Military Review

Great Islamic Admirals of the Mediterranean Sea

99
Great Islamic Admirals of the Mediterranean Sea

In previous articles Islamic Pirates of the Mediterranean и The Disciples of Khair ad Din Barbarossa we remembered Aruja Reis and his younger brother Khair ad Din Barbarossa, the Great Jew from Smyrna Sinan Pasha and Turgut Reis. This will tell about some other famous corsairs and admirals of the Maghreb and the Ottoman Empire, as well as the great battle of Lepanto.


Successors of Barbarossa


The official successor of Khair ad Din Barbarossa at the post of Beylerbey of North Africa was originally declared his son Hassan (whose mother was a woman from a family of Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain). However, he was not serious about the alliance of Porta with France and, contrary to the will of the Sultan, attacked the ships of this country. Therefore, in 1548 it was replaced by the Turgut-Reis already known to us. Later, Suleiman the Magnificent nevertheless returned to his son Barbarossa the post of governor of North Africa, however, not for long. In 1552, under the pretext that Hassan was not making enough efforts to conquer Morocco, he was again removed from his post, which was now occupied by Sala Reis, an Arab who received Turkish education, whose family moved to the Aegean coast of Turkey from Alexandria . But Suleiman apparently had some special feelings for the family of the famous pirate and admiral, because he appointed Hassan the ruler of Algeria again - in 1557, and again removed him in 1558. Finally, he was sent to Algeria in 1562 and remained there until 1567, when he was recalled to Constantinople, for some time was commander of the Ottoman fleet and took part in the battle of Lepanto, unfortunate for the Ottoman Empire (1571).


Battle of Lepanto

And in Algeria, he was replaced again by Salah Reis.

Salah reis


In European sources, he was sometimes called Cale Arraez (from Arabic - “leader”). He began his career as a corsair even with his elder brother Barbarossa - Aruj. The battle near the island of Formentera (1529), in which the Ottomans defeated the Spanish fleet of Admiral Rodrigo Portundo (who died in battle), was especially glorified. Salah then commanded 14 galliotes; his ship captured the galley, on which was the son of the Spanish admiral.

In 1535, he took part in the defense of Tunisia, which was attacked by the 30th army of Emperor Charles V (this was described in the article The Disciples of Khair ad Din Barbarossa).

At the battle of Preveza (1538), Salah commanded the right flank of the Barbarossa squadron (24 galleys).

What happened next is not entirely clear: the sources disagree about the fate of this corsair.

Some Turkish authors claim that in 1540 Salah was in Corsica with Turgut-Reis, he was captured by the Genoese with him, and with it was bought by Barbarossa in 1544 (see article The Disciples of Khair ad Din Barbarossa) And Europeans say that in 1543 Salah was in the squadron of Barbarossa and participated in the attack on the coast of Spain. But beyond the discrepancies are gone.

In 1548, Salah, commanding 18 galliotes, attacked the Sicilian city of Capo Passero, after which he joined Turgut-reis, their combined squadrons attacked the island of Gozo.

In the fall of 1550, the envoys of Admiral Andrea Doria offered Salah to go to the Spanish service - these negotiations were not successful.

In 1551, he participated in the conquest of Tripoli (along with Turgut-Reis and Sinan Pasha). The following year, he joined Turgut-Reis, and, together with him, attacked the Italian coast in the Gulf of Naples and in the regions of Lazio and Tuscany, then independently captured the island of Mallorca.

In 1555, Salah, at the head of a squadron of 22 galleys, acted against Spain in alliance with the French, and, after returning to Constantinople, was awarded an audience with the Sultan. He twice unsuccessfully tried to capture Oman - in 1556 on his own and in 1563 along with Turgut-reis.

In 1565, Salah took part in the Great Siege of Malta (during which Turgut-reis was mortally wounded at the fort of St. Elm) - at the head of 15 thousand soldiers he stormed the fort of St. Michael.

In the end, as we already said, Salah Reis was appointed the Baylerbay of North Africa, but soon died of the plague - in 1568.

Kurdoglu Reis


We already spoke about this admiral in the first article when we talked about the defeat of the hospitaliers on the island of Rhodes. Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis was a native of Anatolia. In 1508, in exchange for a fifth share of production, he received permission to make Bisertu the base of his squadron. One of his first high-profile operations was an attack on the coast of Liguria, in which 30 ships participated. In 1509, at the head of a squadron of 17 ships, he took part in the unsuccessful siege of Rhodes, on the way back he managed to capture the papal galley. In 1510, in turn captured two islands - the Venetian Andros and the Genoese Chios, taking a good ransom on both of them.

From 1510 to 1514 he operated in the area between Sicily, Sardinia and Calabria, according to contemporaries, almost paralyzing merchant shipping there.


Lorenzo Castro. “Naval battle with the Barbary corsairs”

In 1516, he accepted the offer of the Sultan to switch to Turkish service. Then he received the title "reis".

Kurdoglu Reis took part in the expedition to Egypt, with his ships came from Alexandria to Cairo, after the victory he was appointed commander of the Egyptian fleet, which under his leadership was transferred to Suez and became the fleet of the Indian Ocean. The admiral of this fleet later became his son Khizir (named after Khair ad Din Barbarossa), who drove his ships even to Sumatra.

Returning to the Mediterranean Sea, Kurdoglu Reis acted in close contact with Piri Reis, together with him patrolling the Aegean Sea between the islands of Imvros (Gokcheada) and Chios. He then participated in a campaign in Rhodes, ending with the expulsion of hospitaliers from there. It was Kurdoglu Reis who was appointed the Sanjakbey of the conquered Rhodes. In March 1524, he was instructed to suppress the rebellion of the Janissaries in Alexandria, which he carried out in April of that year. And already in August, commanding a squadron of 18 ships, ravaged the coasts of Puglia and Sicily and captured 8 ships.

In May 1525, Kurdoglu Reis boarded 4 Venetian vessels off the island of Crete, in August - arrived in Constantinople, where he received from Suleiman I three large ships and ten galleys with the order to confront the sea knights-hospitaliers and “Christian pirates”.


Ottoman galleys in the XNUMXth century

Since 1530, based on Rhodes, he acted mainly against Venice.

Kurdoglu Reis died in 1535.

Italian hero Maghreb and Ottoman Empire


The disciples of Khair al-Din Barbarossa Uluj Ali (Uluch Ali, Kylych Ali Pasha), already mentioned by us in the article, were named Giovanni Dionigi Galeni from birth.


Kılıç Ali Pasha (Occhiali), Italian Origin Grand Admiral of the Ottoman

He was born in 1519 in the Calabrian village of Le Castella and at the age of 17, during the raid of the Barbarian pirates, he was captured by Ali Ahmed, one of the captains of the famous Khair ad Din Barbarossa. For several years he was a slave in a pirate gallery - until he converted to Islam, thus becoming a member of the team. He turned out to be very dashing corsair - so much so that he made a good impression on Turgut Reis himself, and the Turkish Admiral Piyale Pasha had a very flattering opinion about him. Already in 1550, Uluj Ali took the post of governor of the island of Samos, by 1565 he rose to the status of Alexandria's beyerbey.


Alexandria on one of the books of the Sea of ​​Piri Reis

He participated in the siege of Malta, during which Turgut died, and took his place in Tripoli. In the position of the Pasha of Tripolitania, he led attacks on the coast of Sicily and Calabria, robbed the vicinity of Naples. In 1568 he was "promoted", becoming the Baylerbay and Pasha of Algeria. In October 1569, he expelled from Tunisia Sultan Hamid from the Hafsid dynasty. In the same year, he defeated a squadron of 5 galleys of the Order of the Hospitallers: 4 were taken on board, Admiral Francisco de Sant Clement managed to leave for the fifth - to be executed in Malta for cowardice.

In 1571, Uluj Ali took part in one of the greatest naval battles of the world. stories.

The Battle of Lepanto


Historians consider the Battle of Lepanto one of the four largest naval battles in World History and the last major battle of the rowing fleet era. The Christian League of the Holy League consisted of 206 galleys (108 Venetian, 81 Spanish, 3 Maltese, 3 Savoy, the galleys of the Pope), 6 huge Venetian galeases, 12 large Spanish ships, as well as about 100 transport ships. The number of their crews reached 84 thousand people (including 20 thousand soldiers, among whom was Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra, who received three wounds in this battle, as well as his brother Rodrigo).


Venetian warships


Galeas is literally a “big galley”: a ship longer and wider than a galley, with a larger crew, having high sides and three masts with slanting sails. Galeas oars were used mainly for maneuvering during the battle. The Galeas were inferior to the galleys in maneuverability, but had strong artillery weapons. The next step in this evolution (galley - galeas) was the galleon

This huge fleet was commanded by the half-brother of the Spanish king Philip II, don Juan of Austria (illegitimate son of Charles V).


Juan de Austria, der Sieger von Lepanto. Portrait of an unknown artist, second half of the XNUMXth century

The admiral of the Spanish ships was the already mentioned Giovanni Andrea Doria, a relative of the famous admiral (he was defeated at the island of Djerba, where he fought against Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis - see and article The Disciples of Khair ad Din Barbarossa) The Venetian courts were commanded by Sebastiano Venier (the oldest of the Christian admirals - he was 75 years old), the galleys of the pope - Marc Antonio Colonna.

The Ottoman fleet had from 220 to 230 galleys and 50-60 galliots, which accommodated up to 88 thousand people (including about 16 thousand in boarding teams).

Kapudan Pasha at that time was Ali Pasha Muezinzadeh - aha the Janissary, a man who was certainly brave, but completely inexperienced in naval affairs, received this post after another rebellion of his subordinates, which accompanied the accession to the throne of Sultan II. XNUMXth-century Turkish historian Mehmed Solak-zade Hamdemi spoke of him like this:

"He did not see a single naval battle and was not aware of the science of piracy."

Ali Pasha Muezinzade headed the ships of the center (91 galleys and 5 galliots). The governor of Alexandria, Mehmet Sirocco (Sulik Pasha), a Greek by birth, led the right flank (53 galleys and three galliots). Uluj-Ali, Algeria's Baylerbey, commanded the ships of the left flank (61 galleys, three galliots) - these were mainly the ships of the Barbary corsairs. In addition to Uluj himself, there were three more Europeans among Algerian captains: Hassan from Venice, Frenchman Jafar and Albanian Dali Mami.

In the reserve of the Ottoman fleet, 5 galleys and 25 galliotes were left.


Plan of the battle of lepanto

The battle of Lepanto took place on October 7, 1571 in the Gulf of Patras, and the fleets of the opposing sides collided there quite by accident: both the Ottomans and the Europeans did not know about the enemy’s movement. Europeans were the first to see the masts of Turkish ships, and the first to line up for battle. In the center were 62 galleys of Juan of Austria, ahead of which were followed by powerful “floating fortresses” - the galeases. The right wing (58 galleys) was commanded by Doria, the left (53 galleys) was Venetian Admiral Agostino Barbarigo, who, judging by his last name, was a descendant of the Arabs of North Africa who converted to Christianity (not the “Venetian Moor Othello,” of course, but could have become his “grandson” "Or great-grandson" in Shakespeare's new tragedy).


Agostino Barbarigo, portrait of a student of Veronese

Another 30 galleys were left in reserve, commanded by the Marquis of Santa Cruz.

The Turkish fleet was moving towards, lined up.


Fernando Bertelli. “The Battle of Lepanto”, fresco at the Vatican Gallery of Maps, 1572

The outcome of the battle was decided by the battle of the centers, in which the commanders took personal part.

Ali Pasha Muezinzade was an unsurpassed archer, the Spanish bastard Juan was a “master of swords” (directly elf Legolas against Aragorn), and the flagship gallery of Christians “Real” met in a fierce battle with the Ottoman “Sultana”.


Modern replica of the Real Gallery, Maritime Museum, Barcelona


The Turkish galley, built at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, is the oldest surviving to our time. Maritime Museum, Istanbul

Other ships rushed to the aid of their admirals - and the Aragorn eventually won. The fact is that there were more soldiers on the ships of the Holy League - in the boarding battle, the Ottomans had no chance. Ali-Pasha’s severed head was hoisted on a pole, and this depressed the crews of neighboring Turkish ships.


Antonio Brugada. “The naval battle of Lepanto between the Holy League and the Turks in 1571”, Museu Maritim de Barcelona

On the right flank, the Ottomans had every chance to win: the European captains, without pilots, kept away from the coast, this allowed Mehmet Sirocco to get around their ships and attack from the rear. Osmanov again let down a small number of soldiers on ships - in the ensuing boarding fights they were in the minority and were defeated.


Ottoman fleet, fragment of a painting by Tommaso Dolabello (1632)

During the battle, Barbarigo, the commander of this squadron, raised his visor, and a Turkish arrow fell into his eye: he died after 2 days from the effects of this wound. Three Italian warships were named in his honor at different times.


Submarine of the Italian Navy "Agostino Barbarigo", built in 1938

Mehmet Sirocco also died in battle.

On the left flank of the Turkish fleet, Uluja-Ali ships successfully operated. The famous admiral managed to cut off the Doria squadron from the main forces, sank several enemy galleys and captured the flagship of the grandmaster of the hospitaliers. Then, with 30 galleys, he rushed to the aid of Kapudan Pasha, but the battle in the center had already subsided: the commander was killed, the Ottomans were defeated.

Uluj-Ali with dignity retreated, taking with him 40 galleys. On the way to Constantinople, he found at sea and added to his squadron another 47 ships escaping from the battlefield. He presented the standard of the Grandmaster of the Hospitallers with the Sultan, who appointed him Admiral of the Turkish Navy and granted the title “Kylych” (Sword). Uludge succeeded in building large ships on the model of the Venetian galleas, in addition, he proposed to put heavier guns on the galleys, and to issue firearms to the sailors weapon.


Venetian galeas who participated in the battle of Lepanto


Turkish Galeas (Mavna) is a combination of Venetian galeas and Koga. Reproduction from the Turkish manuscript

The victory of the Christian fleet was brilliant: 107 Turkish ships were sunk, 117 were captured, about 15 thousand Ottoman sailors and soldiers were captured, 12 thousand Christian rowers were released (about 10 thousand Christian slaves died in the sunken Turkish ships). The Allies lost 13 galleys, from 7 to 8 thousand killed, about 8 thousand people were injured.

Despite the defeat in this grand naval battle, the victory in that war remained with the Ottoman Empire. The holy league fell apart, Uluj-Ali built a new fleet for the Sultan, in 1573 Venice ceded Cyprus to the Turks and paid a contribution of one million ducats.

The battle of Lepanto can be safely compared to the battle on the Kulikovo field. On the one hand, for the winners, these battles had practically no political significance. Two years after Lepanto, Venice signed the world on Ottoman terms, and two years after the Battle of Kulikovo, Tokhtamysh burned Moscow and secured the resumption of payment of tribute in the same amount. Tamerlan, who defeated the Golden Horde, saved Moscow from the degrading consequences of this defeat - this is written in the article “Iron Timur. Part 2".
But at the same time, these victories had a huge impact on the morale of the population of Russia and the countries of Catholic Europe.

After the battle of Lepanto, many poems and poems were written. Victory at Lepanto is dedicated to the paintings of many artists, including two allegorical canvases by Titian, commissioned by the Spanish king Philip II.


Titian. "Spain comes to the aid of religion." Prado Museum, Madrid


Titian. "Philip II, after the victory at Lepanto, hands Don Fernando to Heaven." Prado Museum, Madrid

Pope Pius V initiated the introduction of a new Catholic holiday, which in 1573 (already under Gregory XIII) was named the Virgin Mary - Tsaritsa Rosary.

However, not everyone was happy about this victory of the Christian fleet in Europe. Dedicated to the Battle of Lepanto, a poem by the Scottish Protestant King Jacob (son of Mary Stuart), written in 1591, caused an explosion of indignation at home. Juan of Austria, the irreconcilable leaders of the Protestants called the "foreign papist bastard", and the king - "hired poet." This is only later, in the twentieth century, Chesterton will call don Juan "The Last Knight of Europe."

But back to our hero - Uluju-Ali. In 1574, he captured Tunisia and La Goletta fortress (Halk el-Oued), lost in 1535, and in 1584 led his ships to the coast of Crimea.

This admiral died on June 21, 1587 in Constantinople, and was buried in the turbine (tomb-mausoleum) of the Kylich Ali Pasha mosque.


Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, Istanbul

This may seem surprising, but a monument to this Ottoman admiral also stands in his homeland, in the Italian town of La Castella:


Monument to Giovanni Dionigi Galeni - Kylych Ali Pasha, La Castella, Calabria, Italy

In the next article we will continue the story of the famous Islamic corsairs and admirals of the XVI century.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Islamic pirates of the Mediterranean
The Disciples of Khair ad Din Barbarossa
Iron Timur. Part of 2
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 07: 08 New
    11
    Thank you Valery for the article! Amazing !!!
    The only flaw in the evolution of ships.
    Regards, Vlad!
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 21 March 2020 07: 22 New
    +9
    Wonderful cycle!
    Thank you, Valery!
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 21 March 2020 07: 45 New
    +3
    This may seem surprising, but a monument to this Ottoman admiral also stands in his homeland, in the Italian town of La Castella:
    Another thing seems surprising. I can name only one people who, with a tenacity worthy of better use, divides their history into "black and white". For some time now, the Americans have joined this "Russian national fun".
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 21 March 2020 19: 34 New
      +4
      Anton, you want to say that in America they began to divide history into black and white, and before that they distinguished other colors as well?
      I read on the site that they have Mitchell 'Gone With the Wind' already banned. They will even surpass us
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 21 March 2020 19: 44 New
        +1
        Horror! Horror, what's going on !!!! A * Uncle Tom's hut *? Under the ban! A * Adventures of Huckleberry Finn *? Yes, there! laughing request
  4. kalibr
    kalibr 21 March 2020 07: 57 New
    +5
    Well, what can I say, in kind ... read and rejoiced. In, the man bends abruptly, she-she! And as soon as I remember all these "flights" ...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 March 2020 13: 05 New
      +1
      Fu, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
      A clumsy attempt to go to the "specific bazaar of a kid from the area" is obscene to you. "Keep within the frames!"
      We respect you as you are! You should not "push" out of yourself a marginality. Leave this field to me.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 21 March 2020 13: 48 New
        +3
        Yes, Anton, with something suffered in that steppe ...
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 21 March 2020 14: 00 New
          0
          It happens, Vyacheslav Olegovich .... Perhaps this is what the "St. Petersburg miserables" are for, however, like the Dnipropetrovsk enzkklopedists ...
          And anyway: why else do you need friends?!?!?!?
          PS I did not go beyond politeness in the last sentence?
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 21 March 2020 20: 05 New
            +1
            Anton, don’t worry, everything’s normal
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 21 March 2020 19: 46 New
      0
      Ah, yes you !!! Here are bent! laughing Sasha Bely on the sidelines nervously smokes and remembers the words! Accept the tinned * + * !!!!
  5. Bar1
    Bar1 21 March 2020 08: 14 New
    -4
    Great Islamic Admirals of the Mediterranean Sea


    and there are no great Islamic admirals of the marble or black seas? Maybe there are "great Islamic admirals" of the Ionian or Aegean seas? Well, and the title of the article.
    Mediterranean Sea -White Sea-1660km. The speed of the galleon is 16 centuries, from 15-18 knots, which means the galleon will pass the Mediterranean Sea on average in 100 hours i.e. about 4 days. It is quite clear that ships such as galleons / galens were built not for the Mediterranean Sea, but for the ocean zone.
    About the beginning of the 18th century, priest Lukyanov wrote like this



    those. Turks had galleons / galens. I also recalled Constantinople instead of Constantinople and the White Sea instead of the Mediterranean.

    There are older engravings of the 16th century battles of Turkish and Venetian ships. As the Turks see ships even more Venetian.



    Now let’s figure out what a galleon is, what kind of ship it is and why it was created.

    Galeon (Spanish: galeón, also a galion [1], from French galion) is a large multi-deck sailing ship of the 2th – XNUMXth centuries with sufficiently strong artillery weapons, used as a military and commercial one. The main impetus for its creation was the emergence of constant traffic between Europe and the American colonies [XNUMX].

    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Галеон
    so it’s just stupid to have galleons in your fleet and sail across the Mediterranean, but this is an official story, one can even say the official story from Ryzhov.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 21 March 2020 09: 52 New
      +7
      The speed of the galleon is 15-18 knots? From where? The speed of the tea clipper barely approached 15 knots.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 10: 49 New
        +6
        The morning began in the village!
        The speed of the galleon is 16 centuries, from 15-18 knots, which means the galleon will pass the Mediterranean Sea on average in 100 hours i.e. about 4 days

        The average speed of the Kitty Stark clipper is 17,5 knots!
        Bar, if you can drink water "Turkish galleons" fireballs of the 16th century from your words !!! And now, "my friend" call me at least one Turkish "galleon"?
        lol
        By the way, in your illustration there is not a single galleon, well, if only in your reality the Genoese coogs parked in the Golden Horn of the galleon? The ratio of the case 1 to 3 is just for 16 nodes !!! laughing
        1. Fat
          Fat 21 March 2020 12: 04 New
          +6
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          The average speed of the Kitty Stark clipper is 17,5 knots!

          Cutty Sark. You again have AutoCorrect buggy ...)))
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 12: 48 New
            +4
            Yes! There is a sin. recourse
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 21 March 2020 13: 09 New
            +2
            This Vlad cannot "kill" T9 on a mobile gadget. laughing
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 21 March 2020 13: 39 New
              +2
              Anton, and T9 is what?
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 21 March 2020 13: 43 New
                +3
                Fundamentally or in particular?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 21 March 2020 13: 48 New
                  +2
                  Generally. But it is possible both this way and that. drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 March 2020 14: 06 New
                    +2
                    OK. Later, in PM, I will develop this thought
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 21 March 2020 14: 18 New
                  +2
                  * Pavel Andreevich, are you a spy?
                  Do you see Yura ... * laughing
                  Greetings Anton! You expressed yourself beautifully, gracefully! An excellent answer!
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 21 March 2020 14: 35 New
                    +1
                    My respect, Sergey!
                    I am terribly sorry, but this morning, I was so many times "refined and pisant" that I don't even want to swear! Specify why such flattering reviews addressed to me?
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 21 March 2020 14: 47 New
                      +2
                      I'll be back from work, I will think about the answer! laughing hi
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 March 2020 14: 51 New
                        +2
                        You are lucky, I have long returned from a fruitless attempt to work on this beautiful spring day!
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 21 March 2020 14: 58 New
                        +2
                        What could have happened and what prevented?
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 21 March 2020 15: 19 New
                        +3
                        My little daily response to world hysteria could have developed, I resisted - a padlock at the service entrance of the shopping center.
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 21 March 2020 15: 50 New
                        +2
                        I have a "weekend captivity" already given from this weekend.
                  2. Phil77
                    Phil77 22 March 2020 06: 45 New
                    +1
                    Good morning, Anton! And everything is fine with us, they also give me money / well, a way out on the weekend /. The first time * a dispenser * with an alcohol-containing solution was hanging at the entrance, but ... quickly ended! And now some kind of crap, like liquid Soaps. Well, and the temperature regime of course. Plus, yet the annual medical board begins.
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 22 March 2020 07: 23 New
                    +1
                    Greetings, Sergey! It was just that the service entrance was closed, and the "seals" would not have allowed us to drag the bags with loose powder through the central one.
                  4. Phil77
                    Phil77 22 March 2020 07: 41 New
                    +1
                    Oh how! We don’t have more liberal arrangements for depositing. An accompanying person, a preliminary call and all. Takeaway, yes !, you have to run with papers. hi
                  5. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 22 March 2020 07: 44 New
                    +1
                    At Krupskaya, we may have the same, but we are talking about a shopping and entertainment complex.
  • Bar1
    Bar1 21 March 2020 20: 17 New
    +1
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    By the way, in your illustration there is not a single galleon, well, if only in your reality the Genoese coogs parked in the Golden Horn of the galleon?

    but I believe that the Turkish ship is the galleon.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 21: 24 New
      +5
      Dear Bar!
      For information, a simplified diagram of the development of naval thought of the high Middle Ages.
      Galley - Large (or royal) galley - Galeas - Galleon.
      Galeas - the era of the battle of Lepanto had pronounced towers (superstructures) in which the guns were located. Galeases received onboard artillery in the second quarter of the 17th century. Direct sailing had only Spanish and English galeases, and then from the second half of the 17th century. The Turkish fleet, built galeases with mixed weapons, sometimes four mast. The first two masts with full sailing weapons, the last with oblique sails. Turks did not build galleons. Having free slave power and operating mainly in the Mediterranean Sea, the game was not worth the candle. By the end of the 17th century, the basis of their fleet consisted of hard labor (large galleys with airborne artillery).
      Valery, describing the Turkish four-masted galeas, made a mistake referring to kogg, you made a similar mistake by giving an illustration with the koggs calling them galeases.
      The evolution of kogg is different. Kogg - Kholk - Conor - Caravel - Pinas.
      In the Netherlands, they created flutes on the basis of caravels, it was already an “engineering revolution”!
      In the Mediterranean Sea, the basis of evolution was not the Galeas, but the Mediterranean Galeots and numerous dou! I will not describe the latter, the devil will break his leg there. And the galeots served as the basis for many sea vessels. The most famous of which is brigantine.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 22 March 2020 07: 03 New
        +2
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Turks did not build galleons.

        and I bring a document (priest Lukyanov) and here is an engraving of the 16th century, Cosmography of the 16th century that the Turks built galleons.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 March 2020 07: 37 New
          +2
          The bar you did not manage to lay out an engraving by Lukyanov.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 21 March 2020 11: 55 New
    +4
    Sergey, hello and best wishes! drinks
    Precisely, with the speed of the galleons, our colleague Timur was clearly enough over the edge, for these ships even ten knots was an unattainable dream, as a rule, speed with good wind under sails was 6-8 knots, and even less under the oars.

    Well, how can you squeeze at least ten knots out of such a "bandura"? smile request
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 21 March 2020 12: 32 New
      +3
      Greetings to Konstantin! Of course, this class was notable for its low speed and maneuverability, far from ideal. But they had order with firepower. Yes, Timur seemed to get excited. Well, and about the clipper races, the Clipper * Thermopyla is no less famous * rival * Cutty Sark *. hi
    2. fk7777777
      fk7777777 21 March 2020 21: 49 New
      -1
      Ha ha ha ha restaurant afloat ...
  • Bar1
    Bar1 21 March 2020 16: 50 New
    +2
    but the Russian Bus, who walked "only in the Caspian Sea"


    http://astrakhan-musei.ru/t_menu/t_menu/category/258

    very similar to both caravel and galleon.

    1. Bar1
      Bar1 21 March 2020 17: 41 New
      0
      a table of distances to the European capitals of the clerk Vinius, who served in the Ambassadorial order under Peter. So everything is done with knowledge.
      Kandy Island (Crete) in the White Sea (Mediterranean) in the distance from Moscow # B-2000

    2. Bar1
      Bar1 21 March 2020 18: 02 New
      +1
      Baida / Laida ship of Black Sam



      interesting is the name Baida, such names come across here - Baydaratskaya Bay, hence the canoe, there were such names on Sulfuric Africa - Baida.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 21 March 2020 21: 02 New
        +2
        Bar, I’m too lazy to look for the etymology of this word, but I think that this is a coincidence in sound
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 22: 02 New
          +6
          Good evening!
          The above figure of the Bar has nothing to do with the canoe.
          Illustration gag full of sailing weapons of the 18th century and the hull of the 16th century !!! The bowsprit is a compilation of the second half of the 17th century and it is on the Mars nest of the first half of the 16th century, and not under it !!!
          Well, the last question, a pirate ship, and where are the guns?
    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 21: 44 New
      +3
      Quote: Bar1
      but the Russian Bus, who walked "only in the Caspian Sea"


      http://astrakhan-musei.ru/t_menu/t_menu/category/258

      very similar to both caravel and galleon.


      Bar, I'll try on my fingers!
      Firstly, the reconstruction of Kazakov is very unsuccessful. The Russian bead had three composite main mast and less pronounced mars platforms. The ratio of the case is 4 to 1, not 3 to 1 as in the author's picture. In addition, the bowsprit had a pronounced carbon black. On the mizzen, the oblique sail was also not triangular, but a more modern trapezoidal shape.
      And now the fundamental difference between a bead and a caravel depicted in your second illustration! Pay attention to the casing !!! A similar rudiment went to the cogwells from the koggs. The galleons had a Mediterranean skin in the butt, as well as artillery in the settings (and a closed deck. (Instead of rowers).
      Poor, standing, I can not lay out drawings.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 22 March 2020 07: 06 New
        0
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        First, the reconstruction of Kazakov is very unsuccessful

        Well, you don’t have any at all, just words.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 March 2020 08: 14 New
          +2
          Bar I have problems with laying out illustrations.
          If briefly from the history of the appearance (evolution) of the Russian bead.
          River boat (padded nozzle), plow, beads, Volga bark, white.
          Cossacks mistakenly connects a bead with a Pomeranian boat with a kotch. This is not true. Pomeranian vessels had a rounded shape below the waterline, plows and beads flat-bottomed! It was from them that the newly invented ships of the Azov Flotilla received the flat-bottomed form of the bottom.
          A different shape of the bottom did not allow to operate in the Volga delta. This problem has been proven in the Galeot (the types of these ships are controversial) Frederick (possibly the galley) and Oryol. Perhaps the beads had overheads or composite keels (in the Russian Navy this was repeated at the Goto Prestation). In addition, the beads and barks did not have pronounced stern and bow superstructures. At the stern there was a cabin (Prikaznaya) modeled after a plow. Mostly had two or one mast sailing weapons. At the expense of mizzen I deeply doubt. If it was, it did not have a triangular, trapezoidal scythe (it was stretched between the rear coal and the mast for directional stability) or a direct sail. There could be no developed Mars platforms on the beads. Modern sailing weapons appear only under Peter. Prior to this, all ships without exception had sailing equipment close to the Mediterranean (sails did not have reefs, booms, etc.). A similar situation with the steering pen. Until the middle of the 17th century, only a play (steering oars). Well and the last - beads, bark, plow had a lining in an overlap, but not butt. That is, they could not have external frames in principle.
          I'm tired of writing. Good day.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 22 March 2020 18: 41 New
            +1
            Kotya, you are a connoisseur of the sailing fleet! And I was worried that without Andrei from Chelyabinsk, we were left without experts on the fleet
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 22 March 2020 19: 55 New
              +1
              And he also writes beautifully, and argues very logical! laughing
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 March 2020 20: 23 New
                +2
                Guys and girls, do not exaggerate. I am a lover, to Andrei from Chelyabinsk I was "on foot as to the moon."
                It's just that since childhood I have been sick with flutes, nymphs, triremes, galleots, scampavae, and everything else that went sailing.
                With a severe deficit during the USSR, information about the sailing and rowing fleets collected it literally bit by bit. So I have my own vision and opinion, why I do not like it when they carry bullshit.
                Sincerely, Your flea cat!
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 22 March 2020 20: 28 New
                  0
                  Oh, come on, Vlad! What am I writing about! And here I am * sick * with transatlantic liners, and this disease started from one magazine * Technique-Youth * of the early 70s, where there was an article about the death of * Titanic *. So for me this is ship number one.
  • Slavutich
    Slavutich 21 March 2020 10: 07 New
    +4
    A very good article! thank you very much
  • Uncle Izya
    Uncle Izya 21 March 2020 10: 31 New
    +5
    How many blood Turks shed all the Balkans crushed
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 10: 49 New
      +6
      And not only!
      1. Uncle Izya
        Uncle Izya 21 March 2020 10: 52 New
        +4
        For the most part, and even the whole forest was plagued by ships in North Africa and the Middle East
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 11: 29 New
          +6
          Quote: Uncle Izya
          For the most part, and even the whole forest was plagued by ships in North Africa and the Middle East

          There is a more futuristic version - “everyone ate goats”!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 21 March 2020 13: 17 New
            +4
            It does not interfere.
            The trees were nevertheless cut down. A goat is a harmful creature.
        2. fk7777777
          fk7777777 21 March 2020 21: 47 New
          0
          Wow, and then the desert erupted, and the fact that around +60 Celsius, of course, does not affect the situation, well done.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 March 2020 11: 09 New
    +7
    The analogies between the battle of Lepanto and the Battle of Kulikovo seem quite convincing.
    1. fk7777777
      fk7777777 21 March 2020 21: 45 New
      -1
      Well, yes, Moscow is nearby on the islands in Aegean skaters, yeah ...
  • bubalik
    bubalik 21 March 2020 11: 26 New
    +4
    Submarine of the Italian Navy "Agostino Barbarigo", built in 1938
    ,,, a boat drowned, with technology and equipment, sailed to Singapore in 1943.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 March 2020 11: 37 New
      +4
      Good day, Sergey!
      Well, there she and the road !!!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 March 2020 13: 51 New
        +3
        Hello to Vladislav! hi Sir, how is there so much bloodthirsty in you !? belay
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 21 March 2020 13: 47 New
      +4
      Of the ships with the name "Agostino Barbarigo", in addition to the submarine, I found only the self-service advice note.
      1. Liam
        Liam 21 March 2020 14: 00 New
        +6
        There was still a cargo ship with that name. Sunk by the British 15.07.41
        http://www.naviecapitani.it/Navi%20e%20Capitani/LE%20NAVI%20DELLA%20GRANDI%20IMPRESE/BARBARIGO/Barbarigo.htm
  • Catfish
    Catfish 21 March 2020 11: 36 New
    +2
    Valery, good afternoon and thank you very much! good
    I really hope that the excellent pirate cycle will never be interrupted.
    Here I had one question during the "play", you write:
    ... after the victory, he was appointed commander of the Egyptian fleet, which, under his leadership, was transferred to Suez and became the fleet of the Indian Ocean.

    How were ships transferred to the Red Sea? Well, light galleys, I think it was possible where the drag, where along the rivers, and as for larger ships, with this how? Or did the Turks go round Africa?

    1535 card of the year.
    1. VLR
      21 March 2020 11: 42 New
      +5
      Part, the lightest, dragged, part - dismantled and assembled in Suez, the rest were built on the spot.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 21 March 2020 11: 58 New
        +3
        Thanks for the quick response. hi But what class, by the power of artillery, they could build ships in Suez and how they had with the galleons in the sixteenth century.
        1. VLR
          21 March 2020 13: 24 New
          +4
          Galleys and light galliots. Galleons, of course, were not.
          The next article will be a story about one of the admirals of the Indian Ocean fleet.
          Which, in fact, is more famous for the book and, to a lesser extent, poetry.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 21 March 2020 13: 42 New
            +2
            * Bahriye *? Piri Reis?
            1. VLR
              21 March 2020 14: 42 New
              +3
              About Piri-reis is also in this article, but he goes with me as an admiral and a cartographer, and the one I had in mind is like an admiral and a traveler.
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 21 March 2020 14: 48 New
                +3
                Wow! Intrigued seriously !!! hi
          2. Xenofont
            Xenofont 21 March 2020 17: 44 New
            +2
            Regarding the galleons: perhaps this name was not used, but in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople, the Genoese sent a huge high-breasted pure sailing ship with reinforcements, which because of the calm got stuck at the entrance to the Golden Horn Bay and was subjected to a fruitless attack by Turkish galleys, since the height the side did not allow boarding. The ship managed to reach the goal, although the sultan Mehmed himself in a rush on a horse drove into the sea, trying to cry to give advice to attackers. And before the Great Siege of Malta in 1565, the Hospitallers seized a similar ship from the Turks, which became an additional reason for the attack of Malta, because on the ship, which brought treasures from Egypt for the Sultan Seral, there was also an elderly nurse of the Sultan himself.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 21 March 2020 20: 21 New
              +3
              Thank you for your interesting reply.
              The Sultan did not try to catch a ship on a horse?
              1. Xenofont
                Xenofont 21 March 2020 20: 37 New
                +2
                Yes, they kept him by the folds, otherwise he would have switched on himself, although he was already too old for melee.
    2. Oquzyurd
      Oquzyurd 22 March 2020 19: 49 New
      +2
      The Turks not only bypassed Africa, their ships sailed to Indonesia, and more than once. The history of Islam in Indonesia is connected with the Turks.
      Ottoman stories - helping the Ottomans to Muslims in Indonesia
       Suleiman the Magnificent helped by sending a fleet to the Hind Muslims (India) who asked for help against the attacks of the Portuguese fleet. When this fleet pursued the Portuguese from these seas and returned to Egypt, Hayreddin Mehmed Reis, who commanded the fleet in the fleet, was sent to explore the eastern seas with two ships commanding this fleet, Suleiman Pasha. Ottoman sailors first came to Siam (Thailand) and were well received by the king. The king said that they can stay in Siam and their guests as much as they want. They stayed here for exactly 15 years and received 12 gold per year. During this time, they opened 000 mosques in the capital of Ayutthaya (not far from today's capital of Bangkok). In the capital alone, 7 families were honored to be Muslims because of their approximate moral values. This is the origin of 30 million Muslims in Thailand today. This time, the Portuguese fleet, expelled from India, attacked Indonesia. At this time, many Muslim states ruled on these islands. One of them, the state sultan Aceh Alaeddin Riyat Shah, located on the northern tip of Sumatra, sent ambassadors to Istanbul and asked the Ottoman sultan for help against the attacks of the Portuguese. He wrote in his letter: “On the islands that I govern, a sermon is being given on behalf of your Sultan. Ceylon ruler - infidels. But on the island of Ceylon, there is a Muslim community and 000 mosques, which are some of your best friends. There the sermon is read as your name. The Malabar races in the center of India are also infidels. Muslims in 2,5 mosques on your behalf. Again, the vizier from Guzerat’s report in India is Karamanoglu Abdurrahman Bey, and even there the name of your victim is read in sermons in mosques. They all ask you about sailors and artillery. I carry 14 shooters that you last sent through my head. Now we ask your amazing threshold to send marine engineers who know how to make galleys, and civil engineers who know how to build a castle. He also went to Malaysia, which allowed the rapid spread of Islam. After Sultan II, he became a Sultan. Selim Khan also sent another fleet to Indonesia under the command of an admiral named Osman Bey. The sultan hurts, II. In a letter to Selim Khan, he said: "My throne city is an Ottoman village, and all of tibam are the servants of my sultan." On the other hand, the Ottoman experimenters who came here did not return and married Indonesian girls and princesses and lived there with honor and dignity. In 25, Sultan II. Abdulaziz Efendi, one of the agents sent by Abdulhamid Khan to Indonesia, visited a Turkish cemetery here and met with Indonesians who said they were Turkish but did not speak Turkish. The Ottoman flag, sent to Kanuni Alaeddin, was considered holy and respected in Indonesia for centuries.
  • Liam
    Liam 21 March 2020 14: 30 New
    +1
    Venetian Admiral Agostino Barbarigo, who, judging by his last name, was a descendant of the Arabs of North Africa who converted to Christianity (not the “Venetian Moor Othello,” of course, but could have become his “grandson” or great-grandson in Shakespeare’s new tragedy).

    The barbarigo, an ancient surname of Venetian aristocrats originally from Muggia near Trieste, was given a surname from the nickname of one of the ancestors named Arrigo, who defeated the Saracens in one of the battles in 880 and arranged for himself a headdress from their beards. Italian Beard-barba
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 21 March 2020 19: 17 New
      +2
      Shaved the dead? Brrr creepy were the times
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 21 March 2020 20: 05 New
        +1
        Faith! And who said that he expropriated the beards from the dead Saracens? For the living, this is an even greater insult, but the * dead shame never * as Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich aptly noted.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 21 March 2020 20: 56 New
          +2
          My hockey lion, you will not deny that then fanaticism was in the order of things?
          I am immensely happy that these gloomy times are already in the past
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 22 March 2020 08: 50 New
            0
            I'm not a lion, I'm more like a cat! laughing No, I will not deny it, but let's make a small discount on the time in which they lived. The time was completely different! And what today is considered savagery and atrocity was then in the order of things. Here, for example, public execution? Today it is a relic of the past, well, and a kind of pedagogy in some countries. And then? Inevitable retribution for the act and .... attraction for the common people. hi
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 22 March 2020 18: 56 New
              -1
              1) Esposito was a brave hockey player (I read it recently), and the traditional definition is "a brave lion." If you want to say "hockey cat", but the lion is more romantic.
              2) "attraction for the common people" and what does it mean correctly? You will also remember: "bread and circuses"
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 22 March 2020 19: 52 New
                0
                And I don’t say that it’s right. It was just THAT TIME that kind of entertainment. And the people who lived THEN probably found them right. You can still remember what was going on in the Roman amphitheaters. Time, Faith, time! And as the poet says: * Times do not choose, they live and die in them. *
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 22 March 2020 21: 40 New
                  0
                  I repeat: I am happy that those days have passed
      2. VLR
        21 March 2020 20: 39 New
        +2
        The head of Kapudan Pasha in the battle of Lepanto, the victorious Christians planted on a pole, what can we say about beards.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 21 March 2020 15: 07 New
    +4
    Thanks to the author, as always interesting and fascinating.
    The request of the administration: please do not post articles by Ryzhov and Shpakovsky on the same day. smile
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 21 March 2020 20: 37 New
      +4
      Michael, good evening. Withdrawn from the language: Valery and V.O. brilliant authors and immediately in one day, too much. It turns out as in the proverb: "it is empty then thick".
      These are the authors whom I read twice: once I "swallow", and 1 times I start to "chew" and think over.
      Even if you do not agree with the author, you still need to carefully read and ponder. I can’t think about different materials at the same time.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 March 2020 20: 57 New
        +1
        That is what I wanted to say. Write a comment - you need to think. smile
  • Operator
    Operator 21 March 2020 16: 44 New
    -4
    "converted to Islam" - How does the author himself deal with religious orientation? laughing
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 21 March 2020 20: 50 New
      +3
      Operator, we have freedom of speech and religion. Many atheists are probably the author.
      PS.Bolota and all Muslim comrades congratulations on the spring holiday of Navruz.
      An analogue of our Easter: a holiday of peace and good.
  • Operator
    Operator 21 March 2020 16: 48 New
    -3
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Americans have joined this "Russian national fun"

    "Surprising" is the other - both of these peoples are not yours.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 21 March 2020 21: 50 New
      0
      Andrey, I'm very sorry, but you are sick.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 21 March 2020 19: 13 New
    +2
    Valery, I read your cycle as a novel, but I like reading novels.
    My question is: did the grandmaster of the Doria Hospitallers ,, die?
    You mentioned your surname quite often: Doria, maybe you will find time to talk about Doria?
    1. VLR
      21 March 2020 19: 31 New
      +3
      Andrea Doria is the famous Genoese admiral in the Spanish service. About him - in the first article (opponent of Barbarossa). Giovanni Doria, who fought at Lepanto, is the son of his nephew. Andrea Doria - fell ill and died in 1560 when he learned about the defeat of Giovanni, who commanded the Christian fleet off the island of Djerba (more about this in a previous article). Giovanni died in Genoa in 1606.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 21 March 2020 21: 33 New
      +2
      By the way, it will be interesting to you. In the middle of the century, Italians built a wonderful, luxurious airliner and named it ...? Correctly * Andrea Doria *. So fate fell to him too mournful: he picked up and ran into Swedish * Stockholm * in the fog. Well, he drowned. Sadness.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 21 March 2020 21: 07 New
    +1
    Quote: Phil77
    Average

    I say that they have surpassed us in their shuffle. Why else will the "wrong" books begin to be burned publicly?
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 21 March 2020 21: 24 New
    +3
    Colleagues, I was previously interested in history and therefore came to this site. I learn a lot of interesting things.
    I especially like the friendly colleagues. When I read like Mikhail, Trilobite or Konstantin "Sea Cat", Sergey Phil and others communicate with each other like old friends. It is a pity that this does not occur on other "branches". Sometimes I get scared: from the wild hatred which covers some colleagues. If on other branches, let not friendly communication, but correct communication. How great it would be
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 21 March 2020 21: 28 New
      +4
      Quote: Astra wild
      If on other branches let not friendly communication, but the correct one. How great

      But this is the only correct conclusion! hi
  • fk7777777
    fk7777777 21 March 2020 21: 42 New
    -1
    And so at first, in general, it doesn’t matter, then they served in the Soviet army, then they were somewhere, and the Dunno knew how to join the Communist Party, then the pioneers were expelled from there, and according to them, Orthodox Jews accepted Catholicism, and again, in general, again Communist Party entered. Something like this, the presentation of the material is perceived, it is clear that the copier and samperepublish, but still.