Do we have many air defense systems? In 2007, the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system was adopted by the Russian Air Force. The S-400 air defense system is an evolutionary option for the development of the S-300P family; initially it was designated S-300PM3. The new designation was appropriated on the basis of market considerations: in this way, the military-political leadership tried to demonstrate that our country is really “rising from its knees” and is able to independently create modern air defense systems without regard to Soviet developments. At the same time, the adoption of the S-400 air defense system was accompanied by a powerful public relations campaign organized by the Russian media. In fact, the S-400 has much in common with the S-300PM2 air defense system, the development of which began in the late 1980s.
Anti-aircraft missile system C-400
At the first stage, the main advantage of the S-400 over the systems of previous modifications was a higher degree of automation of combat work, the use of modern components, the ability to integrate not only the Air Force, but also other types of armed forces into various levels of control, as well as an increase in the number of simultaneously escorted and fired goals. Although in 2007 it was officially announced that the distant border of the S-400 air defense zone could reach 400 km, until recently, only 48N6 family anti-aircraft guided missiles, which entered service in the early 1990s along with the S-300PM air defense system, were included in the ammunition load. The maximum range of destruction of large aerodynamic targets SAM 48N6E3 at medium altitudes is 250 km.
In general, the S-400 anti-aircraft missile division retained the structure of the S-300P, including a multifunctional radar, launchers, autonomous detection and target designation tools. All combat assets of air defense systems are located on self-propelled wheeled chassis of cross-country ability, have built-in systems of autonomous power supply, topographic location, communications and life support. To ensure long-term continuous operation, it is possible to supply power from external power supply. The composition of the combat control system for the S-400 air defense system includes the 55K6E combat control center and the 91N6E detection radar.
Combat Control Station 55K6
PBU 55K6 is intended for the automated control of the combat operation of air defense systems based on data from its own, attached and interacting sources of information in difficult conditions of combat use. It is a hardware container F9 mounted on the chassis of a Ural-532301 all-terrain vehicle and includes modern means of communication, navigation and data processing. For visual display of radar data, mapping and control of subordinate elements of the complex, multifunctional color liquid crystal indicators are used. Compared to the combat control points of the S-300PS / PM divisions, the PBU 55K6 has become much more compact.
Based on the information supplied by the detection radar, the command post allocates targets between the guided anti-aircraft missile systems of the system, provides them with appropriate target designation, and also interacts with the air defense missile system in conditions of massive air attacks at various altitudes of their combat use, in an environment of intense radio countermeasures. The command post of the air defense missile system can also receive additional route information about the targets from the higher command posts, to which the ground radars of the standby and combat modes are locked, or directly from these radars, as well as from the onboard radars aviation complexes. The integration of radar information received in different wavelengths is most expedient in conditions of intense radio interference. The command post of the S-400 air defense system is simultaneously capable of controlling the actions of 8 divisions.
The 91N6E radar detection system for air targets operates in the decimeter frequency range and is a development option for the 64N6E station used in the S-300PM. All elements of the complex are placed on the MZKT-7930 chassis.
Open sources say that RLK 91N6E is capable of automatically tracking ballistic targets with an EPR of 0,4 square meters. m flying at a speed of up to 4800 m / s at a range of up to 230 km. Large high-altitude air targets are taken for escort from 530 km. The maximum detection range is 600 km.
For maximum adaptation to the air situation in the RLC 91N6E, various modes of all-round and sector-wide viewing are implemented, including those with a stopped drive for rotating the antenna and tilting the headlight. The radar uses a two-way pass-through type headlamp with beam scanning in two planes. High noise immunity is ensured by programmable tuning of the carrier frequency from pulse to pulse and the introduction of special high-potential modes of sectorial review of space.
The expansion of the capabilities for the timely detection of air targets by anti-aircraft missile regiments armed with S-400 is provided by the optionally attached high-altitude 96L6E detector, the Opponent-GE, Gamma-D, and Sky-M radars.
Multifunctional radar station 92N6E provides target detection, taking them to escort and guidance anti-aircraft missiles, with automatic assessment of the results of firing.
Combined with the 92K6E control system, the 30N6E radar system provides the possibility of autonomous actions of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile battalion in the responsibility sector. The most important element of the 92N6E radar system is a high-potential three-coordinate monopulse station with a phased array antenna of a through type with a diverse set of signals. It is able to provide simultaneous route tracking of 100 goals and accurate tracking of 6 goals. MRLS 92N6E automatically exchanges information with SU 30K6E.
According to the brochures, the S-400 can have up to 12 launchers 5P85TE2 (towed) or 5P85SE2 (self-propelled). However, in practice, there are no more than eight launchers in drill divisions. Each towed or self-propelled launcher has four transport and launch containers with anti-aircraft missiles. Means of combat control and guidance are capable of simultaneously firing 36 targets using 72 anti-aircraft missiles, which exceeds the fire capabilities of a standard anti-aircraft missile division.
Initially, the S-400 air defense system, equipped with towed launchers and BAZ-64022 tractors, entered the troops. However, such an option for mobility and cross-country ability on soft soils loses to complexes on a self-propelled chassis and is actually a step back to the first modification of the S-300PT, adopted for service in 1978.
Towed launchers 5P85TE2
This is not to say that our military and the creators of the S-400 air defense system did not understand the flaw of this approach, but they were forced to put up with it, since the production of MAZ-543M wheeled vehicles remained in Belarus. However, a few years after the adoption of the S-400 in service, self-propelled launchers appeared in the troops. In this case, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation took a master's approach, using the S-300PS anti-aircraft missile launcher. Considering that launchers mainly carry combat duty on stationary positions, in most cases they have low mileage and significant residual life. After a major overhaul, the MAZ-543M chassis, released in the mid and late 1980s, mounted launch equipment for new missiles, modern communications and combat control equipment.
However, it is also not worth overestimating the level of mobility of vehicles based on the MAZ-543M. Despite the fact that SPU5P85SE2 is not the heaviest element of air defense systems, the weight of the self-propelled launcher exceeds 42 tons, the length is 13 and the width is 3,8 meters. It is clear that with such overall dimensions, despite the four-axle base, the vehicle’s patency over soft soils and various irregularities will be far from ideal.
To defeat aerodynamic and ballistic targets, the S-400 air defense system at the first stage included 48N6E2 and 48N6E3 anti-aircraft guided missiles, originally created for the S-300PM air defense system. SAM 48N6E2 and 48N6E3 with a range of 200 km and 250 km and weighing 1800-1900 kg have the same layout and semi-active GOS. On the opposite course, these missiles are capable of destroying targets flying at speeds of up to 2800 m / s and 4800 m / s, respectively. These missiles use adaptive warheads weighing 150-180 kg, specially designed to increase the effectiveness of hitting ballistic targets.
Models of anti-aircraft missiles 48N6E2, 9M96E and 9M96E2
On the armory exhibitions and aerospace shows in the past, the S-400 version with 9M96E and 9M96E2 SAMs was advertised. These highly maneuverable gas-dynamic missiles are capable of maneuvering up to 20G. The 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles are completely unified in the composition of onboard equipment, combat equipment and design, the 9M96E rocket differs from the 9M96E2 in size and characteristics. The target destruction range of the 9M96E SAM is 40 km, and the defeat height is from 5 to 20 km, and the mass is 335 kg. The target destruction range of the 9M96E2 SAM is 120 km, the height of the defeat is from 5 m to 30 km, and the mass is 420 kg. The control of small-sized missiles is combined. On most of the flight trajectory, a programmable autopilot is used, using information about the coordinates of the target, entered into the on-board SAM equipment by ground-based air defense missile systems before launch and corrected during the flight by radio link. In the final phase of the flight, the rocket is guided at the target by an active radar homing head. Despite the advertisements, there is no information that the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles are really included in the S-400 ammunition of real objects involved in cover.
Since the adoption of the S-400 air defense system, Russian senior military and civilian officials have regularly made statements about the imminent appearance of a long range 40H6E missile in the ammunition as part of self-PR and raising the degree of patriotic sentiment. The need to create this missile became especially urgent after our anti-aircraft missile forces broke up with the last S-2008VM / D air defense systems in 200, and there was an urgent need for a “long arm” capable of reaching large altitude targets at extreme distances: RTR airplanes , AWACS and EW, air command posts and strategic bombers to the turn of the launch of cruise missiles. Firing at horizontal targets beyond the radio visibility of ground guidance locators required the installation of a fundamentally new homing head on the rocket, capable of operating in both semi-active and active modes. In the latter case, the rocket after climbing on command from the ground is put into search mode and, upon detecting the target, is aimed at it independently.
According to available information, the dimensions and mass of the 40N6E missiles are close to 48N6E2 and 48N6E3 missiles, which allows the use of standard TPKs. According to updated data, the far boundary of the zone of destruction of SAM 40N6E is 380 km. Reach in height - 10-30000 m. A number of sources say that the 40N6E missile was put into service in 2015. However, until recently, this type of missiles in the troops was not, and the process of saturation with long-range missiles of combat divisions carrying combat duty is in the initial stage.
The first S-400 division kit in 2007 entered the 606th anti-aircraft missile regiment of the 5th Air Defense Division, stationed in the vicinity of the city of Elektrostal in the Moscow Region. The second division of the same regiment re-equipped with new equipment in 2009. Previously, the 606th zrp was armed with the S-300PM air defense system. Until 2011, the S-400 air defense system was in trial operation and actually underwent military tests, during which various "children's sores" were identified and quickly eliminated. After eliminating most of the identified shortcomings, serial deliveries of the anti-aircraft system to the troops began and the S-400 began to be offered to foreign customers.
Google Earth satellite image: S-400 position 10 km southwest of the city of Elektrostal, image taken in 2011
After 2011, anti-aircraft missile troops received two to four regimental sets of S-400 per year. Currently, 400 anti-aircraft missile regiments are armed with the S-29 system in the Russian Aerospace Forces. In most cases, the regiment has two divisions, although there are exceptions. For example, in the 1532th zrp, covering the base of nuclear submarines and the Yelizovo airfield in Kamchatka, there are three zrdn.
Google Earth satellite image: S-400 position in the Kaliningrad region
According to open sources, as of the second half of 2019, we had 57 S-400 submarines. Of these, twelve are deployed around Moscow, ten in the Leningrad region, two in the Saratov region, four in the Kaliningrad region, two in the Murmansk region, two in the Arkhangelsk region, two on Novaya Zemlya, in the vicinity of the Rogachevo airfield, two near Novorossiysk, six in the Crimea, two in the Novosibirsk region, six in the Primorsky Territory, two in the Khabarovsk Territory, three in Kamchatka. There were also plans to deploy S-400 air defense systems near Tiksi in Yakutia. At least one S-400 division is deployed at the Russian military base Hmeimim in Syria.
Google Earth satellite image: C-400 position based on Hmeimim
The S-400 air defense system, created using the most modern achievements of domestic science and technology, is one of the most advanced air defense systems in the world and has some anti-missile capabilities. However, it should be understood that any means of air defense is not used by itself, but in combination with other components. Without establishing cooperation with fighter aircraft and other ground-based systems and in the absence of information exchange with central control authorities, any air defense system will ultimately be suppressed or destroyed by air attack means. The presence of a constant radar field in the entire range of heights also plays a very important role.
Official Russian media are forming the view that the S-300PM / S-400 air defense system is a superweapon capable of influencing the course of hostilities only with its presence, and they can withstand withstand all threats: ballistic and cruise missiles, combat helicopters, attack and reconnaissance aircraft , as well as unmanned aerial vehicles of any size and purpose. However, one should not think that with the help of SAM 40N6E it is possible to bring down a cruise missile at the maximum range of fire. The real range of destruction of such a complex target will be many times less, which is primarily due to the difficulty of detecting RS with low ESR, flying at low altitude. The S-400 air defense system is unable to hit low-flying targets outside the radio horizon of tens of kilometers. Even taking into account the use of towers for the radar, it is possible to detect low-flying aircraft at distances of less than 100 km and a cruise missile at a distance of 50-60 km. In addition, long-range anti-aircraft systems themselves need cover from low-altitude air attack systems. But not all of our S-400 anti-aircraft missile regiments have been given the Pantsir missile-cannon systems.
The ready-to-use ammunition for one anti-aircraft missile division usually does not exceed 32 missiles. In the course of practical firing at ranges in a difficult jamming environment, it was repeatedly confirmed that the real probability of a small missile hitting small-sized high-speed targets at low altitude is not more than 0,8. For guaranteed defeat of a “difficult” target, it is necessary to launch 2-3 missiles on it. Of course, the S-400 air defense system with new SAMs is significantly superior to any previous generation systems in terms of the number of target channels, range, damage height and noise immunity, but it is guaranteed that it is impossible to shoot down one modern combat aircraft or a cruise missile with one anti-aircraft missile. In addition, no quality cancels the quantity, it is impossible to hit more air targets than there are anti-aircraft missiles in the ready-to-use ammunition. In other words, if all the missiles were consumed in the firing position, then any, even the most modern and effective anti-aircraft system becomes nothing more than a pile of expensive metal, and it does not matter at all how many times it is more effective than its foreign counterparts.
Also, one should not forget that even with the presence of spare missiles and infecting vehicles, the reloading process of all the launchers of the division is quite lengthy and time-consuming. It is probably unnecessary to remind that the enemy, having detected the launches of anti-aircraft missiles, is unlikely to ignore this, and the most optimal for the air defense system will be to leave the compromised position immediately after firing, and there will be no time for reloading.
Anti-aircraft missile system C-350
For all its merits, the S-400 is quite expensive. From the moment the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system was adopted for service, it was clear that it was not able to replace the S-1PT and S-1PS removed from service in a 300: 300 ratio. When shooting at small low-altitude targets, such as cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles and helicopters, the capabilities of the S-400 air defense system are often excessive. In this regard, we can give an analogy: when performing work that does not require significant effort, it is better to do with a hammer of a suitable size and not to use a sledgehammer.
After decommissioning and partial transferring to the storage bases in the mid-1990s of all low-altitude S-125 air defense systems, the anti-aircraft missile troops felt a great need for an inexpensive, relatively simple anti-aircraft complex with better mobility and greater flexibility than the existing S-300P and S-400 . In 2007, it became known that the Almaz-Antey concern, by order of the RF Ministry of Defense, was creating a medium-range complex based on the KM-SAM air defense system manufactured for delivery to the Republic of Korea. According to the contract signed in 2010, in 2013 the new complex was supposed to enter the army and replace the S-300PS air defense systems in the air defense system, as well as the S-300V air defense systems and Buk-M1 air defense systems, which were transferred to the Air Force and Air Defense Command during the period "Serdyukovschiny."
However, the process of creating and adopting the air defense system, which received the designation S-350 “Vityaz”, was dragged on for a long time. In early 2013, the Izvestia newspaper reported that the leadership of the Russian Air Force expressed dissatisfaction with the pace of work, and the first tests of the complex were scheduled for autumn. In June 2013, the S-350 air defense system was publicly presented during the president’s visit to the Obukhov plant, where some elements of the complex were assembled. In August 2013, the complex was included in the exhibition at the MAKS-2013 air show.
Elements of the S-350 air defense system at the MAKS-2013 air show
At the beginning of 2014, a representative of the Almaz-Antey air defense concern announced that state tests of the S-350 Vityaz air defense system would be completed in late 2014 - early 2015. In 2014, the head of the Almaz-Antey air defense concern announced that serial production of the complex would begin in 2015. However, as it often happens recently with us, the deadlines were greatly shifted to the right and the state tests of the new S-350 Vityaz air defense system were completed only in April 2019. Judging by the images of the complex, some of its elements differ from the samples presented earlier at the air show and military equipment exhibitions.
Elements of the S-350 air defense system in the air defense training center
At the end of 2019, the Almaz-Antey concern transferred the first set of S-350 air defense systems to the Russian Ministry of Defense, which entered the training center for anti-aircraft missile forces in Gatchina. Then it was announced that until 2027 put on combat duty 12 divisions equipped with S-350.
Google Earth satellite image: air defense training center in Gatchina
According to the materials provided by the developer, the S-350 air defense system includes: up to eight 50P6A self-propelled launchers, 50N6A multi-functional radar, 50K6A combat control station, and 92N6E multi-functional radar (also used in S-400 air defense systems).
The combat control station 50K6A on a three-axle off-road chassis BAZ-69095 is designed to guide the actions of all means of the complex. It provides interaction with neighboring S-350 air defense systems and higher command posts.
Control point 50K6A
Information processing and display tools allow you to simultaneously accompany up to 200 aerodynamic and ballistic targets. The maximum distance to the combat control point of the neighboring S-350 air defense system is 15 km. The maximum distance to a higher command post is 30 km.
The 50N6A multifunctional radar on the BAZ-69095 chassis can be removed up to 2 km from the control point, and operate without operator intervention. Viewing airspace is carried out in a circular and sectorial modes. The antenna rotation speed is 40 rpm.
Multifunctional radar 50N6A
The detection range of air targets in open sources is not disclosed. But, according to expert estimates, a fighter target at an average height can be detected within a radius of 250 km. Radar equipment allows the construction of 100 air targets. In the targeting mode, the 50N6A radar provides firing of 16 aerodynamic and 12 ballistic targets and simultaneous guidance of 32 missiles.
The 50P6A self-propelled launcher on the BAZ-690902 four-axle chassis is designed for transportation, storage, automatic prelaunch preparation and launch of 12 9M96E2 anti-aircraft missiles. Missiles can be launched at intervals of 2 seconds. Ammunition replenishment time is 30 minutes. SPU can be spaced from the KP Zrdn to a distance of 2 km.
Self-propelled launcher 50P6A
According to information published during various exhibition events, in addition to 9M96E2 missiles with an active radar guidance head, it is planned to introduce 350M9 short-range missiles in the S-100 air defense system. The 9M100 missile with a firing range of 15 km and a reach of 5-8000 m in height is primarily intended for self-defense and the fight against drones. The zone of destruction of aerodynamic targets in range: 1500-60000 m, in height: 10-30000 m.
Considering that up to 350 SPUs are used in the S-8 division, 96 anti-aircraft missiles can be launched over the air enemy in a short period of time, which is three times more than what is available in the S-400. In addition, due to the smaller dimensions of the S-350 SAM, it has better mobility and is less noticeable on the ground. This complex can equally well be used to provide air defense and missile defense for stationary objects and military groups. However, it would be wrong to assume that the latest S-350 and Buk-M3 air defense systems are competitors. The S-350 complex is primarily intended for carrying out long combat duty and repelling sudden massive air strikes. The Buk-M3 air defense missile system, being placed on a caterpillar chassis, is capable of traveling over rough terrain and weak soils in the same columns tanks and BMP. In connection with a different conceptual approach to the construction of object and military complexes, the Buk-M3 SAM has the best combat survivability. But at the same time, compared with the S-350 created for the Russian Air Force, the army Buk-M3 is much more expensive and more difficult to operate. Although in the past air defense systems on a caterpillar chassis were forced to use to provide air defense of strategically important targets, the use of army systems in this role cannot be considered rational.
The number and combat capabilities of Russian air defense systems and medium and long-range air defense systems
In the course of the work on the review cycle devoted to the anti-aircraft systems available in the air defense units of the ground forces and in the anti-aircraft missile forces of the airborne forces of the Russian Federation, I did not initially plan to dwell on the current state of the air defense system of our country, but some readers are forcing to do so. In the comment to the publication “The basis of the ground segment of the air defense of the Russian Federation in the 1990s. ZRS S-300PT, S-300PS and S-300PM " one of the readers wrote the following (punctuation and spelling preserved):
S-300 in Russia of all modifications wagon and trolley. True, there were breakdowns accompanied by SR - 71, the infection flew too quickly in those years, but everything else was in openwork. And I pulled the strap on the "Wasp". And now everything is closed (in the sense of heaven), you will not wish the enemy. And the base is S-300. Even during the USSR, this was not.
Of course, it is strange when a person who served in the Osa short-range military complex talks about the capabilities of the S-75M3 / M4, S-200VM / D and S-300PT / PS air defense systems to support high-speed high-altitude targets, but it’s not even in that. We will consider what was in the USSR and how everything is “closed” now, and we will do this using the example of the 11th Red Banner Air Defense Army, which ensures the inviolability of our air borders in the Far East. The zone of responsibility 11 OA of air defense - objects of defense within the Khabarovsk, Primorsky and Kamchatka territories, the Amur, Jewish Autonomous and Sakhalin Regions, the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug - a territory comparable to the area of several European states.
Until 1994, the 11th Air Defense OA included: the 8th Air Defense Corps (Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Territory), the 23rd Air Defense Corps (Vladivostok, Primorsky Territory), the 72nd Air Defense Corps (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Kamchatka Oblast), 25th Air Defense Division (Coal Mine, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug), 29th Air Defense Division (Belogorsk, Amur Region). At the time of the collapse of the USSR, Far Eastern borders were defended by 11 fighter regiments armed with interceptors: Su-15TM, MiG-23ML / MLD / MLA, MiG-25PD / PDS, MiG-31 and Su-27P. The armament of the fighter aviation regiments of the USSR Air Defense Forces deployed in the Far East, excluding the Yak-28P, Su-15 and MiG-23 aircraft that were in storage, and front-line fighters, there were more than 300 fighter interceptors. About 70 anti-aircraft missile divisions S-75M3, S-125M / M1, S-200VM and S-300PS were deployed at positions around strategically important objects, in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories, Amur, Magadan, Sakhalin regions and Jewish Autonomy.
The anti-aircraft missile division is a unit capable of, if necessary, conducting operations for some time autonomously, in isolation from the main forces. The mixed anti-aircraft missile brigade had from 2 to 6 target channels (SAM) long-range air defense systems S-200, and 8-12 air defense systems S-75 and S-125. The composition of anti-aircraft missile regiments usually consisted of three to five medium-range air defense systems S-75M3 or S-300PS. Also in the Air Defense Forces of the Land Forces of the Far Eastern Military District there were numerous short-range complexes of regimental units Strela-1, Strela-10, and ZSU-23-4 Shilka, divisional air defense systems Osa-AK / AKM and Kub as well as air defense systems "Buk-M1" and "Circle-M1" of army and front submission.
In the mid-1990s, a landslide reduction in the units and formations of the 11th Air Defense OA began. All Su-15TM, MiG-23ML / MLD / MLA and MiG-25PD / PDS fighters were withdrawn from combat personnel. In some cases, the fighter aviation regiments armed with them were completely disbanded. By 1995, all S-75 and S-125 air defense systems were withdrawn from combat duty. The long-range S-200 suffered the same fate in the late 1990s. Although the complexes removed from combat duty, in most cases did not immediately go to "disposal", but were transferred to the reserve base, several years after the "storage" in the open air and without appropriate protection, the hunters for radio components containing precious metals made them absolutely unsuitable for future use. As a result, as a result of a series of reductions, reforms and measures to “give a new look”, the 11th Air Defense OA began to represent a pale shadow of the military power that existed in Soviet times. This is clearly seen in the example of the 8th Air Defense Corps, narrowed to the 25th Red Banner Komsomol Air Defense Division. In 1991, strategically important sites in the Komsomolsky, Solnechny and Amursky districts were protected by 14 air defense systems S-75M3, S-125M / M1, S-200VM. In the second half of the 1990s, all air defense systems available in this area were concentrated in the 1530th air defense system rearmament at the S-300PS. The regiment, stationed in the LATO ZATO, 40 km north of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, consisted of 5 divisions, of which three were on constant combat duty.
Google Earth satellite image: S-400 position in the vicinity of Verkhnyaya Ekon
Relatively recently, the personnel of the 1530th zrp mastered the S-400 air defense system. Instead of five, the regiment became two anti-aircraft missile battalions, and he was relocated in the vicinity of the village of Big Cartel. At the same time, the military town in the closed city of Lian was abandoned and is now being plundered. The divisions of the 1530th zrp alternately carry combat duty, one in the place of permanent deployment, at the former position of the Duga ZGRLS, the other on the banks of the Amur River, not far from the village of Verkhnyaya Ekon.
About the same situation now with other parts of the air defense, preserved in the 11th army. In addition to the 1530th anti-aircraft defense system, the 25th anti-aircraft defense system has the 1529th guards anti-aircraft missile regiment (3 S-300PS anti-aircraft missile systems), stationed in the vicinity of the village of Knyaze-Volkonsky near Khabarovsk, and the 1724th anti-aircraft missile regiment (2 anti-aircraft missile systems S-300V ), located near Birobidzhan and is now in the process of reorganization and rearmament.
In the 93rd anti-aircraft defense, in the area of responsibility of which the Primorsky Territory has two anti-aircraft missile regiments: the 533th guards anti-aircraft missile regiment, the Red Banner Regiment (3 S-400), defends the city of Vladivostok, and the 589th anti-aircraft missile regiment (2 S- 400) must defend Nakhodka.
Google Earth satellite image: S-400 position near Nakhodka, on the cape separating Tungus and Popov bays
In Kamchatka, three S-400 divisions of the 1532th anti-aircraft missile regiment are deployed. Anti-aircraft positions protect the submarine base in Krasheninnikov bay, the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and the Yelizovo airfield.
Google Earth satellite image: S-400 position in the vicinity of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Thus, using simple calculations, it is possible to calculate the number of anti-aircraft missile launchers that are on alert in the Far Eastern Military District. Under the condition of full technical serviceability of 13 zrdn, the positions can have up to 416 ready-to-use missiles with a strike range of 90-250 km (without taking into account two S-300V4 zrds of the 1724th zrp, which is in the process of rearmament), which can be used to reflect the first massive plaque. Given the fact that two missiles are usually aimed at a single air target, under ideal conditions, in the absence of fire resistance in the form of delivering anti-radar and cruise missiles with launch systems with an autonomous guidance system and in a simple jamming environment, with a probability of destruction of about 0,9 approximately 200 targets can be fired.
In two fighter aviation regiments (22nd and 23rd IAP) of the 303rd mixed aviation Smolensk Red Banner Order of the Suvorov Division, according to information published in open sources, there are 36 Su-35S, 6 Su-30SM, 6 Su-30M2, 4 Su-27SM and 24 MiG-31. At the Yelizovo airport in Kamchatka, the MiG-31 interceptor squadron of the 317th separate mixed aviation regiment is based, the number of which is estimated at 12-16 aircraft. Since part of the combat aircraft is constantly under repair and in reserve, approximately 80 fighters can be raised into the air to reflect a massive raid, which, of course, is not enough for such a vast territory. When fulfilling the tasks of intercepting at the maximum combat radius and suspension of four medium-range air combat missiles and two melee missiles, it can be expected that a pair of S-35C or MiG-31 is capable of shooting down four enemy cruise missiles in one combat mission. However, the capabilities of the Su-27SM and Su-30M2, equipped with less advanced radar systems, in which the ammunition does not have UR with AGSN, is much more modest.
In eastern Russia, we now have 13-15 medium and long-range air defense systems and less than a hundred fighters. Compared to 1991, anti-aircraft missile systems bearing constant combat duty in the region have decreased by 4,6 times, and the number of fighters has decreased by more than 3 times (actually more, since we took into account only the USSR air defense interceptors without front-line fighters) . In fairness, it must be said that the existing S-300PS, S-300V4 and S-400 air defense systems, even with three times less numbers, are theoretically capable of simultaneously firing more aerial targets than first-generation systems removed from service. However, the statements of our senior military and civilian officials that the new anti-aircraft systems, due to the greater number of guidance channels and increased firing range, have efficiencies greater than 10 or more times, are cunning. Do not forget that the means of air attack of the likely "partners" also stepped forward. Cruise missiles with a launch range exceeding the S-400 air defense zone are included in the ammunition of not only long-range bombers, but also tactical and carrier-based aircraft. In addition, it is physically impossible to destroy a single anti-aircraft missile with a conventional warhead of more than one air target. Given the enormous size of our Far Eastern territories, the extreme underdevelopment of ground communications and the presence of serious threats from the United States, Japan and China, the grouping of ground air defense in the Far East is completely inadequate and requires multiple reinforcement.
As for the general condition of our object air defense, it is far from ideal. Moscow and partly St. Petersburg are well covered from air strikes; in the rest of our country there is focal air defense. Many strategically important facilities, such as nuclear power plants, hydroelectric power stations, large industrial and administrative centers, and even areas where strategic missile divisions are deployed, are not at all protected from air attack weapons.
According to information published in open sources, in our armed forces, taking into account the airborne forces and air defense, there are no more than 130 divisions equipped with S-300PS / PM1 / PM2, S-300V / V4, S-400, Buk-M1 / SAM systems M2 / M3. " At first glance, this is a very significant amount, which allows us to talk about our overwhelming superiority over the United States and NATO in the field of air defense. However, in the next few years, the S-300PS air defense systems and the Buk-M1 air defense systems built in the USSR will inevitably be decommissioned due to the full exhaustion of the resource and the absence of air defense anti-aircraft missiles. Also, one should not forget that a significant part of the territory of our country is within the reach of American tactical and carrier-based combat aircraft, and in the Far East, our peace-loving "strategic partner" has multiple military superiority.
Given the fact that not a single new long-range anti-aircraft missile system was delivered to the Russian Air Defense Forces between 1994 and 2007, we can say that now the situation has begun to gradually improve. In addition to fire weapons, the air defense troops receive new radars, modern means of communication, control and electronic warfare. However, at present, deliveries of new equipment and weapons only replace in combat units what has to be written off due to extreme physical wear and tear and hopeless obsolescence. To increase the combat potential and increase the number of anti-aircraft missile systems protecting the integrity of our air borders, additional financial resources are required. The main arguments of opponents of the improvement of ground-based air defense are its high cost and inability to independently ensure victory in an armed conflict, since the role of air defense is defensive. But at the same time, the fighting in Yugoslavia, Iraq and Libya demonstrates that weak ground air defense is an absolute guarantee of a quick and complete defeat in the war.