Military Review

Alpine Meadow Plane

32

In the second half of the thirties of the last century, the countries of the world frantically armed, realizing that another war was just around the corner. They also realized this in the prosperous and long-declared neutrality of Switzerland. Negotiations were held on the supply of new aircraft with France and Germany. The Germans provided Bf-109, the French - MS-406. The position of the heavy fighter / light bomber remained open. At first, the French seemed to have pledged supplies and a license for the Potez 630. But something did not grow together. Then it was decided to manufacture its own combat vehicle. According to the then fashionable concept of a “flying cruiser”. So that he could carry out reconnaissance, and deliver a bomb assault strike, and drive away the enemy! History showed that these trends turned out to be erroneous. The Swiss were no exception.


Work on the creation of the aircraft was entrusted in 1936 to the company EKW, located in the canton of Bern. Design work progressed very slowly. When the threat of war became real, they replaced the project manager and improved funding.

In 1938, began to create the first model. They called it C-3601. The aircraft was a two-piece all-metal free low-wing with a two-keel plumage and fixed gear. The chassis, by the way, was covered with fairings like the Yu-87. The rudders and ailerons were covered with linen. The engine is a 12-cylinder Hispano-Suiza 12 Y-77 rated at 860 horsepower. The armament consisted of a 20-mm cannon mounted in the collapse of the cylinders, two 7,5 mm machine guns in the wing and one of the same for the letnab.

The first flight took place on May 15, 1939. Factory tests were successful, but during the military ... During the dive strong vibrations were revealed, both ailerons flew off, the car crashed. But the work was recognized as promising. We began to build the prototype S-3602. The design was strengthened. The engine was replaced with a more powerful one - at 1000 hp. The aircraft took off on November 30, 1939. They conducted satisfactory factory tests and even military ones. A contract was signed for the supply of 57 aircraft. True, the speed (440 km / h) did not suit the military. It was agreed that they would be able to raise it to the level of 470 km / h. They decided to make the landing gear retractable, and also strengthened the armament: instead of one machine gun, the rear hemisphere began to be covered by a spark, and under the wing eight suspension units for 400 kg bombs were placed.

The lead aircraft of the installation series took off in September 1941. And then all the “childhood diseases” of the new machine appeared. Alarms began to arrive from flying units about the occurrence of vibrations at high speeds. During additional tests, the wings of the aircraft fell off, the crew died ... An investigation showed that the flutter of the wing caused by rounded edges became the fault. The wing was "cut off", the area was reduced. Along the way, returned to one machine gun in the cabin of the letnab.

Back in 1941, the order for S-36 was increased to 200 aircraft, but in 1942 it was reduced to 150. Looking ahead, I’ll inform you that a total of 147 aircraft were assembled.

Meanwhile, EKW continued to improve the car. The next modification was already equipped with an engine in 1410 "horses". Wing machine guns were replaced with 20 mm guns, the bomb load was increased to 600 kg.

But all this was already belated. The prototype took off in 1944. And even showed a speed of 560 km / h. But the debugging of the aircraft was delayed, and a century was reactive on the threshold aviation...

In service with the S-36 stood until 1953. The main task was to patrol the borders. Only one combat collision is known for certain: in 1944 a pair of “Swiss” entered the battle with the “Mustang” that accompanied the American bombers. They got off with bullet holes. For the entire service of combat losses and victories, the aircraft did not gain. True, in flight accidents lost 11 cars.

It would seem that after the end of World War II, the S-36 could be forgotten. There it was! Zealous Swiss sent a part to the scrap, and newer vehicles began to be converted into combat training, glider tugboats, target tugboats and transport and rescue vehicles. Drop-down containers with food, fuel and medicines for victims of avalanches and snow drifts were attached to the bomb racks. And they served in this incarnation until they were replaced by helicopters in the early sixties!

It can be stated that the plane went below average. It was originally based on an erroneous concept, there was no experience in the construction of these machines, however, as well as operating experience. But do not forget that this was the first independent development of a non-aircraft building country! She gave an impetus to the industry and design experience.

At the moment, it is known about two museum pieces and a couple of flying ones (they are in private collections).

The performance characteristics of the S-3603:

Wingspan - 13,74 m.
Length - 10,23 m.
Height - 3,29 m.
Wing area - 28,4 square. m
Empty weight - 2315 kg.
Take-off weight - 4085 kg.
The maximum speed is 476 km per hour.
Rate of climb - 10, 4 m per second.
Ceiling - 8700 m.
Flight range - 680 km.
Flight duration - 2 hours.

Alpine Meadow Plane



Author:
32 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 26 March 2020 05: 45 New
    -1
    мммда... "нейтральная швейцария" даже сейчас звучит смешно, во времена ВОВ,так она вообще была "нейтральной"- там совершались встречи всех верхушек вермахта со своими "работодателями"-англосаксами,решалась судьба мира,проводились сделки и переговоры,шла купля и продажа. биржа короче...
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 26 March 2020 08: 25 New
      -4
      Quote: Aerodrome
      "нейтральная швейцария" даже сейчас звучит смешно, во времена ВОВ,так она вообще была "нейтральной"- там совершались встречи всех верхушек вермахта со своими "работодателями"-англосаксами,решалась судьба мира,проводились сделки и переговоры,шла купля и продажа. биржа короче...

      A date house, the red light district in warring Europe, under the conspiracy sign of neutrality.
    2. Galleon
      Galleon 26 March 2020 09: 45 New
      +1
      You are absolutely right. In addition, through Switzerland, the Nazis bargained for requisitioned art, and the NSDAP gold received from these operations was also stored there. It was in Switzerland that Müller surrendered to the Americans and, knowing the secrets of Nazi gold, then he later comfortably lived in the United States.
    3. iouris
      iouris 26 March 2020 11: 18 New
      +2
      Secret contacts, residencies, reliable safes, bank secrecy, trading in strategic materials, critical technologies for a lot of money - these are Switzerland and Sweden.
    4. Kronos
      Kronos 26 March 2020 21: 41 New
      0
      Trade but not military participation so neutral
      1. fk7777777
        fk7777777 27 March 2020 07: 57 New
        0
        War is the continuation of the economy by political methods. So ... No, not neutral, but really involved.
  2. Amateur
    Amateur 26 March 2020 05: 48 New
    +3
    So that he could carry out reconnaissance, and deliver a bomb assault strike, and drive away the enemy!

    The author swung at the holy. This is now the main trend of all new aircraft, especially the F-35!
    By the way, the Americans made a plane for themselves to gain air superiority of the F-22.
  3. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 26 March 2020 06: 32 New
    0
    Aerodrome
    "нейтральная швейцария" даже сейчас звучит смешно
    Вот с этим соглашусь полностью. "Нейтральность" заключалась лишь в неучастии в боевых действиях смешной по численности швейцарской армии, а денежки фашистской Германии спокойно хранились в банках этой страны, осуществлялись транзакции, что можно рассматривать как содействие фашистам. Но, как говорится деньги не пахнут, официально в войне не участвовали, а значит нейтральны. Странно, что еще не внесли себя в список победителей. А вот этот случай удивил, признаюсь не знал
    в 1944 году пара "швейцарцев" вступила в бой с "Мустангом", сопровождавшим американские бомбардировщики
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      26 March 2020 07: 25 New
      17
      Эти "нейтралы" в 1940 году, защищая небо Альп и летая на "мессершмитах" и ms 406, сбили и принудили к посадке более десяти ( нет материалов под рукой) "хейнкилей" и ме110. Иохим фон Риббентроп два раза посылал ноту протеста против действия швейцарских ввс. Лишь после второй, когда была угроза интервенции, швейцарцы принесли извинения и вернули интернированных пилотов. А в 1943-45 уже сбивали и принуждалии к посадке американцев и англичан.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        26 March 2020 07: 40 New
        12
        Here is a photo confirmation - the airdrome is forced by internees and Amer’s bombers ...
        1. novel66
          novel66 26 March 2020 10: 17 New
          +1
          Nazarius phrase
          free low wing
          at any gate. not in the subject?
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            26 March 2020 10: 40 New
            +1
            Actually, it was originally written as a freighter ...
            1. novel66
              novel66 26 March 2020 10: 40 New
              -1
              and where did it go? lol
  4. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 26 March 2020 06: 57 New
    0
    Single engine heavy fighter, strong! Gloomy gloomy black unfiltered swiss genius. laughing
  5. Free wind
    Free wind 26 March 2020 07: 36 New
    0
    It seems that our LA-7 could have completely bombed itself and could have destroyed the enemy in the sky. That Foke-Wolfe-190 was also quite versatile aircraft. so it's a completely normal trend. The fact that such a tiny creature was able to make airplanes deserves respect. And now the Swiss are quite confident in the arms market.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 26 March 2020 09: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: Free Wind
      It seems that our LA-7 could have completely bombed itself and could have destroyed the enemy in the sky.

      Но проектировался он как "чистый истребитель",а возможность нанесения ракетно-бомбовых ударов по наземным целям,самолёт получил после. Зачастую, его в модификацию в истребитель-бомбардировщик,проводили в полевых условиях , авиа-мастерских частей и соединений.
    2. serg.shishkov2015
      serg.shishkov2015 26 March 2020 09: 55 New
      +1
      FV-190 is a whole family! A and D are fighters, F is a fighter-bomber, according to our attack aircraft, a G-front bomber, 2 20-mm guns, and bombs on special modifications up to 1800 kg. but ours did not distinguish them, with the exception of the long-nosed Dora, * Fokker * - and that’s all
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 26 March 2020 09: 37 New
    +7
    Позволю себе немного поправить автора, так как сами швейцарцы историю этого самолета излагают несколько по другому, а "Уголок неба", сайт очень хороший, но не без ошибок и в плане авиационной истории не безгрешный.
    The EKW C-36 aircraft was developed by Eidgenoessische Konstruktionswerkstaette on an initiative basis in 1936 to replace the Fokker CV-E biplane in service. Rather, the company proposed two aircraft - the EKW C-35 biplane and the EKW C-36 monoplane.

    Biplane EKW C-35
    Заказ на 80 C-35 фирма получила в том же 1936 году, а по С-36 вопрос "повис в воздухе" и висел два года, пока Швейцария пыталась на эту роль купить лицензии или на Messerschmitt Bf 110 или на Potez 630. Однако попытки закончились неудачей и в 1938 году вспомнили о С-36.
    The first prototype flew in May 1939. During its tests, Swiss aircraft designers first encountered such a phenomenon as flutter, due to which the first sample crashed.
    The first production model of the S-3603 began to be produced in 1940. This option was already with a retractable chassis, Hispano-Suiza 12 Y-51 engine, one 20 mm Oerlikon motor gun firing through the hub of the propeller, two 7,5 mm machine guns in the wings and two machine guns in the rear cockpit. I can carry up to 400 kg of bombs.
    It would seem that after the end of World War II, the S-36 could be forgotten. There it was! Zealous Swiss sent a part to the scrap, and newer vehicles began to be converted into combat training, glider tugboats, target tugboats and transport and rescue vehicles. Drop-down containers with food, fuel and medicines for victims of avalanches and snow drifts were attached to the bomb racks. And they served in this incarnation until they were replaced by helicopters in the early sixties!
    Here the author is somewhat mistaken. The latest version of the C-36 family of aircraft, the C-3605 with a turboprop engine, began to be produced as much in 1968 and remained in service with the Swiss Air Force until 1988.
    То есть в общей сложности самолет прослужил 48 лет. Как то для "нижесреднего" многовато.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 26 March 2020 09: 40 New
      +7

      The last of the family is the C-3605.
    2. The leader of the Redskins
      26 March 2020 10: 43 New
      +2
      Больше пользовался монографией из "АиВ". "Уголок неба" слишком сжато подаёт информацию. А ниже среднего я его считаю по боевым качествам.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 26 March 2020 11: 36 New
        +3
        Я в таких случаях предпочитаю использовать "национальные" источники. В подавляющем большинстве случаев они самые точные.
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          26 March 2020 11: 43 New
          +2
          I do not own at this level) But I agree with the sources.
  7. Alf
    Alf 26 March 2020 18: 29 New
    +4
    Interesting plane.
    1. The wing is similar to Messer.
    2. The nose is from Spitfire first.
    3. Lantern-unknown.
    4. Tail from one hundred and tenth Messer.
    My puppy looks a bit ... laughing
    Apparently, they did, looking at everything that flew over them. wink
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 26 March 2020 21: 33 New
      +1
      The nose is from Spitfire first.
      I wonder how the Swiss in 1935 copied the nose of the Supermarine Spitfire Mk I, the prototype of which took off for the first time in 1936? Probably the first flight took place over Switzerland?
      1. Alf
        Alf 26 March 2020 21: 34 New
        +1
        Quote: Undecim
        I wonder how the Swiss in 1935 copied the nose of the Supermarine Spitfire Mk I,

        Well, damn it, they ruined all the raspberries, let me pin it up. laughing
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 26 March 2020 21: 41 New
          +4

          Not everything is lost, you say that by the first Spitfire was meant Supermarine Type 224, which flew already in 1934.
          1. Alf
            Alf 26 March 2020 21: 57 New
            +5
            Quote: Undecim
            Not everything is lost, you say that by the first Spitfire was meant Supermarine Type 224, which flew already in 1934.

            Well, tady Oh! laughing
  8. l.jensen
    l.jensen 26 March 2020 22: 19 New
    +3
    Poor you write about Switzerland. You probably don’t know much. I live here, my wife is Swiss. Much of those times remained, military infrastructure, and memory remained as they were ready to defend themselves. And they did not have collaborators. They had enough spirit. And now there are enough, Russians, who look a lot here pale.
    1. Operator
      Operator 26 March 2020 23: 20 New
      -2
      The Swiss were not collaborators, but allies of the Third Reich in WWII - Switzerland served as a laundry for laundering the currency, gold and jewelry stolen by the Nazis during the extermination of European Jews and exported from the occupied regions of the USSR.

      After the war, Switzerland refused to disclose information about unclaimed funds in the bank accounts of victims of the Nazi regime for 60 years until it was threatened with a financial blockade.

      At TMV, the super-duper Swiss military infrastructure will be excellent collective graves.

      PS with coronavirus you am
  9. Altona
    Altona 27 March 2020 09: 03 New
    +2
    I thought in the photo of the model airplane, then I saw a monitor for information and realized that it was a museum. hi
    In general, even having a high technical culture, it is difficult to create a perfect combat aircraft from scratch; such a long school of all kinds of developments and trials plus the study of someone else's best practices is needed. But Swiss aircraft still succeed. I was referring to Solar Impulse (1 and 2) solar-powered aircraft.
  10. Mwg
    Mwg 28 March 2020 07: 57 New
    0
    It is interesting who wrote down the minuses to those who write about politics and the financial and intermediary role of Switzerland in World War II? Are specially trained people working?
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 29 March 2020 09: 39 New
    -1
    Dwarves also need aviation.