Military Review

Nice: what impregnable fortresses turn into

198

Nice Citadel at the end of the XNUMXth century


Nice is paradise; the sun, like butter, falls on everything; moths, flies in huge numbers, and summer air. The calm is perfect. Life is cheaper than anywhere else. I keep working ... the creation of Dead Souls is about to happen ...
N. Gogol


Castles and fortresses. We know Nice as a center of international tourism in the south of France. We know Nice as the “Russian city”, where Herzen lived and buried, where Dostoevsky and Chekhov played in the casino, where Lenin lived (well, how could he not have visited all Russian celebrities in this city!), That is, this city, in fact affairs, with our, Russian history. But besides all this, this city was also an important fortress, which was repeatedly subjected to sieges and assaults. And just about the Nice fortress we will tell you today, as well as about what it has become today.


Nice. View from the sea to the beach and Promenade des Anglais

Ancient acropolis


Throughout the Mediterranean, steep hills were used as housing. Therefore, it is not surprising that in ancient times the Ligurian peoples on the Riviera built their settlements on them and fortified them with walls. That Castle Hill, 92 meters high in the area of ​​modern Nice, attracted their attention and was populated at least in the X century BC. During the III century, they established trade contacts with the Greeks in Marseille. And the Greeks gave this place the name Nicaea, which means "winner." This heroic name was reported by many ancient authors, and therefore it reached us.

A beach on which boats could be moored, a river, a nearby rocky hill, plains suitable for farming, all this was suitable for the Greeks to settle here, as they, for example, did in Syracuse. Their colony Nicaea may have been founded at the foot of the hill, while on its crest residents sought refuge. Especially enemy attacks had to be feared with the fall of the Roman Empire, when the plain became especially dangerous.


The promenade with palm trees and the beach, as we have in Adler or Gurzuf. Solid round cobblestones with which the waves hit the legs. I don’t know what good people find in such beaches ...

All that remains of this abandoned city are fragments of ancient walls and foundations. However, archaeological excavations, begun in 2009, may one day lead to a complete reconstruction of this settlement on Castle Hill, since the area around it is all built up, and there are very few hopes to discover what lies under the foundations of the buildings standing here.


Facades of beautiful buildings overlook the embankment, the cost of apartments in which is just off scale

Medieval fortress


To begin with, the XNUMXth century witnessed the construction of the so-called Castra on the Castle Hill (a “fortified place” in the lane from Latin). The city wall was designed to cover all its bends at a height of fifty meters, thereby protecting its largest area. Within these walls, a city began to flourish with several thousand inhabitants, with churches, monasteries, a market, a hospital and palaces of nobility. And until the XII century, the whole city of Nice was concentrated on this hill.


Casino Royale". The most famous place in the city ...

But the city grew and already in the XIII century its structures spilled out of the city walls. For Nice, this was a period of relative peace, economic growth and an influx of very different people. Gradually, he captured the western slopes of the hill and spread to a plain in the area of ​​the channel of the Payon River, a coastal river that now lies under the Promenade du Payon. It is clear that this settlement also needed protection and this lower part of the city was surrounded by a rampart, which partially followed the course of the river.


Nice's modern city library looks just really modern ...

At the highest point of the hill was a castle, located on the site of a modern belvedere. It was the city magistrate and the court. Outside the citadel was the Cathedral of Saint-Marie and many of the mansions of the noble inhabitants of Nice. The tower and the town hall were not too far from the wall, in the upper part of the lower city.


Castle Hill and the remains of the fortress of the XVIII century. There was once a maritime museum in the white tower, but today it is closed

Since 1388, Nice belonged to the House of Savoy, a mountainous state whose capital, Turin, was, however, quite far away. At the same time, Nice and Villefranche were the only cities of this duchy overlooking the sea. A whole series of goods went through them, in particular, the salt so valued at that time. Naturally, the dukes of Savoy had to strengthen the defense of these important places for them, which allowed them to get real money.

Bastions under the gun


Therefore, the Dukes of Amadi and Louis the First began to rebuild the Kastrum Magnum ("the great castle") already in the 1520th century. Around 1543, three semicircular bastions were built on the north side of the citadel, intended to strengthen the most vulnerable part of the walls. It turned out that this was very timely, since already in XNUMX Nice was captured by the troops of the Franco-Ottoman coalition, but the castle continued to resist heroically. Locals traditionally associate this event with the name of Katherine Seguran, the heroine of the legend, according to which this woman inspired the garrison of the castle and the inhabitants who sheltered there to resist the attackers.


Hotel "Negresco". It was in it that the “hapless daddies” from the comedy “Daddies” stayed. But actually, a separate article could be written about him and his guests ...

After this dramatic event, the Duke of Savoy, Emmanuel-Philibert, decided to carry out major changes in the defensive system of the city. He decided to demolish the buildings of the upper part of the city in order to make way for a new castle, which now had to turn into a powerful citadel. After that, between 1550 and 1580, all civilians left the hill to go down to the present old city and live there. There was already little space, and therefore the existing housing began to grow in height. It was during this period that the old city of Nice acquired a significant part of its architectural style, based on the incredibly dense settlement of sites between the sea, the river and the castle.

The lower the better!


During the 1560s, the engineers and architects of Piedmont Ferrante Vitelli and Francesco Pacotto significantly strengthened the defense of the city and the coast, including the Citadel of Nice and its ramparts, Fort Mont Alban, the Citadel of Villefranche and Saint Hospice in Cap Ferrat. The lower plateau (the cemetery is now located there) was surrounded by a fortress wall in the “modern” style of the time, that is, thick and low, which made it less vulnerable to artillery fire. To supply water to this impressive fortress, a 72-meter well was dug, which allowed to draw water at the level of an ancient river. This was a real feat of technical skill, and descendants appreciated it: when you go up to the top of Castle Hill by elevator, remember that the shaft of the elevator, installed in 1952, is located in this well!


In 1610, on the order of the first mayor of Nice, Honore Pastorelli, a very accurate graphic depiction of the city was made, allowing one to imagine what it was like in the 1950th century. So, not far from the castle you can see the facade of the Notre Dame Cathedral, excavations of which are currently underway since the 1783s. To the north of the citadel was another free space, on which a new cemetery was built in XNUMX


Nice's Gothic Quarter is very similar to ... the one in Barcelona!

There are no impregnable fortresses!


The defensive strongholds of Nice and Villefranche were considered impregnable and discouraged opponents of the Duchy of Savoy for a whole century and a half. But painfully a tidbit on this coast was the same Nice. Therefore, it is not surprising that during the next war in March 1691, French troops besieged it. They subjected it to intensive bombardment, which led to the explosion of the powder warehouse and the death of many people. After that, the defenders of the citadel surrendered, and the city itself fell into the hands of the French, although not for long. Under the Treaty of Turin, all coastal lands were returned to the Duke of Savoy in 1696.


It’s a pity that the maritime museum in this tower was closed ...

A new chapter in the history of Nice and its Castle Hill began during the War of the Spanish Succession, when the Duke Victor Amede II decided to enter into an alliance with the Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg. In April 1705, the city was again attacked by the French, and it capitulated, as did Villefranche, Mont Alban and St. Hospice. The fortress, however, refused to give up and was bombarded both from the sea and from land for several weeks (!). Finally, broken by cores, the wall collapsed and at the beginning of 1706 its defenders surrendered.


View from the mountain to the Gothic Quarter

Louis XIV decided to abandon the huge fortifications of Nice, which cost a lot of money to maintain. Therefore, he ordered the citadel and its city walls to be completely destroyed, which was already completed in the spring of 1706. So the military role of Nice came to an end. And a new fate began - a tourist center.

Although the mountain was no longer used for military purposes, it still remained the property of the Dukes of Savoy. Merchants began to use the preserved barracks for warehouses, and livestock grazed on the lawns. Since nobody watched the condition of the slopes, landslides began, destroying several houses at its foot.

“Let there be a park!”


During the Restoration period, the next Duke of Savoy, Karl-Felix, in 1822 granted the wishes of the inhabitants of Nice and allowed to turn the Castle Hill into a public garden, however, the artillery battery, the gunpowder and the guardhouse were still preserved here. The place was rocky, so it took a lot of money to turn it into a green park. It helped that in 1831 the Royal Chamber of Agriculture was allowed to use this place for its experiments on the acclimatization of various plants. So here it was possible to plant pines, cypresses, cedars, evergreen oaks, agave, figs and a host of other plants that were not previously characteristic of this place. This magnificent flora delighted both King Victor Emanuel II, who visited Nice in 1857, and Emperor Napoleon III, who visited here in 1860. When Nice finally became French in the same year, the castle belonged to the military. There were warehouses and barracks. But in 1934 it was transferred to the municipality of Nice, and then the last military buildings on its top were destroyed. Here, for example, from 1924 to 1958, equestrian competitions were held and even one of the anniversaries of the Communist Party of France was celebrated.


Another view from Castle Hill on Promenade des Anglais

On June 27, 1885, a water supply was made here and an artificial waterfall was arranged, so that now there was no need to worry about planting water-loving plants. But here, archaeological excavations were begun, in particular excavations of the ruins of the cathedral. And it is not surprising that very soon the park on the top of the mountain became very popular among both local residents and everyone coming here. By the way, today its area reaches 19,3 hectares, which for a hot sunny Nice is truly God's blessing.


Car accidents happen even here ...

And what attracted them all to Nice?


By the way, the Chateau cemetery, which is located at the bottom of Castle Hill, has been preserved to this day, is a real open-air museum and is considered the most beautiful necropolis in Europe. Not only notable residents of the city are buried here, but also French, Russian and English celebrities: writer and revolutionary Alexander Herzen, politician Leon Gambetta, author of the Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux, founder of Mercedes, Emil Jellinek and his daughter Mercedes Jellinek, mother of Giuseppe Garibaldi and many, many others.
Author:
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The stone fortresses of ancient Iberians: a chronology of historical drama
Castles and ancient settlements of Lloret
Chinon: castle of one of the wonders of the Orleans virgin
Chinon Graffiti - The Key to the Templar Gold
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  1. Phil77
    Phil77 April 4 2020 05: 35 New
    15
    Good morning! Vyacheslav Olegovich! What is Nice ???? Self-isolation in the country! laughing laughing laughing Just kidding! Thanks for the article! I'm running to work.
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2020 06: 20 New
      12
      Good morning to you too! So read while sitting at home, and send the work. Tell your employer that you have misophobia and nosophobia at the same time ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 4 2020 06: 41 New
        +7
        Fortunately, Sergey's place of work was not affected by the hysteria of the Moscow city administration. At Rot Front, of course, it is not toilet paper that is produced, but the factory staff will receive a normal salary for April, which is important now.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 4 2020 06: 52 New
          +5
          Good morning Anton! Yes, yes. Therefore, I use work as a gift from heaven as a gift from heaven! There is absolutely no certainty that tomorrow will be.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 4 2020 07: 00 New
            +8
            What will happen tomorrow
            There will be a replenishment of the state budget, due to state employees and civil servants.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 4 2020 07: 12 New
              +4
              Interesting for what minus?
              1. kalibr
                April 4 2020 08: 14 New
                +6
                For the song!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 08: 25 New
                  +3
                  Yeah, and for "unrequited love for the Motherland"
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 4 2020 13: 03 New
                  +1
                  Quote: kalibr
                  For the song!

                  For realism! laughing
              2. Catfish
                Catfish April 4 2020 16: 19 New
                0
                You, Anton, are solely out of personal respect and recognition of your merits. Someone is obviously not indifferent to you. drinks
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 18: 33 New
                  +4
                  That is, Uncle Kostya, you suggest that a certain person whom I pulled pigtails in the fourth class, unable to cultivate my sympathy in another way, tracked my life path to this site, and decided to take revenge?
                  It's funny!
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 April 4 2020 18: 46 New
                    +3
                    Beard in response to pigtails.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 03 New
                      +2
                      Uh, no! Even my beloved dog is not allowed to my beard !!!
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish April 4 2020 19: 24 New
                    +1
                    ... that a certain person with whom I pulled pigtails in the fourth class ...

                    This is unlikely, as Comrade Sukhov said. Most likely this is one of the local hamsters, and you did not pull his pigtails at all. laughing And hamsters are vindictive.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 30 New
                      +1
                      In hamsters, the stumbling block is too small, pull only with tweezers.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish April 4 2020 19: 45 New
                        +4
                        Well, another insult is inflicted, you, sir, are indignant - where are the cons. wink
                        But they also live hotz ...
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 55 New
                        +1
                        I'm outraged ??? No!!! I have a purely theoretical interest.
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish April 4 2020 19: 58 New
                        0
                        Then the jar with hamsters in the hand and run to the prosectorial. laughing
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 02 New
                        +2
                        Uncle Kostya, how do you imagine a jar of hamsters? Have you ever seen hamsters?
                      5. bubalik
                        bubalik April 4 2020 20: 09 New
                        +4
                        ,, I lived in a 3 l bank (when I was little) winked but then either escaped what or cat, squinting her well-fed eyes, knew something lol
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 16 New
                        +1
                        How much did they live in?
                      7. bubalik
                        bubalik April 4 2020 20: 23 New
                        +4
                        quantity

                        Drive the ruble, relative! Afonya ruble should have me! - two - TWO!! (with)
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 32 New
                        +3
                        Voooot !!! And Uncle Kostya, according to the old cat’s principle: there aren’t a lot of capelin, he suggests filling these three-pars with these pussies !!! Isn't that a monster ???
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 20: 38 New
                  +1
                  See the top picture, the computer can be shaken out of the can. And then, as in the famous cartoon:
                  -- How did you get there?
                  - Uh, he don’t know ...

                  With the local rodents the same incomprehensible thing, what do they want here?
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 44 New
                  +2
                  With "Russian military lemmings" everything is clear, but I did not see the answer to the question.
                4. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 20: 56 New
                  +1
                  My friend, I just have a typo there, the hamster there should be in the singular as in the picture.
                  Or are you asking for a monster? Well, with this to my Lucky, I believe that he has a corresponding attitude towards the hamster, as it should be by nature.
                5. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 03 New
                  +1
                  Your Lucky has never seen migrating lemmings!
                6. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 21: 09 New
                  +1
                  I saw and even had a serious relationship with their cat. Do not you value us, feline. No, I understand, it’s easier to live with a dog. smile
                7. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 14 New
                  +1
                  But I was not joking. I saw the lemmings migrate in 81, 82 years. Creepy sight.
                8. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 21: 16 New
                  +1
                  Anton, where was it?
                9. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 17 New
                  +2
                  Murmansk region.
                10. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 21: 21 New
                  +3
                  I did not rise above Poyakony. We worked with biologists on BBS. This is the Great Salma Strait with a single village named Nelma. We went there on the Kandalakshsky WFD and raised scientists' samples from the ground. It is very beautiful there, but the water is cooling, but still bathed naked.
                11. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 24 New
                  +2
                  My small homeland is the Polar Dawns.
                12. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 21: 28 New
                  +1
                  I have a small homeland of the Caucasus - Pyatigorsk.
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 08: 46 New
      +4
      And to you, the kindest little fool! hi
  • bubalik
    bubalik April 4 2020 12: 30 New
    +4
    3x3zsave
    Today

    Anton hi Let me ask how things are in the construction business?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 15: 08 New
      +4
      Sergei! hi
      In the evening, I’ll drive home, unsubscribe.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 4 2020 17: 32 New
        +3
        I arrived, I report.
        Well, what can I say ... Due to the fact that the entire range of building materials and "soputki" is included in the list of essential goods, everyone who wants and can work. And including me. The money, however, is not known when it will be paid, but I know for sure that it will be paid in full. In principle, the situation in St. Petersburg is much less nervous than in the whole country, and even more so in Moscow.
        1. bubalik
          bubalik April 4 2020 17: 48 New
          +3
          And me including
          ,,,it's good. good
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 4 2020 17: 59 New
            +3
            I do not understand two points:
            1. How to cut your hair?
            2. How to change the brake pads on a bucket?
            I’ll find out tomorrow.
            1. bubalik
              bubalik April 4 2020 18: 04 New
              +2
              exchange

              ,,, I have summer tires from my parents in the village, but they don’t let me out of the city request sad
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 4 2020 18: 09 New
                +3
                Voooot !!!
                Keep the woman in your heart, the bagpipe under the pillow, and seasonal rubber under the bed!
                Is aphorism good?
        2. Undecim
          Undecim April 4 2020 18: 37 New
          +3
          In principle, in St. Petersburg the situation is much less nervous than in the whole country and even more so in Moscow.
          Peter has always been culturally unattainable for Moscow at all times.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 4 2020 18: 55 New
            +2
            It all depends on the degree to which the mayor entered the "sphere of the furnace". And so, "a capital city, with a provincial destiny" ... Nothing better than Barcelona, ​​Los Angeles and Odessa request
            In all of these, even the sea is warm!
            1. Undecim
              Undecim April 4 2020 19: 01 New
              +4
              You know, Anton, I had the opportunity in a rather extreme situation to communicate simultaneously with the native Leningrad (he insisted on this definition, agreeing with a Petersburger) and with the native Muscovite. Moreover, both were not from proletarian families at all. That's when I realized that these are different people.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 13 New
                +3
                I am more tolerant, for non-indigenous.
                There are no indigenous ones. My stillborn city grows with the talents of visitors.
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 19: 15 New
                  +2
                  There are no indigenous
                  How not? Where have they been? Really exhausted everyone?
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 25 New
                  +2
                  Victor Nikolaevich, here you can trace your family tree until the 17th century, most of your ancestors were connected with the land on which you now live. Now, the question is: do you know many people whose ancestors lived in the Neva Delta in the 17th century?
                3. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 19: 34 New
                  +2
                  Maybe let's not be so strict with the depth of coverage and set the criterion not "ab ovo", but let it be 150-200 years? Although at present, for well-known reasons, I cannot boast of meeting such people, they certainly exist.
                4. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 50 New
                  +3
                  Okay. The most that I can say about the indigenous people of my beloved city is that my former common-law wife studied at Hertsovnik on the same course as Olga Frederiks.
                5. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 19: 58 New
                  +2
                  The surname is known. Not a relative of the physicist Fredericks?
                6. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 03 New
                  +2
                  A distant relative of the minister of the imperial court.
                7. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 20: 10 New
                  +2
                  So a relative.
                8. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 25 New
                  +3
                  Fredericks have been known in this city since the last quarter of the 18th century. They are newcomers. Can you name people with deeper roots authentic to this earth?
                9. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 20: 52 New
                  +3
                  Of course, I’m not going to name it right away. But even taking into account the catastrophic demographic shocks that hit the city in the last century, is there really nobody left?
                  "By remote control", especially mine, it is impossible to get an answer to such a question. It is necessary to work on the spot. You could even connect a local TV. An interesting question.
                10. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 00 New
                  +1
                  You could even connect a local TV.
                  This, it’s definitely not worth it !!! For immediately there will be subjects whose ancestors of Xenia of St. Petersburg laid bricks in an apron!
                11. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 21: 06 New
                  +1
                  You can tell anything, but this is the case when even gentlemen do not believe in the word.
                12. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 10 New
                  +1
                  In the case of media space, this is exactly the case.
                13. Undecim
                  Undecim April 4 2020 21: 22 New
                  +1
                  Yes, modern media space is still that dunghill.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 4 2020 19: 54 New
    +2
    Your conclusion from one conversation, even if conducted in extreme sports?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 4 2020 20: 02 New
      +2
      There were many conversations. Year of the army. From one pot they ate, one might say. I wrote a conclusion.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 4 2020 19: 51 New
    +2
    Why would it suddenly ?! Let me show curiosity?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 4 2020 20: 03 New
      +3
      Obviously due to certain historical and demographic processes.
  • fk7777777
    fk7777777 April 4 2020 21: 28 New
    0
    In addition to salaries, and connections ...
  • bubalik
    bubalik April 4 2020 19: 34 New
    +4
    range of building materials and "soputki"

    crying
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 19: 39 New
      +3
      In real life, everything is much more interesting, more hemorrhoidal and less funny. But, we are working!
  • fk7777777
    fk7777777 April 4 2020 21: 26 New
    -1
    One name left, where are the products? No, this is not gonfiti, but that normal Soviet? ...
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 4 2020 06: 49 New
    +6
    Good morning! Ufff, I'm already at the workplace. Vyacheslav Olegovich, I’m not Howard Hughes, and not Nikola Tesla! Fortunately, unhappiness ?? So what is needed in its place, as written in * Ausweis * - * is critically necessary in life production * .But how! fellow
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2020 06: 58 New
      +9
      Sergei! What's that ... One of my acquaintances in "Ausweisse" wrote that he ... a crane! It's as simple as that - permission to move around the city has been given ... "because he's a truck crane"! Not working on a truck crane, not a truck crane operator ... He is a truck crane! About tempera, about mores!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 4 2020 07: 32 New
        +6
        One gets the impression that Peter has remained a "reserve of unafraid idiots." Yesterday, for example, there was a compression of the traffic stream.
    2. bubalik
      bubalik April 4 2020 12: 37 New
      +4
      Ufff, I'm already at work

      Seryoga, are you from MSC? An hour from home to work what
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 4 2020 12: 43 New
        +4
        Hello Seryoga! Exactly, precisely. East Biryulyovo, and the factory in Zapadnoy. 10 minutes by car. On foot, without hurry-30-40. Until I arrived, measured the temperature, treated the playful little antiseptics, stood idly chatted. Well, today it’s free entry-exit schedule, early come, early leave, if only there were 8 hours.
        1. bubalik
          bubalik April 4 2020 12: 45 New
          +4
          So lie about your traffic jams laughing ?
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 April 4 2020 12: 47 New
            +6
            But we don’t have a parking lot there so often, we’ve built a very good outcome !!!! But earlier, you had to go from one Biryulev to another through the ring!
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 4 2020 20: 14 New
            +4
            For that, about our traffic jams do not lie !!!
      2. The comment was deleted.
  • Bar1
    Bar1 April 4 2020 11: 47 New
    +1
    an article from the series "come to Nice, it's good there"
    I would like to talk about something else, about history.
    What is the word nice? There is no etymology or something like Nika, the goddess of victory. But in history we have not heard about any victories associated with this city. In general, we know little of the history of the names of toponyms, hydronyms, and the like.

    But if you dig into history, then suddenly strange names come up among the peoples that suddenly contradict those peoples who now live in these countries and cities or on these rivers.
    -Moscow origin unknown
    -Kiev -from Kiya
    - Rome is from Romulus and is called Roma.
    -Paris is Lutetia of Paris, a Galician city.
    -Luxembourg-Lutzenburg -City of Lucids
    -Berlin-type from bera i.e. from a bear, formerly called a colony - a Slavic city.
    -Cologne colony, well, here from the Latins, of course.
    -Berlin / Colony is a Slavic city, and Cologne / Colony is Latin, this is such a contradiction.
    -Stockholm-Stockholm on Pitiable Speech by Carl Speech11
    -Vienna-Vendian city
    - Venice is a city of Wends, the crown is in Russian style.
    London from galician city
    Dublin is a Galician city
    not to mention, it is a fact that ALL Germany is covered by Slavic names.
    I will not talk about other strange names. Perhaps we can say that the Gauls and Slavs left the most noticeable mark in the history of Europe and the whole world.
    Then you can take a different look at the name of Nice
    -Nice-bottom, Lower city.
    Geographically, this city is low, why? Well, let's say Gaul. In the Russian language, such epithets as the outskirts are the underbelly of Russia.
    What about tunisia?
    - Tunisia is the bottom, the bottom of what? Topographically, all lands adjacent to the sea are the lower point than those that are far from the sea.
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2020 17: 09 New
      +3
      Fr. Nice [nis] - "good", ox. Niça, Italian. Nizza - "good", lat. Nicaea, ancient Greek. Νίκαια - "good".
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 April 5 2020 08: 27 New
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Fr. Nice [nis] - "good", ox. Niça, Italian. Nizza - "good", lat. Nicaea, ancient Greek. Νίκαια - "good".


        what is nice from good, have you come up with?
        1. kalibr
          April 5 2020 09: 17 New
          0
          This is a translation of the word, stupid!
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 April 5 2020 14: 02 New
              0
              Quote: Bar1
              Quote: kalibr
              This is a translation of the word, stupid!

              you would fall would cover ...

              you would fall, you would hide, stupid ...
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. fk7777777
      fk7777777 April 4 2020 21: 34 New
      +1
      The Swedes are interesting, the language consists of English, German, and Russian.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 05: 45 New
    13
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for Nice!
    Regards, Vladislav!
  • DMB 75
    DMB 75 April 4 2020 05: 53 New
    13
    Thank you dear guide for a fascinating tour of Nice! All health and good mood!
  • Free wind
    Free wind April 4 2020 06: 48 New
    +8
    Good morning. I go and swim, beaches, even rocky, even sandy, always in sneakers, as it’s calmer, it’s full of rubbish. It’s clear what they did, but how much work is 80 meters of stone to hammer. I even imagine it scary when you sit in a pit of such depth. It’s interesting how the air was supplied there, there should be at least 2-3 people, two let's say they are hammering a stone, one tub is filling, plus the torch burned. We got to the aquifer, then we still have to dig deeper, so that there was a supply of water. And if she was not? So you need to dig a tunnel to the river, this is certain death ..... Such a huge amount of work, but everything was done very quickly, it happened with some kind of castle and was managed for a year. Such a huge amount of work was done, and the powder cellars were dug deeper and the walls were thin, I would say, judging by the graphic image, at that time 3-4 meter walls were not uncommon. And with the guns it was a little tight, and putting them where, the towers are somehow not particularly suitable for guns. Otherwise, it was possible to grind all attackers from such a height into powder. In general, we hoped for the height of the mountain, well, maybe it’s not so sour so welded on a construction site. Great place to live, sea, river, very favorable nature. By the way, about 1500, plus or minus 10 years, approximately, somewhere in these areas the first swimming competitions were held, and sometimes they were held subsequently. Thank you dear author for an interesting article, Good luck to you and your family.
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2020 07: 00 New
      +7
      Thanks at all! And thanks for the interesting comment!
      1. Free wind
        Free wind April 4 2020 12: 56 New
        +2
        Well, is there such a letter in this word? laughing
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 07: 11 New
      +5
      I go and swim, beaches, even rocky, even sandy, always in sneakers
      Hmm ... Well, actually such a thing as "aquashuz" was not invented yesterday.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 10: 25 New
        +4
        I'm sitting in the garage changing tires! Snow croup above herachet, it began when I changed the third wheel !!!
        I think - to return as it was, or to finish off the last wheel !!!
        Classics of the genre - a glass half empty or half full !!!!!!!
        Regards, Venerable company!
        1. Free wind
          Free wind April 4 2020 12: 46 New
          +4
          Are you changing for winter, or for vodka? drinks
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 14: 48 New
            +3
            In the summer!
            I try to make myself feel optimistic.
            Although in truth, laziness mother 1 wheel is three times less than three! laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 46 New
              +1
              Blyin! Well, change tires on such an epidemic !!!
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 21: 53 New
                +2
                I am Anton because of her darling and startled. So early has not changed, but what awaits us tomorrow. Weather mocks in the city the snow has melted, in the village meter drifts. From the top it pours, then pours. Ural in one word.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 4 2020 22: 24 New
                  0
                  I'm too shy to tell about my circumstances request
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 4 2020 06: 49 New
    10
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    A funny paradox occurred to me.
    The name of the lover of the French Riviera, Herzen, is known only to Russians in the world. The name of the lover of the English Riviera, (a resort little known to Russians) Agatha Christie, the whole world knows.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich April 4 2020 07: 12 New
    +5
    Nice: what impregnable fortresses turn into

    Nice, like Marseille and the entire south coast of France, is turning into ALGERIA, alas.

    And the city, of course, is the most beautiful, the pearl of France
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 07: 23 New
      +3
      By the way, an interesting collision is taking shape: an epidemic vs illegal migration. And what will the EU do with these.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 4 2020 17: 09 New
        +2
        ... illegal migration.

        Hello Anton! hi Surgically, exclusively. soldier
        1. fk7777777
          fk7777777 April 4 2020 21: 36 New
          +1
          This is a Jewish version, do not confuse ...
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 4 2020 21: 38 New
            0
            Europeans Americans knew how to do this even before the emergence of the state of Israel. So I'm not confusing anything, Comrade Junior Lieutenant. soldier
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 April 4 2020 12: 51 New
      +4
      Hi Andrey! To our ambush, many large cities of the West and Russia are turning / and some have already turned / do not understand what. And in Algeria in particular! am
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 4 2020 09: 06 New
    +6
    The promenade with palm trees and the beach, as we have in Adler or Gurzuf. Solid round cobblestones with which the waves hit the legs. I don’t know what good people find in such beaches ...
    You will be even more surprised if you find out that these solid round cobblestones, galets, are brought to the beaches every year. This is not sea pebbles, but river sediments. Over the winter, pebble beaches destroy storms and you could have covered them with sand for a long time. But the local population is categorically against it and every spring the pebble beaches are carefully renewed.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 09: 25 New
      +6
      Reminded the phrase of J. Rodari about ten dump trucks of limestone gravel, unloading nightly near the Coliseum. laughing
      1. bubalik
        bubalik April 4 2020 12: 54 New
        +6
        solid round cobblestones, galets, are brought to the beaches every year.
        ,,, and we bring sand to the beaches every spring yes
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 4 2020 16: 30 New
          +4
          Seryozha, hello! hi Do you want to write about how the "wolves" looked through the periscopes at the lights on the beaches of Miami and at the same time about the "hooligan patrol" of Hemingway. I read "Islands in the Ocean". And what is the topic. drinks
          1. bubalik
            bubalik April 4 2020 16: 35 New
            +4
            staring at the lights on the beaches of Miami

            ,,, welcome hi
            ,,, already wrote how Hardegen Manhattan admired.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish April 4 2020 16: 52 New
              +5
              And when, somehow I can’t remember, sikylyrosis. smile And about old Ham and how did the Cubans sink the Doenitz submarine?
              1. bubalik
                bubalik April 4 2020 17: 36 New
                +5
                Cubans sank Doenitz submarine

                ,,, Lieutenant Mario Ramirez Delgado.
                Ham
                ,,, and what he was going to stoke with grenades No.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 18: 02 New
                  +3
                  So re-read "Islands" in a new way. smile
                  And whom exactly Delgado drowned, I have already forgotten.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim April 4 2020 09: 42 New
      +5
      I will slightly supplement the illustrative part.
      All that remains of this abandoned city is fragments of ancient walls and foundations.

      Source: https://www.bestofcinqueterre.com/en/photo?name=nice-promenade-des-anglais-from-viewpoint-of-castle-hill
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 4 2020 09: 47 New
        +6
        By the way, Vyacheslav Olegovich, for some reason you ignored the Roman period and the existence of the capital of the Roman province of Primorsky Alps - Cimiez.
        1. kalibr
          April 4 2020 16: 51 New
          +2
          But I haven’t been there. He wrote only about what he saw and to what extent his hands reached out ... That was on Castle Hill. Behind I saw a monument to participants in the 1st World War. But he was not impressed, so the photo is not here ...
  • iury.vorgul
    iury.vorgul April 4 2020 10: 18 New
    +6
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. I read, and at least rested from all this turbidity of today. And I don’t go to work, because on the next vacation!
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 4 2020 10: 32 New
    +6
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I am not a casino expert. But in the picture is “Barriere Le Ruhl”.
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2020 17: 01 New
      +3
      Sergei! THANK! Here is an example again ... you look in the photo ... you see not what you need. In the selection of photos next to Nice, I have Monaco. Just there is the Monte Carlo casino, where I, by the way, was, although I did not go to the gaming halls. But inside was. In parallel with this article, an article was written in a magazine about Monaco. Well ... Monte Carlo is always ours. Therefore, when I made the captions for these photos ... I looked ... Casino ... which - of course, Monte Carlo. In fact, you need to think and write about Monaco, there is war and history ... It is clear that so that these articles do not copy each other and the novelty should be at least 90%.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 4 2020 17: 52 New
        +4
        Yes, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Such a story with geography. And the Cote d'Azur fits perfectly.

        If it occurred to me to tell funny stories, I would not fail to tell about Saint-Tropez. Louis de Funes will revive any story.
        1. kalibr
          April 4 2020 20: 00 New
          +1
          Quote: Korsar4
          wouldn’t fail to talk about Saint-Tropez

          Well, tell me ... And then I will write about Monaco. There is something about it!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 4 2020 20: 20 New
            +2
            No. This is a complete reprofiling.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 4 2020 10: 37 New
    +6
    Tyutchev:

    "Oh, this South, oh, this Nice,
    Oh, how their shine disturbs me! ”
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 April 4 2020 12: 58 New
      +4
      * ... life is like a shot bird
      He wants to rise, and cannot ... * He is. wink
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 4 2020 13: 19 New
        +5
        And there. The cycle of verses in memory of Denisieva is exceptionally torn.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 April 4 2020 13: 24 New
          +4
          I insist.
          * ... wants to-and cannot ...
          No, neither flight, nor scope-
          broken wings hang
          and she is all pressed to dust
          trembling with pain and powerlessness *.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 4 2020 13: 29 New
            +4
            And about the same time, but in a different geographical location:

            “And there, in solemn peace,
            Unveiled in the morning
            The White Mountain shines
            Like an unearthly revelation. ”
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 4 2020 13: 33 New
              +4
              * here the heart would have forgotten everything
              I would have forgotten all my flour, whenever there were in my native land
              there was less than one grave. *
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 April 4 2020 13: 27 New
          +4
          * ... the crowd came in, the crowd broke in
          in the sanctuary of your soul ... * The same Tyutchev. hi
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 4 2020 13: 33 New
            +4
            "She was sitting on the floor
            And sorted the pile of letters -
            And, as the ashes cooled,
            I took them in my hands and threw them "

            This is already addressed to Ernestine.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 4 2020 13: 35 New
              +5
              The namesake! Sorry, but I seem to be at work! And the knowledge in poetry is not so wide, alas! hi
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 4 2020 16: 27 New
                +4
                Seryoga, hello! Ours is all assembled, otherwise I began to worry. smile drinks
            2. Catfish
              Catfish April 4 2020 16: 26 New
              +1
              "She walked on a wire,
              Waved his white foot
              And Morozov’s passion seized
              With his calloused hand. "(C)

              We are simple people, Bulat Shalkabaha quote. drinks
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 4 2020 17: 48 New
                +4
                In our literature, both Tyutchev and Okudzhava are placed. And it doesn’t get crowded. And Gorodnitsky:

                “But how high her naked breasts are.
                Like a naga high leg! "
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish April 4 2020 18: 09 New
                  +3
                  "Crocodiles, palms, baobabs
                  And the wife of the French ambassador ... " smile
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 April 4 2020 18: 14 New
                    +4
                    “- What does Crocodile eat for lunch?” - asked the Baby Elephant once (s).
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish April 4 2020 18: 23 New
                      +4
                      The question is different "" Is the Heffalump lured to whistle, and if it is lured, then why? "(C)
                      And Crocodile's menu is arbitrary. laughing
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 4 2020 18: 37 New
                        +4
                        “Let the white elephant walk better in the white herd,
                        May he better not bring happiness ”(c).
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish April 4 2020 19: 28 New
                        +2
                        "They gave the elephant shoes.
                        He took one shoe
                        And said: - We need a wider
                        And not two, but all four! "(C)
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 4 2020 19: 32 New
                        +5
                        A poem for beginners to play chess.

                        "The cat has four legs,
                        Behind her long tail ”(c).
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish April 4 2020 19: 40 New
                        +4
                        First, I’ll ask without a hint ...

                        Makaviti, Makaviti, the mysterious Makaviti!
                        He is the devil in the image of a cat; you cannot correct him.
                        On your roof, in the yard he meets the dawn,
                        But there is never a villain at a crime scene!

                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 April 4 2020 20: 17 New
                        +4
                        No hints. All matches are random.

                        “It’s dawn outside the window, these are cities in the spring,
                        This is a lonely light calling for itself ”(c).
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 4 2020 20: 03 New
                      +4
                      * Through the window, through the window
                      a strange cat came to us.
                      The window is open, the cat is all unwashed.
                      We said: Hello cat!
                      Stay with us a little bit! *
                      Edward Uspensky.
                    3. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 4 2020 21: 19 New
                      +2
                      Universal rhyme.

                      “Here you have a cat as a keepsake.
                      Dry her a little! ” (with).
                    4. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 4 2020 21: 26 New
                      +3
                      * Cats are not like humans:
                      Cats are cats.
                      People wear hats and coats. Cats often go without clothes. *
                    5. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 4 2020 21: 29 New
                      +2
                      "But on an Eskimo, a shrunken elephant
                      Fearfully.
                      He weighs so many tons
                      Even if he is still a baby elephant ”(c).
                    6. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 4 2020 21: 37 New
                      +2
                      * If someone moves,
                      the kitten will throw at him.
                      If something rolls,
                      the kitten will clutch for him.
                      Jump-skop! Tsap-scratch!
                      You won’t leave our paws! *.
                      Valentin Berestov.
                    7. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 4 2020 21: 40 New
                      +2
                      “The cat's paw is short.
                      Do not get a pencil ”(c).
                    8. Phil77
                      Phil77 April 4 2020 21: 45 New
                      +2
                      Oh! * The cat said to the mouse:
                      -Let's be friends with you!
                      And be this friendship
                      cherish to death.
                      -I'm afraid, the mouse said, -What your goal is close, And our friendship will be
                      extremely short .... *
                      Sergey Mikhalkov.
                    9. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 4 2020 21: 59 New
                      +1
                      “Whatever you call,
                      A mouse cannot be a cat ”(c).
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 4 2020 21: 55 New
          +2
          "When we have a bigger apartment, we will get an elephant" (C)
        4. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 4 2020 22: 00 New
          +3
          “MOM looked in the crack.
          And she decided not to let her in ”(c).
        5. bubalik
          bubalik April 4 2020 22: 09 New
          +4
          Starting a fight with dad
          Starting a fight with mom
          Try to surrender to mom, -
          Dad does not take prisoners.
          By the way, find out from mom
          Did she forget
          Prisoners beat on the pope with a belt
          Forbids the Red Cross. (with)smile
        6. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 4 2020 22: 27 New
          +3
          "It's just that Seryozhka came,
          We played a little "(C)
        7. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 4 2020 22: 46 New
          +1
          “That our life is a game.
          And who is to blame
          What am I interested in this game? " (with).
  • Phil77
    Phil77 April 4 2020 20: 16 New
    +4
    Nice! And so?
    * About how on the slope of our years
    Tender we love and superstitious ...
    Shine shine goodbye light
    Last love, dawn of the evening ... *
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 4 2020 22: 03 New
      +2
      “There are days, sometimes an hour,
      When it blows suddenly in the spring
      And something will stir in us ”(c).
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 April 4 2020 22: 14 New
        +2
        * ... there is more than one memory
        here life spoke again.
        And the same in you charm
        And there is love in my soul *.
        * However, the party, Pyotr Sergeevich! *
        * New elusive adventures *.
        Sergey! Sorry, but I-pas! good
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 4 2020 22: 47 New
          +2
          Wow. Immediately and counting, and the announcement of the results.

          There’s also a way to ask whose dog is outside the window.
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman April 4 2020 12: 20 New
    +9
    Nice is a complete human misunderstanding. Both Julius Caesar, and Augustus, and, it seems, Petronius avoided this swampy, malaria-infected area. In Nice, they kept only slaves, gladiators and freedmen. They themselves lived in Cimiez or Frejus, where, as monuments of their greatness, they created beautiful circuses, so strong that until now time can not swallow them. Then a rather stupid story happened. For some reason, the deceased English Queen Victoria liked this swamp, and immediately English snobbery, Russian ape, easy money of the Americans and the eternal lackey of the French helped make Nice a fashionable resort. How new is this city is the name of its streets. Gambetta street, Hugo street, Flaubert street, Zola street, Massene street, Mira street, Verdi street, Gounod street, Paganini street. And only to one poor Voltaire did the hypocritical French give a dirty deadlock. Maupassant is completely forgotten. And if you please: mosquitoes, swamp fever, not a city, but a solid hotel-shredding, car stink and beautiful poses of young French people of fifty years in the style of P. Bourget on the beach in pink with a white striped tights.

    Source: http://kuprin-lit.ru/kuprin/proza/lazurnye-berega/glava-vi-nicca.htm
  • Catfish
    Catfish April 4 2020 16: 23 New
    +7
    Good afternoon dear friends! Best wishes to all! Olegitch separately and with thanks for the article! good Good luck to everyone, health and good mood. smile drinks
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 4 2020 16: 24 New
    +9
    Greetings to the venerable meeting. hi smile
    About three hours ago, I wrote a long and spiteful comment on the subject of the heat and the bastard disorder that gives me a southern vacation, but instead of sending it, I accidentally clicked "refresh page". laughing
    I got angry, went out of my way to clean the sewer (something was clogged) - I cleaned it so that the water now leaves like it never did. laughing
    Regarding Nice - it seems that history remains in this city, but not a fig - everyone was devoured by the greedy and mercenary of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries. And there is no optimism for the future - those who will become masters in these places (if they have not yet) will be interested in the history of this place, except perhaps in three or four generations. sad
    In short, I'm not a foot in Nice. smile
    But in general, I'm talking about something else, colleagues. smile
    I have a question for you, for everyone at once.
    By virtue of self-isolation, which I conscientiously, as a law-abiding citizen, observe, there is a time that can and should be spent with benefit and pleasure, namely, to spend on communication with you. smile The extra reason for such communication will never hurt, so I want to write an article. Naturally, this can only be Russia of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. But now I’ve been walking and suffering for a couple of days - where to start.
    The easiest way to decide on a topic is to ask the potential reader what exactly he is interested in.
    So, dear colleagues, tell me, what to write about? What will it be interesting for you to listen to?
    The opinion of those who believe that I should shut up and not spoil the section with my creations will also be taken into account. yes smile
    1. kalibr
      April 4 2020 16: 44 New
      +5
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      So, dear colleagues, tell me, what to write about? What will it be interesting for you to listen to?

      The history of Russia of this period is not my element. But ... I read somewhere that even in separate chronicles one can trace (it seems) the moment that the coming of the Mongols was awaited by some ... "forces", as shown by the roads to the City, were supplied with food for horses. In short ... used them. Where I read it, who wrote it, what hints there are ... alas, I don’t remember. I don't know anything about it myself. But I remember exactly that there was something about it. Now, if you could write about it ...
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 4 2020 18: 08 New
        +6
        Quote: kalibr
        the coming of the Mongols was awaited by some ... "forces"

        It was so. Moreover, they directly accused of collaboration of my beloved Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. No.
        It is interesting, very interesting, in terms of not even a "search" for allies of the Mongols in Russia (to look for a black cat in a black room when, in my opinion, there is no one there), but in terms of intelligence and diplomatic work of the Mongols in preparing an invasion and countermeasures of potential victims of aggression, let's say, their "counterintelligence activities." Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, a very interesting topic. hi smile
        1. kalibr
          April 4 2020 19: 58 New
          +4
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, a very interesting topic.

          Glad you managed to deploy it like that. Maybe then stop at it?
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master April 4 2020 22: 47 New
            +3
            This topic has already settled in my head, which means it will be realized. smile I don’t know how anyone has, but my head is designed so that it returns to the question that has settled in it by itself at every opportunity. I very much believe that Mendeleev could have dreamed about his periodic table - this happened more than once. You wake up in the morning and suddenly you see a solution to a question that you thought about a week or two ago, although you didn’t think about it the day before. Or, for example, you sit at a table, have dinner, relax, and then suddenly - once! - and for no reason you start to think, and more intensively and productively, over some issue, ideas appear. As if some kind of toggle switch.
            So the topic suggested by you will inevitably be realized. smile
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 21: 30 New
          +4
          Michael, and there is no desire to dig up the process of assimilation of "small nations" at an early stage in the formation of the Old Russian state.
          If I offended anyone by “my definition,” I apologize. But national minorities and other official terms make me nervous.
          Russia was not originally a mono-ethnic state. A number of peoples from the first days participated in its construction. Someone connected later, but in a way that is worth a lot. So the topic is probably not grateful, probably even painful, but it should turn out .....
          Meria, Muroma, Mordva, Chud, All, Izhora, Zyryans, Chuvashs and many, many others!
          Regards, Vlad!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master April 4 2020 22: 18 New
            +4
            I don’t know ... I’m probably not going to take up such a topic ... Of course, I don’t care about warhamsters, but the topic itself is very ... kind of subtle, or something ... Delicate. It doesn’t turn out that some of our peoples, as it were, are primordial, while others are sewn-fasten? It can work out.
            On the one hand, the author of such a work lurks Great Russian chauvinism and the issue of the usefulness of some peoples, and on the other hand feudal internationalism and total cosmopolitanism.
            No, Vlad, I’m not ready to raise national themes, like religious ones. request
    2. kalibr
      April 4 2020 16: 46 New
      +5
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      In short, I'm not a foot in Nice.

      And me too! I fully share your opinion.
    3. bubalik
      bubalik April 4 2020 17: 45 New
      +7
      Michael hi
      only Russia IX - XV

      ,,, but about which: “Kievan Rus,” “Chernigov Rus,” “Rostov or Suzdal Rus”? wink
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 4 2020 17: 58 New
        +6
        Quote: bubalik
        but about which

        And about any, which is more interesting, including Novgorod, which Russia itself, in fact, did not consider itself, but in fact it was ... smile
        Earth, princes, conflicts, strife - I want to write about everything. The early Rurikovich, the feuds of the XI - XIII centuries, the invasion, the feuds of the Alexandrovichs, Moscow against Tver, Oleg Ivanovich Ryazan, the Russo-Lithuanian wars, the Great feudal war of the XNUMXth century. - everything is interesting. I don’t really know where to start. I am tormented. smile
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 4 2020 18: 10 New
          +8
          Yes Yes. And Oleg Ryazansky. He was arguing about him at school. And then he firmly stood on orthodox positions - which came across in the children's book.
        2. fk7777777
          fk7777777 April 4 2020 20: 44 New
          +1
          Yeah, that is, just a bunch of people living in complete unsanitary conditions cut each other, and at the same time thought of something to survive, didn’t I miss anything? .... That is, a bunch of terminators and a mochilo in a second tariffication, I don’t know it is naivety, or already a clinic.
        3. Catfish
          Catfish April 4 2020 20: 48 New
          +5
          Hi Mkhail! hi
          Regarding Nice, I agree, I don’t go there either, I also won’t go to Miami and the Hawaiian Islands, one damn thing is no money. laughing
          And since I will be sitting in the Ryazan Region all the time, I have a corresponding interest - Oleg Ivanovich Ryazansky. I will wait for your revelations on this matter, and then I will educate the local population, let them be ashamed that the Muscovite knows more about their "small homeland" than they themselves, the indigenous Ryazan people.
          Health, Mish, and good luck! smile drinks
    4. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 4 2020 18: 08 New
      +7
      The struggle of Moscow and Tver. Where is Balashov to heed, and what is critical about.
    5. Undecim
      Undecim April 4 2020 18: 32 New
      +7
      The history of Russia of this period is not my element. But ... I read somewhere that even in separate chronicles one can trace (it seems) the moment that the coming of the Mongols was awaited by some ... "forces", as shown by the roads to the City, were supplied with food for horses. In short ... used them. Where I read it, who wrote it, what hints there are ... alas, I don’t remember. I don't know anything about it myself. But I remember exactly that there was something about it. Now, if you could write about it ...
      Only Samsonov could write about "certain forces" in his epic about superethnos.
      The fact that at least the Vladimir and Ryazan princes were well aware not only of the impending attack, but also of the time of its beginning, was written by V.V. Kargalov in his book "Foreign policy factors of the development of feudal Russia. Feudal Russia and nomads" in 1967, and today they even write about it in Belarusian history textbooks for universities.
      The impending invasion was impossible to hide. However, the absence of a centralized state as such, the disunity, feuds between the princes, led to the fact that they could not only coordinate the defense of all Russian lands, but did not even manage to take enough extraordinary defensive measures in their principalities.
      Of course, such an interpretation of events for local superethnos and urapatriots from history is like a sickle through the genitals, hence the extension of theories about certain forces and the conspiracy of the world behind the scenes.
      In this regard, as an option, it may make sense to outline the process of creating a centralized state in Russia, which ended by the XNUMXth century in general terms.
      1. kalibr
        April 4 2020 19: 55 New
        +3
        Quote: Undecim
        wrote by V.V. Kargalov in the book "Foreign policy factors in the development of feudal Russia. Feudal Russia and nomads" in 1967,

        Most likely it was Kargalov. But it was a long time ago. Therefore, the exact picture is not.
      2. fk7777777
        fk7777777 April 4 2020 20: 36 New
        -5
        It was just that there was one state, some were torn off, crushed, and then they wanted to capture in parts. But that normal part, the state was ahead of it all, plus a counterattack was struck on its closest neighbors, Poland, Hungary, clearly ahead of schedule, because obviously the adversary was not ready. They were ready for an attack, but not for defense. Something like this ... And about the mythical Mongols, well, just a lie, because it’s not real what they are telling. The same thing lies about the collapse of the Roman Empire and Barbara. It is very interesting to watch how they from the Baltic rushed around the crowd and there they stormed London and through Spain to Africa, then turned around and went to Tunisia, turned around again, and took Rome by storm. Well, what is this one that came up with ?, and this is a school curriculum. Even at the present level, so many strategic operations in a short period of time are unrealistic to carry out. And these pedestrians, could they?
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 21: 16 New
          +6
          Nehren understood nothing, but put a plus!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master April 4 2020 21: 44 New
            +4
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            plus set

            Exactly a plus? Then I, too, set it up. Oh! He reflected as a minus! Is it karma? laughing
          2. Phil77
            Phil77 April 4 2020 22: 02 New
            +4
            And I liked the * pedestrians *! Nobody could, but they * the pedestrians * - they could! fellowAnd you definitely * plus * set ?????
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 4 2020 22: 48 New
              +3
              Today in the morning I’m pushing the wrong buttons for something ... Maybe I missed? repeat
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 4 2020 21: 52 New
          +4
          Quote: fk7777777
          one state

          Is that that?
          Quote: fk7777777
          part was torn off, crushed, and then in parts they wanted to capture

          Who?
          Quote: fk7777777
          normal part, states

          What?
          Quote: fk7777777
          obviously the adversary was not ready

          What is the conclusion?
          Quote: fk7777777
          Something like that.

          Yes ... you have everything "something like that".
          Quote: fk7777777
          about the mythical Mongols, well, just a lie, because it’s not real what they say

          What do they say?
          Quote: fk7777777
          the collapse of the Roman empire of Barbara and

          What? wassat
          Quote: fk7777777
          from the Baltic countries they broke into a crowd, and there they stormed London and through Spain to Africa, then turned around and went to Tunisia, turned around again, and took Rome by storm

          Who was this quicker?
          Quote: fk7777777
          and this is the school curriculum

          Where did you study? request
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 5 2020 11: 46 New
            +3
            Where did you study?
            Hogwarts?
        3. Icelord
          Icelord April 10 2020 19: 21 New
          0
          Well you, there was a great tartaria. But the liberal propaganda of the Vatican ruined))))))
    6. Phil77
      Phil77 April 4 2020 20: 33 New
      +4
      I don’t know why, dear Mikhail, but I would like to read an article about Novgorod. Is this possible?
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 4 2020 22: 08 New
        +2
        Quote: Phil77
        article about Novgorod

        Novgorod ...
        Books are written about him, many volumes. Novgorod needs to be defined more specifically - which is interesting. And first of all - with the period, because at different stages of historical development in Novgorod everything was different - from the state system to the goals in politics. Novgorod under Miroshka Gyuryatich is not at all the same as under, for example, Onciphor Lukinich. smile
    7. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 22: 04 New
      +3
      Well, here, finally! And I still did not believe the scribble hunters ’stories that the Baltic was so cleaned up in connection with the coronovirus that the Vikings began to swim in it! laughing
    8. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 4 2020 22: 07 New
      +5
      Michael! hi
      And poorly write the history of epidemics in Russia!
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 4 2020 22: 23 New
        +3
        Weakо... Yes, and reluctance, to be honest. This is boring and depressing. Until the XNUMXth century they simply died from epidemics - almost limp, resignedly and without a chance.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 4 2020 22: 28 New
          +3
          Okay, it's easier for me.
  • fk7777777
    fk7777777 April 4 2020 20: 23 New
    -3
    What can I say, well done Russians, they built a good city of Ashot and a magician, real Russian patriots of the Uzbek fatherland.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 21: 18 New
      +8
      wassat
      The second comment and I feel like an idiot?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 4 2020 21: 27 New
        +8
        You mean the gentleman with the nickname "fk7777777"? Yes, the train of thought is twisted, like the flight of a bat with a hangover.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 21: 38 New
          +7
          WikNick, if you don’t undertake to decipher this, then this is no longer a mouse flight, a brick.
          Timur (Bar1) seems beautiful!
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 4 2020 21: 42 New
            +6
            Yes, it can be decrypted, the question is whether it is necessary. It is clear that he is a Newcomer, but very tongue-tied.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 22: 05 New
              +3
              Quote: Undecim
              Yes, it can be decrypted, the question is whether it is necessary. It is clear that he is a Newcomer, but very tongue-tied.

              Afraid that the crowd will rush to London-Rome! winked
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 4 2020 22: 07 New
                +5
                I do not presume to predict the behavior of this population.
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka April 4 2020 22: 11 New
                  +4
                  In the commentary above, although he praised us Russians as “well done Russians”! And the truth is Ashot with Maga !!!!
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 4 2020 22: 18 New
          +4
          Yeah. A dream inspired by the flight of a bumblebee over a cuckoo's nest, a minute before waking up.
    2. Icelord
      Icelord April 10 2020 19: 23 New
      0
      Who is the Ashot and the Magician?
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 4 2020 22: 25 New
    +3
    Colleagues, I have received alerts about replies to my comments. The bell does not work. Has anyone come across this? Can I fix it somewhere in the settings or do I need to knock on the administration?
    1. Svarog51
      Svarog51 April 5 2020 06: 17 New
      +5
      Michael hi I came across this a couple of times, both times the cleaning by the CCleaner helped (CCleaner)
  • The comment was deleted.