Military Review

Russian conversion: new version


Forging swords into screams is an eternal problem for states with a high share of military production in their own economies. At a certain stage, the question of which is more important, guns or oil, is simply not worth it, because the situation is such that if you do not have enough guns, then someone else will eat your oil very soon. However, after the jerk necessary to achieve military-technical superiority over an existing or potential adversary, or at least parity with him in arms matters, there comes a moment when you need to decide: what to do with such a breakthrough in defense production? For Russia, this issue is more than relevant.

I remember that a couple of years ago, Vladimir Putin, during a representative meeting held in Sochi, the topic of which was precisely the problem of defense, called quite specific figures on this subject. According to the then president, by 2020, the share of civilian products in the total shaft of the Russian defense industry should have reached 17%, and in 2025 and 2030 - increased to a third and a half, respectively! Certain doubts about the attainability of such volumes are caused primarily by the situation in the world, which so far is not very conducive to curtailing military programs. Rather, the opposite. However, the problem is not only this.

Let us not forget that attempts to redefine the defense industry for the production of peaceful goods (conversion) were already made in the USSR and Russia in the 80s - 90s of the last century. What is the result? Almost complete collapse of the military-industrial complex, terrible, useless handicrafts in its execution and the transition of the word "conversion" to the category of abusive expressions. It is impossible to repeat this experiment, which, according to the latest estimates, was carried out “in the complete absence of both a serious theoretical foundation and sound plans and programs”: the rebirth of the stupidly ditched by the “perestroika” and their followers “defense industry” was given too expensive ".

So what to do? First of all, perhaps it’s worth clearly deciding what should not be done. Any conversion should be carried out with strict regard to the specifics of certain military industries, using their scientific and technological potential, and not by completely abandoning it. Simply put, should not tank factories try to rivet pressure cookers, and rocket fuel producers switch to perfumery production. All the same, nothing good will come of it - only raw materials will be transferred in vain and production will be ruined. However, another thing is even more important: when demilitarizing certain enterprises, one must clearly understand whether their exclusion from the military-industrial complex will hit the combat readiness of the armed forces. And it will be like in the 90s, when a child was spilled out with water. Understanding of this should be at the state level and appropriate decisions should be made at it.

Hopefully, the new conversion will be much more successful than the previous attempt. There is every reason to hope for this. According to the available data, the same Rostec is quite successfully re-profiling, where in the total volume of production non-military samples already reach a third. At the same time, there is no exchange of the achieved potential for small things, but its use continues, simply for a different purpose. Manufacturing enterprises aviation engines for combat aircraft do an excellent job of producing gas turbine units for Gazprom. High-strength materials used in the same military aircraft industry (for example, glass that can withstand ultra-high loads) are perfectly used in the creation of civilian passenger transport.

What can I say, if the world-famous Kalashnikov concern has long been associated not only with the most popular assault rifle on the planet and generally rifle weapons, and the mass of products is purely peaceful! The spectrum is wide: from hydrofoil vessels, which today carry passengers quite successfully, to unmanned aerial vehicles, indispensable in the work of firefighters, huntsmen, foresters. This is not a complete list of the peaceful developments of the concern, whose specialists, it seems, can really design anything. And not necessarily shooting ...

There is nothing to say about the prospects of the most advanced defense developments in the field of "high" technologies. In many ways, it was the highest level of technical security for the urban environment that helped China so quickly and successfully overcome the epidemic that had fallen on it. In this area we still have a lot to “grow”. A competent, thoughtful and balanced conversion can give Russia a lot, not only in terms of providing citizens with the necessary products, but in terms of an impetus to its further scientific and technical development. I want to believe that it will be so.
Photos used:
site "Rostec"
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 24 March 2020 06: 53 New
    Let us not forget that attempts to redefine the defense industry for the production of peaceful goods (conversion) have already been made in the USSR

    There was, a lot of things ... and the "Volgar" receiver and their sleds are not cheap such materials, but eternal! Ka in the film, caps made of special alloys of microwave cables.
    In general, as it happened then, I do not even want to remember! Let's see how things go now.
    1. bessmertniy
      bessmertniy 24 March 2020 07: 24 New
      Load the defense industry with civilian orders, and what's next !? Revival of the public sector, which will crush the failed "private property" in the form of factories, factories and other industries recourse ? And what was the point then in bloody and hungry reforms, if all we needed to achieve was just working normally without reforms and revolutions. request
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 24 March 2020 07: 37 New
        So sho, reformers are direct, direct, progressives ??? Freshly a tradition. For one, two, successful cases, with a dozen almost catastrophes.
        The question is complex and .... they solve it in different ways, the main thing is Schaub wisely. You can’t make products only at the warehouse ... even at storage bases, mobilization reserves, there should be a reasonable balance in everything.
        One gun, instead of oil, does not work.
        1. BARKAS
          BARKAS 24 March 2020 07: 48 New
          Under the USSR, many defense enterprises produced high-tech civilian products mainly due to the inability to produce such civilian enterprises as our Kurganpribor example, which produced the Aelita radio tape recorder, which is popular in the region.
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 24 March 2020 08: 09 New
            It’s familiar ... the receivers and other civilian products of our (former) plant were also distinguished by the enviable quality ... however, the military parts, materials, and receiving devices !!! it is better than a quality mark, WAS!
            BUT, these are not military factories that a citizen should do the best, this civilian enterprises should make products as good as military !!! It was a fundamental mistake, which I’ve flown more than once, and you yourself understand what opinion I have developed since then.
            Everything should be wise ... enterprises of the military-industrial complex cannot, should not stand idle and lose in quality, switching to peaceful, dual-use products, this is an axiom.
          2. Malyuta
            Malyuta 24 March 2020 09: 33 New
            Quote: BARKAS
            Under the USSR, many defense enterprises produced high-tech civilian products

            Any defense plant produced civilian products, any, from receivers and television receivers to titanium shovels. And in turn, any civilian factory could switch to military products in a maximum of a month.
            By the conversion plan Gorbachev meant the collapse of the mobilization system of the economy, which he achieved. But if you remember, for example, the ZIL plant! Please, you and limousines, and Grakhdan trucks, one of the models was given to KAMAZ "and military" crooks "and refrigerators, which are still rattling at many dachas.
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 24 March 2020 15: 20 New
              And then the question is, why did Gorbachev conceive and start the conversion process, is it because the USSR no longer had money for a further arms race?
  2. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 24 March 2020 06: 58 New
    When you invest in military equipment, you need to think as much as possible about the civilian application of the results. And part of the civilian technology is perfectly used in military affairs. A perfect example is Poseidon based on the B737 ...
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 24 March 2020 07: 17 New
    After the war, the factories were quickly altered to produce civilian products. civilian factories are now being closed in packs, and I can’t imagine what the military can produce. There is no electronics, and apparently it is not expected. Tractors are needed, but the population has no money, cars, the same story. Yes, the same nails are being taken from China.
    1. bessmertniy
      bessmertniy 24 March 2020 07: 28 New
      Previously, the Chinese came to us and bought our "FEDs", binoculars, watches, etc. And now we buy equipment from them. Shame! And this is the result of "thoughtful" reforms !!! ??? negative It is a pity that no one was punished for having thrown our country back several decades. No.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 24 March 2020 07: 43 New
        The needs of the military, if wisely, spur the development of related industries ... I won’t say that it’s direct, direct, good, but there are some progress.
        You have to go further if you have the same mind again ... but this is difficult for our business !!! Because he is NOT OUR, and not a business, in most cases, stuck to the defense of the order, to the budget!
        Until this is corrected (very hard to believe) it will not be ice! By the way, the market will not correct anything !!! measures are needed not only harsh, here about some comrades in pince-nez it is just right to remember about their "beneficial experience"!
      2. Vadim777
        Vadim777 24 March 2020 09: 01 New
        Want to challenge a guarantor policy?
    2. Vadim237
      Vadim237 24 March 2020 15: 27 New
      This is what civilian factories you have covered, the Ruselectronics holding is engaged in electronics in Russia, there are XNUMX enterprises in it - and the fact that Chinese nails are sold like everything else is you ask the shop owners why they do not sell our products - but the answer will be - not profitable broth from this will be less. And in view of the weak ruble, export deliveries will be a priority for all our producers - This is such a bad thing.
  4. Den717
    Den717 24 March 2020 07: 36 New
    In many ways, it was the highest level of technical security for the urban environment that helped China so quickly and successfully overcome the epidemic that had fallen on it.

    Here is a thesis for more details to disclose. What technical measures have been overcome? In addition to concentrating the production of all well-known manufacturers of medical equipment in China. But this is not entirely a Chinese merit, but rather a successful combination of circumstances, the consequences of globalization, which today is bursting at all seams. By the way, in the field of production of medical equipment there is a place for qualified personnel and experience of the military industrial complex. One computed tomograph costs 30 million rubles. And we buy them today either in Japan or in Germany. Same with x-ray equipment. Work is already underway in this direction, but there is plenty of it ahead. I think, with the normal work of thought, we will not begin to produce garden shovels at turbine blade production facilities, as in the 90s. Anyway, I hope so.
    1. rudolff
      rudolff 24 March 2020 09: 00 New
      Computed tomographs are "more profitable" to buy in Germany than to make your own. If there was interest, it would have been produced in Russia for a long time. The production of CT was launched in Belarus. Moreover, a private person and without state support. Firm Adani.
      1. Den717
        Den717 24 March 2020 09: 22 New
        Quote: rudolff
        It would be interesting, for a long time in Russia would produce.

        I agree. That is why the state is present in the economy, so that state interests are promoted into production as opposed to resellers and other "gaskets". Today there is a will of the state to acquire, as a priority, X-ray machines made in Russia. They gave the command - they do everything. The same is true in other areas of high technology production.
      2. Vadim237
        Vadim237 24 March 2020 15: 34 New
        And in Russia, since 2017, MRI has been produced with domestic
  5. Maks1995
    Maks1995 24 March 2020 07: 42 New
    Very few specific figures in the article. Some generalized reasoning ...
  6. VicktorVR
    VicktorVR 24 March 2020 08: 20 New
    To paraphrase the well-known - "Conversion - in the heads!"
    If a plant is told from the top to produce 10% of civilian production, then the plant has no way out.
    Yes, if the director is intelligent, if he is interested (which is far from necessary!), If he has leverage, exits and "ties", he can "fight back". But there weren't many of them even in the USSR.

    By definition, military production cannot be compared in terms of profitability to civilian production, let alone our specifics ... In "civilian" machines work around the clock, products are produced in thousands of pieces, all processes are "combed" as much as possible, at the "defense industry" machines work on a "five-day period ", batches of several dozen maximum, the amount of shavings (expensive and very expensive metals) and processing time do not bother anyone - the main thing is to" take off ". Add to this the ubiquitous "drank dough" on everything from the dining room to the purchase of equipment (between there will be repairs of buildings, the purchase of materials and consumables, subcontractors / subcontractors). In principle, it is amazing how our weapons and military equipment can compete with someone at a price. Only if "they" "saw" in the "defense industry" no less than ours, in relative terms.
  7. Old partisan
    Old partisan 24 March 2020 08: 32 New
    On these issues to the labeled and always drunk. They knew exactly how to ruin the defense for the sake of partners.
  8. nikvic46
    nikvic46 24 March 2020 09: 20 New
    As I understand it, the conversion is intended for an ordinary person. If before the plant that produces Soyuz could make a large number of Progress boats. But this has now disappeared. Judging by the price of gasoline. In addition to all the tinsel, they produced inexpensive thermoses. They will give odds to any foreigner. Elektrovalenki, standing in the household. store 19 rubles. But if now they are smarter, then let them show how to carry out the conversion. We will only be glad.
  9. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 24 March 2020 09: 56 New
    At a certain stage, the question of which is more important, guns or oil, is simply not worth it, because the situation is such that if you do not have enough guns, then someone else will eat your oil very soon.
    There is no such question, it was introduced to us by the liberals, starting with Hunchback, according to the tracing of their masters. angry
  10. really
    really 24 March 2020 11: 29 New
    The concept itself is not formulated correctly, the conversion in this case is an attempt to get something civil to do, so the Soviet directors fought back with varying degrees of success. The Western model shows that some corporations are simultaneously developing military and civilian production, using their best practices, earning from two sides.
  11. seacap
    seacap 24 March 2020 12: 12 New
    It reminds me of something, I have lived too long, despite all the reforms, similar conversations began gradually unobtrusively in the 80s, further, more than the "conversion" and discrediting of the army in the 80-90s ended, we are already good remember, we are still "disentangling", well, except for 1%, the upper class is doing well, they have a different parallel world, a different country. I don’t want to say anything, but the analogy arose immediately after reading the title.
  12. depressant
    depressant 24 March 2020 12: 33 New
    I thought.
    Paramedic point. High tech standard. Collapsible - such that it was convenient to deliver by helicopter to the most remote villages. Equipped with an individual heating system, forced ventilation, as well as all the necessary sets of medical instruments and devices, their processing facilities.
    The foundation is quickly being made. Since the size of the item is known in advance, the team of specialists has problems installing honey. there will be no institution. If boats are made, why not mass produce such an item. Including the medical part. The standardization aspect is also important.
  13. akims
    akims 24 March 2020 12: 42 New
    Conversion is the transfer of enterprises of the military-industrial complex to the production of consumer goods. So now it’s not quite so. The factory of the 4th level of automation in the drum that release. In fact, the product is released, the digital model of which is on the computer, today it’s wheelsets for the railway, tomorrow the rocket hull, the armored hull, etc. If you have of course everything you need (ore, billets, etc.).
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 24 March 2020 17: 49 New
      I wanted it to be so. But this is not entirely true, Andrei.
    2. Vadim237
      Vadim237 24 March 2020 19: 39 New
      Components can be produced at any modern plant where there are strangenesses with CNC for the required dimensions of the workpieces, let it be rocket elements wheelsets flanges platform fingers, respectively, special workpieces declared in the documentation for the alloy are needed.
  14. dgonni
    dgonni 24 March 2020 14: 38 New
    If anyone forgot, then the first conversion was carried out under Khrushchev! And yet it was successful, and the union never knew such rates of economic growth!
    And it was precisely in those days that the converted military was honored with all kinds of outboard motors such as the breeze and Neptune with vortices, which received gold medals at auto shows, such as the gas-21/66/53 engine. Mass production of vessels required by the merchant and fishing fleet. Yes, a lot of things.
    With a hunchback, they tried to enter the same river, but only the banks got tangled. And instead of rockets, they began to produce titanium shovels that are kind of cooperators, but in fact the Komsomol members cheerfully drove abroad. Where did the first capital come from. well, etc.
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 24 March 2020 17: 48 New
      If anyone forgot, then the first conversion was carried out under Khrushchev! And yet it was successful, and the union never knew such rates of economic growth!

      Study the topic, and then speak out, Djon.
  15. NordUral
    NordUral 24 March 2020 17: 46 New
    Hopefully, the new conversion will be much more successful than the previous attempt.

    I remembered a bearded joke about the coach of the last place football team, who promises that next season his team will play even better.
  16. seacap
    seacap 26 March 2020 19: 57 New
    Quote: akims
    Conversion is the transfer of enterprises of the military-industrial complex to the production of consumer goods.

    Based on practice and experience, we, as always, have our own way, and the word conversion, as well as reform, is associated with destruction, as it happens with us.
  17. seacap
    seacap 26 March 2020 20: 02 New
    Quote: dgonni
    If anyone forgot, then the first conversion was carried out under Khrushchev

    A little, or rather, incorrectly interpret the concepts of those events, which were then completely different in terms of purpose and name, or rather, reduction, that is, expressed in modern language and concepts, optimization, plus voluntarism.
  18. boni592807
    boni592807 26 March 2020 20: 19 New
    Remember the "stupidity" of Gorbachev's conversions and the pragmatism of the United States and the West, now is the experience of China. Implementation and provision of Russia with its products based on technologies of the 2nd purpose. This is also a decrease in production costs due to mass production, both for the military-industrial complex and for civilian products. In the military-industrial complex there is a lot that is necessary and useful for all sectors of Russia. And even if the current bad (reduction of interaction with Europe, etc. - China due to the coronavirus and the need for import substitution) will play a POSITIVE role !!! The main thing is not to miss the opportunity, but there have always been enough smart ones who know how to introduce useful things with intelligence and benefit in Russia, and for Russia, and of themselves ("Midshipmen" - Count Bestuzhev, Stolypin, etc.). The main thing is that it would NOT work, as in the old, just Gorbachev period, Soviet film "Genius"!