The fact that during the fighting the submachine gun (then called here for short by automatic) turned out to be the main automatic infantry weapon was a definite surprise for all the armies participating in the Second World War. Although the work on this weapon until 1 September 1939 was carried out in many countries, he was not assigned a decisive role anywhere. Only the war forced him to enter the troops in large volumes as a means of achieving "fire superiority" over the enemy in melee combat.
DESIGN FROM A DEPTH
Of the domestic samples, the most massively produced submachine gun of the system G.S. Shpagin (PPSH) became the most famous - and this is deservedly so. The German MP.38 and MP.40 are well known to many. And yet the best submachine gun of the Second World War is Sudayev's submachine gun. True, in the 1942-1945 years, the Red Army received a total of 765 373 PPP (mainly PPP-43). Of these, 531 359 produced the plant them. V.D. Kalmykov in Moscow, 187 912 - enterprises of Leningrad and 46 102 - Tbilisi. PPS made up slightly more than 12% of all submachine guns made in the USSR during the Great Patriotic War.
By the way, even in the special literature they were sometimes confused, referring to PPP, for example, the Sudakov machine gun. Therefore it is worth saying a few words about the designer himself.
Alexey Ivanovich Sudaev was born in 1912 in the city of Alatyr, Simbirsk province. After graduating from vocational school, he worked as a mechanic. Then, having been educated at the Gorky Construction College, he worked at Soyuztransstroy as a site technician. His first inventions were “Automatic machine gun fire using infrared rays” and “Gas meter” (both related to aviation, caused a number of serious comments) - date from the beginning of the 30s. But the first copyright certificate awarded to Sudaev in 1934 was related to the creation of a pneumatic tipper for self-unloading platforms.
Being called up to the Red Army in the same year, Alexey served in the railway forces (then he received the author's certificate for the invention “Anti-theft”). He retired to 1936 in the reserve, entered the Gorky Industrial Institute, but two years later transferred to the Artillery Academy of the Red Army to the Faculty of Armaments. During study I developed the project of an automatic pistol. Winner of the diploma with honors, junior military technician Sudayev sent to the Scientific Test Site of small arms (NPSVVO). At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, he developed an easy-to-manufacture anti-aircraft machine-gun unit, produced at Moscow enterprises. However, the main work of the young designer was ahead.
What caused the emergence of a new model of a submachine gun in the first period of the war? PCA, “technologically” referring to the new generation of machine guns, designed for mass production technologies (cold stamping of a number of parts, dornirovany barrel bore, replacing riveting with welding, reducing the number of threaded connections), “structurally” retained the features of the previous generation and, in particular, “carbine »Scheme with a wooden lodge. In addition, the PPSH was quite massive - with a drum shop weighed 5,3 kilograms, and with full ammunition (213 cartridges in three drum shops) - more than 9.
Upgrading the PCA at the beginning of 1942 was designed mainly to simplify production. Meanwhile, its bulkiness was inconvenient for a number of categories of reconnaissance fighters (and reconnaissance companies tried to supply machine pistols), skiers, tankers, sappers, etc. However, in 1942, the drum shop (“disk”) was supplemented with a box-shaped sector (“ Horn "), but the PCA itself was required to be supplemented with a light and compact sample under the same 7,62-mm pistol cartridge.
The competition for a lightweight submachine gun was announced at the start of 1942. The new sample had to meet the following characteristics:
- to weigh without a store 2,5-3 kg, and with ammunition no more than 6-6,5 kg;
- have a length of 700-750 mm with folded and 550-600 mm with a folded butt;
- use a box magazine on 30-35 cartridges according to the type adopted by the PCA;
- to have a firing rate reduced to 400-500 rds / min, so that the weight reduction of the system does not worsen the accuracy (at the available PPD and PCP, the firing rate was 1000-1100 rds / min), the muzzle compensator, simultaneously protecting the barrel from pollution, served the same purpose;
- be comfortable for all types of troops.
It was also necessary to improve manufacturability, which is natural for weapons that were to be put on production in conditions of a heavy war. The manufacturability of the PCA seemed to be insufficient (metal waste was 60-70% draft weight, a number of additional operations required a wooden bed). It was required to make most parts by punching, without further machining, with an average power of pressing equipment, reduce the number of machine work per sample to 3-3,5 hours, and the waste of metal - no more than 30-40%.
The competition turned out to be one of the most representative - up to 30 samples, developed by already renowned designers: V. A. Degtyarev, G. S. Shpagin, S. A. Korovin, N. G. Rukavishnikov, and much less known: N. G Menshikov-Shkvornikov, B. A. Goroneskul, A. A. Zaitsev (later this designer will take part in the development of the Kalashnikov assault rifle) and others. Projects were received from the active army. In the design of many submachine guns felt the influence of the German MP.38 and MP.40.
The first tests were carried out at the NIPSVO in late February - early March 1942 of the year. The samples of V. A. Degtyarev and a student of the Artillery Academy of Lieutenant IK Bezruchko-Vysotsky paid attention to themselves. The submachine gun of the latter was distinguished by original solutions of parts of automation, the desire for widespread use of stamping, seam and spot welding, which corresponded to the original requirements. Bezruchko-Vysotsky was asked to refine the weapon, while at the same time his most successful solutions recommended that the officer should be used by the military engineer of 3 rank A. I. Sudaev in his experienced submachine gun. It should be noted, however, that although in the sample of Sudayev the features of the device of the automatic control system and the reflector of the spent case of the Bezruchko-Vysotsky sample were used, in general it was an independent design.
Already in April, 1942 produced a new experienced Sudadev submachine gun in the NPSSVO workshop, and at the end of April - beginning of May it underwent field tests on a par with Degtyarev, Korovin, Rukavishnikov, Zaitsev, Ogorodnikov products, and Bezruko-Vysotsky’s second model. Soon, a new “all-metal” Shpagin sample, PPSH-2, entered the tests. Artcom GAU 17 June decided to test samples Shpagin, Sudaeva and Bezruchko-Vysotsky. By the middle of July, PPSh-2 Shpagin and PPS Sudaeva reached the finals of the competition (we note in what short time we put such a solid job). By results of tests of 9-13 July, PPP is recognized as the best. “There are no other equal competitors,” the commission concluded. 28 June 1942, the submachine gun submitted for approval by the GKO. It was recommended to start mass production of the sample, designated as PPP-42, for testing the technology.
LENINGRAD BATTLE AND WORKED
It is often mentioned that the serial submachine gun was created in besieged Leningrad. But this was not the case. At the end of 1942, the production of PPP mastered the Moscow plant them. V. D. Kalmykova, who became the leader in developing a submachine gun and technical documentation on it.
Sudaeva at this time really sent to the northern capital of Russia to the plant to them. A. A. Kulakov, where he worked from the end of 1942 until June of 1943. Now it is customary to speak of besieged Leningrad exclusively as a "dying out city". But the city not only "died out", it also fought and worked. He needed weapons, which had to be manufactured here using the remaining production capacity. Ever since the end of 1941, in Leningrad, the production of submachine guns PPD-40 of the Degtyarev system was established, but it required too much machining of parts with significant metal waste. Extremely technologically advanced PPP was much better suited for this.
Evacuated to Leningrad Sestroretsk plant them. S.P. Voskov, plant them. Kulakova (where previously PPD-40 was manufactured) and the artel "Primus" in just three months mastered the production of PPP - a unique case in stories weapons, in itself talking about the reasonableness and manufacturability of the design. It is also necessary to take into account the conditions in which this was done: bombing, shelling, and a difficult food situation. The city on the Neva has already survived the first year of the blockade, lost many inhabitants, not only was not only skilled workers and technicians, but also unskilled labor. One example: when the Metalist plant, which produced parts for faculty members, needed workers, only 20 people with disabilities in groups II and III, ten women in 50 years, and several teenagers could dial.
Nevertheless, the weapon went into series. Military tests of the PPS were held right there on the Leningrad front, the submachine gun was highly appreciated by the fighters and commanders. Alexey Ivanovich not only watched the manufacturing process, but also traveled to the operating units on the Karelian Isthmus, the Oranienbaum bridgehead, to see his weapon in action. During the 1943 year in Leningrad produced 46 572 machine.
In the course of production, changes were made to the design. Lightweight and technologically simplified shutter. Introduced emphasis returnable spring, which it is connected to the shutter. For greater strength, the valve box was stamped from 2-mm steel sheet instead of 1,5-mm, but with simultaneous shortening of the barrel (from 270 to 250 mm) and its casing, the weight of the weapon did not change much. According to the type of the second prototype of Bezruchko-Vysotsky, the reflector of the spent cartridge was removed — its role was played by the return spring spring guide. Changed the shape of the shutter handle and fuse head, butt shortened.
May 20 1943, according to the resolution of the State Defense Committee, the 7,62-mm submachine gun of A.I. Sudayev of the model 1943 of the year (PPS-43) was adopted. For this work, Aleksey Ivanovich was awarded the Stalin Prize of the II degree, and Bezruchko-Vysotsky was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
RECOGNITION THROUGH IMAGE
Automatic weapons operated by the impact of the free gate. The barrel is surrounded by a perforated casing, made integral with the bolt (receiver) box. The latter was pivotally connected to the trigger box, and when disassembling it folded back and forth. Handle reloading located on the right. The shutter moved in the bolt box with a gap, leaning the lower part only on the bends of the trigger box, which increased the reliability of work in pollution conditions.
By increasing the diameter of the chamber, the likelihood of non-extraction or rupture of the spent cartridge case was reduced. Due to the arrangement of the return mechanism, it was possible to place a long reciprocating spring with a large number of turns within the bolt box. The trigger allowed only automatic fire. The increased shutter stroke made the automation work more smoothly and reduced the rate of fire to 650-700 rds / min (against 1000-1100 in PPSH), which made it possible to cut off not only a short line, but also single shots with a certain skill by short pressing the trigger.
Together with the muzzle brake-compensator and the good location of the pistol grip and the neck of the store (used as the front handle), this made it easier to control the PPS. One of the long-standing problems of submachine guns with a shot from the rear sear was the disruption of the bolt from the sear, which led to spontaneous automatic shooting. In order to avoid this, the PPS was equipped with a safety lever that blocked the trigger mechanism, and also blocked the slot of the bolt box and blocked the bolt in the front or rear position. The operation of the fuse at the PPS was more reliable than that of the PPSH.
The flip sight had pillars on the 100 and 200 m, which corresponded to the effective firing range achievable with a pistol cartridge. Butt developed up and forward. The PPS was completed with six 35 cartridges with a capacity of cartridges that were worn in two pouches. With 210 wearable ammunition in 6 PPS stores weighed 6,82 kg (more than 2 kg less than PPS).
In terms of combat qualities — effective firing range, combat rate of fire — the PPS was not inferior to the PPSh, but in terms of manufacturability it was far superior to it. Cold stamping of parts (it made up to half of the parts), a minimum of closed holes, a decrease in the number of axes, the multifunctionality of the parts greatly simplified production. Production of one PPSH on average 7,3 machine hours and 13,9 kg of metal, one PPS-43 - respectively 2,7 hours and 6,2 kg (metal waste was no more than 48%). The number of factory parts for PPSH is 87, for PPS it is 73. And today, anyone who takes in the hands of the faculty can not fail to appreciate the rational simplicity of its design, which does not go as far as primitiveness. The PPS turned out to be very convenient for scouts, cavalrymen, crews of combat vehicles, mountain riflemen, artillerymen, paratroopers, signalers, partisans.
Sudayev, returning to the NPSVO, continued to improve the submachine gun, developing nine prototypes - with a wooden butt, with an increased rate of fire, with a folding bayonet, etc. But they did not go into the series.
In 1944, Alexey Ivanovich was the first among the domestic designers who joined in the work on the submachine gun with an intermediate-power cartridge, which was to replace the machine guns, and advanced far enough. In 1945, the Sudayev AU-44 assault rifle has already passed troop tests. But 17 August 1946, a major engineer A.S. Sudayev, died of a serious illness in the Kremlin hospital at the age of 33 years.
The faculty continued to serve until the middle of the 50-ies, but manifested itself in various conflicts and much later. As mentioned above, he is recognized as the best submachine gun of the Second World War by a combination of tactical, technical, production, economic and operational characteristics. And "the best form of recognition is imitation." Finns already in 1944 began the release of the M44 - copies of PPP under the 9-mm cartridge “parabellum”. Copied PPP and in Germany. In Spain, in 1953, the DUX-44 submachine gun, which differed little from the PPS and M53, came into service with the FRG gendarmerie and border guard. Then, in Germany, the firm Mauser released a modification of DUX-59 (and in service with the army of the GDR at that time were the PPS-43). In China, a copy of PPP-43 under the designation Type 43 was made, in Poland - wz.1943 and a modification of wz.1943 / 52 with a permanent wooden butt.
AT THE SAME TIME
The fact that the compact submachine gun in the eyes of the front-line soldiers was relevant is at least confirmed by the fact that the 22, a summer tanker sergeant Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov, began his work with this type of weapon. True, his sample in the competition for a new submachine gun did not participate and simply could not keep up with it.
In October, 1941, in the battles of Bryansk, M. T. Kalashnikov was seriously wounded. Having received a six-month vacation for treatment at the beginning of 1942 after the hospital, he takes on the implementation of the machine-pistol system he has invented with automation based on the impact of the free gate. The “iron” system was embodied in the workshops of the Matai railway station. This sample has not been preserved.
With the help of the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) of Kazakhstan, Kayshangulova, Kalashnikov was able to transfer work to the workshops of the Moscow Aviation Institute, which was then being evacuated in Almaty. Here, he was assisted by the dean of the artillery and small arms department, A. I. Kazakov: a small working group was set up under the leadership of the senior lecturer E. P. Eruslanova.
The second sample of the submachine gun had an automatic based on the recoil of the shutter with slower rollback with the help of two telescopic screw pairs in the back of the shutter. Handle reloading located on the left. The bolt (receiver) box and the trigger frame are connected to each other pivotally. The shot was made from the rear whisper. In this case, the sear, which kept the drummer in the cocked position, was mounted in the gate and turned off when he arrived in the most forward position, that is, played the role of an automatic fuse. Translator-fuse - flag type, in the "fuse" blocked the trigger. Sector sight punched to 500 meters.
TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PPS-43
Cartridge 7,62x25 TT
Mass weapons with cartridges 3,67 kg
- with folded butt 616 mm
- with folded butt 831 mm
Barrel length 250 mm
Initial bullet speed 500 m / s
Firing rate 650-700 rds / min
Fighting rate of fire 100 rds / min
Sighting range 200 m
35 Magazine Capacity
Food - from the box-shaped store of the sector form on 30 cartridges. The trunk was covered with a perforated casing, which resembled the PCA casing (the front bevel and casing window played the role of a muzzle brake-compensator), but of tubular shape — many of the details were made on lathes or milling machines. The position of the arms resembled the American Thompson submachine gun, the downward-folding butt and the location of the drummer on the return tube's guide tube — the German MP.38 and MP.40.
A copy of the submachine gun in June 1942 was sent to Samarkand, where the Red Army Artillery Academy was evacuated. The head of the Academy is one of the most prominent experts in the field of small arms, Lieutenant-General A. A. Blagonravov, in his review of the submachine gun, “despite the negative conclusion on the model as a whole,” noted “exceptional ingenuity, great energy and work invested in it business, originality of the solution of a number of technical issues ". The command of the Central Asian Military District seconded Kalashnikov to GAU to test a submachine gun on the NPSVVO. According to the act of the 9 test site in February 1943, the weapon showed satisfactory results, but "... in its present form does not represent its industrial interest", although in the act there are marked "redeeming parties": light weight, short length, presence of a single lamp, successful combination of the translator and fuse, compact ramrod. By that time, the Sudayev submachine gun was already being produced and, of course, could not compete with a sample of a novice and still inexperienced designer.
The work at the test site played a big role in the future of the future twice Hero of Socialist Labor - there was a developed test base, a design office, a rich collection of infantry weapon models, and highly skilled specialists worked. At NPSVO Kalashnikov had a chance to meet with Sudayev. Many years later, Mikhail Timofeevich would write: “The design activity of Alexei Ivanovich Sudayev was within the framework of just some four or five years. But during this time he managed to reach such heights in creating weapons that other designers have never dreamed of in their entire life. ”