European corsairs of the Islamic Maghreb

European corsairs of the Islamic Maghreb

Continuing the story of the corsairs of North Africa and the Ottoman admirals, we will first discuss the “special path” of Morocco.


Among the states of the Maghreb, Morocco has always stood apart, trying to defend its independence not only from the Catholic kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, but also from the Ottoman Empire.


Maghreb States and Ottoman Empire

Since the beginning of the XNUMXth century, the Saadite clan began to play an increasingly important role in this country, whose representatives arrived here from Arabia in the XNUMXth century. According to legend, they, as the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, were invited to improve the climate of Morocco with their “grace”, stopping or making the droughts shorter. However, the enemies of this family claimed that, in fact, the Saadites did not come from Muhammad, but from his nurse.

In 1509, the Saadites came to power in southern Morocco, the first ruler of this dynasty was Abu Abdallah ibn Abd al-Rahman (Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman).

In 1525, his sons took Marrakesh, in 1541 they captured the Portuguese-owned Agadir, and in 1549 they extended their power throughout Morocco.


Map of Morocco, compiled by the namesake of the famous corsair - cartographer Jan Janson in 1638

The Saadites refused to submit to the Turkish sultans on the grounds that they were descendants of the prophet, while the Ottoman rulers had nothing to do with Muhammad.

Battle of the Three Kings


One of the rulers of this dynasty, Muhammad al-Mutawakkil, received the nickname Black King from Europeans: his mother was a Negro concubine. Being overthrown by his relatives, he fled to Spain, and then to Portugal, where he persuaded King Sebastian to win the throne for him, and for himself - the former possessions in North Africa.


Portuguese ships: galleon, naves (naõ), galley, caravel, fusta and galliot. Castro Sketches of 1540–1541

On August 4, 1578, at the confluence of the rivers Luccos and al-Mahazin, the 20-strong army, which, in addition to the Portuguese, included the Spaniards, Germans, Italians and Moroccans, joined the battle with the 50-strong Saadite army. IN history this battle was called the “Battle of the Three Kings”: the Portuguese and two Moroccan - the former and the ruling, and all of them then died.

The Portuguese army squeezed the opponents, but a blow to the flanks sent it to flight, and many soldiers, including Sebastian and Muhammad al-Mutawakkil, drowned, others were captured. The weakened Portugal then fell under Spanish rule for 60 years.

The Sultan of Morocco, Abd al-Malik, died of some disease before the start of the battle, and his brother, Ahmad al-Mansour (Victor), was proclaimed the new ruler of this country. In Morocco, he also received the nickname al-Zahabi (Golden), because he received a huge ransom for the noble Portuguese. And since he was also highly educated, he was also called "a scientist among caliphs and a caliph among scientists."


Ahmad al-Mansour

But Ahmad al-Mansur did not forget about military affairs: he managed to extend his power to Songai (a state in the territory of modern Mali, Niger and Nigeria) and seize its capital Timbuktu. From Songai, Moroccans for many years received gold, salt and black slaves.


The ambitions of Ahmad al-Mansour extended so far that after the defeat of the Spanish “Invincible Armada” in 1588, he entered into negotiations with Queen Elizabeth of England to divide Spain, claiming Andalusia.


Moorish Ambassador to Elizabeth I. Ambassador from the Maghreb to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I. One year after his visit, Shakespeare wrote his play Othello. Some researchers believe that it was this ambassador-moor who inspired the playwright to create this work.

The fall of the Saadites


Everything collapsed after the death of Sultan Ahmad al-Mansour: the long-term struggle of the heirs led to the weakening of Morocco, the loss of connection with the Songian corps and, ultimately, with this colony. In the first half of the XVII century, before a single country turned into a conglomerate of semi-independent and completely independent principalities and free ports. The end of the Saadiot dynasty came then: in 1627 Fez fell, where Abd al-Malik III was entrenched, in 1659 the last representative of the dynasty, Ahmed III al-Abbas, was killed in Marrakesh during a palace coup.

As a result, the Aluite dynasty came to power in Morocco, which were descended from the grandson of the prophet Muhammad Hassan. The first sultan from this dynasty was Moulay Mohammed al-Sheriff. His successor, Moulay Rashid ibn Sheriff, captured Fez in 1666, and Marrakesh in 1668. Representatives of this dynasty still rule Morocco, which in 1957 was declared a kingdom.

Sale Pirate Republic


But back to the first half of the XVII century. Of particular interest to us is the pirate republic of Sale, which then arose in Morocco, which also included the cities of Rabat and Kasbah. And the Spanish inquisitors and King Philip III were involved in its appearance.


Diego Velazquez. Philip III, equestrian portrait, Prado Museum, Madrid

Article The Great Inquisitor of Torquemada It was told, among other things, about the expulsion of the Morisks from Valencia, Aragon, Catalonia and Andalusia.

Recall that the Morisks in Castile called the Moors forced to adopt Christianity, in contrast to the Mudejar, who did not want to be baptized and left the country.

Back in 1600, a memorandum was issued according to which the purity of blood in Spain now meant more nobility. And all the Moriski have since become people of the second, if not third grade. After the publication by King Philip III on April 9, 1609 of an edict very similar to Granada (1492), about 300 thousand people left the country, mainly from Granada, Andalusia and Valencia. Many of those who left Andalusia (up to 40 thousand people) settled in Morocco near the city of Sale, where there was already a colony of Spanish Moors who moved there at the beginning of the 1502th century. These were the Mudejar - the Moors who did not want to be baptized and therefore expelled from Spain in XNUMX. The “first wave” emigrants were known as “ornacheros” - after the name of the Spanish (Andalusian) city of Ornachuelos. Their language was Arabic, while newcomers spoke the Andalusian dialect of Spanish.

Hornacheros were able to take out all the property and funds from Spain, but the new fugitives were practically destitute. Naturally, they were not going to share with fellow tribesmen, and therefore many Moriski men soon found themselves in the ranks of the Barbarian pirates who had long been terrorizing the coasts of southern Europe. It was then that the star of the corsairs rose, the base of which was the fortified city of Sale, located on the north of the Atlantic coast of Morocco. And very many of the pirates of Sale were Moriski, who, among other things, knew the Spanish coast very well and were eager to avenge the loss of property and the humiliation suffered.


Sale, Morocco

The modern region of Rabat - Sale - Kenitra in Morocco. Area - 18 385 sq km, population - 4 580 866 people:


From 1610 to 1627 three cities of the future republic (Sale, Rabat and Kasbah) were subordinate to the Sultan of Morocco. In 1627, they got rid of the power of the Moroccan sultans, and formed a kind of independent state that established diplomatic relations with England, France and the Netherlands (in the Old Quarter of Rabat, one of the streets is still called Consul Street).

The greatest influence in Sale was enjoyed by the English consul John Harrison, who even managed to stop the war between the cities of the pirate republic in 1630: Spain got the most from the Salis, and the British did not want this onslaught to weaken. And in 1637, the squadron of Admiral Rainsboro through bombing "led to submission to the central authorities" in Sale City of Kasbah.

In addition, in Sala there were permanent representations of trading houses in England, France, Holland, Austria, various Italian states, who bought their prey from "sea hunters".

This did not prevent the Sali corsairs from continuing to hunt European merchant ships, and in 1636 the British shipowners turned to the king with a petition stating that over the course of several years, pirates had captured 87 ships and inflicted losses of 96 pounds on them.

The "Republic" was ruled by fourteen pirate captains. Those, in turn, chose from their midst the "great admiral" who was the head of the republic - its "president." The first great admiral of Sale was the Dutch captain Jan Janszoon van Haarlem. This corsair is better known as Murat-reis the Younger. Did this name seem familiar to you? About Admiral Murat-Reis, who lived in 1534-1609, was described in the article "Ottoman pirates, admirals, travelers and cartographers". It was in his honor after converting to Islam that he took the name Yang Yanson. And now, in the pages of historical works, two Murats-reises are described - Elder and Younger.

However, Jan Janson was neither the first Dutchman nor the first European to become famous on the Maghreb. In previous articles, some very successful renegades of the 1574th century were described, for example, the Calabrian Giovanni Dionigi Galeni, better known as Uluj Ali (Kylych Ali Pasha). We add that, at about the same time, the rulers of Algeria were Islam-converted native of Sardinia Ramadan (1577-1577), the Venetian Hassan (1580-1582 and 1583-1580), the Hungarian Jafar (1582-1583) and the Albanian Memi (1586-1581 14). In 1631, 24 Algerian pirate ships were under the command of Europeans from different countries - former Christians. And in 35 there were already XNUMX renegade captains (out of XNUMX). Among them were Albanian Delhi Mimmi-reis, Frenchman Murad-reis, Genoese Feru-reis, Spaniards Murad Maltrapilo-reis and Yusuf-reis, Venetians Memi-reis and Memi Gancho-reis, as well as immigrants from Corsica, Sicily and Calabria. Now we will talk about the most famous renegades, corsairs and admirals of the Islamic Maghreb.

Simon Simonszoon de Dancer (Dancer)


A native of the Dutch city of Dordrecht, Simon Simonszoon was a staunch Protestant and hated Catholics, especially the Spaniards, who had repeatedly ravaged his country during the Eighty Years' War (17 Dutch provinces fighting for independence). His first ship was a "prize" obtained by Dutch privateers and honestly bought by Simon, which did not prevent the former owners of the vessel from charging him with piracy.

The circumstances of the appearance of Simon in Algeria are unknown. Once there, around 1600, he joined the local dey (the so-called commander of the Janissary corps of Algeria, the Janissaries there achieved the right to choose him independently in 1600). Algerian dei shared power with the appointed Sultan Pasha until 1711, and then became completely independent of Constantinople.

Simon set about reforming Algerian fleet on the model of the Dutch: he oversaw the construction of large ships, using captured European vessels as models, and involved captured officers for training crews. The most striking thing was that even in Algeria, Dancer did not change his faith.

However, he soon got bored on the shore and therefore three years later went to sea, very successfully piracy and terrifying the "merchants" of all countries, and even attacked Turkish ships. The Mediterranean Sea seemed to him cramped, and Simon de Dancer also piracy over Gibraltar, where he captured at least 40 ships.


Cornelis de Val. "Boarding". Prado Museum, Madrid

The reputation of this corsair was such that the Berbers gave him the nickname Captain Devil (Dali-Capitan). And the dancer Simon received the nickname for always returning with booty to the “home port” - such constancy was then called a “round dance”.

Later, two English "gentlemen of fortune" joined him - Peter Easton and John (in some sources - Jack) Ward (Ward). About them will be discussed later.

Many spoke about the cruelty of Simon de Dancer, but there is evidence that in his “round dance" he did not commit anything particularly distinguishing him among his "colleagues." There was always a surgeon on board his ship, assisting the wounded, and Dancer, the crippled pirates, was paid a “severance pay” so that they would not be miserable at least for the first time ashore. In addition, he usually did not attack ships flying the Dutch flag and even redeemed from the slavery of Dutch sailors. And once he did not rob the British ship Charity, the captain of which said that only 6 days ago he was robbed by John Ward's corsairs.

Moorish pirates, including members of his crews, did not particularly like this scrupulousness. As a result, having received from the French government an offer to transfer to the royal naval service, Dancer in 1609 was forced to practically flee Algeria. He secretly cashed out all the funds he had and placed the treasury on the ship, the crew of which was mainly Dutch, Friezy and French from Dunkirk. Then, having bought three ships with goods, he also equipped them mainly with Europeans. Having waited for the moment when the majority of the Moors who were in the crews of these ships went ashore, he sailed from Algeria to Marseille. Some of the Moors still remained on these ships: Simon ordered them to be thrown overboard.

Deciding that it was impolite to go to the French with empty hands, he looked into Cadiz, where he discovered the Spanish Silver Fleet at the mouth of the Guadalquivir. Suddenly attacking his ships, he captured three ships, on which there were gold and treasures for half a million piastres (pesos). Arriving in Marseille on November 17, 1609, he transferred this money to the representative of the authorities - the Duke of Giza. He could afford such a broad gesture: at that time the condition of the corsair was estimated at 500 thousand crowns.

In Marseilles there were people affected by the actions of this pirate, so the first time he was constantly guarded by the most “representative” and decisive members of his crew, one kind of which fought off the “showdown”. It is curious that the authorities sided with the defector, telling the merchants that they should be very happy about the fact that Dancer is now in Marseille, and not “walking” by sea, waiting for their ships. But subsequently, Simon settled some of these cases, paying offended some compensation.

On October 1, 1610, at the request of Marseilles merchants, he led the operation against Algerian pirates and captured several ships. In the Maghreb, he was not forgiven for switching to the side of France.

This corsair died in 1615 in Tunisia, where he was sent for negotiations on the return of ships captured by the corsairs. Sending Simon, representatives of the French authorities strictly forbade him to go ashore, but the meeting arranged by the local authorities dispelled all his fears: three French ships were greeted with cannon salute, the ruler of the city Yusuf Bey boarded and, in every possible way demonstrating friendliness, invited Simon to bring return visit. In the city, the Dutchman was immediately captured and beheaded. His head was thrown in full view of the French sailors at the walls of Tunisia.


French galley

Suleiman Reis


Dirk de Venbor (Ivan Dirkie De Veenboer) started as the captain of one of the ships of Simon Dancer, but soon became an independent "admiral" - and then one of his captains was Jan Yanson - the future "younger" Murat-reis.

Dirk de Wenbor was a native of the Dutch city of Horn, in 1607 he received a privateer certificate from the government of the Netherlands, but luck awaited him off the coast of North Africa. Having adopted Islam, he quickly became famous under the name Suleiman-Reis, becoming one of the most successful corsairs of Algeria. The number of ships of his squadron reached 50, and he managed them very sensibly and skillfully.


Shebeki Berber Pirates. Engraving of the XVII century.

In a short time, Suleiman-reis became so rich that he retired for some time, settling in Algeria, but did not sit on the shore, went to sea again. October 10, 1620 during the battle with the French squadron, he was seriously wounded, which became fatal.


Aart van Antum. "The attack of the Barbary pirates on the French ship"

John Ward (Jack Birdy)


Andrew Barker, who published the “True Captain Ward Piracy Report” in 1609, claims that this corsair was born in 1553 in the small town of Feversham, in Kent. But the first fame and certain authority in the relevant circles was in Plymouth (this is not the east of England, but the west - the county of Devon).


Counties of Kent and Devon on a map of England

At the end of the XVI century, he, as a privateer, fought a little with the Spaniards in the Caribbean. Returning to Europe, Ward, in the company of a certain Hugh Whitebrook, began hunting for Spanish merchant ships in the Mediterranean.


Spanish ship

But after King James I signed a peace treaty with the Spaniards in 1604, the English privateers were left without work. In Plymouth, Ward was jailed following a complaint from a Dutch shipowner. The judges decided that the arrested pirate was quite suitable for service in the Royal Navy, where Ward was identified - of course, without asking his opinion on this matter. John did not stop in the service: with a group of "like-minded people" he captured a small bark and went to sea. Here they managed to board a small French vessel, on which they at first “played a bit” in the waters of Ireland, and then came to Portugal.

Already then, among the sea robbers there was a rumor about the "hospitality" of the Moroccan city of Sale, where Ward sent his ship. Here he met another Englishman with a criminal biography - Richard Bishop, who happily joined his compatriots (this corsair later managed to receive an amnesty from the British authorities and spent the rest of his life in West Cork, Ireland).


West Cork on map of Ireland

Ward exchanged his "prizes" for the 22-gun Dutch flute "Gift", the crew of this ship was 100 people.


Wenceslaus Hollar. Dutch flute, 1677

But piracy without a patron is a thankless task. And therefore, in the summer of 1606, Worth passed under the auspices of the dey (governor) of Tunisia Utman Bay.


Tunisia medieval map

In 1607, Ward already commanded a squadron of 4 ships, the flagship was "Gift".

At the insistence of the act in 1609, Ward had to convert to Islam, but John was a man of free views, and did not experience any complexes in this regard. Moreover, according to the testimony of the Benedictine monk Diego Haedo, already in 1600 Europeans who converted to Islam made up almost half of the population of Algeria. And in Sala still show a building called the "mosque of the British." And in other ports of the Maghreb, there were also a lot of renegade Europeans.

Ward's new name is Yusuf-reis. In 1606-1607 his squadron captured many "prizes", the most valuable of which was the Venetian ship Renera e Soderina with a load of indigo, silk, cotton and cinnamon, which was estimated at two million ducats. This ship, armed with 60 cannons, became Ward's new flagship, but in 1608 it sank during a storm.

The anonymous British sailor who saw Ward in 1608 left this description of this leader of the corsairs:

“He is short, with small hair, completely gray-haired, and bald in front; dark-skinned and bearded. He speaks little, and almost only curses. Drinks from morning to evening. Very wasteful and daring. He sleeps for a long time, often on board the ship when he stands at the pier. All the habits of a seasoned sailor. Stupid and stupid in everything that does not concern his craft. "

The Scot, William Lightgow, who met with Ward in 1616, after his conversion to Islam, describes him differently:

“The old master, Ward, was generous and welcoming. Many times during the ten days of my stay there, I dined and dined with him. ”

Lightgow claims that the "pirate king" at that time drank only water.

And here is how the Scot describes the house of this pirate:

“I saw Ward’s palace, which any king would look enviously at ...
A real palace, decorated with expensive marble and alabaster stones. There were 15 people in the service, the Muslim British. ”

Ward Yusuf kept many birds in his Tunisian palace, for this reason he received the nickname Jack Birdy - Jack Bird.

Lightgow claims to have personally seen this aviary with birds. According to him, he said then that he now understands why Ward is called the Bird.

The former pirate grinned bitterly:

"Jack Sparrow. What a stupid nickname. Perhaps this is how they will remember me, huh? ”

Lightgow reassured him:

“I think not, captain. If you get into history, they will definitely not say about you: "Captain Jack Sparrow"».

As you can see, unlike the movie Jack Sparrow, Ward was not at all proud of his nickname. More decent to him, apparently, seemed to be something else received at sea - Sharky (Shark).

There is evidence that Ward wanted to return to England and through intermediaries even offered the British king James I Stuart a "bribe" of 40 thousand pounds. But this was opposed by the Venetians, whose ships Ward too often captured in the Mediterranean.

The last time Yusuf Ward went to sea in 1622: then another Venetian merchant ship was captured. In the same year he died - in Tunisia. The cause of his death, some call the plague.

In Britain, Ward became the hero of several ballads in which he looks like a "marine Robin Hood." One of them tells how Ward released the captured English skipper, asking him to transfer to him his wife left in England 100 pounds. The skipper did not fulfill his promise, and then Ward, capturing him again, ordered to throw the deceiver from the top of the mast into the sea. An English playwright of the XNUMXth century Robert Darborn wrote a play about him, “A Christian Who Becomes a Turk”, which claims that Ward converted to Islam because of his love for the beautiful Turkish woman. However, in fact, his wife was a noblewoman from Palermo, who also converted to Islam.

Peter Easton


Another associate of Simon de Dancer - Peter Easton, unlike some other pirates, did not feel any sympathy for his compatriots and stated that he "scourged all the English, respects them no more than the Turks and Jews."

At the height of his career, there were 25 ships under his command. In 1611, he wished to receive an amnesty from King James I, this issue was discussed at the highest level and was resolved positively, but the British bureaucrats were late: Easton went to Newfoundland, and then, having not learned of the king’s forgiveness, returned to the Mediterranean Sea, where the Tuscan Duke Cosimo II of Medici offered him amnesty.


Tiberio di Tito. Cosimo II de Medici portrait

In Livorno, the corsair brought four ships, the crews of which totaled 900 people. Here he bought the title of Marquis, married, and led the measured life of a law-abiding citizen until the end of his life.

After the death of Suleiman-Reis, Simon de Dancer and John Ward, a man who took on the big name Murat-Reis came to the fore.

Murat Reis the Younger


Jan Jansoon, like Simon de Dancer and Suleiman-reis, was born in the Netherlands during the so-called Eighty Years War (for independence) with Spain, which began in the 60s of the sixteenth century.


Duke of Alba enters Rotterdam in 1567

He began his naval career as a corsair, hunting for Spanish ships near the hometown of Haarlem. This business was dangerous and not too profitable, and therefore Yanson went to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Things went better here, but the competition was extremely great. Local corsairs in 1618 ambushed his ship near the Canary Islands. Once captured, the Dutchman expressed an ardent desire to become an Orthodox Muslim, after which his affairs went even better. He actively collaborated with other European corsairs. There is evidence that Murat-reis tried to redeem compatriots captured by other pirates. In 1622, this corsair visited Holland: having arrived at the port of Fira on a ship under the Moroccan flag, he “campaigned into the pirates” dozens of sailors who later served on his ships.

In the end, he, as already mentioned above, was elected the “great admiral” Sale and married there.

In 1627, the “youngest” Murat Reis attacked Iceland. At the Faroe Islands, the pirates managed to capture a Danish fishing boat, on which they freely entered Reykjavik. The main production was from 200 to 400 (according to various sources) young men who were profitably sold in slave markets. The Icelandic priest, Olav Egilsson, who managed to return from captivity, claimed that there were many Europeans in the crews of the corsair’s ships, mostly Dutch.

In 1631, Murat Reis ships attacked the coast of England and Ireland. The town of Baltimore in the Irish county of Cork (the inhabitants of which they themselves hunted for piracy) after this raid was empty for several decades.

Some researchers believe that the Baltimore victims of the struggle of local clans, one of which "invited" corsairs for a "showdown" with opponents. Local Catholics were later accused of the fact that for some strange coincidence, almost all the captured Irish (237 people) were Protestants.

Others believe that the "customers" of the raid were the merchants from Waterford, who were constantly robbed by Baltimore pirates. As confirmation of this version, they point to information that one of the Waterford merchants (named Hackett) was hanged by the surviving Baltimore immediately after the attack of the Sali corsairs.

Then the Murat Reis pirates attacked Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and the Balearic Islands, until he was captured in 1635 by the hospitals of Malta.


M. Merian. “The Battle of the Galley of Malta with the Turkish Galleons on September 28, 1644” (fragment), 1707


The capture of the Turkish warship near Malta on January 25, 1652

He managed to escape in 1640 when the island was attacked by pirates from Tunisia. The last mention of this Dutchman dates back to 1641: at that time he was the commandant of one of the Moroccan fortresses. With him then was his first wife, brought at his request from Holland, and his daughter Lisbeth.

It is also known that his sons from his first wife were among the Dutch colonists who founded the city of New Amsterdam, which in 1664 came under British control and was called New York.


New Amsterdam, circa 1650

Completion of the history of the pirate republic of Sale


In 1641, Saleh subjugated the Sufi order of Dilahites, which at that time already controlled almost the entire territory of Morocco. The corsairs did not like to live under the rule of Sufis, and therefore they made an alliance with Mulay Rashid ibn Sheriff from the Aluite clan: with his help, in 1664, Sufis were expelled from Sale. But after 4 years, the same Moulay Rashid ibn Sheriff (since 1666 - the Sultan) annexed the cities of the pirate republic to Morocco. The pirate freemen came to an end, but the corsairs did not disappear: now they were subordinate to the Sultan, who owned 8 of the 9 ships that went on the "sea fishing".


Moulay Rashid ibn Sheriff

Barbary corsairs of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli still plowed the expanses of the Mediterranean Sea. The story of the Maghreb pirates is continued in the next article.
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  1. 3x3zsave 27 March 2020 07: 02 New
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    More decent to him, apparently, seemed to be something else received at sea - Sharky (Shark).
    I wonder if the ballads about Jack Ward inspired Doyle to create the image of captain Sharkey?
    Thanks for the article, Valery!
    1. Bar1 27 March 2020 09: 02 New
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      Yes, it doesn’t seriously turn out, the author of the statues says one thing, and the images say the opposite. It turns out that the Turks had large galleons, so these ships were created for great sailing and not the Mediterranean Sea. But why hide these facts?
      The official story is selective and only works with facts that fit into its basket, and discards others. Can someone say something intelligible?
      1. Basil50 27 March 2020 11: 03 New
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        Thanks to the author
        For all times, the primary accumulation of capital is mandatory through robbery.
        It is much more interesting to consider the accumulation of primary capital by the English kings-queens. They kind of * fucked * didn’t rob themselves, they allowed them to rob, provided that the loot would be surrendered to the king-queen of England. They bought everything and of course the slaves, and then resold them. The last batch of slaves was sent to Australia at the beginning of the last century, and Irish children were taken out for farmers.
        But today the British puffed up in a pose of moralists and sort of moral mentors.
      2. Trilobite Master 27 March 2020 15: 00 New
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        Quote: Bar1
        It turns out that the Turks had large galleons, so these ships were created for great sailing and not for the Mediterranean Sea. But why hide these facts?

        Ok, let me agree with you. The Turks had large ships and historians hide this. Let's say.
        I am interested, is this all that you wanted to say or did you plan, based on this premise, to develop some more meaningful construction?
        And by the way, tell me, why the hell should historians be so unhappy with Turks? What far-reaching plan do they bear?
        1. Oquzyurd 27 March 2020 17: 27 New
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          "And by the way, tell me, and why the hell should historians be so unhappy with Turks?" Historically, the Turks were the main competitor in the vastness of Russia. Even the Mongol Tatars were mostly Turks than Mongols. Recall the Kazan Khanate, the Bulgarian Khanate, the Astrakhan Khanate, endless wars with the Ottoman Turks, Crimean Turks, etc. That is, by and large, Europeans were sometimes friends, sometimes enemies, but for the vastness of Russia they were not competitors. And the Türks were just competitors. Based on this, for centuries, istographers downplayed the role and behavior of the Turkic world in a particular historical segment , and in general. I repeat, the main reason for this attitude was not hostility, or friendship, but a sense of competition. Now all the isthography continues that centuries-old trend, by inertia.
        2. Bar1 27 March 2020 17: 54 New
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          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Ok, let me agree with you. The Turks had large ships and historians hide this. Let's say.


          Where are the Turkish trips to America, to Africa? Why is there nothing?
          1. Trilobite Master 27 March 2020 19: 11 New
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            Quote: Bar1
            Where are the Turkish trips to America, to Africa? Why is there nothing?

            Maybe because these trips were not? But actually, this question is not for historians, but rather for the Turks themselves.
            And if you think that there were such trips, then it would be interesting to hear about them. Tell me
      3. Oquzyurd 27 March 2020 16: 56 New
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        "that the Turks had galleons in large ships, which means such ships were created for great sailing and not for the Mediterranean Sea" Of course they were. Otherwise, they would have sailed from the shores of Turkey to Indonesia, and many times. It’s impossible to sail through the ocean with small ships, to carry cargo , and bring something back.
        1. Bar1 27 March 2020 17: 53 New
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          Quote: Oquzyurd
          "that the Turks had galleons in large ships, which means such ships were created for great sailing and not for the Mediterranean Sea" Of course they were. Otherwise, they would have sailed from the shores of Turkey to Indonesia, and many times. It’s impossible to sail through the ocean with small ships, to carry cargo , and bring something back.

          and besides Indonesia, the Turks, who did not know other lands? Why there is NOTHING about Turkish caravans to America or Australia. If there are any, please provide links.
          1. Oquzyurd 27 March 2020 18: 31 New
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            They knew more could be than others. https://bilimvegelecek.com.tr/index.php/2016/03/01/buyuk-osmanli-denizcisi-ve-haritacisi-piri-reis/ If you don’t understand the language, you can translate it with Google. It says a little, but it’s clear does not matter.
          2. Oquzyurd 27 March 2020 18: 53 New
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            https://vk.com/@thepirateseriesofficial-istoriya-flota-osmanskoi-imperii Здесь интереснее,много информаций.
            1. Bar1 28 March 2020 21: 00 New
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              Quote: Oquzyurd
              https://vk.com/@thepirateseriesofficial-istoriya-flota-osmanskoi-imperii


              Well, this is already good, not just what Ryzhov is telling here. But some questions, of course, remain. There was a powerful and formidable medieval state of Atamaniya, which simply withered before our eyes.
              What happened?
              1. Oquzyurd 28 March 2020 22: 33 New
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                The continuation of the Seljuk Empire is the Ottoman Empire, and their others were called the Ataman Empire. I have no information about another Atamania.
          3. Sergey S. 27 March 2020 19: 59 New
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            Quote: Bar1
            and besides Indonesia, the Turks, who did not know other lands? Why there is NOTHING about Turkish caravans to America or Australia. If there are any, please provide links.

            Actually, the Turks did not know today's Indonesia.
            But ...
            Around the 7th century, Arabs appeared on the Mediterranean Sea - the main innovation - slanting sails and keel hulls of ships. which are still called dhows.
            Under their influence, the Mediterranean libourne, triremes ... and the Pentesans of the Byzantines were first transformed into dromons, and somewhat later into galleys.
            the Turks by inheritance built similar ships with a large Arab bias - shebeks.
            But all this is about the Mediterranean Sea.
            And in the Indian Ocean until the 17th century, Arabs continued to dominate.
            It was the Arabs who went to Java and Sumatra, it was the Arabs who brought information about the wealth of the East.
            And it is Arab information that is issued as Turkish.

            And the tales of large ships in the Indian Ocean are most likely a kind of remembrance of the Chinese ships that reached Madagascar in the 15th century. Moreover, the largest ships had a crew of about 1000 people.
            1. Bar1 27 March 2020 20: 41 New
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              Quote: Sergey S.
              And it is Arab information that is issued as Turkish.


              in previous articles I quoted from Lukyanov, as well as the images of Turkish galleons themselves. Therefore, not Arab galleons, but Turkish.
              1. Sergey S. 27 March 2020 22: 06 New
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                Quote: Bar1
                in previous articles I quoted from Lukyanov,

                And who is Lukyanov?
                Personally, such a specialist in the history of shipbuilding and the fleet is not known to me.
                I know Shershov, I know Bogolyubov, I do not know Lukyanov ...
                Quote: Bar1
                as well as the images of Turkish galleons themselves.

                You would have brought images from the annals.
                Or, using Rembrandt’s impressive engravings, they tried to design a sailing rig.
                Until experts appeared, information from outside eyewitnesses had a minimum of accuracy, and often depicted an unreal object. and something from the artist’s head ...
                By the way, modern artists, graduates of the Academy of Arts, but not of the Naval Schools, sin the same - with fabulous pictures ...
                Quote: Bar1
                Therefore, not Arab galleons, but Turkish.

                Therefore, the Arab galleons do not exist.
                And Turkish and even more so. In fact, the Turks with shipbuilding was very bad and always.
                That's what they invited the French to build a fleet against Russia.
                And the best Turkish shebeks were built by the Greeks and Slavs from Dolmatia.
                1. Bar1 28 March 2020 00: 26 New
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                  Quote: Sergey S.
                  And who is Lukyanov?

                  Journey to the holy land of priest Lukyanov.

                  1. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 05: 00 New
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                    Quote: Bar1
                    Journey to the holy land of priest Lukyanov.

                    I suspected something like that.
                    Even wrote about the annals ...

                    And what, on the basis of such a text, will we draw conclusions about the shipbuilding and navigation of the Turks?

                    I will notice. that in the presented passage refers to Peter's time. That is, when a more or less large ship could be built in different countries. But the art of navigation in the oceans was still owned by very few. And Turkish ships in European ports outside the Mediterranean Sea, for example, are unknown to me personally.
                    1. Bar1 28 March 2020 09: 21 New
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                      Quote: Sergey S.
                      And what, on the basis of such a text, will we draw conclusions about the shipbuilding and navigation of the Turks?


                      if the Turks had a fleet for centuries, then the Turks also made large ships, otherwise, as in official history, these people should be considered primitive and limited, they did, but they did poorly, but Europeans did good.
                      There are facts, so we just don’t know the rest of the facts. It remains only to search for them. Well, if the Ataman ships sailed across the oceans, then there should also be traces.
                      And most importantly, OI is hiding it from us, which means why.
                      Here is a universal cosmography, an image of an ocean ship with a crescent moon on the flag that crushed a ship without a crescent moon near the Austrian land i.e. unknown and this is not the Mediterranean Sea.



                      here is a sunny and half-month symbolism on the shores of Florida-America.


                      if the Turks had a fleet, then its ships sailed across all the seas and oceans, which means these facts became extinct from history.
                2. Bar1 28 March 2020 00: 34 New
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                  Quote: Sergey S.
                  That's what they invited the French to build a fleet against Russia.

                  Well, the Italians built the Kremlin for us, and the French built ships for the Turks, despite the fact that the Turks HUNDREDED the sea for hundreds of years, but the galleons did not learn how to build.
                  The history is written by the winners.
                  1. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 05: 06 New
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                    Quote: Bar1
                    ... despite the fact that the Turks HUNDREDS went to sea for years

                    Verbally.

                    Your
                    Quote: Bar1
                    The history is written by the winners.

                    It refers specifically to the Turks who have attributed to themselves the deeds of the defeated peoples.
                    1. Bar1 28 March 2020 08: 33 New
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                      Quote: Sergey S.
                      Verbally.

                      you are some kind of historians, you don’t know stories.

                      In 1081, the Seljuk emir Chaka Bey conquered several cities on the Aegean coast of Anatolia, including Smyrna. In the same year, he began the construction of the first Anatolian Turkish fleet, consisting of 33 sailing ships and 17 oversized ships, in the shipyards of Smyrna and Ephesus. AT


                      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Османский_флот

                      Quote: Sergey S.
                      It refers specifically to the Turks, who attributed to themselves the deeds of the defeated peoples


                      no. I meant our German tsars, who ruled Russia / Russia.
                      1. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 09: 38 New
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                        In 1081, the Seljuk emir Chaka Bey conquered several cities on the Aegean coast of Anatolia, including Smyrna. In the same year, he began the construction of the first Anatolian Turkish fleet, consisting of 33 sailing ships and 17 oversized ships, in the shipyards of Smyrna and Ephesus. AT
                        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Османский_флот

                        And I about the same - the Greeks built.
                        And also the Egyptians, Algerian and Moroccan Arabs ...

                        That's just the Turks themselves in the Middle Ages did not know how to build ships.
                      2. Bar1 28 March 2020 09: 57 New
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                        Quote: Sergey S.
                        And I about the same - the Greeks built.

                        and where is it written that the "Greeks built"? You do not distort ...
                    2. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 09: 45 New
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                      Quote: Bar1 (Timur)
                      I meant our German tsars, who ruled Russia / Russia.

                      No one denies that the share of Russian blood in the Romanov dynasty descended to an infinitely small value.
                      However, this applied to almost all European royal houses.
                      That is the king of English, like two drops of water with Nicholas II.

                      I’m talking about something else.
                      Ships of the Peter's fleet are not charged with inventing Russian Russians.
                      In pre-Petrine times, the Russians made the greatest geographical discovery, or rather. a scientific feat, they described the whole of northeast Asia and the coast of the Northern Sea Route.
                      Accordingly, there is a global contribution of Russians to shipbuilding and navigation, the Russians are Kochi, Carbases, ranshins ...
                    3. Bar1 28 March 2020 10: 05 New
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                      Quote: Sergey S.
                      Accordingly, there is a global contribution of Russians to shipbuilding and navigation, the Russians are Kochi, Carbases, ranshins ...


                      Well, of course, you are also one of these.

                      - Ship-box in Russian
                      -Caravel ship
                      -corvette
                      -karbas
                      these are Russian words
                      -Galleons-Galician ships
                      -Barcas-lordly ships.
                      -barque
                      -frigate
                      -brig
                      -brigantine

                      Quote: Sergey S.
                      I’m talking about something else.
                      Ships of the Peter's fleet are not charged with inventing Russian Russians.
                      In pre-Petrine times, the Russians made the greatest geographical discovery, or rather. a scientific feat, - they described the whole of northeast Asia and the coast of the Northern Sea Route

                      those. grandma you don’t go here, you go here ... So what? It doesn’t happen. You forgot to mention the Russian Islands in the Pacific Ocean, i.e. Russians went not only to the northern seas, it is from the OI.
                    4. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 11: 53 New
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                      Quote: Bar1
                      Well, of course, you are also one of these.

                      ...?
                      I mean that Russian sailors throughout history.
                      From the 7th century without books examples come to mind.
                      And we did not come up with information about this, but the Byzantines and Arabs wrote about it.
                      And koch and ranshin in the history of shipbuilding are unique - only our ancestors built such ships.
                    5. Bar1 28 March 2020 13: 56 New
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                      Quote: Sergey S.
                      And koch and ranshin in the history of shipbuilding are unique - only our ancestors built such ships.

                      yes but the German cursed Peter forbade making kochi and rooks.
                      Royal love dealt a great blow to the original local shipbuilding. Peter launched a powerful shipbuilding industry in Arkhangelsk, putting foreign models at its base. At the same time, he forbade all initiative in this matter. On December 28, 1715, the tsar sent a decree * to Arkhangelsk, which ordered the local population to build not boats and kochi, but “sea courts of galliots, gukars, kats, flutes ...” However, the inertia turned out to be great, and the Pomors continued to build ships as taught fathers and grandfathers. Four years later, the tsar tightened his requirements: “Whoever makes new orders after this, punishes them with hard labor and cuts down their courts ...” It was forbidden to send merchant ships of the “former business” from the Arkhangelsk port, that is, those built on the basis of the old Pomeranian tradition.


                      https://rummuseum.ru/lib_g/belomor12.php
                    6. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 20: 26 New
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                      Quote: Bar1
                      yes but the German cursed Peter forbade making kochi and rooks.

                      And on the Volga ordered to walk on galliots ...
                      Peter is also a man, mistaken, and more than once.
                      The ban was not valid ...
                3. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 11: 57 New
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                  Quote: Bar1
                  those. Russians went not only to the northern seas, it is from the OI.

                  Yes, the Russians traveled along the northern seas, along the Russian (Black) Sea ... and not only.
                  Hokkaido reached the south.
                  In the end, they mastered Alaska, organized settlements in California, the Hawaiian leader strove under the Russian protectorate ...

                  And what from this?
                  By the way, OI is largely right, if not lazy and read it carefully.
                4. Bar1 28 March 2020 14: 03 New
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                  Quote: Sergey S.
                  Yes, the Russians traveled along the northern seas, along the Russian (Black) Sea ... and not only.


                  Yes, and there were the first discoverers, but who was given the right to the name of toponyms?
                  -Dezhnev discovered the strait between Asia and America, and was named after Bering, who appeared there 80 years later.
                  -Alaska -What is this? What is the etymology of this word? OI writes frank nonsense about the Aleutian name "whaling place"
                  -Alaska-a / anti l / Ruska Ruska-that is, the word RUSSIAN is simply distorted beyond recognition.
                  - The Barents Sea - the Bolsheviks changed the name, giving the name of the Russian Pechersky or Murmansk / Moreman Sea to the Dutchman Barents. Why is this?
                  and there are so many when not only tsars, but also the Bolsheviks fought with the Russian people.
                5. Sergey S. 28 March 2020 20: 13 New
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                  Quote: Bar1
                  and there are so many when not only tsars, but also the Bolsheviks fought with the Russian people.

                  ... Political nonsense has begun ...
                  How so. how ... When there are no arguments, Lenin or Stalin is to blame.
                6. Bar1 28 March 2020 20: 52 New
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                  Quote: Sergey S.
                  Political nonsense has begun ...
                  How so. how ... When there are no arguments, Lenin or Stalin is to blame.

                  what is this nonsense? These are the facts ...
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2020 20: 33 New
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    Yes, it doesn’t seriously turn out, the author of the statues says one thing, and the images say the opposite. It turns out that the Turks had large galleons, so these ships were created for a great voyage and not to the Mediterranean Sea

    "that the Turks had large ships-galleons, which means ....

    Well, “kids and neophytes from the fleet”, prepare your slippers for the demonstrative flogging of the movie “Turk in the Ocean” begins The cat has come!
    We analyze the first illustration of the author with "galleons".
    Question to the studio of you, does anyone distinguish a galley from scampaveia and shebek? So at the Maltese "galleys" we count pairs of oars and a mast. We get 9 and 1, in the end - instead of a galley (which has from 18 to 25 cans and 2-3 masts), I have champagne! Exactly two times less than the "galley"! Now we play with proportions we get instead of the Turkish "galleons" - naves of the second quarter of the 17th century.
    So for fun, I’ll remind you to “fill up” the Swedish Parm (rowing frigate) Elephant, six galleys and three sker bots at Gangut! Ours took three attacks with more than three dozen scampaways and galleys! And Parm, this is not a distant galleon.
    Now the second picture, a crowd of galleys (they are two mast and 20-25 here) tear cans into pieces "Turkish galleon"? The only trouble is that this is again not a “galleon”, but has anyone seen the Goto Prestation?
    Remade friends classic battleship of the late 17th century! At least the hull and sailing weapons of that era. As an option, a French-built ship, definitely more perfect than our Lesnoy and Poltava, built in the early 18th century. I will assume that the painting was painted by a contemporary of our Peter I.
    Well, the last one! In the trophies of the Turks and their satellites there were many trophies and to deny the presence of galleons among them is trite irrational. In addition, the French from the beginning of the 18th century built modern ships of the line for the Turks. Considering that Nanya and Pinta Columbus had less than 100 tons of displacement, and Tur Heyerdahl sailed to America on the reed raft "Ra 2" the Turks were not afraid of the ocean, but they sailed not in galleons and galeases, but in completely different ships.
    Regards, Kote!
    1. Bar1 27 March 2020 20: 44 New
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      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
      The only trouble is that this is again not a "galleon"


      Well, yes, it’s trouble for you, look, but don’t see it — this is a galleon with half-month symbolism.
    2. Sergey S. 27 March 2020 21: 29 New
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      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
      the Turks were not afraid of the vast expanses of the ocean, but they sailed not in galleons and galeases, but in completely different ships.

      ... only no one (from the sailors) except the Turks did not see the Turks in the oceans ...
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 March 2020 04: 49 New
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        Quote: Sergey S.
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        the Turks were not afraid of the vast expanses of the ocean, but they sailed not in galleons and galeases, but in completely different ships.

        ... only no one (from the sailors) except the Turks did not see the Turks in the oceans ...

        Good morning!
        Yes, what kind of achenia are you talking about? How dare anyone allowed, the Turks in the ocean have at least seen our Bar 1 !!! wassat
        True, the Turks of his reality are tartars (Russians)! bully
        So the Russian galleons in Malaysia and Sumatra, in America and the Sahara ....... get ready. lol
        Now seriously, sorry for the joke above, I apologize in advance if I offended somehow.
        In reality, Ottoman Ports served could trade in Southeast Asia. Whether there were Arabs, Turks or Jews, history is silent. Definitely another Port pirates naughty in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. Nationals Ports traded. Only the first ones sailed in the 15-17th century on shebeks, galleys, galeases and galeots, and the second ones on the Dow.
        Regards, Kote!
    3. Korsar4 27 March 2020 21: 55 New
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      "Goto Predestination" stands in Voronezh, receives guests. Since it was built for the Sea of ​​Azov, the draft was also reduced.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 March 2020 04: 27 New
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        Good morning!
        Divine Providence, unique in the design of its body. In order to protect, he made an overlaid oak keel. So the ship built in Voronezh was preparing for river-sea operations!
        Military historians still argue over whose invention this is. One of the versions, the idea of ​​an overhead keel was borrowed from Russian beads, which were built in the Caspian.
        But the main thing is different, the shipbuilders of Peter knew what the Volga Frederic and Orel on the Volga had encountered and anticipated this and were looking for ways out.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 March 2020 20: 37 New
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    Until the 20th century, Arabs and Hindus to Malaysia and Indonesia sailed on the Dow, the size of which was comparable to the caravels of Columbus!
  • WHAT IS 27 March 2020 07: 39 New
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    An excellent series of articles is obtained, I look forward to continuing, thanks!
  • Aleksandr72 27 March 2020 08: 15 New
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    Interesting article! Once again, he was convinced that piracy as a professional activity and lifestyle does not have a nationality, does not recognize religion, etc. The main thing is a thirst for profit and an adventure in, let's say, the lower hemispheres of the brain. The transformation of John Ward into Jack Sparrow is interesting - the pirate just turned out to be an amateur ornithologist and thus earned an unloved nickname! It is understandable that he liked the honorable nickname Shark much more. And in history, including thanks to Hollywood, he remained Jack Sparrow. You cannot escape fate.
  • Fat
    Fat 27 March 2020 08: 33 New
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    Portuguese ships: galleon, naves (naõ), galley, caravel, fusta and galliot. Castro Sketches of 1540–1541

    In this picture, it’s more like a carrack. Oil in the 14-15 centuries has already become a history of shipbuilding. Nao is pretty much the same as karaka
    1. Moon 27 March 2020 13: 11 New
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      Quote: Thick
      Oil in the 14-15 centuries

      NEFA
      Quote: Thick
      Nao is pretty much the same as karaka

      In Portugal, at that time karakki was usually called simply “nau” (port. Nau). In Spain, “carraca” or “nao”, in France “caraque” or “nave”. It is worth noting that “nau”, “nao” or “nave” simply means “ship” and this term could refer to both karakk and caravel, or to a relatively large vessel of a different design.
      The nave (fr. Nef - ship) is a South European wooden merchant and military transport ship of the XNUMXthth centuries, mainly characteristic of the Mediterranean basin.
      The nave was widely used in trade in the Mediterranean, during the Crusades, for transporting pilgrims to the Holy Land, as well as during the Hundred Years War
      Karakka (Italian: Carassa, Spanish: Carraca) is a large sailing ship of the XV — XVI centuries, widespread throughout Europe. It was distinguished by extremely good seaworthiness for those times, which is associated with the active use of karakk for swimming in the oceans during the era of the Great geographical discoveries.
      Personally did Karakka, (model)
      The Karakk Race is associated with karakk (who is cooler)
      Henry Grace à Dieu — just from this European military shipbuilding race.
      1. Fat
        Fat 27 March 2020 13: 43 New
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        Well of course the nave. This AutoCorrect fails ...)))
      2. Sergey S. 27 March 2020 20: 14 New
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        Quote: Σελήνη
        Karakka (Italian: Carassa, Spanish: Carraca) is a large sailing ship of the XV — XVI centuries, widespread throughout Europe. It was distinguished by extremely good seaworthiness for those times, which is associated with the active use of karakk for swimming in the oceans during the era of the Great geographical discoveries.

        Sorry, this explanation is not professional.
        In addition to the term "large" ...
        How do I accept ...
        Karakka is from Spain. It was for the reason that such a "large" ship was more reliable in long voyages, karakka began to spread in European countries.
        This term has replaced / supplanted the term "nao", which means ship.
        By the way, "Ship" is also a term - a large seaworthy ...
        This tradition was preserved until the 18th century, in the Peter's fleet until the introduction of the term "Linear", all large warships were called the "Ship", unlike frigates, galleys, galleots, shnivy ...

        It is believed that one hundred caravels differed in the way of sewing the casing - smooth, in contrast to the way incarnate in older ships.

        so starting around Columbus the main ships of the great expeditions are caravels.
        But the British and Dutch went to galleons (the main difference is the development of sailing weapons), flutes, somewhat later on sloops (special measures to increase the strength of the hull and the reliability of the mast and rigging) and frigates ...
  • ukoft 27 March 2020 08: 37 New
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    I thank the author for the excellent series of articles, I read with pleasure. I ask the author also to pay attention to the technical component: which ships and how were used by the pirates. How did they oppose a couple of us ships of the great sea powers, etc.
  • Olgovich 27 March 2020 09: 36 New
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    Two types of pirates are clearly traced: those that are smarter, accumulated funds and stopped, getting married and living a prosperous life.

    The rest, without stopping in time, disappeared ....
    1. VLR
      VLR 27 March 2020 09: 46 New
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      It is curious that in Russia, literally before our very eyes, such a transformation took place. Bandyugan and racketeers of the 90s were also divided into such groups. A little smarter (and less greedy) stopped - and now they are posing as respectable bourgeois, patriots and patrons. "Alternatively gifted" and insatiable - shot each other, the survivors - went to the "royal penal servitude", leaving which they ended up with a broken trough. Including those were even “pirate admirals”, such as Berezovsky and Khodorkovsky, who thought that the “Sultan,” who himself was from the “family” (former deputy and Sobchak, and Chubais, Yeltsin’s official heir), would understand and forgive everything " And if you don’t understand, then "from ship cannons in the Topkapi Palace" you can shoot, as in 1993.
      1. Olgovich 27 March 2020 10: 42 New
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        Quote: VlR
        It is curious that in Russia, literally before our very eyes, such a transformation took place.

        Similar, I think, can be said about the whole world and at all times ....
    2. Korsar4 27 March 2020 19: 05 New
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      Actually, Captain Silver is talking about this.
  • Trilobite Master 27 March 2020 15: 13 New
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    Valery, for the article, as always, thanks. Indeed, colorful characters. But I wonder why the “birdies” translated exactly the “sparrow”, and not, for example, the “tit” or “finch”. What kind of weakness is it for sparrows? smile
    The translation of "bird" or "bird" seems to me more correct.
    1. 3x3zsave 27 March 2020 15: 26 New
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      In general, yes. Sparrow, in English, "sparrow".
      1. Trilobite Master 27 March 2020 15: 41 New
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        A tit - “tomtit” or just “tit”. smile
        If Jack Birdie, thanks to the arbitrariness of the translators, weren’t Sparrow, but Sinichka, we could fantasize about the meaning of the English word “tit”, and perhaps, in the end, Jack would become Jacqueline ... smile
      2. Catfish 27 March 2020 18: 36 New
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        Hi, hello! Sparrow, it turns out the nickname is very popular not only among pirates.
        Ship anti-aircraft installation "Sea Sparrow". Well, a pinwheel with the same name.


        Valery, as always, sincere thanks for the excellent work. hi
    2. VLR
      VLR 27 March 2020 16: 05 New
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      Yes, the "subtleties of translation": some authors call it "Jack Bird", part - "Jack Bird", and others - "Jack Sparrow." Moreover, the "old" authors, with the film are clearly unfamiliar.
      1. Trilobite Master 27 March 2020 16: 19 New
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        And you can also translate the name, then you get fire altogether - Yashka Ptashka. smile
        In general, it’s good that the “sparrow”, and not, for example, “rooster”.
        In general, from the point of view of the concepts of classical criminals of the twentieth century. this drove - pure zashkvar. "Bird" rattles hang only lowered. Even such a word as “eagle” in the classical criminal sense is an insult, for which you can answer. True, after the 90s, criminal concepts and laws became somewhat blurred, not so clear, and allow for many derogations and indulgences, but, as far as I know, the “feathered” and “horned” topics are still considered very, very risky.
        1. VLR
          VLR 27 March 2020 16: 24 New
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          By the way, if the Russian translator Lightgow translated everything correctly, it turns out that the Scot at the beginning of the conversation calls Ward a “Bird”, but Ward himself, answering him, calls himself “Sparrow”!
          So, it was important for him? Less offensive?
        2. VLR
          VLR 28 March 2020 08: 20 New
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          A Finist-Clear. Falcon can be recognized as an exception? smile
          I just thought: Ward knew that even for his eyes they laugh at him because of his passion for birds, they gave the nickname "inappropriate", but he did not get rid of the birds. What causes respect - a man has not betrayed his love. Perhaps at another time he would become
          not a pirate, but a famous zoologist (ornithologist)?
          1. Trilobite Master 28 March 2020 11: 13 New
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            Quote: VlR
            Finist-Clear. Falcon

            The criminal world is a kind of distorted, disfigured reality, where all concepts are perverted, and, often, it is useless to search for any logic that is familiar to us in these perversions.
            Everything that is associated with birds (beak, feather, nest, wing) or can be associated with them is insulting, because it alludes to a rooster. The same applies to horns and hooves, since it can be blasted - in the thieves' world, a figure is also of little honor, although not as despised as a rooster.
            Anything can be considered an exception if it is confirmed by an authoritative thief. At the same time, in different zones the same issue can be resolved in completely different ways, which has repeatedly served as the cause of bloody conflicts. So the answer to your question is - maybe. But hardly. smile
  • Korsar4 27 March 2020 19: 02 New
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    Traditionally enjoyed it. Especially the aphorism: "Piracy without a patron is a thankless task." Can not argue.