Front-line transporters: from Zaporozhye to the Geologist


Experienced triaxial LuAZ-976M. Photo: denisovets.ru


Addiction tests


In the first part of the material (“Mechanical mules. Conveyors of the front edge of the Soviet Army) it was a question of moving the center for the development of future medical amphibians from US to Zaporozhye. Then at the Kommunar plant two prototypes ZAZ-967 were created, which retained their external resemblance to the NAMI-032M concept. In order to save money, the car was unified with the civil ZAZ-965 - the four-speed gearbox, clutch and main gear were common. A completely new unit was the forced locking of the rear cross-axle differential. In 1961-1962, both experimental vehicles passed a cycle of factory tests, the results of which military doctors were satisfied with. ZAZ-967 was able to transport three people, two of whom were seated / lying on each side of the driver’s central position. The main task (searching for the wounded on the battlefield) was carried out by the front-line transporter several times faster and more efficiently than porters. The wounded could be transported to ZAZ-967 in three versions: on two longitudinally stretched stretchers located on top of the sides and rear wheel arches, on the floor of the car on a special coating and, finally, on the seats near the driver. Not the most picky factory tests showed that the conveyor could only reduce the curb weight and strengthen the traction winch.


LuAZ-967M. Photo: autowp.ru

After eliminating these comments, five experienced transporters entered state trials, prudently acquiring windshields in front of this. Initially, the military department did not provide this option in the development order. In September-October 1962, ZAZ-967 had to go several thousand kilometers in the Karakum, the Pamirs, the Caucasus and the Crimea. One can only sympathize with the work of the testers - in addition to the windshield, no additional amenities were provided in the car. The awning appeared later and was a panel covering the driver and passengers from precipitation from above and behind. From all other sides, the wind walked through the amphibian quite freely. The machine passed the tests with great conventions (there were problems in the reliability of individual units), but, nevertheless, it was recommended for production at the Kommunar plant. But, as has already happened several times with military developments, there were no capacities for assembling amphibians at the enterprise.

Front-line transporters: from Zaporozhye to the Geologist










The civilian "analogue" of the front edge conveyor is the pre-production ZAZ-969. Photo: denisovets.ru

Zaporizhzhya plant was allocated two years to prepare for the production of the conveyor, during which the car was improved, and several civilian brothers ZAZ-969 were also built. These SUVs differed from the military ancestors by the normal location of the steering wheel, pedals, the presence of an awning and a windshield. The whole company in 1965 was sent to another test run in the Pamirs and Karakum. And again, reliability problems plagued the four-wheel drive kids throughout the test cycle. The steering and transmission units were primarily affected. The MeMZ-967 motor, which was previously equipped with a speed limiter, produced insufficient power and worked intermittently. The limiter was removed from the carburetor - this allowed to disperse the engine from 22 to 27 liters. from. In this version, the four-wheel drive amphibian accelerated to 71 km / h, while afloat using wheel rotation it gained a maximum of 3 km / h, spending about 12 liters per 100 km in the combined cycle.




LuAZ-967, which never got on the conveyor. Photo: autowp.ru












One of the first production TPK LuAZ-967M. Photo: autowp.ru

In total, several “generations” of front-line conveyors ZAZ-967 were assembled, none of which became serial. The first series (1962-1965) can be distinguished by two silencers located on the sides of the hood, as well as the upper casing of the engine intake. The second series (1964-1965) is easiest to identify by the muffler located in front of the hood and the narrowed front of the car. The last pre-production ZAZ-967, which were created in 1966-1967, were as close as possible to the usual LuAZ-967. In cars of this "generation" the engine has already developed 30 liters. s., and the transmission had serious improvements. Crosses from the GAZ-69 appeared in the semiaxes, the gear ratios of the main gears increased, the wheels became slightly larger, and the rear axle drive shaft was equipped with an intermediate support.

In the second half of 1967, the car went through the entire cycle of the third already in a row of tests and was recommended for adoption. By the way, the head of the state commission was Boris Fitterman, who laid the conceptual foundations in the car, but was never able to bring the medical conveyor to the conveyor. In Zaporozhye, by that time, the situation with the production site had not moved forward; factory workers had difficulty mastering the civilian range of small cars. Therefore, the Lutsk Engineering Plant (LuMZ) was supposed to take the military SUV and its “peaceful” analogue ZAZ-969. In December 1967, the inexplicable name LuMZ was changed to LuAZ - Lutsk Automobile Plant, and the first-born of the renewed enterprise were LuAZ-967 and LuAZ-969.

Long way to the army


On paper, the LuAZ-967 has been produced in Lutsk since 1967, but the troops hardly knew about it - 11 experienced transporters only managed to collect complaints and rationalization proposals from army technicians. As soon as the car was prepared for the conveyor (this happened in 1969), the military wished a new engine - a 1,2-liter MeMZ-968 from Zaporozhets, developing 27 liters. from. The engine was mounted, equipped with an additional oil cooler, pre-start device 5PP-40A, the gear ratios of the wheel gearboxes were reduced from 1,785 to 1,294, and the body received cosmetic improvements. All this dragged on the process until 1972, when four LuAZ-967 with the letter M. were rolled out for testing for the second time, and after three whole years they were put on the conveyor. And the car with the base name LuAZ-967 did not see the serial embodiment. However, an amphibian experimentally installed the AGS-17M Flame grenade launcher, ATGM and recoilless gun. All mobile firing points remained in the status of experienced ones - the military was not happy with the low weapons amphibious loading capacity. And there was no protection — the only “armor” that could at least protect against fragments at the end was two gangways mounted on the sides of the amphibian.






Front edge conveyor in an atypical weapon carrier role. Photo: kolesa.ru


And here the machine is used for its intended purpose. Photo: kolesa.ru

During the entire production cycle, the front edge conveyor was updated three times. First, he was prescribed a standardized head lighting that allows you to appear on public roads - this metamorphosis happened in 1978. Three years later, the second version of the medical amphibian appeared, devoid of a folding tailgate and equipped with the Baby pump. These measures have improved the buoyancy of the conveyor, as well as survivability on the water. Later, in the third generation LuAZ-967, the "Baby" was removed, returning to its place the previous unit. In addition, the amphibian was equipped with a 39-liter high-speed engine. pp., updated the wheel gearboxes, shock absorbers and finalized the seal assemblies.


LuAZ-969MP - a rare version for the headquarters and patrol work. Photo: denisovets.ru
















LuAZ-967M. Photo: denisovets.ru

The main function of the LuAZ-969M in the troops was, of course, providing mobility for the evacuation of the wounded from the battlefield, but there was also a modification adapted for patrolling and staff work. This option was named LuAZ-969MP and was distinguished by a front bumper, a much more comfortable tent, as well as the absence of gangways and a winch in the configuration. In total, up to the final for transporters of all modifications of 1991 in Lutsk they managed to assemble about 20 thousand cars, some of which are now being gradually withdrawn from conservation for sale.

Three axes of "Geologist"


Further modernization of the front-line conveyor was the expansion of its functionality - in the classical sense, the LuAZ-969M was no longer suitable for the military. It was possible to realize this only through an increase in carrying capacity, and the amphibian mass in full condition already exceeded one ton. Therefore, the natural solution was to install an additional third axis, which was also controllable. Such a triaxial LuAZ was first tested in 1984 at test site 21 of the research institute and received a list of serious improvements. Among the layout solutions at LuAZ, a semblance of a driver’s cab appeared, fenced off from passengers by a tubular arc. By the way, the new transporter could now take ten fighters at once, or carry large-caliber machine guns, automatic grenade launchers, anti-tank systems, or even Igla MANPADS.


Three-axis LuAZ poses in front of the camera. Photo: denisovets.ru












LuAZ-1901, known as "Geologist" in "citizen", did not become a replacement for LuAZ-967M. Photo: denisovets.ru

In general, a new and interesting combat unit was being prepared for the army, which medical functions were not decisive. However, it was not possible to adapt the complex transmission to the third drive axle and in the early 80s decided to create a new small-sized floating machine with three axles. The novelty was named LuAZ-1901 and did not resemble its ancestor, except for the lack of a hard top. The total weight was almost twice as much - 1900 kg, and the carrying capacity reached 650 kg. The motor was now located at the rear, which freed up a lot of space on the front axle. The cargo platform increased and allowed to place four stretchers with one orderly. Finally, the combat vehicle received a tarpaulin awning, covering people from rainfall from all sides. The seaworthiness of LuAZ-1901 was higher than its predecessor - amphibian on water accelerated due to the rotation of six wheels to 5 km / h. It is noteworthy that such a large machine was not equipped with a more powerful engine - just as the 37-strong MeMZ-967B was, it remained. But on the civilian version ("Geologist"), which were born already in the days of independent Ukraine, there was a Kharkov diesel engine 3DTN with a capacity of 51 liters. from. After a long search for a sales market, LuAZ Geolog last appeared in public in 1999, and a couple of years later the Lutsk plant stopped producing cars of its own design. Over time, another manufacturer of military equipment in the post-Soviet space turned out to be bankrupt.
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  1. bessmertniy 9 March 2020 06: 11 New
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    Interesting cars. I did not imagine that before there was such a variety of conveyor designs that are quite relevant for today. Thanks to the author. hi
    1. Insurgent 9 March 2020 08: 03 New
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      Quote: bessmertniy
      Interesting cars.

      News from the category: "From the days of the past, to the present day"


      In Syria, the latest Russian sanitary armored car Lens was spotted. It was created on the basis of the Typhoon-K armored vehicle.
      On the site of Lost Armor, photos of the latest Russian medical armored car Lens appeared. Allegedly, they were made in the area of ​​the Syrian city of Raqqa.
      “Lens” was created on the basis of the Typhoon-K armored car and is intended primarily for the evacuation of wounded from battlefields. The machine has a 4x4 wheel arrangement and is characterized by high traffic. The vehicle’s armor protection sustains shelling from small arms, including armor-piercing incendiary ammunition. The armored car withstands blasting up to 8 kg of TNT under the wheel.
      The “lens” consists of two local cabins and a compartment for transporting the wounded, in which four people can be placed in a lying position, or up to six in a sitting position.
      The machine is manufactured by Remdiesel. The first batch of sanitary armored vehicles of this type entered the army at the end of 2019.

      https://anna-news.info/novejshij-rossijskij-broneavtomobil-zamechen-v-sirii/
      1. torp 16 March 2020 19: 18 New
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        Today is very noticeable on the battlefield, and here the idea was already crawling on his belly.
        1. Insurgent 17 March 2020 07: 21 New
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          Quote: torp
          Today is very noticeable on the battlefield, and here the idea was already crawling on his belly.

          Actually, yes. The "lens" is not intended for direct use on the battlefield. Its purpose, transportation of the wounded from the places of their concentration in the rear.
          Unfortunately, now there are no such cars as Luaz in the troops.
          1. seregatara1969 18 May 2020 22: 58 New
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            there were such in small numbers with a 50-horsepower engine. only the side oil seals were riveted to the sides and changing was a big problem.
  2. rich 9 March 2020 06: 17 New
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    The MeMZ 967 engine was distinguished from the civilian engine by a modified cooling system. It included an additional radiator for cooling oil with an individual electric fan. The axial fan of the engine did not blow through the ribs of the cylinders, but pulled air through them and threw it out of the engine compartment. Since the army machine should work reliably in a wide temperature range, the engine was equipped with a 5PP-40A starting device. The device was a syringe with which a combustible liquid (sulfur dioxide) with a low evaporation temperature was injected into the collector.
    Optionally, the machine was equipped with an air pre-heater SHAAZ 967-1015009-01. Structurally, it was an autonomous heater from ZAZ vehicles, adapted for carrying. The kit included metal corrugated sleeves for supplying hot air to the units of the heated engine.
  3. rich 9 March 2020 06: 24 New
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    LuAZ-967

    TECH SPECS:
    wheel arrangement 4 × 4
    capacity 4 places (driver, orderly, two bed patients on a stretcher, on the sides)
    950 kg curb weight
    gross weight 1350 kg
    dimensions 3682x1712x1580 mm
    ground clearance 285 mm
    highway speed 75 km / h
    speed afloat 3 km / h
    carburetor engine, air cooling
    working volume from 1200 cm ³
    engine power from 30 hp
    MODIFICATIONS
    LuAZ-967A - differed from the base model in a number of improvements and the new MeMZ-967A engine of greater power.
    LuAZ-967M - an improved version of the LuAZ-967A modification with the same engine and its modifications, differed from the previous model by electrical equipment, unified with UAZ cars, hydraulics, unified with Moskvich cars. Years of production: 1975 - 1988 [1]. After the creation of the AvtoZAZ production association, which for some time included the Lutsk Automobile Plant, the civilian version was also produced under the ZAZ-967M brand.

    Here is another interesting photo about the passing of LuAZ
    1. Here we have once "caught" such a TPK in a pond)
      He comes running to us on the plot of peasants and tearfully asks the excavator driver to drive three hundred meters to the reservoir, to help pull the car out. He agreed, but it became interesting to us too. We arrive, and there are two "ichthyander" in the TPK in the pond and the car has a real roll.
      It turned out that TPKs were being sold and the buyer wanted to test its buoyancy. The seller, as luck would have it, did not close any drain plugs, so the swimmer began to sink. They were afraid that they would not reach the shore. Helped, pulled out ...)
    2. Insurgent 9 March 2020 08: 26 New
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      Quote: Rich
      interesting photo about the passing of LuAZ


      And the signature: Stuck, loshara?

  4. Kot_Kuzya 9 March 2020 06: 32 New
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    After a long search for a sales market, LuAZ Geolog last appeared in public in 1999, and a couple of years later the Lutsk plant stopped producing cars of its own design. Over time, another manufacturer of military equipment in the post-Soviet space turned out to be bankrupt.

    The non-brothers have everything that turns out to be in their tenacious and greedy hands, everything is sifted .... But in 1992, Ukraine in its potential was second only to Germany, and surpassed France and England. Such an inheritance from the USSR managed to gallop! Russophobia should be expensive, very expensive! Faithful dear gallop, brothers!
    1. igor67 9 March 2020 10: 30 New
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      Yah? And where is Moskvich, where is Gas? ZIL?
      1. Kot_Kuzya 9 March 2020 11: 44 New
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        Hehe hehe lol Have you already spoken in the square that GAZ has closed?
        1. igor67 9 March 2020 11: 45 New
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          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          Hehe hehe lol Have you already spoken in the square that GAZ has closed?

          I meant the Volga cars, you perfectly understood
          1. Kot_Kuzya 9 March 2020 11: 53 New
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            Volga is a car model, not a car factory. For example, in 2004 Toyota ceased to produce the legendary Mark 2, so what do you think, did Toyota's car factories cease to exist, and did Toyota itself go bankrupt?
            1. igor67 9 March 2020 11: 58 New
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              Quote: Kot_Kuzya
              Volga is a car model, not a car factory. For example, in 2004 Toyota ceased to produce the legendary Mark 2, so what do you think, did Toyota's car factories cease to exist, and did Toyota itself go bankrupt?

              But Toyota continues to produce other cars, and Gas stopped, even the Chrysler model, and the Izhevsk plant continues to produce Orbit?
              1. Lopatov 9 March 2020 12: 08 New
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                Quote: igor67
                Gas stopped

                Do they need it?
                With their commercial vehicles.
                1. igor67 9 March 2020 12: 15 New
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                  Quote: Spade
                  Quote: igor67
                  Gas stopped

                  Do they need it?
                  With their commercial vehicles.

                  Well, so Luaz is also not a competitor
                  1. Lopatov 9 March 2020 13: 10 New
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                    Quote: igor67
                    Well, so does Luaz

                    Yes?
                    And what does it produce comparable to Gazelles?
                    1. igor67 9 March 2020 13: 59 New
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                      Quote: Spade
                      Quote: igor67
                      Well, so does Luaz

                      Yes?
                      And what does it produce comparable to Gazelles?

                      Are you generally careful? I replied to a forum member comrade about his statement that everything was profiled in Ukraine, but the bankrupt plant was closed
                      1. Lopatov 9 March 2020 14: 12 New
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                        Quote: igor67
                        I replied to a forum member comrade about his statement that everything was profiled in Ukraine, but the bankrupt plant was closed

                        And they cited as an example of the Russian "profiling" the most successful car factory in the post-Soviet space?
                        Which, with the collapse of the USSR, entered a new niche for itself and achieved almost total dominance in Russia and taking a large market share in the rest of the post-Soviet one.
                      2. igor67 9 March 2020 15: 18 New
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                        Well, AZLK? With the closure of the Moskvich production, in our city the production of a piston group for 412 Muscovites was closed, the German line was built in the 70s, and what did Ukraine do too? There were many enterprises, and almost all in the USSR were connected, after the collapse of the Union, I wrote more than once, under Yeltsin there was a quiet decree to deliver nothing to Ukraine, when once again our supplies went to Kuybyshev and Rostov for repair kits, and there hands shrugged, not So the enterprises went bankrupt, they closed, under Yanukovych raider seizures generally went,
                      3. Lopatov 9 March 2020 16: 09 New
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                        Quote: igor67
                        Well, AZLK?

                        Like ZIL.
                        Even under the USSR, under write-off.

                        Quote: igor67
                        under Yeltsin there was a quiet such decree to Ukraine

                        laughing
                        Well, naturally.
                        How could Ukraine be to blame ...
                        It remains to figure out how Lutsk managed to assemble cars from banned Russian car kits.
                      4. igor67 9 March 2020 16: 11 New
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                        I knew that you would answer like that, because, well, Russians cannot do that, Bender’s hardening, you comment on artillery topics so well,
                      5. Lopatov 9 March 2020 16: 19 New
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                        Quote: igor67
                        I knew you would answer that way

                        You just don’t need to tell tales about bloomers in which the neighbor shouted.
                        Ukrainians completely and completely destroyed their industry themselves. In all areas.

                        Once again, I remind you about GAZ. They realized that nobody needed their Volga, the official would prefer the German. A taxi fleet private trader with his own car.
                        And they began to act.
                  2. Kot_Kuzya 9 March 2020 23: 55 New
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                    Quote: igor67
                    under Yeltsin there was a quiet such decree to deliver nothing to Ukraine

                    I beg of you! Again, "swear Muscovites" to blame? If your kettle burned out, is this also Russian and Putin personally to blame? Are you already quite crap there? Really zombie territory.
                  3. Potter 12 March 2020 09: 55 New
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                    Since 2000, the Renault factory has been operating on the territory of AZLK, first as a joint venture with the Moscow government, AvtoFraMos. In the best years, it produced 180000 / m per year. mostly Logans, now makes 100000 with a penny. Body production of their own, so this is not a screwdriver assembly.
      2. Kot_Kuzya 9 March 2020 12: 35 New
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        GAZ specializes in minibuses, and they are quite competitive. As for cars, VAZ specializes in their production. UAZ specializes in jeeps and off-road minibuses, KAMAZ specializes in trucks, and PAZ in medium and full-size buses. Due to the low demand for Russian passenger cars, it makes no sense to try GAZ to compete with VAZ. In the Far East, 95% of car owners go to Japanese imports, all of these Vesta, Grants, Largus, Almeri, Logany and Hyundai Russian assemblies are rare and outlandish. Maybe these Vesta and Grants are not bad now, but people in the Far East have firmly established a stamp that AvtoVAZ's products are far from the Japanese, even if they’re runners.
        1. Grits 12 March 2020 06: 26 New
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          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          In the Far East, 95% of car owners go to Japanese imports, all these Vesta, Grants, Largus, Almeri, Logan and Hyundai

          Honestly, I have not even seen much of the VAZ. I saw a couple of times Kalina and some more.
      3. Fat
        Fat 10 March 2020 00: 01 New
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        Quote: igor67
        Izhevsk plant continues to produce Orbit?

        No. Iz 2126 was produced until 2005. The last five years, the brand was called "Ode"
        Now called Lada Izhevsk.
        Collect Lada Vesta Cross.
  • IL-64 9 March 2020 09: 32 New
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    Luazik was once the car of my dreams. Why do I need it I did not know so far, but really wanted)))
    1. igor67 9 March 2020 11: 38 New
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      Quote: IL-64
      Luazik was once the car of my dreams. Why do I need it I did not know so far, but really wanted)))

      I had a ZAZ 968m, but when I drove to Luaz and in mud in a rut, 45 l / s worked wonders, but it did not work out
    2. bar
      bar 9 March 2020 11: 39 New
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      And my dream came true, 10 years was the owner of 969. Sold a year ago
      1. igor67 9 March 2020 11: 47 New
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        Quote: bar
        And my dream came true, 10 years was the owner of 969. Sold a year ago

        Handsome, they also put engines from Tavria, water cooling
      2. Grits 12 March 2020 06: 28 New
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        Quote: bar
        And my dream came true, 10 years was the owner of 969.

        Cool machine. even outwardly. Unfortunately, nothing similar will ever be born to us.
    3. Grits 12 March 2020 06: 26 New
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      Quote: IL-64
      Luazik was once the car of my dreams. I don’t know why I needed it yet, but I really wanted to

      Same
  • Lopatov 9 March 2020 09: 36 New
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    All mobile firing points remained in the status of experienced ones - the military was not satisfied with the low amphibious carrying capacity for such weapons. And there was no protection - the only “armor” that could at least protect against fragments at the end was two gangways mounted on the sides of the amphibian.

    Controversial.
    As far as I know, such have been armed with air assault units since 1986
    In the anti-tank battery of the air assault battalion
    - 2F61 with attachment points "Bassoons" and ATGMs in the TPK in the amount of three pieces in the anti-tank platoon
    - 2F60 with attachment points SPG-9MD and ammunition in the amount of six pieces in two grenade platoons
    - One ordinary TPK to control the battery and communications.

    In the airborne company
    - 2F63 with AGS mounts in the amount of one unit. in the grenade launcher
    - In terms of TPK units in the anti-tank compartment for the transportation of ammunition to "Metis"

    Well, two TPK in the mortar and one at the doctors

    Total in the battalion 24 (27) vehicles

    https://yv-gontar.io.ua/s204359/shtaty_tankovyh_motostrelkovyh_polkov_otdelnyh_batalonov_i_parashyutno-desantnyh_polkov
    1. Private-K 24 March 2020 13: 00 New
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      As far as I know, such have been armed with air assault units since 1986 .... https://yv-gontar.io.ua/s204359/shtaty_tankovyh_motostrelkovyh_polkov_otdelnyh_batalonov_i_parashyutno-desantnyh_polkov

      The guys from this site at least mentioned that I, Private-K, had all the info on the airborne firefighting system and airborne firefighting system pulled ... hi
  • igordok 9 March 2020 09: 58 New
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    Around this time, the plastic Citroën Méhari was made in France. He did not seem to serve in the army. But in movies about gendarmes he was pretty.
    1. Saxahorse 9 March 2020 17: 31 New
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      As for the jeep, this is said loudly. :) Plastic two-cylinder car with front-wheel drive. They say at the end and several four-wheel drive released, but you are unlikely to meet them. On the other hand, it is very light and does not rust.
  • bk0010 9 March 2020 12: 57 New
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    In the photo with the stretcher, neither the stretcher nor the wounded are somehow fixed at all. Could provide recesses and belts when used for their intended purpose.
    1. Lopatov 9 March 2020 13: 37 New
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      Quote: bk0010
      Could provide recesses and belts when used for their intended purpose.

      Everything is there.
      And the wounded, if necessary, are attached with the universal Sh-4
      1. sso-xnumx 9 March 2020 16: 45 New
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        Quote: Spade
        if necessary, fasten with universal Sh-4

        Sanitary strap Sh-4, designed to carry the wounded and remove them from hard-to-reach places (from tanks, ship compartments, wells, destroyed buildings), to lower the wounded from the upper floors of buildings, etc. It is not used to fasten the wounded, so as is the standard equipment of orderlies.
        1. Lopatov 9 March 2020 17: 25 New
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          Quote: sso-250659
          For fastening the wounded to a stretcher is not used

  • prodi 9 March 2020 13: 44 New
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    for sanitary specifics to the internal dimensions of a low platform, it was more logical to take the rear axle out of its limits (rather back) and make permanent all-wheel drive, as for blondes (judging by the levers). Buoyancy is traditional nonsense
  • Potter 12 March 2020 09: 40 New
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    The Triaxial Geologist is a dead end development. Having lost all the advantages of an easy and cheap TPK, this car crawled into the class occupied by UAZs. And at the same time with low-power motors 37-51 hp