    "And I thought: with whom I will drink tomorrow
                    Of those with whom I drink now? ” (with).
                2. VLR
                  VLR April 2 2020 17: 48 New
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                  "Hey merchants, Breeze in your head!
                  In the Pugachevsky sheepskin coat
                  I am walking in Moscow!
                  Not then high
                  The will of truth is with us
                  In sable trotters
                  To ride, mocking. "
                  (V. Khlebnikov)
                3. Korsar4 April 2 2020 17: 51 New
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                  "Throughout the Tverskaya okolotok
                  In the alleys every dog
                  Knows my easy gait ”(c).
                4. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 18: 03 New
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                  Knows my easy gait. ”

                  Fame was notorious,
                  What a dope I and brawler.
                  wink
                5. Korsar4 April 2 2020 18: 30 New
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                  “Ah, today it’s so much fun for the Russians,
                  Moonshine - the river ”(c).
  • vladcub April 1 2020 15: 41 New
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    "in France, the last galleys were decommissioned in 1748" in the Russian fleet, oars on ships were still in the 19th century. I read somewhere that the Mercury brig had oars
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 17: 07 New
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      Hello, Vlad!!!
      The last galley of the Baltic Fleet - Diana, was launched during the time of Pavel Petrovich. According to his testament, it was to be kept in “memory to the descendants”!
      On the Black and Azov Seas, due to the specifics of the coastal line, as well as their distance from the formidable eyes of the capital's admirals, two akats (mushroom frigates) were launched in the early 19th century. They also experimented with other types of rowing ships, one of them being Mercury.
      Interesting projects were Parma, for port defense.
      Although the last rowing vessels of the Russian Imperial Fleet were numerous yachts, boats and other types of ships of the Life Guards crew!
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. vladcub April 1 2020 19: 04 New
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        Namesake, give materials on the sailing fleet, otherwise without Andrei from Chelyabinsk we have a deficit in the history of the fleet
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 20: 01 New
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          No pictures, sour! And I can’t spread it, why I don’t know request !
          1. vladcub April 2 2020 12: 22 New
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            I thought that I was the only one so “smart” that I couldn’t upload pictures
      2. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 20: 28 New
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        My respect to the noble Ural naval commanders! laughing
        "That evening, Piglet finally decided to escape from home and become a sailor" (C)
        This is for your beard! laughing drinks
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 21: 48 New
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          “I’ll tell you, the noble corned beef was from that heel,” said the one-legged bearded pirate looking at the gray waters of the Gulf of Finland and picking his boar saber in his teeth !!!
          Respectfully, from my mountains a little envy, to people who live on the seashore !!! drinks
          1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 22: 07 New
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            A rare Petersburger sometimes recalls that he lives on the coast. laughing
            "The sea! After all, we have the sea!" (m / s "Masyanya", episode "Depression")
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 22: 15 New
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              Masyanya from the city on the Neva? This is news to me!
              Although on the eve he was dissuading for that Beavis and Badhet are not Tatishchev and de Genin, but characters of the animated series. wink
              1. 3x3zsave April 1 2020 22: 21 New
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                Yeah, but "Glory to the CPSU", this is not the Penza nickname of Vyacheslav Olegovich, a sample of 1986. laughing
          2. Pane Kohanku April 2 2020 15: 06 New
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            “I’ll tell you, the noble corned beef was from that heel,” said the one-legged bearded pirate looking at the gray waters of the Gulf of Finland and picking his boar saber in his teeth !!!

            "That evening, Piglet finally decided to run away from home and become a sailor."

            Colleagues, one day at the end of the 19th century, one boy, the son of a German count, fled from his house to get a young boy on a sailing ship. After a series of incredible adventures, a few years later, he received the rank of officer of the German Navy.
            During the First World War, he persuaded the leadership to appoint him captain of a sailboat, and sent to the ocean for privateering. On the Seeadler, he captured 13 sailboats and 2 steamers! hi He was captured, fled, was caught - and then also continuous trash. And his name was Felix von Luckner!
            Not all spots are such spots! there are real pirates! drinks
  • vladcub April 1 2020 16: 18 New
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    "the English, basically, patrolled the caravan routes" in fact, even now there is little that changes: now we have to patrol the caravan routes
  • vladcub April 1 2020 19: 08 New
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    Quote: Mavrikiy
    F.F.Ushakov, a monument at Cape Kaliakria, Bulgaria
    I thought it was a monument to the Lumberjack.

    There are similarities. Obviously not Michelangelo.
  • Catfish April 1 2020 19: 32 New
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    Valery, thanks !!! Honestly, I exhaled only when I read the last word. In general, I got the impression that with each new article you are sharpening your skills more and more. I got the pleasure of reading the present! smile good
    About F.F. I remember Ushakova when I was a child who read with Z. Perl that during the battle of Kaliakria, Ushakov’s flagship cut off the stern of the ship Sadi Ali and the Russian admiral shouted: “Said, idler, I will show you how to make such promises!” Legend, probably, but very beautiful. drinks
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 20: 00 New
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      Good evening!
      From your submission, I found a post-war book by Z. Perly about the fleet! As a child, she somehow passed me. I read it with pleasure!
      Thank you!
      1. Catfish April 1 2020 20: 03 New
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        Hello, Vlad! hi In school, she ("Warships," if memory serves), I had a "handbook" along with "Tsushima" and "Sputnik partisan." Now only Novikov-Priboy remains, the rest is "read out". drinks
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 22: 11 New
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          Tsushima, Cruiser, Requiem Caravan PQ-17, Captains, Drivers of Frigates, Cruiser of His Majesty Usoop, Port Arthur, Red Corsair, Pirates of the Caribbean, Gangut, heir from Calcutta, Torpedo boats - a rare shortage of information on this topic in childhood.
          15 year old captain. He mastered only the brain rupture in the first chapters - “schooner brig”!
          Regards, good night!
          1. Catfish April 1 2020 22: 34 New
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            Stilmark's “heir” is one of the best, but he forgot about the classics. I mean Odyssey.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 1 2020 22: 40 New
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              Captain Blood really forgot about Odessa, however, as well as about the White Jaguar and Pathfinder Fenimore Cooper. There the waters of the great lakes are furrowed by cutters !!!
              1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 07: 16 New
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                By the way, Homer's Odyssey, even if in a children's arrangement, fits into this list.
                1. Catfish April 2 2020 14: 16 New
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                  Rather, it should be the first number, and Jason with his guys, too.
                  1. Korsar4 April 2 2020 14: 56 New
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                    In approximately the same way, Gumilev understood:

                    “You are all, paladins of the Green Temple,
                    Over the cloudy sea watched rumba. "

                    But, if Tudorovskaya’s arrangement came across in childhood, then the Graves Books, including those on the Argonauts, are relatively recent.

                    Collections of myths, for example, of Kuhn, give an excellent general picture, but not so much in detail as we would like.

                    And if you still touch live - from Rioni to Chersonesos.
                    1. Catfish April 2 2020 15: 03 New
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                      In my early childhood, my mother gave me the book Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece, a publication somewhere in the early fifties, and my acquaintance with the Ancient Heroes began with it, which, ultimately, led to underwater excavations in the Crimea.
            2. vladcub April 2 2020 12: 40 New
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              "Shtilmark in youth passed" me "and only about 17 years ago I found out about him
              1. Catfish April 2 2020 14: 47 New
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                It’s to me that the “Heir”, that the “Blood” were advised to read by my father, an old Bolshevik and a staunch Leninist, but what a sparkle in his eyes was when he “advertised” pirate adventures. smile
          2. Trilobite Master April 2 2020 12: 17 New
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            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Tsushima, Cruiser, Requiem

            Add "Treasure Island", "Children of Captain Grant", "Sea Wolf" of London, "Sea Stories" by Stanyukovich, "Admiral Ushakov" by Rakovsky. And in my early childhood I read such a book - "The Adventures of Igor and Totti", it seems so called. smile
            1. vladcub April 2 2020 12: 35 New
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              About 1,5 years ago, he took Stanyukovich in the library to re-read. There are books that I re-read several times, and some I wanted to re-read, but picked up and ...
          3. Catfish April 2 2020 14: 27 New
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            Cruiser of His Majesty Usoop

            Vlad, wasn’t this a mistake? Maybe the book of Alistair Macklin's "Ship of Her Majesty Ulysses" ("Cruiser Wyss")?
            1. Phil77 April 2 2020 14: 46 New
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              Hi friends! Exactly! There is such a book but in my favorites * Guns of the island of Navarron *! bully
              1. Catfish April 2 2020 14: 53 New
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                Hello, Sergey! Yes, Navaroni guns are better written, but the movie was not shot very much, although they collected the coolest stars of that time. There was also the Yugoslav painting “Following the Tiger”, filmed almost according to the script by Macklin, only the guns were not blown up, but the bridge.
                1. Phil77 April 2 2020 16: 06 New
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                  Hi Konstantin! How I remember this film! * Bella Chao *! But from the point of view of today, remember what non-Aryan physiognomy was in Relay Bashich / Owl /. Especially in the German uniform! laughingI'm about the Yugoslav film.
                  1. Catfish April 2 2020 16: 28 New
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                    Yes, his face is very expressive. And even funnier is the fact that he has on his uniform the buttonholes with insignia of the Sturmbanführer (major), and the epaulettes of the captain (Hauptsturmführer). laughing
                    1. Phil77 April 2 2020 16: 30 New
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                      In-in! A thoroughbred Aryan, especially such playful eyes! Well, about the uniforms, I will keep silent, not special!
                    2. vladcub April 3 2020 13: 21 New
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                      Konstantin, the Yugoslavs weren’t familiar with you, otherwise they would be invited as a consultant.
                      And before, in historical films, there were not always good consultants, but now without consultants at all.
                      Remember, the Polish scooped: “Bet more than life” was saved there by a knowledgeable consultant, and “Seventeen Moments of Spring” also has enough mistakes, but only for connoisseurs, and “hamsters” do not like that
                      1. Catfish April 3 2020 15: 12 New
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                        Of our films, I remember only one in which everything was without mistakes — “What should I call you now? ...” Yes, and the film itself is simply magnificent, and what actors! good
                        The Polish "Headquarters" at one time looked with interest and did not notice big flaws there. But all sorts of Romanians with the Bulgarians sometimes gave out such that at least stand, even fall. laughing
                      2. vladcub April 4 2020 07: 51 New
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                        "what do you call now?" I vaguely remember. I'll have to see
                      3. Catfish April 4 2020 15: 24 New
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                        Be sure to look, I highly recommend that such films are not being shot right now, and even then not everyone could.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka April 2 2020 20: 10 New
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          Yes, the guys let me down!
          repeat wrong.
          1. Catfish April 2 2020 20: 14 New
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            Vlad, it doesn’t matter. smile The main thing is that everyone understood everything and went and went. drinks
            1. Phil77 April 2 2020 20: 28 New
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              I agree with the opinion of Constantine! wink Greetings Vlad!
  • LKW UE April 2 2020 01: 29 New
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    But Fyodor Ushakov was counted among the saints of the Orthodox Church, he was surprised to see his icon in the church in Troieschyna in Kiev, which prompted him to re-read his biography).
  • sivuch April 2 2020 09: 26 New
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    Admiral Ducon? Thank you for not just a horse. Still, it is more correct - Duchenne, although the spelling of Duchesne is also found. And all these French names are Abraham Duquesne, marquis du Bouchet
  • serge siberian April 2 2020 18: 58 New
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    The article is very interesting. With historical descriptions. Not much about Fedor Fedorovich. The great was a man. Thanks to him. hi