Tank engine V-2: modernization and life after the war

Tank engine V-2: modernization and life after the war

IN 2. Source: Ural Turbine Plant. 80 Years Building Energy


Experiences and Evolution


In world tank building, the use of high-speed diesel engines for tanks became the gold standard only in the late 50s. NATO countries realized that it was time to get rid of gasoline power plants much later than the Soviet Union, but quickly caught up. In the post-war era, domestic tank engine building was based on the proven B-2 concept, which had passed fire, water and copper pipes over the previous decade.

During the years of World War II, the leading design bureau No. 2 in Chelyabinsk played a leading role in the modernization of the V-75. Over the years of the war, a huge engine-building complex was formed at Tankograd, which was set up exclusively for the production of B-2 diesel engines. On the one hand, this made it possible to seriously save on large-scale production of motors, and on the other, it created difficulties in re-profiling the site. In the book “Tank Engines (from stories tank construction) ”E. A. Zubov in this regard even provides calculations on the costs of development work of small foreign manufacturing companies and industrial giants. On average, a small company receives a return on each dollar invested 24 times more than, for example, the giant Ford or General Motors. There were an overwhelming majority of large engine-building plants in the Soviet Union, which led to a certain conservatism in innovative developments.


Diesel B-14. Source: "Tank engines (from the history of tank building)"

One of the first improvements to tank diesel in Chelyabinsk was the modernization of the V-2K, designed for heavy tanks. The diesel engine was increased torque, power was increased to 650 liters. sec., while the maximum engine speed was not touched - the crank mechanism of increased loads could not withstand. We achieved this by reconfiguring the high pressure fuel pump and increasing the fuel supply per cycle. Next was the V-2IS, which managed to reduce its height by 200 mm and carry out a number of minor improvements. One of the indisputable advantages of the IS tank equipped with such a diesel engine was the 220-kilometer mileage at one gas station, while the T-VI Tiger could only go 120 kilometers on the tank. However, such an increase in power did not allow to increase the engine resource - until the end of the 40s, it still did not exceed 300 moto-hours. Already during the war, it became clear that a further increase in B-2 power with a further increase in engine life was possible only by boosting. One of the first was the V-12 with a drive centrifugal supercharger AM-38F, which allowed the engine to develop 750 liters. from. and provided a torque of 3000 Nm. In November-December 1943, the motor successfully passed 100-hour tests, but after only six months it was no longer possible to repeat them. In early 1944, the V-2 for heavy tanks, it was decided to change to a new V-11 immediately for 700 liters. with., and in July of the same year, the Kirov plant was supposed to produce 75 motors per month. As a result, the first production engines appeared only at the end of April 1945 and were installed on the IS-3, which did not have time to fight. In 1947, the first production V-12s for the IS-4 appeared at ChTZ, which were produced in various modifications until the early 60s. Motors of the "heavy" series were installed on the T-10, T-10M and a pair of experimental vehicles.


Ural Turbine Plant. Source: Ural Turbine Plant. 80 Years Building Energy



B-2 at the Ural Turbine (Turbomotor) Plant. Source: Ural Turbine Plant. 80 Years Building Energy

Sverdlovsk Plant No. 76 (Turbine Plant), also engaged in the production of tank engines, by the fall of 1944 was able to create its own version of the deep modernization of the legendary diesel engine, named V-14. It was a 700-horsepower engine with a cylinder diameter expanded to 160 mm, which increased the working volume to 44,3 liters. Bench tests of the supercharged V-14M were also carried out (the working volume was increased to 44,3 liters), which has a capacity of 800 liters. from. The long-awaited novelty appeared on both engines - the cylinder block shirt was now cast at the same time with the heads, which eliminated the notorious problem of a gas joint. This was a direct merit of the designer Timofey Chupakhin, who, since the late 30s, had nurtured a similar idea. Also on the B-14 there was a new, more rigid crankcase, which became the supporting structure - this increased the reliability of the crankshaft bearings and the piston group.

Supercharged and without


Noteworthy is the development work taking place at the testing range of the Armed Forces of the USSR Armed Forces of the USSR, the purpose of which was to increase the power of the V-2 naturally aspirated. Then it was once again confirmed that the arrangement of air purifiers in the engine compartment of a tank directly affects the filling of diesel cylinders with air. It turned out that the T-34 and IS-2 engines pretty much “swallowed” the air warmed up by their own heat (up to 60 degrees), which, coupled with clogged filters, reduced power immediately by 10%. The physics of the process is very simple - the cold air is denser, therefore, in one working cycle, the motor sucks it in more and the fuel burns more fully in the cylinders. The situation is the opposite with warm air.

In general, based on the results of work at the GBTU training ground, it was concluded that without a critical decrease in the motor resource, its power can only be raised to 600 liters. from. Further only with the turbine. In the naturally aspirated version, the base V-2 is accelerated with a whole range of measures - reducing the air resistance at the inlet, installing an annular intake manifold for uniformly filling the cylinders of both halves of the engine (this was spied on by the German tank diesel Mercedes-Benz 507) and the development of a new high-pressure fuel pump. The latter was also planned to be borrowed from Bosch, whose pumps were mounted on Mercedes-Benz 503A diesel engines. It was also recommended to reduce the tolerance of adjustment of serial fuel injection pumps for fuel supply from 6% to 3%. This work was part of a large project to modernize the V-2 at the site of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, whose management did not want to make any fundamental changes in the production cycle.

As you know, you can increase the power of the motor by increasing the working volume (add cylinders or simply increase their dimension), and this, in turn, required serious changes in the design. Therefore, turbocharging has become the main post-war trend in the modernization of the V-2.

Engineers pointed out that the introduction of such a solution would increase the liter capacity immediately by 50-100%, while the drive centrifugal supercharger seemed to be the most optimal, giving higher economic indicators. The fact that all this will inevitably cause increased mechanical and thermal loads on the motor had to be put up with.

The next task for motor builders was to increase the engine’s warranty life up to 500-600 hours. Also, to realize the movement of the tank in underwater conditions, it was necessary to ensure the reliability of the motors at high resistances at the inlet and outlet.


IN 2. Source: "Tank engines (from the history of tank building)"

In a kind of competition for the most successful modification of the V-2, several manufacturers of the Soviet Union took part at once. In addition to the head SKB No. 75 mentioned above from Chelyabinsk, they also worked on their program at Transmash Plant No. 77 in Barnaul.

The V-16 diesel engine, created by Siberian engineers, developed 600 liters without turbocharging. from. and was distinguished by the absence of fuel injection pump in the usual sense. It has always been a problematic B-2 unit, and in Barnaul it was decided to replace it with individual pump nozzles for each cylinder - a largely breakthrough solution that became widespread much later. Barnaul engineers developed the V-16 theme into a whole family - there was a 700-strong version for heavy tanks and an 800-strong supercharged V-16NF. They even developed a spark of two diesel engines, with which 1200 liters were removed from the stand. from. But all project work was curtailed either due to the closure of the development of the experimental tanks under which they were built, or because of the general cooling of the state to tank themes.

At the beginning of the 50s, the leadership had the impression that all military problems could be solved with the help of missiles, and that the rest of the armament had an associated role. Sobering came around 1954, when in the NATO countries they began, if not overtaking the USSR tank engine building program, then at least reducing the backlog. The Chelyabinsk multi-fuel V-27, equipped with a TKR-11F turbocompressor and developing a capacity of 700 liters, became a real symbol of rebirth. from. Subsequently, the design evolved into the well-known B-46-6 and B-84, which became the real crowns of the concept of B-2.

The next manufacturer, included in the race for the post-war improvement of the V-2, was the Ural Turbomotor Plant mentioned above, which developed a variant of the motor under the letter "M". It was a deep rethinking of the concept of diesel, most of the components in which were completely new. The V-2M received two TKR-14 turbocompressors, which in the future were supposed to be equipped with charge air cooling units - a revolutionary solution at that time. Now such nodes (intercoolers) can be found in the engines of main tractors. In addition to turbocharging, the engine received a new high-pressure fuel pump, improved cooling and lubrication systems, as well as many components reinforced in comparison with the ancestor. By 1968, the engine was ready, but the difficulties with its launch into production, as well as the large dimensions did not contribute to adoption. But many decisions of Sverdlovsk designers have found application in the next generations of tank diesel engines.

Germans, tanks and diesels


The dieselization of medium and heavy machines in the 40s in the Soviet Union was a unique event in world industrial history. Nobody in the world, except Japan, has used diesel engines on armored vehicles so massively. For comparison: the American "Sherman" of its thirteen modifications had only one M4A2 with a twin diesel power plant. Why, for example, in Germany during the war did not come to the idea of ​​installing a diesel engine in a tank? There are many versions, starting with a shortage of aluminum and alloy steels and ending with the incompetence of German engineers in the field of the creation of land heavy diesel engines. In this connection, the opinion of Senior Lieutenant Technician S. B. Chistozvonov, which he outlined on the pages of the Bulletin of the Tank Industry for 1944 (No. 2-3), is interesting.


In the article “German tank engines”, the author analyzes in sufficient detail the enemy engines existing at that time, and in the end analyzes the reasons for the Germans abandoning tank diesel engines. Chistozvonov rightly points out that in Nazi Germany, even before the war, there were Junkers and Daimler-Benz aircraft diesels, which, after a little refinement, could well be installed in armored vehicles. However, German engineers considered this inappropriate. Why? In fact, the author among the advantages of a diesel engine notes only a relatively low fuel consumption (20-30% lower than that of a carburetor analog) and low fuel cost. Lieutenant Chistozvonov suggests in the article that the Germans did not get involved in diesel, since the gasoline engine is cheaper, simpler, more compact, more reliable in cold weather, does not require scarce alloy steels and highly skilled labor of collectors.


Maybach HL210. Source "Bulletin of the armored industry"

At the same time, the life of the tank in the battlefield is so small that it more than eliminates all the advantages of a diesel engine (read: V-2). The author considers far-fetched notions about the fire safety of compression ignition engines - getting a shell into a tank, engine compartment or a simple Molotov cocktail is guaranteed to cause a fire in the MTO of a tank with a diesel engine. In this case, the diesel tank had no advantage over the gas tank. The specific fuel balance of Germany also played a role in choosing the type of propulsion system for tanks. Synthetic gasolines, benzene and alcohol mixtures prevailed in the German balance, and were unsuitable as fuel for diesel engines. In general, a very bold article was for 1944.

At the end of the material there is a curious comment by the editors of the Bulletin of the Tank Industry:

"The arguments justifying the Germans' refusal to use diesel engines on their tanks are an assumption of the author himself."
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  1. NOMADE 7 March 2020 06: 00 New
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    Great article (definitely +), sorry for the short one. To be continued?
    1. Mar.Tirah 7 March 2020 07: 24 New
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      Quote: NOMADE
      To be continued?

      This diesel engine has no continuation. Further operation showed gluttony and fragility in terms of engine hours. It has all rubber connections. After a short period of operation and God forbid to warm it up, it starts to flow from all the cracks, the oil eats with buckets. Moreover, the oil doesn’t high-viscosity aircraft oils. Starting from M-14 to M-22. Therefore, they said that it was a tank, and tanks during the war were not designed for a long life, sadly ..
      1. Alekseev 7 March 2020 09: 19 New
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        Quote: Mar. Tira
        This diesel engine has no continuation

        Well, he served well and still serves reliably, but, of course, time is passing. The 2B family (not to be confused) and other motors will gradually replace the B2 grandchildren. The pipes of the cooling system, etc., are made of rubber, of course, like almost everyone, he eats oil in the aisles of the norm, if properly operated and there is no defective assembly.
        By the way, there are opinions of people who exploited this motor that in Soviet times its assembly for the army was much better than for the national economy. At least on the tanks that I had to operate personally (T-55, T-62M) there were no problems with the B-55 and B-46 engines. 72-k in the sense of MTO concerned less, but there were no special complaints from colleagues.
        What is the secret of longevity of this diesel engine?
        This is an armored diesel engine with a moderate level of liter boost and locomotive torque, relatively unpretentious and reliable, although it does not have a large resource. But the resource of a tank diesel, which constantly works with a heavy load, can not be compared with the resource of a diesel truck. It’s not possible to explain in detail the difference between the two, but I’ll say that the Leopard with the MTU engine goes to the capital just about the same as the T-72. (10-14 thousand km)
        Another B-2 is very compact and, relatively, not expensive. Guessed with the design: a silumin block with power steel studs, two camshafts in the cylinder head, four valves per cylinder, a dry crankcase, a large volume of cylinders with moderate dimensions and ... production debugged for decades (although during the years of "perestroika", they did not care, sometimes, about the quality of components).
        In general, the price-quality ratio has been steering for more than half a century. yes
  2. Insurgent 7 March 2020 06: 04 New
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    I do not get tired to marvel at the scale and scope of the USSR ...

    The whole tank industry!

    1. Potter 7 March 2020 08: 22 New
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      There was a whole commissariat of tank industry. Which, when created, swallowed a number of factories in other industries. First of all, the People’s Commissariat of the shipbuilding industry - the Sormovsky plant, the Stalingrad shipyard, the Izhora and Mariupol metallurgical (armor production), as well as the Kirov factory in Leningrad, the Stalingrad and Chelyabinsk tractor plants, Uralvagonzavod. Only the factories # 37 (Moscow) —the T-40 tank, plant No. 174 (Leningrad) —the T-26 tank, preparations for the production of the T-50, and the Kharkov plant were purely tank.
    2. Andrei Nikolaevich 7 March 2020 09: 32 New
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      "" I never get tired of being amazed at the scale and scope of the USSR.
      Duck how to say .. Here it is necessary to marvel not at the scope of the country, but at the scale and will of the citizens. There are now, many young people are smart, purposeful. You communicate and understand that a person will achieve much in life. But sometimes you look, there is such a “miracle” that he spent his whole life sitting under his mother’s skirt. In the army, it did not serve, it’s not accustomed to anything by mom and dad. Shoulders - like dystrophic, belly beer, ass - like a woman giving birth. Stupid, naive, arrogant .. But this creature has a lot of ambitions ... Nothing .. Dad and mom are not eternal, but to wash the toilets in our country, someone should ....
      1. dumkopff 7 March 2020 19: 06 New
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        Ambition is when a person tears his fifth point and the throats of competitors for his own benefit (position, money, recognition). If this is not the case, then there are only show-offs and narcissism.
    3. A.TOR 7 March 2020 11: 42 New
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      This is not scale and scope - this is nonsense
  3. Donald72 7 March 2020 06: 39 New
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    I agree with the comment not one UVZ. A lot of factories! The scope begets.
  4. I have never read articles and books on engine building before. I tried, but they turned out to be mournfully boring with a lot of obscure terminologies, numbers and so on. And here, please, the author managed to use the thesis "brevity is the sister of talent" and everything turned out! Thanks.
    1. dumkopff 7 March 2020 19: 09 New
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      Strictly speaking, this article is a scientific study. Normal books for knowledgeable people are written in such a way: formulas, names of alloys, nerd about percentages and injection angles.
  5. svp67 7 March 2020 08: 22 New
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    "The arguments justifying the Germans' refusal to use diesel engines on their tanks are an assumption of the author himself."
    And I agree with these arguments
    And this is how the Ural Turbine looks now from the side of the Front Brigades

    1. dzvero 7 March 2020 09: 49 New
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      The senior lieutenant technician is right, but the editorial staff is right. Why? And what kind of engines of such power at the time of the creation of the T-34 / KV-1 could the industry of the USSR offer? Aviation "star" in the tank does not put. In-line Mikulinskys of greater power went to Yak-i, LaGG-i and Il-s, there were no "free" tanks (though, in the 42nd they put M-34 on the T-17, but somehow they didn’t enter). There are no automobiles in 400-600 hp either. It turns out that B-2 had no alternative. So I had to put up with a former aviation diesel engine and bring it to mind on tanks. At that time, the USSR would have set up production of an automobile gasoline engine of 400-450 hp, then diesel engines on tanks would have been prescribed much later. The Germans had such engines, production was established, synthetics were eaten normally, so there was no reason to bother with the introduction of a diesel engine.
      1. old_pferd 7 March 2020 13: 50 New
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        Don’t tell the Americans about the star; on the Sherman M4 and M4A1 the star-shaped Continental R-975 was just standing.
      2. Narak-zempo 7 March 2020 14: 38 New
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        In-line Mikulinskys of greater power went to Yak-i, LaGG-i and Il-s

        On Yak and LaGG never Mikulinsky engines were put. Only climatic.
        1. dzvero 7 March 2020 15: 25 New
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          Guilty, I looked recourse
      3. andrewkor 7 March 2020 16: 43 New
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        Klimov’s engines were installed on the Yak-i and LaGg-i. First, the M-105, and then the VK.
      4. Tima62 7 March 2020 23: 16 New
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        Quote: dzvero
        There are no automobiles in 400-600 hp either.

        Quote: dzvero
        At that time, the USSR would have set up production of an automobile gasoline engine of 400-450 hp,

        Quote: dzvero
        The Germans had such engines, production was established,

        And the production of which AUTOMOBILE gasoline engines of 400 - 600 forces was established by the Germans? Do not tell me?
      5. Sergey S. 8 March 2020 01: 33 New
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        Quote: dzvero
        It turns out that B-2 had no alternative.

        That's for sure!!!
        Quote: dzvero
        So I had to put up with a former aviation diesel engine and bring it to mind on tanks.

        B-2 - specially designed for tanks.
        The father of the family is the great diesel engineer A.D. Charomsky. Motors began in Moscow. Brought to Kharkov.
        The first engines went under the designation BD, BD-2 (high-speed diesel).
        Even during the war, work began on ship versions of the "D-6" and "D-12".
        An incredible feature was that the motors of the family were produced with both aluminum crankcases and cast iron.
        Motors still serve.
        And for the period of the Second World War it is the best tank diesel.
        The Germans MB-502 did similar in terms of parameters by the end of the war, but it practically didn’t appear on tanks ...
        Charomsky was also engaged in aviation diesel engines, the ACh-30, -31, -40 family. They flew not very reliably.
        On their basis, by the end of the war, the M-50 marine engine was created - a masterpiece of world diesel engineering.
        Motors of this family are still being produced. Of course in modern versions.
        Quote: dzvero
        At that time, the USSR would have set up production of an automobile gasoline engine of 400-450 hp, then diesel engines on tanks would register much later.

        So it is so, well, thank God that it didn’t work out that way.
    2. Doliva63 7 March 2020 20: 11 New
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      Quote: svp67
      т

      Have you been inside for a long time? I am that year. It seemed to me that only tenants representing German firms occupy 20%. Still there are a bunch of other foreigners, and our commerce area is rented. Before the 2008 crisis, this was not the case. Blown away "impeller", it seems.
      1. Jager 13 March 2020 20: 20 New
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        So it is everywhere. Take the same "Kolomna Plant". An industrial giant, but there is no particular sense ... These enterprises were tied to a planned economy.
  6. 2112vda 7 March 2020 08: 46 New
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    I first met this diesel engine in 1977 when my career began. Already at that time, diesel was obsolete. Why release it so far? His time is long gone. By reliability, it can not be compared with YaMZ diesels.
    1. 32363 7 March 2020 10: 01 New
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      Quote: 2112vda
      I first met this diesel engine in 1977 when my career began. Already at that time, diesel was obsolete. Why release it so far? His time is long gone. By reliability, it can not be compared with YaMZ diesels.

      if the YaMZ is so reliable, why then do German engines from Liebherr put on the rally KamAZ?
      1. Elturisto 7 March 2020 13: 33 New
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        Because YaMZ is Deripaska, and KAMAZ is Rostekh. And Rostekh is led by a friend of his own, but he loves everything German very much ...
      2. Sergey S. 8 March 2020 01: 37 New
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        Quote: 32363
        if the YaMZ is so reliable, why then do German engines from Liebherr put on the rally KamAZ?

        Because the KAMAZ-Master TMZ diesels looked great ...
        Changed the rules of the competition ...
        I had to change the diesel ... And we do not have the required dimension in the forced execution.
        1. Elturisto 8 March 2020 12: 19 New
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          This cradle was pushed by KAMAZ to justify. KAMAZ, by the way, gained control of the TMZ, which means that the plant will soon have cranks, and a libher will be installed on military equipment and tractors ...
      3. SashOK 12 March 2020 23: 14 New
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        because they have Cummins, and not Liebherr, or, to be more precise, the Dongfeng Cummins ISZ13L engine
        Tutaevsky left due to restrictions on volume and smoke
    2. Elturisto 7 March 2020 13: 36 New
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      After all, it was said above about the different operating conditions of tank and car diesel engines. What is so incomprehensible? Do you realize the difference in torque for stragging the tank and car? Or did you start your career in accounting?
      1. 32363 7 March 2020 14: 37 New
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        Quote: ElTuristo
        After all, it was said above about the different operating conditions of tank and car diesel engines. What is so incomprehensible? Do you realize the difference in torque for stragging the tank and car? Or did you start your career in accounting?

        I also love everything German, German torque is cooler than Russian.
  7. Sahalinets 7 March 2020 09: 39 New
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    There were huge problems with the production of gasoline, even aviation was not enough, although it flew in the 70th.
    1. Alf
      Alf 7 March 2020 20: 43 New
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      Quote: Sahalinets
      although she flew on the 70th.

      And on the B-78.
  8. itarnmag 7 March 2020 10: 01 New
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    And why not a word about the V-55 engine of the T-55?
  9. Undecim 7 March 2020 15: 10 New
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    At the end of the material there is a curious comment by the editors of the Bulletin of the Tank Industry:

    "The arguments justifying the Germans' refusal to use diesel engines on their tanks are an assumption of the author himself."

    Meanwhile, the author is absolutely right.
    1. Undecim 7 March 2020 16: 24 New
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      Oh, here the couch specialists with minuses to senior lieutenant technician S. B. Chistozvonov, pulled themselves together.
      But S.B. Chistozvonov, a well-known Soviet specialist, worked in the US after the war, is one of the developers of the legendary family of YaMZ-236/238 diesel engines, which are produced today, i.e. about 60 years.
  10. andrewkor 7 March 2020 15: 32 New
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    I am very pleased to mention in my article my native Barnaultransmash. During WWII, it provided 10% of the entire issue of V-2.
    On the question of the quality of motors and the qualifications of workers manufacturing them. There are documentary photos of those years in the factory museum. It’s just unclear what the hellish conditions are, especially in winter! and they didn’t stand nearby. And they ensured the Victory, no matter what!
  11. Iskander. Richard 7 March 2020 15: 46 New
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    ChTZ (Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant) went bankrupt. According to information on the factory’s official website, 6 thousand people work at the enterprise, 1,3 thousand of them have long been working part-time. From August to October 2019, the plant reduced 265 workers. In Chelyabinsk, Uralenergosbyt LLC (joint venture of EC Vostok JSC and Fortum PJSC) partially cut off power supply to ChTZ-Uraltrac LLC (part of Rostec Group of Companies, which was previously controlled by NPK Uralvagonzavod) due to multi-million debt .
    According to the energy sales company, the company has not paid for electricity since September 2019, Kommersant - South Ural writes. As previously reported by Pravda Ural Federal District, the structure’s debts for electricity reached 145 million rubles, the largest among UES consumers in the Southern Urals.
    The Volgograd Tractor Plant was disposed of in 2018, as did 74000 enterprises across the country over 20 years of GDP. Grandfathers fought, built, and grandchildren sold everything, profuka ?!
    1. Potter 7 March 2020 17: 31 New
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      Not for 20, but for 35! Starting with the reckless restructuring and conversion of Gorbachev, ending with the drunken revolution of August 1991, the drunk Yeltsan and the crowds of the distraught intelligentsia. Since the collapse of the industry of Western agents Gaidar, Chubais and other bastards. Or are you their defender from among the shit?
      1. Alf
        Alf 7 March 2020 20: 45 New
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        Quote: Potter
        Not for 20, but for 35!

        And where was the plant in 20 years of "lifting from its knees"?
    2. Mountain shooter 7 March 2020 23: 28 New
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      Quote: Iskander. Richard
      The Volgograd Tractor Plant was disposed of in 2018, as did 74000 enterprises across the country over 20 years of GDP. Grandfathers fought, built, and grandchildren sold everything, profuka?

      And how could 74 thousand factories be sold? When there were about 20 thousand of them? There are such numbers in the statistics of the USSR.
  12. merkava-2bet 8 March 2020 15: 57 New
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    I'd like to continue, especially after the war. Thanks a lot.
  13. Mazuta 10 March 2020 19: 48 New
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    Thanks to the author.
    Excellent article.
  14. Jager 13 March 2020 20: 25 New
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    The author snagged quotes from the book "Tank Industry of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War" by Nikita Melnikov.
    Just the day before yesterday I finished reading it and I remember all the moments well. The book is excellent, although not without some drawbacks ...