Grand Inquisitor of Torquemada


The struggle of the inquisitors of the Catholic kings against the allegedly unstable conversos (converting Jews to Christianity) ultimately led to large-scale persecution of the Jews of the united kingdoms, which ended in their expulsion from the country.


"Blood libel"


In the years 1490-1491. the so-called case of the holy child from La Guardia caused a great resonance in Castile: the inquisitors then accused several Jews and their sympathizers of the ritual murder of a five-year-old Christian child in a small town near Toledo. According to investigators, this was the case: on Good Friday, 1488, five Jews and six “new Christians” carved a 5-year-old boy from La Guardia, forced him to bear the cross, and “suffered the same sufferings described in the New Testament as applied to Jesus To Christ. " After that, they crucified him and tore out the heart, which they were going to use for magic rituals with the aim of poisoning the water.

8 suspects were found guilty and burned. Three more were unavailable due to death or timely departure. And the boy, whose identity and the very fact of whose existence could not be established, was declared a saint. Jewish historians, by the way, are very doubtful even of the very possibility of a union of Spanish Jews with uncircumcised conversos, whom they did not consider Jews. AT historical literature, this case received the eloquent name of "blood libel."

"Book autodafe"


Around the same time, more than 6 thousand books were burned at St. Stephen's Square in Salamanca, which, according to Torquemada, were "infected with the errors of Judaism or saturated with witchcraft, magic, magic and other superstitions."

Juan Antonio Llorente, who, recall, himself at the end of the XVIII century was the Secretary of the Inquisition Tribunal in Madrid, writes:

“How many valuable works perished! Their only crime was that they could not be understood. ”

According to the testimony of the same author, these and other “book autodafes” were pure “amateur performances” of the inquisitors, who

“Not only did they not conform to either the papal bull or the royal decrees, they even neglected the appeal to the diocesan bishop. The Council of the Inquisition decided everything on its own, following the assessments of theologians called qualifiers, who, in general, were biased people. "

Arthur Arnoux wrote in The Stories of the Inquisition:

“That was just the end of morality and intelligence. The land turned into a huge monastery, indulging in the stupefying rites of false and perverted piety. ”

However, books in Spain were burned even before Torquemada: in 1434, for example, the confessor of Juan II Lope de Barrientos (the Dominican, of course) persuaded this monarch to burn the library of Don, a close relative of the king - Enrique of Aragon, the Marquis de Villena, who was a rather famous poet and alchemist.

The Spanish Inquisitors did not invent anything new: they followed the path indicated by Dominic Guzman - their patron and founder of the Order.

Grand Inquisitor of Torquemada

"Saint Dominic burning heretical books." Painting by P. Berruguet, circa 1500

Edict of granada


According to most historians, both the "blood libel" and the large-scale burning of books in Salamanca were aimed at preparing public awareness for the publication of the famous "El Decreto de la Alhambra" ("Edicto de Granada"), which announced the expulsion of Jews from the territory of the United Kingdom . This edict was published on March 31, 1492.


The Alhambra (Granada) Edict of Ferdinand and Isabella of March 31, 1492

The Edict, in particular, said:

“When a serious and heinous crime is committed by members of a group, it is wise to destroy the entire group.”

Nicolas-Sylvester Bergier (famous doctor of theology of the XVIII century) wrote:

"After the conquest of Granada (January 2, 1492), the Inquisition unfolded in Spain with such force and severity that the ordinary tribunals never had."

Now, the "Jewish question" in the territory subject to the Catholic kings had to be resolved finally and irrevocably.

Jews were ordered to leave Spain by the end of July 1492, while they were mockingly allowed

“Take your property outside our possessions, whether by sea or by land, provided that neither gold, nor silver, nor minted coins, nor other objects prohibited by the laws of the kingdom (gems, pearls) are taken away.”

That is, the Jews had to leave the country, leaving almost all their property, since it was almost impossible to sell it - the neighbors knew that after 4 months they would get everything for nothing, and money for that part of it that was still managed to be sold was ruthlessly withdrawn boundaries. It is believed that then more than fifty thousand wealthy Jewish families lost their fortune. The descendants of the Spanish Jews who left the country in 1492 kept the keys to “their” houses until the XNUMXth century.

Learning about the Granada Edict, the Jews tried to act on the principle: "if the problem can be solved with money, then this is not a problem, but expenses." They offered the Catholic monarchs 30 thousand ducats “for state needs”, an obligation from all Jews to live in separate quarters from Christians, returning to their homes before nightfall, and even agreed to a ban on certain professions. Isaac ben Yehuda, the former treasurer of the king of Portugal, and now the royal farmer in Castile and trusted adviser to the Catholic kings, who granted him the nobility and the right to be called Don Abravanel, went to an audience with Isabella and Ferdinand. At this meeting, Queen Isabella stated that Jews can remain on condition of conversion to Christianity. But the amount collected by the Jewish communities made the right impression. The Catholic monarchs were already inclined to cancel their Edict when Torquemada appeared in the palace, who declared:

“Judas Iscariot sold his master for thirty pieces of silver. And your Majesties are now ready to sell it for thirty thousand coins. "

Then he threw a crucifix on the table, saying:

"Our crucified Savior is depicted here, for him you will receive several more silver coins."



Emilio Sala y Frances. The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain, Prado Museum

The fate of the Spanish Jews was decided. According to modern data, from 50 to 150 thousand Jews chose baptism ("conversion"), the rest - exile. It is this group of Jews that is known throughout the world as “Sephardim” (from “Sefarad” - Spain).

Sephardic and Ashkenazi


Before the exodus, the rabbis ordered the marriage of all children over 12 years old - so that no one would be alone in a foreign land.


The expulsion of the Jews. XNUMXth Century Color Engraving

It should be said that the expulsion of the Jews was not something fundamentally new and few in Europe surprised anyone. Jews were expelled from France in 1080, 1147, 1306, 1394 and 1591, from England - in 1188, 1198, 1290 and 1510, from Hungary - in 1360, from Poland - in 1407. Perhaps the nature of this deportation was surprising: Jews expelled not on a national, but on a confessional basis. Torquemada sent his subordinates to the Jewish quarters to explain: the government and the church do not want the Jews to leave the country, but their conversion to the “true faith”, and urged everyone to be baptized and preserve their property and status in society.

Against the background of large-scale repressions against conversos, the decision of many Spanish Jews to maintain their faith is not surprising: they quite reasonably assumed that in a couple of years they would be burned for insufficiently zealous rituals of a religion new to them.

The exiled Jews chose different ways of emigration. Some of them went to Italy, including Don Abravanel (Yitzhak bin Yehuda). Many died on the way from the plague, and those that were in Naples in 1510-1511. were banished from there for several years.

Others headed to North Africa, where many were killed and robbed.

The fate of those who decided to connect their fate with the Ottoman Empire was better. By order of the eighth Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II, Turkish ships under the command of Admiral Kemal Reis, who had fought on the side of Granada in Andalusia and the Balearic Islands since 1487, now took on board running Sephardim. They were settled in Istanbul, Edirne, Thessaloniki, Izmir, Manisa, Bursa, Gelibole, Amasya and some other cities. This Sultan commented on the “Granada Edict” with the words:

"How can I call King Ferdinand wise if he enriched my country, while he himself became a beggar."



Sultan Bayazid II

Some Jews reached Palestine, where the Safed community appeared.

The fate of those Spanish Jews who decided to emigrate to Portugal was tragic, because already in 1498 they again had to survive the horrors of exile. And again Torquemada was related to their expulsion! It was he who insisted on the inclusion in the marriage contract concluded between the King of Portugal Manuel and the daughter of the Catholic monarchs Isabella of Asturias (Isabella the Younger) a clause requiring the expulsion of the Jews of this country. Isabella, who was previously married to the Portuguese prince Alfonso (the young man died after falling from his horse), did not want to go to Portugal for the second time. She said that now she intends to engage only in prayers and self-flagellation, but you don’t especially get close to such parents and Tommaso Torquemada - I went.


Isabella the Younger, a fragment of the painting “Madonna of the Catholic Kings” by Fernando Gallega

The girl did not deceive the premonition: on the way to her wedding, the only son of the Catholic monarchs, Juan, died, and she died during childbirth on August 23, 1498. And after 4 years, her son also died, who was to become king of Castile, Aragon and Portugal. This death was one of the reasons that Portugal did not become part of Spain.

In later times, Sephardim reached Navarre, Bizkaia, central and northern France, Austria, England and the Netherlands.


Emigration of Jews from Spain, map

The most striking thing is that the more orthodox Sephardic people brutally quarreled with the Ashkenazi, considering them "second-class Jews." And some of them did not consider Ashkenazis to be Jews at all, claiming that they were the descendants of the residents of the Khazar Khaganate who had accepted and did not belong to any of the tribes of Israel. This "hypothesis" turned out to be very tenacious, and the "Khazar origin of Ashkenazi" (especially when it comes to immigrants from the former Soviet republics) can sometimes be heard even in modern Israel.

In the Sephardic synagogues of Amsterdam and London of the 1776th century, Sephardim sat, Ashkenazi - stood behind the partition. Marriages between them were not encouraged, in 1843 the London Sephardic community decided: in the event of the death of the Sephardic who married the Ashkenazi daughter, his widow was not entitled to help. Ashkenazi also treated the Sephardim very cool. In New York in 1968 they created a public organization, which in German was called the Bundesbruder, in Yiddish - Bnei Brit (meaning one - “sons” or “brothers” of the Union, in 22 it had a thousand branches in XNUMX countries of the world) - Sephardis were not accepted into this “union”.

Yes, and these two groups of Jews spoke in different languages: Sephardic - in "Ladino", Ashkenazi - in Yiddish.

The division of Jews into Sephardic and Ashkenazi is still preserved. But there is, after all, another rather large group of Jews - the “mizrahs” who are considered to be immigrants from Asia and Africa of non-Hispanic origin: they include the Jews of Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Iran and India.

Ashkenazi Jews lived mainly on the territory of the Russian Empire (below the Pale of Settlement).


Map of the Pale of Settlement (red line)

But in Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Bukhara, Jewish communities existed that professed Sephardic Judaism; these Jews have no Spanish roots.

Among the descendants of Spanish Jews are the philosopher Baruch Spinoza, one of the founders of political economy, David Ricardo, impressionist painter Camille Pizarro and even British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. The latter once declared in the House of Lords:

“When the ancestors of my esteemed opponent were savages on an unknown island, my ancestors were priests in the Temple of Jerusalem.”

It is believed that the last Jew left Spain on August 2, 1492. And the next day, three caravels of Christopher Columbus set off from the Spanish port of Palos de la Frantera (Wembley Province).


Palos de la Frontera on a map of Spain


Palos de la Frontera, Caravel Pier

Jacques Attali, a French politician and economist of Jewish descent (the first head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the alleged member of the Bilderberg Club), said in this regard:
"In 1492, Europe closed to the East and turned to the West, trying to get rid of everything that was not Christian."

It is believed that from one and a half to two million descendants of Jews expelled by Catholic kings in the XNUMXth century now live in the world. The authorities of modern Spain offer them citizenship in a simplified procedure: this requires either historical documents or a notarized certificate from the head of a recognized Sephardic Jewish community.

Roman adversary Tommaso de Torquemada


Meanwhile, on July 25, 1492, Pope Innocent VIII died, and Rodrigo di Borgia, better known as Pope Alexander VI, was elected the new pontiff.


Pope Alexander VI, bust, late XNUMXth century, marble

This native of the small town of Khativa near Valencia was called the "Apothecary of Satan", "the monster of debauchery" and "the darkest figure of the papacy," and his reign was "misfortune for the church."


"I am a father". French medieval caricature of Pope Alexander VI

It was he who, according to legend, died by confusing a glass of poisoned wine that his son Cesare prepared for the cardinals having lunch with them (Cesare survived).


John Collier “A glass of wine from Cesare Borgia” - the last day of Pope Alexander VI

All the more surprising is the efforts of this pope to stop the madness of the Spanish inquisitors beyond his control and his struggle against Torquemada, to which he tried to attract even the Catholic king Ferdinand. These efforts, much more active and consistent than the timid attempts of Sixtus IV, gave Louis Viardot the opportunity to call Torquemada "a merciless executioner, whose bloody atrocities were reproached even by Rome."

Once again the question arises - which is worse: a cheerful bastard invested in power or an honest and disinterested fanatic who has the opportunity to rule human destinies?

In the end, on June 23, 1494, Alexander VI sent to Torquemade four “assistants” (co-auditors), to whom he gave the right to appeal his decisions. The papal decree said that this is done "in view of the old age of Torquemada and his various ailments" - the great inquisitor took this phrase as an open insult. Many believe that this was a deliberate provocation: Alexander VI hoped that the enemy, angry with “distrust”, would defiantly resign, relying on the intercession of Queen Isabella.

But Torquemada was not a person who could even let anyone get into his own business, and therefore he continued to make decisions alone. At his insistence, two bishops were sentenced to death, who dared to complain to him in Rome, but Pope Alexander VI obtained pardon from the Catholic kings.

The constant opposition that Torquemada now felt literally at every step and on all issues, of course, was very angry and annoying him. And age already made itself felt. The Grand Inquisitor now slept poorly, he was tormented by gouty pain and constant weakness, some even said that the inquisitor was haunted by the "shadows of innocent victims." In 1496, Torquemada, nominally continuing to remain a great inquisitor, actually retired, retiring to the monastery of St. Thomas (Tommaso) built with his active participation.


Royal Monastery de Santo Tomas, Avila

He no longer came to the royal palace, but Catholic monarchs regularly visited him. Queen Isabella's visits became especially frequent after the only son of Isabella and Ferdinand, Juan, who died at the age of 1497, was buried in this monastery in 19.


Tombstone of Prince Juan of Asturias, son of the Catholic monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand, the monastery of St. Thomas, Avila

In the last year of his life, Torquemada convened the inquisitors of the United Kingdom to familiarize them with the new set of instructions from 16 points. He also entered into negotiations with the English king Henry VII, who, in exchange for promoting the marriage of his eldest son Arthur with the youngest daughter of the Catholic monarchs Catherine, made a promise not to accept in his country those who were persecuted by the Inquisition.

Catherine of Aragon



Joannes Corvus. Catherine of Aragon, National Portrait Gallery, London

The fate of this daughter of the great monarchs turned out to be difficult and strange. She arrived in England in October 1501, the wedding took place on November 14, and on April 2, 1502, her husband Arthur died before he could leave the heir. Catherine said that she did not have time to enter into an intimate relationship with her husband in view of his young age. For several years she was in England, while her parents (and then, after the death of her mother in 1504, only her father) were negotiating with Henry VII.


Tombs of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, Royal Chapel, Granada

The English king hesitated for a long time, choosing to marry the young widow himself (which did not suit the Spanish side), or to marry her to her second son. In 1507, Ferdinand sent credentials to Catherine, and she appeared in the role of ambassador to the English Court, thus becoming the first female diplomat. Finally, in April 1509, dying, Henry VII, worrying about the future of his dynasty, demanded that his son and sole heir marry Catherine. On June 11, 1509, the new king married his brother's widow. This king was the famous Henry VIII, who is perceived by many as the English reincarnation of the Duke of Bluebeard from a French legend.


Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon


The Six Wives of Henry VIII: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Kathryn Howard, Katherine Parr.

And this is an English reading room that allows students to remember their fate:

Divorced, beheaded, died;
Divorced, beheaded, survived.
(“Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived”).

All the children of Catherine of Aragon, except for one girl, Maria, were born dead or died immediately after childbirth. On this basis, Henry VIII requested permission from the Pope Clement VII for divorce - appealing to the biblical dictum: “If anyone takes his brother’s wife: this is vile; he revealed the nakedness of his brother, they will be childless. "


Frank O. Salisbury. Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon in front of the papal legates in 1529, painting in 1910

The refusal of the pope led to a complete severance of relations with Rome and the adoption in 1534 of the famous “Act of Suprematism,” in which Henry was proclaimed the supreme head of the Church of England. Henry VIII married Anna Boleyn, Catherine was deprived of the status of queen, becoming only the Dowager Princess of Wales, and her daughter was declared illegitimate. This did not prevent Mary Tudor from ascending the English throne (in 1553). She was also the queen of Ireland, and since 1556, after her marriage to Philip II, she was also the queen of Spain.


Hans Evort. Portrait of Maria Tudor, 1554

She went down in history under the nickname of Maria the Bloody, she ruled for 4 years and died in 1557 from some kind of fever. Her successor was another girl with a difficult fate - the daughter of Anna Boleyn Elizabeth, whose "sea dogs" will destroy the Invincible Armada and tear apart the colonial possessions of Spain to shreds.


Elizabeth Tudor Knights Francis Drake at Deptford in 1581

During her reign, the famous British East India Company will appear, William Shakespeare will be famous and Maria Stuart will be executed.


George Gower. Portrait of the English Queen Elizabeth I Tudor

Death of Tommaso Torquemada


After pardoning the bishops who complained about him to Rome, the offended Torquemada did not visit the royal palace. Catholic kings, especially Isabella, came to him themselves.


Isabella Catholic. Portrait of the work of Juan de Flandes. This portrait of Isabella is about 50 years old.

September 16, 1498 Torquemada died and was buried in the chapel of the monastery of St. Thomas (Thomas). In 1836, his grave was destroyed on the grounds that Torquemada, who ordered many people to be removed from the graves in order to abuse their remains, must himself posthumously experience the same fate.

The sad fate of the Mudejar and the Moriski


4 years after the death of Torquemada, the Moors (Mudejaras) who did not want to be baptized were expelled from Castile - this happened in 1502. This deportation is also often mistakenly attributed to Tommaso Torquemade. Those Moors who chose to stay converted to Christianity have since been scornfully called Moriski ("Mauritanians") in Castile, Saracens in Valencia and Catalonia, and in Aragon they kept the name of the name of the Moors.

In 1568, the Moors living in the territory of the former Granada Emirate raised a rebellion, which was a response to the ban on the Arabic language, national clothes, traditions and customs in 1567 (Alpuhara war). It was suppressed only in 1571.

On April 9, 1609, King Philip III signed an edict on the expulsion of the Moriski from the country, very similar to Granada in 1492. The difference was that it was allowed to remove young children from the Moriski families who were handed over to Catholic priests for education. First, the descendants of the Moors were evicted from Valencia, then (as early as 1610) - from Aragon, Catalonia and Andalusia.


The expulsion of the Moors in the port of Denia Vicente (province of Alicante)


Gabriel Puid Rod. “The Expulsion of the Morisks” (the picture was painted in 1894). Castellon Museum of Fine Arts

In total, about 300 thousand people were deported, according to experts, this deportation had negative consequences for the country's economy. It was Moriski who specialized in growing olive and mulberry trees, rice, grapes, and sugar cane. In the south, through their efforts, an irrigation system was created, now worn out. Many fields in those years remained sown, cities lacked manpower. Castile in this regard suffered the least - it is believed that tens of thousands of mariskas managed to escape deportation in this kingdom.

It is interesting that some of the Mariskas remained Christians - they moved to Provence (up to 40 thousand people), Livorno or to America. But most of them returned to Islam (some, perhaps in protest) and settled in the Maghreb.

Some of the Moriskans settled in Morocco near the city of Sale, where there was already a colony of Spanish Moors who moved there at the beginning of the 1627th century. They were known as “Ornacheros” - after the name of the Spanish (Andalusian) city of Ornachuelos. Their language was Arabic. But the new settlers spoke already in the Andalusian dialect of Spanish. They had nothing to lose, and very quickly on the Moroccan coast appeared the pirate republic of Sale (from the name of the fortified city), which also included Rabat and Kasbah. This peculiar state existed from 1668 to XNUMX, its authorities even established diplomatic relations with England, France and Holland. Consul Street in Medina (the old city) of Rabat recalls this time. Its first “great admiral” and “president” was the Dutch corsair Jan Jansson van Haarlem, who, having been captured by the Barbary pirates near the Canary Islands, converted to Islam and became known to everyone under the name Murat-reis (the Younger).

But we will talk about the famous Barbary pirates and the great Ottoman admirals in the following articles.
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  1. Pessimist22 6 March 2020 06: 12 New
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    Religion is opium for the people! And a very dangerous thing.
    1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 06: 32 New
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      Any doctrine becomes opium, both for the individual and for society, when fanaticism begins to dominate the intellect. Atheism is no exception.
      1. Pessimist22 6 March 2020 07: 28 New
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        Atheism is simply the lack of faith in some kind of gods, it is simply life in modern society.
        1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 08: 55 New
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          Atheism is a worldview, as is any religion. And it also has its own apologists, some of which reach fanaticism.
          1. nickname7 6 March 2020 16: 31 New
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            Atheism is a worldview, just like any religion
            .
            Yes, this is a worldview, but atheism is fundamentally different, as it is based on knowledge and a scientific approach, and religion is ignorance (darkness) and dogmas invented already in ancient Egypt and Asiria, they practice rituals and sacrifices to otherworldly beings. The difference is huge.
        2. Shkworen 8 March 2020 17: 22 New
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          lack of faith is rather agnosticism :)
      2. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 09: 04 New
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        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Any doctrine becomes opium, both for the individual and for society, when fanaticism begins to dominate the intellect. Atheism is no exception.

        Good morning Anton!
        Atheism is a blind, fanatical faith in the creation of the world at random)),
        1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 10: 07 New
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          Albert! hi
          So I am about the same.
        2. Boris55 6 March 2020 11: 38 New
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          Quote: Krasnodar
          Atheism is a blind, fanatical belief in the creation of the world at random

          Who believes in Mohammed, who - in Allah, who - in Jesus,
          Whoever does not believe in anything - even to hell, to spite everyone ...



          Any association of people is: the madness of many, for the sake of the welfare of the individual.
          1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 12: 25 New
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            In this regard, atheism is not a commercial organization. laughing
            1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 20: 29 New
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              Albert, my friend, do not tell this to the Orthodox!
        3. Pessimist22 6 March 2020 13: 59 New
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          My personal conclusions are based on scientific data, and religion is based on Jewish folklore, written 2000 years ago, where all the slaves of some fictional character, even a joke, I know a good one on this subject:
          There lived a pagan and a Christian in the neighborhood. The Christian pacified the whole life of his flesh, prayed earnestly, handed out money to beggars - he was hungry, sat on his other cheek if beaten - in general, he suffered and suffered. AND
          the pagan in the field of Dazhdbog will greet and live for his pleasure. They both died, and went to heaven. A Christian watches that a pagan with a god sits at the same table, and set up his dishes.
          Says: - Lord! He did not observe anything! And you plant him at the table? And God answers:
          - So all his life he considered himself a grandson of God, and you are a slave. To each according to his faith!
          1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 14: 25 New
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            Ok scientific knowledge
            Until now, a person has not been able to manufacture something close to the lens of the eye or a mechanism equal in strength and functionality to the joint)).
            Mathematically, the probability of creating such biological devices in a random way, even in the process of tens of millions of years of evolution, is one billionth. This is if you follow science hi
            Jewish folklore is more about morality, family, history.
            1. Kronos 6 March 2020 14: 54 New
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              Zdraste could not prostheses and artificial body parts are getting closer in quality to biological
              1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 15: 07 New
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                That's it, that everything is getting closer, conditionally and still far from natural - even to the most advanced samples)).
                The prosthetic hand - the most advanced model - Michelangelo - only just learned to separately use the thumb and four others.
                Leg prosthesis model - Medium sensory sensory sensitivity has recently been achieved. And the materials are far from natural - with the exception of the collagen implants of the mammary gland - sho not functionally, but visually and tactilely. laughing
                1. Kronos 6 March 2020 15: 30 New
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                  Do you remember the first mobile phones and what they are now with the development of technology? That's also with everything else never and immediately do the perfect thing
                  1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 15: 37 New
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                    Of course I remember. The first samples could be easily killed laughing
                    Nevertheless, the probability of creating such complex biological systems and mechanisms without a Higher Mind is mathematically equal to one billionth)).
                    1. Svarog51 6 March 2020 20: 00 New
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                      Albert hi In my opinion, the joints of the human hand are not the most difficult joint. Shoulder - ball joint, elbow - door hinge, wrist - torsion bar. This is if you simplify it completely. But - the fastest representative of the fauna - a bumblebee. Now, if you can create its mechanical model - it will be a breakthrough. The flight speed of the bumblebee relative to the length of its body has not surpassed more than one other flying representative of the fauna. And it can also hang, and this with its proportions - body volume to wing area. I won’t talk about everything else.
                      About Torquemada - he is the son of his era, what he was aimed at, he did. Just I do not understand why the Inquisition was mainly engaged in the Jews? Then there were a lot of people in Spain. My opinion is the banal redistribution of wealth under the auspices of the church. Freebie and in the twenty-first century has not lost its relevance, only the signs of the "Order of Freeloaders" are changing.
                      1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 20: 33 New
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                        Greetings! hi
                        Joints - they are very durable, serve for a long time, withstand a constant load, etc. Bumblebee - yes, I agree. As for the Jew: quite right, the selection of attendants was easy to justify;
                        And yet - the Saracens were kicked out, and other Gentiles are still here ... therefore)).
                      2. Svarog51 6 March 2020 20: 52 New
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                        And yet - the Saracens were kicked out, and other Gentiles are still here ... therefore)).

                        So the question arises, when Europe overflows, will a new Torquemada be brought to power? Bonfires again?
                        P.S. Congratulations soldier drinks
          2. Pessimist22 6 March 2020 15: 12 New
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            Well, we are expressing our thoughts thousands of kilometers apart, this is due to inquisitive people with freedom of thought, thanks to science, religion, and so much as a hindrance to the development of science, that I think it slowed down its development for several centuries, and so we are possible in a completely they lived in a different world, but if the Inquisition of all freethinkers had been burned, we would not have climbed out of the Middle Ages.
            1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 15: 19 New
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              Here it is necessary to distinguish:
              1) Religion - a human institution - power, commerce, etc.
              2) Faith in Gd - following the laws of modern morality - do not kill, do not steal, do not desire, etc.
              3) The positive aspects of religion are traditions. Family holidays, family values
              4) Not all religions are against science)). Not all modern clergymen are against science
              1. Pessimist22 6 March 2020 15: 34 New
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                Well, you will understand, religion is atavism, it is not needed in modern society, in the most developed and educated countries, they don’t remember about it already, only in the uneducated East it is the entrance and you know what is happening there.
                1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 15: 48 New
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                  Ok
                  The most developed country in the West is the USA. In the scientific, financial, military sense. She is the most religious country in the Western World.
                  Europe - the absence of religion entails the lack of fertility necessary to preserve the nation.
                  And to replace the local one goes the "dense East", the most developed country in the scientific and other senses of which is Israel, is also quite religious.
                  1. Pessimist22 6 March 2020 16: 04 New
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                    USA? You probably wanted to say the western world gendarme? In the USA, population growth due to migrants takes place, and the standard of living and education is much lower than in the Netherlands or Sweden, where religion was forgotten.
                    1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 16: 55 New
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                      In the United States, the number of children born in the United States per family is higher than in the Netherlands and Sweden - 2.05 and 1,8 / 1.72 in total, and 1,64 for white Americans. White Swedes and Dutch have much more modest indicators. The level of universities is the highest in the States. The HDI - yes, higher in Sweden and the Netherlands - however, in the first after the minimum wage, 50% of taxes and a lot of Arabs (and not like in London), in the second - they are also full, and Mahmoud and Fatima are common names - which is not bad itself, however, means a very fast return of these countries to religion - but not Christian)).
          3. nickname7 6 March 2020 16: 39 New
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            Until now, a person has not been able to manufacture something close to the lens of the eye or a mechanism equal in strength and functionality to the joint

            For you, the world is static and today's level will last until the end. But in fact, they used to plow the plow before, and now, on a tractor, in 20-50 years they will be able to what they cannot now.
            A computer in your opinion is not an achievement?
            1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 17: 22 New
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              Is an
              But we are now talking about systems and biomechanisms, the occurrence of which is randomly impossible mathematically hi
              1. nickname7 6 March 2020 18: 01 New
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                systems and biomechanisms, the occurrence of which is randomly impossible mathematically


                Everything is possible, it is a question of the baggage of knowledge, if there is no knowledge it is not clear. On very large numbers, randomness happens and the jackpot wins.
                There is a book "the birth of complexity" there it is described that biomechanisms arose from the simplest forms and became more complicated.
                1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 20: 39 New
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                  I know the theory of evolution)).
                  It’s not clear why they took the simplest forms under some incomprehensible effect - and became more complicated ... it took tens of millions of years ... the complicator - the expediency is zero - but the ciliates of the shoe turned into a Dolphin. With hydrodynamics, intelligence, ultrasound and other personal belongings. And the other simplest organism is in the bibling. Shoby then become a home sapiens. And what? It is quite possible - the theory of large numbers is also a theory to justify anything)).
      3. Kronos 6 March 2020 14: 53 New
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        Atheists rely on nothing like scientific evidence that is becoming more sophisticated and believers only on the dogmas of faith.
        1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 15: 14 New
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          No way - protecting the solar system is an accident? )) The immune system? Nervous system - still poorly understood? Human science is still very far from that created by the Higher Mind yes
          Dogmas - kosher food - nutritionists, gastroenterologists give their patients in the first quarter of the 21st century give the same recommendations to their patients that were given to Jews three thousand years ago - do not mix meat and milk, time intervals between such meals, etc. ))) hi
          1. Kronos 6 March 2020 15: 29 New
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            There is no accident all according to physical laws and nature without any higher forces
            1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 15: 41 New
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              Kosher food - where did the Jews three thousand years ago come to the conclusions of modern nutritionists, gastroenterologists and highly specialized oncologists? )) Without laboratories, without research of the first, second, third phase in humans, etc.? laughing
              The mechanism of body protection and the mechanism of self-defense of cancer cells from immune cells are also “laws of nature?” )))
              1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 21: 39 New
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                Kosher food

                Here I will begin to doubt. In the Middle East, pork is haram, in India, a cow is a shrine. Modern nutritionists offer to eat pigeons, infectious disease specialists - against. laughing
                1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 21: 54 New
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                  Not in this chip - in the separate consumption of milk and meat)). At very correct, from the point of view of modern nutritionists, time intervals
                  1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 22: 11 New
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                    Well, this is from the point of view of modern nutritionists. You know, me, the last ten years, vague doubts that the biological mind in general is an intermediate stage. And where in this scheme is the place for the “proper” feeding of chlorella?
      4. nickname7 6 March 2020 16: 09 New
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        Atheism is a blind, fanatical faith in the creation of the world at random)),

        It’s not true, not “random creation,” but natural and not creation, but processes, under the influence of natural forces. For example, under the influence of gravity, there is a process of compression of gas and dust in space into solar systems, which is confirmed by photos from telescopes, as well as geology. Unlike religion, which claims that the earth was created out of nothing (artificial construction)
        Religion is an artificial, static world, unchanged from the day of creation. (worldview of the ancients)
        Natural science is a natural, dynamic, changing world. (confirmed by knowledge)



        The ancient people did not have a telescope, so they decided that the creatures created the world.
        1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 17: 07 New
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          And none of the above is in conflict with faith in the Creator. The launch of such a process in a “natural way" raises many questions. For example - why are we the only ones in the solar system? Why is the nearest planet with supposedly the same conditions as ours, located 120 light years from Earth, etc.
          1. nickname7 6 March 2020 17: 41 New
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            The launch of such a process in a “natural way" raises many questions.


            Data and facts need to be obtained, processed, it takes time and finances. We need new powerful telescopes and millions of human hours of intellectual labor. But over time, it will master.
            Yes, the launch of the “Big Bang” is not yet clear, but in principle it does not contradict science if we accept that the launch was initiated by God, but then its intervention is not required, the clock goes without the intervention of the watchmaker. There are no questions here, unless there is a lack of information, due to the difficulty of obtaining it.
            1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 17: 50 New
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              For me - science comprehends the mechanism of creation and laws of natural processes launched by the Creator
              That is, everything is created by the Higher Mind
              About His intervention is not required - I do not know, not sure
              And religions - yes, power and money
              1. Tamparu 6 March 2020 20: 52 New
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                Quote: Krasnodar
                For me - science comprehends the mechanism of creation and laws of natural processes launched by the Creator
                That is, everything is created by the Higher Mind

                And what is the Higher Mind? More advanced civilization? Earthly, unearthly ... not so important. The question arises!? And how did a more advanced civilization / higher mind form, who stood at its origins? A more advanced civilization / more intelligent than a higher mind ?! That is, where is the "culprit" of all this and where did he come from ?!))
                Sincerely, hi
                1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 21: 20 New
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                  Gd?
                  As I imagine it, a rational force that created and rules the world. Most likely - the intelligence is primary. Either energy has gained intelligence ... or reason has created energy. And away we go.
                  1. Tamparu 6 March 2020 21: 29 New
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                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Gd?
                    As I imagine it, a rational force that created and rules the world. Most likely - the intelligence is primary. Either energy has gained intelligence ... or reason has created energy. And away we go.

                    Good. Where did the original intelligence / mind or energy come from? I think no one will answer this question. But this is definitely not the god in whom representatives of most churches / religions of the world are now offering / making us "blindly" believe. Very good business and nothing personal. Something like this...
                    Sincerely, hi
                    1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 21: 34 New
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                      That religion is business and power and a piece of bread for children and grandchildren - no one argues
                      How Gd came about ... I can’t answer. Foundation of the universe
                  2. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 22: 32 New
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                    1. What happened before, chicken or egg?
                    2. Of course, chicken!
                    1. And where did she come from?
                    2. Naturally, from the rib of a rooster!
                    1. Hmmmm .... Mnnneeee .... Somehow it is doubtful ....
                    2. But after all, this version has rolled in people !!!
                    1. Krasnodar 6 March 2020 22: 40 New
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                      There used to be a ciliates shoe - over the course of tens of millions of years it has turned into Dolphin and Chicken. The chicken evolved and laid an egg. )))
      5. Boratsagdiev 11 March 2020 12: 01 New
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        Atheism is a belief in science, knowledge, of a person and others like them.
        And just the same religion - blind faith .... dissemble)
        1. Krasnodar 12 March 2020 22: 22 New
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          Once again, mathematically, atheism is blind faith. Scientific laughing so to speak. For example, your scientist Yandybek Sargandiev proved that in women the size of the brain is like that of a protein. And this despite the fact that he believes in the god-falcon.
          1. Boratsagdiev 13 March 2020 15: 27 New
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            You have some kind of scholasticism, not mathematics.
            To do this, you do not need to pull the owl on the globe.
    2. nickname7 6 March 2020 16: 25 New
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      But fanaticism does not bring to good, Spain is an example, it was a superpower, owned colonies and lost everything. Even Gibraltar took a monetary piece of Spanish territory.
      By the way, Elizabeth, unlike her sister, did not receive Catholic firmware, thought from the point of view of state interests, did not want to burn taxpayers, which laid the future potential.
    3. Nikolai Korovin 8 March 2020 00: 00 New
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      Atheism is also a religion. Usually convinced atheists are pantheists, deify nature and believe that God only does not exist as a person. "How wisely everything is arranged in nature!" This is significantly better than believing only in cash. A believer in cash is not an atheist. He has no opinion on this subject.
      Well, and when it comes to the fact that nature is not a temple, but a workshop, and the person in it is a worker (there seems to be nothing particularly criminal at first glance, such a perspective is useful) - under this sauce all sorts of unpleasant progressive things begin, perhaps even worse than believing in cash.
      I forgot who wrote that the ancient Egyptians also did not know where to go from progress. There are many hypotheses about the purpose of the pyramids, but there are no satisfactory ones among them. But if Swift is not lying, then this is a defensive structure to protect against a flying island.
  2. Phil77 6 March 2020 06: 49 New
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    Good morning to everyone! I agree with the respected Anton. But in this matter, very much determines the personality, here is the clearest example of a fanatic in power. Damn! Of course Valery, thanks for an interesting series of articles !!!
  3. Bar1 6 March 2020 08: 06 New
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    you drive them at the door, they climb out the window.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 09: 26 New
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      Quote: Bar1
      you drive them at the door, they climb out the window.

      And all with the cards !!! Bar where is the map, where is the map? !!!
      1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 10: 03 New
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        And all with the cards !!! Bar where is the map, where is the map? !!!

        He has no card! laughing
        Thank you very much Valery, other things binge. drinks
        and even British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. The latter once declared in the House of Lords:
        “When the ancestors of my esteemed opponent were savages on an unknown island, my ancestors were priests in the Temple of Jerusalem.”

        I recall Alexander Dumas - father. He was a quarterman, his grandmother was a black woman, and the papa mulatto was a general of the Napoleonic army. Dumas himself was also quite dark. And when some ill-wisher tried to offend him, Dumas replied juicyly:
        My father was a mulatto, my grandfather was a black man, and my great-grandfather was a monkey. See, sir, my family begins where your ends. request
      2. Astra wild 6 March 2020 20: 49 New
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        Get it off the shelf and show
  4. stroybat ZABVO 7 March 2020 03: 08 New
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    B7 greetings from Argentina.
    My wife, Gabriela, called our dog "Moriska" (a black-haired dog). I was interested in where this name comes from.
    And Gabrielle vaguely recalls that the word is from Spain .....
    The fact is that she has ancestors in Spain, whom she calls "Moro" ....
    Thanks to the author of the article, I was able to clarify the name of our dog.
  • 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 06: 44 New
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    Thank you so much Valery! Wonderful cycle!
    Henry VIII married Anna Boleyn,
    I will add for those interested in historical cinema. There is a wonderful English "costume drama" "Another of the Boleyn family"
    1. Phil77 6 March 2020 06: 57 New
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      Good morning Anton! And what movie do you mean? 2003 or 2008, with Scarlett Johansson in no. Role?
      1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 07: 05 New
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        Sergei! hi
        Honestly - I do not remember. Henry plays Cumberbatch.
        1. Phil77 6 March 2020 07: 29 New
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          2008: Only Henry Bun played Eric, and Cumberbatch played William Carey. hi
          1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 08: 51 New
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            Of course! Alas memory request Yes, and looked a long time.
    2. nickname7 6 March 2020 16: 44 New
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      There is a wonderful English "costume drama"

      This cannot be taken away from them, the British are great at making historical films.
  • Sergey Olegovich 6 March 2020 07: 50 New
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    A good series of articles, revealing to some extent the whole essence of the Inquisition. The only plus in the activities of the founder of the Spanish Inquisition of the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada is the unification of Castilla and Aragon. For all other activities, based on modern legislation, the great inquisitor should have been punished.
    1. Phil77 6 March 2020 08: 10 New
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      Dear Sergey Olegovich! Based on modern legislation, we simply would not know many historical figures! Not a single minute without justifying this fanatic. hi
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 08: 56 New
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        Quote: Sergey Olegovich
        A good series of articles, revealing to some extent the whole essence of the Inquisition. The only plus in the activities of the founder of the Spanish Inquisition of the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada is the unification of Castilla and Aragon. For all other activities, based on modern legislation, the great inquisitor should have been punished.

        I agree with the first part of the post - the article series is good!
        But, according to the punishment of the great inquisitor? Slightly precipitated !!! This is how we (contemporaries) will punish him? A flight of fancy, I will intervene in my depravity - "from the reference of the natural needs of the monument" to the "exhumation of the reverend and the awafe of the remains"?
        It’s not even funny, “the dead do not have shame” ..... so it will probably be right!
        Although when the EBN monument was doused with blue paint, the inner spark of satisfaction honestly admitted slipping through!
        Regards, Good day to all!
        1. Bar1 6 March 2020 08: 59 New
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          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka


          so, can you draw a map weakly, or can you only grind with your tongue?
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 09: 25 New
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            Bar! I drew five decks of cards from your submission !!! Is this not enough for you?
            1. Bar1 6 March 2020 09: 37 New
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              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Bar! I drew five decks of cards from your submission !!! Is this not enough for you?

              to draw a REAL political map that is close to medieval realities in the same ways (fonts) and on the same subject is problematic. Such a product is easily recognized, and to such an author who puts this product on display for life sticks the definition of a falsifier. Well, about you and others like you do not even say a falsifier, but simply yap.
            2. Bar1 6 March 2020 10: 26 New
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              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Bar! I drew five decks of cards from your submission !!! Is this not enough for you?

              do not forget to draw your own sixes on shoulder straps.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 13: 05 New
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                Quote: Bar1
                Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Bar! I drew five decks of cards from your submission !!! Is this not enough for you?

                do not forget to draw your own sixes on shoulder straps.

                C'mon - three of me is enough !!! laughing
            3. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 11: 27 New
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              Vladislav!
              Accept the expressions of my sincere and deep admiration! This, I understand, is skill, even envy is taken. How much time I fight with this character (I mean Bar1 and his other incarnations), nothing helps, but you once and again reforged him in a day!
              Quote: Bar1
              drawing a REAL political map that is close to medieval realities in the same ways (fonts) and on the same subject is problematic. Such a product is easily recognized, and the definition of a fake one sticks to the author who puts this product on display for life.

              To such a character - himself, not on the rack, not with a string on the scrotum! - spoke literally with the words of Vyacheslav our Olegovich, in fact recognizing the impossibility of falsifying ancient documents, even if so far it concerns only cards, but the beginning of trouble is a miracle!
              And even though this is the first common thought in a person for many years, and, yes, one swallow does not make spring, but suddenly (as we would like!) After this discussion, Bar1 will be interested in not only maps, but chronicles, chronicles, treaties, decrees and other historical sources ... After all, he now knows that no one has faked them ... Perhaps we are witnessing a rare, still, as I thought, impossible event in nature - stubborn to impossibility, a completely hopeless newcomer takes the first step along the historical knowledge...
              Bar1, I sincerely applaud you and urge you not to go this route, expand your range of interests in source studies and finally begin to study history as it is - in all its diversity, in all its contradictory and cruel beauty.
              In commemoration of such an outstanding event for the first time in my life, and I hope, not for the last time, I put a plus to your message.
              1. Bar1 6 March 2020 11: 45 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                in fact recognizing the impossibility of forging ancient documents,


                you didn’t understand anything again, I said that Kohanke didn’t make a normal map, and as for the falsifications, there are a lot of them. This is when in the 19th century they began to slap the cards on which Tartaria ceased to notice. squandering eulogies is popping in public.
                1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 12: 02 New
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                  Kohanke does not make a normal card, and as for fraud, there are many

                  Kohanka will not even do cartography! Dismiss stop This Kokhankin cat draws with clawed paws! wink
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 12: 58 New
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                    Shhh Nikolai don't tell anyone !!! And then addicted to gambling and all your krynki with sour cream from the underground will lose !!!
                    The third time in a day they confuse a cat with a pan !!! Maybe the realization that in the cellar of Tartaria is dumb, and there is only one ham left! Ham, ham, the enemy also will not give ......)
                    Pan Kokhanka, I report the sour cream to the enemy was not given that they did not cry out with Mikado, they beat the fuck. Ham, with ham worse than not eaten bitten, while digesting. Bite exactly in two sittings, tobish until the evening. Tartararam is definitely nothing in the cellar. Okay, I’ll go on the other side to bite the ham, otherwise half of Mikado has already bitten, and my eyes are hungry-hungry.
                    Your pan Kote.
                    Ps. The owner does not go to the cellar without valerian.
                    Kote.
                    1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 16: 52 New
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                      Ps. The owner does not go to the cellar without valerian.

                      The tone of the conspirator: "And without three kilos of sausages ...." soldier
                  2. Bar1 6 March 2020 13: 58 New
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                    Quote: Pan Kohanku
                    Kohanka will not even do cartography! Dismiss This Kohankin cat draws with clawed paws.


                    there are two of you, here is a scream, I just noticed.
                    1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 14: 28 New
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                      there are two of you, here is a scream, I just noticed.

                      us and you too funny and easy! yes Plus - set! wink
                    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 15: 01 New
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                      Can Bar and with cards also? Do you take a closer look?
                      The cat is not so scary as it is painted !!!
                      Now seriously!
                      An interesting description of the "deserted coast of Tartaria" was left by the captain of the sloop "Nadezhda" Kruzenshtern. The key word "uninhabited"! By the way, captains Kruzenshtern and Lisyansky used French and Spanish carats in their circumnavigation. Laperuz and our captains for three crossed out about a dozen non-existent lands, but entered the Tatar Strait into cartography. If the Russian captains in your understanding are “Romanov agents”, then Laperuz planted a big mine on your theory. In addition to cartographic, he pursued political goals. In this connection, a certain “lucky man” was planted in Okhotsk! Moreover, in the literal and figurative sense, the expedition of Astrolabia and Compass crashed!
                      So this "lucky man" wrote his memories of a year and a half trip to Siberia!
                      Now about the maps, in the understanding of the average citizen of central Russia of the 17-18 centuries, everything that was beyond the Volga was a completely ordinary place of residence of the Tatar hordes. It’s on a sort of kaliz with the outskirts (Ukraine) of Kaluga, Zaokskaya, Belomorskaya, etc. So there, in the distant steppes, the Tatars Cossacks, Tatars Nogaysky, Tatars Tyumen and others drove their hordes. In the south lived the Tatars of the Caucasus, Kabarda and Krymchaks. In the documents of the time of Peter - the Tatars call Kalmyks. Talking about the Urals Tatars, Tatishchev writes that “they are lying about the fact that they are Bashkirs”! In the documents of Nicholas I listed about 12 Tatar ethnic groups? Of these, only the first 4 are related to real Tatars! Like, for example, the Tatars of Bukhara! By the way, they are mentioned for 200 years before Nikolai, the son of the boyar Remizov! But, the last khan of the Siberian horde - Kuchum, was a native of Bukhara !!! So, Tataria was a marker of the Basurman of the subjects of the Russian Empire (non-Orthodox and non-Catholic religion).
                      The Siberian governors and governors also contributed. Who branded Tatars all who wandered in the modern Kazakh and Mongolian steppes! Including the Dzhugar, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz! For example, from the notes of the Yakutsk voivode. “At noon the Tatars are worried” !!! In reality, the Khakases.
                      So, draw your own conclusions !!!
                      1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 15: 21 New
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                        In the south lived the Tatars of the Caucasus, Kabarda and Krymchaks. In the documents of the time of Peter - the Tatars call Kalmyks. Talking about the Urals Tatars, Tatishchev writes that “they are lying about the fact that they are Bashkirs”! In the documents of Nicholas I listed about 12 Tatar ethnic groups?

                        and Leo Tolstoy in the "Prisoner of the Caucasus" also calls the Highlanders "Tatars." Although here, probably, it was sacrificed to the Russian idea. hi The common people who read the book would not understand the names of the peoples of the Caucasus, but the word "Tatar" - everything, of course, is "a Caucasian resident of a different faith."hi
                      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 16: 22 New
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                        I do not think Nikolai that Tolstoy was cunning or simplifying. He wrote and operated on the conceptual apparatus of his time!
                        However, like the other two, three, and even four centuries before him, officials, military and ordinary people. Even in diplomatic documents, you can find the Germans Holstein, the Germans of the land of the fzzyazka, the Germans of the Roman Empire, etc. In everyday life, "Germans-dumb-foreigners"! Tatars could be both their own and others!
                        For example, Tatishchev in his works fundamentally separates (possibly the first of the domestic officials) Kazan Tatars, Tyumen Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Barbara Tatars, Nogai Tatars from Netars: Bashkirs, Kalmyks, Chuvashs, Meri, Mordovians, Ostyaks, Pelemy, Kondas and paddocks!
                        Just to backfill, can many of us by sight distinguish Hunt from Mansi, or both from Nenets or Yugokar?
                        So the clerk at the end of Ivan the Terrible’s reign didn’t particularly wave, who was buzzing in Pecher and Beloozero - “the self-fed is worried again!”
                        Or, a century later, during the reign of Peter the Great, the Scotsman De Genin was particularly interested in who lives in the upper reaches of the Ufa River? The clerk writes: “Leave the lands in Ufimka behind the Bashkir yurt of Arakayevo!” Today the Tatar village !!!
                        Only the insightful Tatishchev (Kalmyk face - according to De Genin) expresses doubt that the Bashkirs from Ufa are the real Tatars!
                        A century later, “Bashkir Tatars from Tulgash” asked for serfs to Baron Stroganov (there was such a thing), essentially Tatars from Tulgash and Bashkirs from Akbash also requested! They accepted everyone on special terms !!!), but the paper scraper from Perm mixed up where everyone came from, the paper will endure the “Bashkir Tatars”, they have been playing with tracing paper in legal documents for a quarter of a century.
                        Well, somewhere like that!
                      3. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 16: 35 New
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                        I agree on all points, Vladislav!
                        Even in diplomatic documents, you can find the Germans Holstein, the Germans of the land of the fzzyazka, the Germans of the Roman Empire, etc.

                        Add! The Russian-English concession was broken after the execution of Charles I Stuart, and the Russian side initiated it, with the wording: "I would like these English Germans his king Carolus to death killed! " drinks
                        In everyday life "Germans-dumb-foreigners"!

                        Papenka Suvorova, when driving the Holstein army of Peter II to the castle, yelled at his hussars with might and main: "Chop the Prussians!" Although it was not the Prussians, but the Holstein people, but apparently at that moment they were for the Russians "all on one face"! hi
                  3. Bar1 6 March 2020 17: 24 New
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                    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    The keyword "uninhabited"


                    imagine a quote with reference to Kruzenshtern.

                    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Laperuz and our captains for three crossed out about a dozen nonexistent lands, but inscribed the Tatar Strait in cartography


                    Yes, not Tatar, but Tartar and not a strait, but a bay. Here is a map of 1872.




                    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    If the Russian captains in your understanding are “agents of the Romanovs”

                    there was censorship in Russia and nothing of its own could appear in the press. Such a serfdom on publishing.

                    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    So this "lucky man" wrote his memories of a year and a half trip to Siberia!


                    it cannot be true, it’s the same censorship. Regarding the one who didn’t go missing on his expedition, you can read even Chukovsky’s.

                    about the fact that Tartaria was everywhere you can’t list, but Tartaria was everywhere. French map 1754



                    but such were the "Chinese" at the time of the treaty with Russia, very similar to the Cossacks / Ukrainians. Strange the boyar is standing in front of Bogdykhan in a headdress. Well, the Chinese, who are not Chinese.

                  4. Tamparu 6 March 2020 21: 21 New
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                    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Can Bar and with cards also? Do you take a closer look?
                    The cat is not so scary as it is painted !!!
                    Now seriously!
                    An interesting description of the "deserted coast of Tartaria" was left by the captain of the sloop "Nadezhda" Kruzenshtern. The key word "uninhabited"! By the way, captains Kruzenshtern and Lisyansky used French and Spanish carats in their circumnavigation. Laperuz and our captains for three crossed out about a dozen non-existent lands, but entered the Tatar Strait into cartography. If the Russian captains in your understanding are “Romanov agents”, then Laperuz planted a big mine on your theory. In addition to cartographic, he pursued political goals. In this connection, a certain “lucky man” was planted in Okhotsk! Moreover, in the literal and figurative sense, the expedition of Astrolabia and Compass crashed!
                    So this "lucky man" wrote his memories of a year and a half trip to Siberia!

                    Allow me, with your permission, to “insert your 3 kopeks” and, perhaps, to throw a “grain” of doubt into your statements or look at what you wrote above from a different angle:
                    1. The keyword "Uninhabited". Quite possible. But where did permafrost come from in Siberia? At the same latitudes in North America such a picture is not observed. Why?
                    2. All major marine discoveries begin in the late 15th century. It seems that these are reconnaissance ships sent to look / scout for a change in the "situation" in the given territories. By the way, the Renaissance, surprisingly, also begins at this time.
                    3. In the 17-18 centuries, there are no maps of the east and north-east coast of America, when the rest of the globe is already well drawn. Why?
                    And so on, so on, so on ...
                    Sincerely, hi
                2. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 17: 22 New
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                  Quote: Bar1
                  just noticed

                  This does not surprise me, you generally notice only what you want, as, indeed, your guru Fomenko. Apparently, this is an integral sign of a true newcomer.
                  However, if you poke your nose well, then there may be some benefit, in any case, for a while you disappear, apparently to lick the wounds inflicted by the opponent’s rough hand on your gentle vanity. laughing
                  Well, what about annals, chronicles and other historical documents? Will we study or return to the eternal new-chronological mantra of global fakes of everything and everything?
                  At the same time, enlighten us with what criteria you are guided by, distinguishing a fake from a genuine document that you can trust ... It’s interesting ... But I’ll pick you up, well, in any case, I’ll try to pick up something to study according to your own criteria .. .
            4. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 12: 10 New
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              But about chronicles and chronicles, do you agree that they are not fake? After all, they cannot be faked, just like cards, because they have the same paper, papyrus or parchment, ink, fonts, languages ​​... Can they be studied? Or is it all faked? In addition to maps until the XNUMXth century, naturally, but this, as I understand it, is sacred. The main criterion for the authenticity of a historical document is the mention of Tartary in it?
              1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 12: 28 New
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                The main criterion for the authenticity of a historical document is the mention of Tartary in it?

                in the topic of chronic dying:
              2. Bar1 6 March 2020 21: 55 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                But about chronicles and chronicles, do you agree that they are not fake?

                what annals, specifically?
                1. Trilobite Master 7 March 2020 11: 36 New
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                  Quote: Bar1
                  what annals, specifically?

                  Is there a difference for you? laughing
                  Well, let's take, for example, Radziwill’s one, the most famous one. Fake or script? The answer is desirable to justify.
                  In general, I'm more interested in not your opinion about a particular source - there are too many of them to list each, but how exactly you will determine their authenticity.
                  And I would also read with interest a list of sources, let’s say so until the XNUMXth century. inclusive, which you consider credible.
          2. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 12: 06 New
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            Perhaps we are witnessing a rare, still, as I believed, impossible event in nature - it takes the first step along the path of historical knowledge ...

            It reminds "Dog Heart", Bormental's speech at the first showing of Sharikov to society. laughing
        2. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 12: 27 New
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          Bar! I drew five decks of cards from your submission !!! Is this not enough for you?

          Vlad, I was sure that you were kicked out of the karate section because you accidentally beat Sensei in the first lesson .... laughing and with a circle of drawing - all grown together? drinks
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 12: 41 New
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            Nikolay about karate mugs - recourse it was a matter of being kicked out, but I didn’t fight with sensei, thank you !!!
            True, the "karate school" turned out to be fake, we were taught how to turn sambo.
            Although I did not regret later, I studied at the tower - it came in handy.
      2. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 09: 32 New
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        So you draw them?!?!?
        Damn, well, you can’t substitute like that! laughing
    2. Sergey Olegovich 6 March 2020 12: 48 New
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      Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
      It’s not even funny, “the dead do not have shame” ..... so it will probably be right!

      I think that in this case phraseology is not very well chosen. This expression was borrowed, according to some sources, from the book of the prophet Jeremiah: “Are they ashamed when they commit an abomination? And they are not ashamed to be ashamed and have no shame. For this they will fall among the fallen, stumble on the day of reckoning,” said the Lord. It would be more correct in this case to use the usual expression “About the dead is good, or nothing”, but not in the case of Torquemada. This negative character of history is worthy of any censure and condemnation from any historical time, both past and present and future.hi
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 13: 38 New
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        Sergey Olegovich, our character with you, is considered a saint!
        1. Sergey Olegovich 6 March 2020 13: 52 New
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          This is news to me! Torquemada is counted among the saints ... It is strange that this fact is not reflected in his biography. Maybe I just missed this fact from his biography ...
  • Olgovich 6 March 2020 10: 09 New
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    In 1836, his grave was destroyed on the grounds that Torquemada, who ordered many people to be removed from the graves in order to abuse their remains, must himself posthumously experience the same fate.

    I do not approve, but I understand: even in those cruel and wild times, he was just a beast.
    Ranad’s edict ”, this sultan commented on with the words:

    "How can I call King Ferdinand wise if he enriched my country, while he himself became a beggar."

    Rightly said.

    But his descendants did not heed this: already in the 20th century they slaughtered and drove out millions of their fellow citizens, much more radical than the Seljuk Turks ....
  • Moskovit 6 March 2020 11: 12 New
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    I wonder what Spain would have been without these deportations. Maybe it did not decline and did not become a state.
    1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 11: 23 New
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      I wonder what Spain would have been without these deportations. Maybe it did not decline and did not become a state.

      Alexei, I’m catching myself wondering what would be the fate of the world if Henry VIII didn’t want another woman? what It seems like a relatively understandable human desire .. and how many geopolitical consequences! hi
    2. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 11: 43 New
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      Quote: Moskovit
      turned into a state

      I must say that after Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain was still a leader and a half hundred years of world politics and the most powerful and influential state in Europe. Whether such a rise in Spanish statehood (and neither before nor after in history has Spain ever risen to such heights as in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) is connected with the activity of Torquemada is difficult to explain. In my opinion, most likely not, on the contrary, this takeoff was, as they say, contrary to his efforts, but this is my opinion, but the fact remains. And if someone suddenly declares that it was Torquemada’s activity that determined the rise of Spain in the next century, then simply failing to make such a statement, such as from Tartaria or other similar theories, will fail.
      1. Senior seaman 6 March 2020 12: 46 New
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        Quote: Trilobite Master
        I must say that after Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain was still a leader and a half hundred years of world politics and the most powerful and influential state in Europe.

        Hm. Suleiman Kanuni would argue with you.
        Interestingly, Spain expelled the Jews and rose. The Ottoman Empire accepted the Jews and also did not rise weakly. And then both of them began to decline. The fertile topic for conspiracy. Facts for every taste :)
      2. Moskovit 6 March 2020 13: 37 New
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        I would be inclined to rather no. Successful sweeping led the Spaniards to imagine themselves holier than the Pope. Well, in the future, because of these religious wars, Spain was busted and thrown into the dustbin of history.
        Interesting observation. Was recently in Spain. I talked for a long time with one Russian from Odessa)). He lives there for 20 years. He says, frankly, the Spaniards still consider themselves the wisest, most important and noble nation in Europe).
        1. Senior seaman 6 March 2020 16: 13 New
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          Quote: Moskovit
          Spaniards still consider the wisest, most important and noblest nation in Europe).

          Hmm, in this sense, on Topvar, most of the community - those are still Spaniards :))))
    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 13: 15 New
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      Quote: Moskovit
      I wonder what Spain would have been without these deportations. Maybe it did not decline and did not become a state.

      The rise of Spain is directly related to overseas acquisitions. Having received a more or less stable source of income from silver and gold from the American colonies, Spain got the opportunity to influence a third of Europe! The only indefatigable rigidity in religion, progressively repelled her subjects from the Spanish crown.
      1. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 14: 04 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        The rise of Spain is directly related to overseas acquisitions.

        I also tend to think that way. And I evaluate the activity of Torquemada in terms of its usefulness for the Spanish state purely negatively.
      2. Senior seaman 6 March 2020 16: 16 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        The rise of Spain is directly related to overseas acquisitions.

        And the decline with the Habsburg dynasty, who lowered American gold on their adventures, and who ruined the Spanish industry for the sake of the Netherlands, and in the end lost both.
        But the Habsburgs are fanatics no less than Trastamara.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 16: 40 New
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          I agree!
          Regards, Kote!
        2. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 16: 50 New
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          And the decline with the Habsburg dynasty ..... but in the end they lost both.

          and lost the gene pool of the Spanish branch of the family due to closely related marriages ... what
    4. Kronos 6 March 2020 14: 59 New
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      Exactly the same thing, after all, it was not only in these deportations that Spain reached a peak and then broke through like many other empires
      1. nickname7 6 March 2020 16: 59 New
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        Spain peaked and then exploded like many other empires

        The Indians were torn.
        Despite the flow of gold from the colonies, the loss of production and taxes from the economy, after the expulsion of the Morisks, it hit them very hard, although not immediately. They compensated for the loss by raising taxes, which provoked a crisis, tax evasion and corroding corruption, and then increasing.
        1. Kronos 6 March 2020 17: 20 New
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          All this gold was wasted on temples, for example, gold
  • Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 12: 01 New
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    Valery, thanks. In my opinion, there is too much about the Jews in the article; it was not necessary to write so much about them in order to reveal the topic of the Inquisition, but this is not so significant.
    I recalled a joke of Soviet times.
    Two directors communicate.
    - Listen, do you take Jews to work?
    - I take it.
    “Listen, where do you get them?”

    I liked the question posed in the article.
    which is worse: a cheerful bastard invested with power or an honest and disinterested fanatic who has the opportunity to rule human destinies?

    The history of this question gives, in my opinion, a definite answer.
    A fanatic will flood the country with blood down his throat and will not frown. And after his death, a rollback to the previous positions will begin and, in general, it turns out that the blood was shed in vain. There are plenty of examples.
    But the bastard in power is always good. A sort of lying unprincipled bastard, not burdened with any moral principles - what could be better, especially if this bastard is ambitious and not devoid of intelligence? There are also many examples in history.
    Cheerfulness, of course, for a politician, is rather a minus, I personally prefer a kind of misanthrope who hate everything around, but I still vote for the bastard. Fanatics, especially honest ones, have no place in power from the word at all. smile
    1. Senior seaman 6 March 2020 12: 43 New
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      A kind of lying, unprincipled scum, not burdened with any moral principles - what could be better

      Are you talking about Nero?
      1. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 12: 56 New
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        Quote: Senior Sailor
        Are you talking about Nero?

        Why go so far?
        This is me, for example, about Vladimir the Red Sun, Yaroslav the Wise, Ivan Kalita, Ivan III the Great, and about many, you can say so in our history.
        Many beloved here, Joseph Vissarionovich was just that - a lying, cruel and unprincipled misanthrope, and this significantly helped him first become, and then for a long time, be the great ruler of a great state.
        Again a joke:
        The Armenian radio is asked: "Is it true that composer Tchaikovsky was homosexual?
        "True - the Armenian radio answers - but we love him not only for this"
        1. Senior seaman 6 March 2020 13: 05 New
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          Well, I’m rather talking about the fact that the rule of Nero was not such a blessing for the eternal city ...
          And I would argue about Ivanov Danilovich and Vasilievich. Not so they and the ducks were, in comparison with contemporaries. In the sense that there were many dives, but not everyone became a "good for the state" :)
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 13: 43 New
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            Not the pearls of Nero in some cases are worth repeating! I personally would have enjoyed if I had the opportunity to choose for example the Horse in the federal assembly !!! Well, or a cat !!!
            1. 3x3zsave 6 March 2020 13: 53 New
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              It was not Nero, but Caligula. But still:
              "I will go out at night to the Duma with a horse"
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 13: 54 New
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                Yes Caligula, burst maleho!
                1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 14: 34 New
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                  Yes Caligula, burst maleho!

                  You both remember Heliogabal alone - he was generally an entertainer from the entertainers! laughing by the way, V.O. Shpakovsky wrote about him well in his day.
                  1. Senior seaman 6 March 2020 16: 02 New
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                    Quote: Pan Kohanku
                    by the way, V.O. Shpakovsky wrote about him well in his day.

                    I mean, with approval? :)))
                    1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 16: 25 New
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                      I mean, with approval? :)))

                      Ahaha! good I would say that Vyacheslav Olegovich approached the emperor in a rather serious tone! drinks here she is:
                      https://topwar.ru/82049-geliogabal-samyy-razvratnyy-rimskiy-imperator.html
            2. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 14: 36 New
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              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              e.g. horse

              A horse, like Caligula ...
              Here he had management methods - yes, if you believe the movie of the same name with Malcolm MacDowell ...
              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Well, or a cat

              A decent animal will not go to such a lupanarium. A bank of cockroaches there, maximum.
              1. Liam 6 March 2020 15: 03 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                A horse, like Caligula ...

                This is nothing more than a myth.
            3. nickname7 6 March 2020 17: 12 New
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              federal assembly for example Horse !!! Well, or a cat !!!

              Are athletes, boxers and skaters in the Duma worse than a horse?
            4. Astra wild 6 March 2020 21: 09 New
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              Aren't you talking to yourself? Then it’s sure that moderators can’t do it: say they’re holding the freedom of the cat meow
          2. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 14: 31 New
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            Quote: Senior Sailor
            there were many dives

            And no one says that all "ducks" are good rulers. And that a good ruler is necessarily a “duck”. I won’t even argue with you. smile
            Take Vladimir Monomakh, for example. He was a quite decent man, especially against the general background of that time, but he was also an outstanding ruler.
            The question was which is better: a bastard or a fanatic. For me, the answer is obvious - bastard. And when they give me a newsletter in which the names of one or two fanatics and a dozen scoundrels, I delete the fanatics right away. And from the rest you need to choose the most vain and misanthropic. It is also desirable smart, but you can’t guess. smile
            As for the rulers whom I named, including Ivanov Danilovich and Vasilyevich you noted, from the point of view of morality, especially modern morality, their actions will not stand up to criticism - ghouls, as they are, are bloody and vile.
        2. Kronos 6 March 2020 15: 03 New
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          Stalin’s impudent lodges were just the principles of the communist, he was not ostentatious
          1. vladcub 6 March 2020 20: 08 New
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            Stalin was ideological, but practical: he knew how to combine the idea with profit. I respect him for that.
    2. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 14: 37 New
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      Fanatics, especially honest ones, have no place in power from the word at all.

      But how can you say about Paul I, Michael? In general, the most mysterious, controversial and slandered ruler of Russia what
      1. Trilobite Master 6 March 2020 14: 43 New
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        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        But how can you say about Paul I, Michael?

        So you yourself answered -
        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        the most mysterious contradictory and slandered ruler of Russia

        smile hi
        1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 14: 45 New
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          So you yourself answered -

          Something you raise my self-esteem, as a lover of history! yes Grateful! smile
    3. nickname7 6 March 2020 17: 02 New
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      If a fanatic is understood to be suffering from FGM, in the terminal stage, then such figures are scary no matter what they suffer.
      Regarding Torquemada, the crown needed its qualities to replenish the treasury through genocide and eliminate competitors. The fanatic was like a tool of the regime. Of course, the flurry takes that under the cover of Jesus, the king and the church, they destroyed citizens for the sake of property.
  • Senior seaman 6 March 2020 12: 41 New
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    This did not prevent Mary Tudor from ascending the English throne (in 1553). She was also the Queen of Ireland, and with 1956 years after marriage to Philip II, - also the Queen of Spain.

    An old lady was caught :))))
    The "sea dogs" which will destroy the Invincible Armada and tear to pieces the colonial possessions of Spain.

    Come on! Are they torn up right?
  • VLR
    VLR 6 March 2020 14: 26 New
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    Quote (of oneself):
    "We will talk about the famous Barbary pirates and the great Ottoman admirals in the following articles."
    So, unexpectedly for myself, I again went to the "pirate" theme smile
    Noble dons who once appreciated the Caribbean cycle are invited to read articles about Islamic corsairs of the Mediterranean Sea and Ottoman admirals (sometimes they are the same people) - in the near future. There is also something to talk about (and about whom).
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 16: 27 New
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      Pamper, pamper us Valery! laughing hi good
      1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 16: 43 New
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        Pamper, pamper us Valery!

        We are already building on reading! soldier drinks
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 16: 48 New
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          I don’t get it? Chef Bar first of this name promised me six general stars for one shoulder strap !!! You, as the owner, should have one star more, and here .....! request
          Send Bar an illustration to let the stars get drunk !!! laughing
          And without any Tartaria on chevrons !!!! And then we know him ....! belay
          And then we won’t get out of the cellar, take the floor as hostages, tfu is already a quarter barrel of cognac! Until we get drunk to the stars, we don’t get out.
          Ps. from Mkado, the owner throw another ham in the cellar, with cognac he’s just that - it’s going well !!!
          1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 16: 55 New
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            Chef Bar first of this name promised me six general stars for one shoulder strap !!!

            so much and Suvorov did not have! good I agree!
            Until we get drunk to the stars, we don’t get out.

            But what about the post? drinks cognac and star Kotu! Or first a sewn star, and then cognac! good
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 16: 59 New
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              We don’t care, you can’t see the sky in the cellar !!!
              P.S. They knew how to do our advertising !!!
              1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 17: 06 New
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                We don’t care, you can’t see the sky in the cellar !!!

                Tahiti, Tahiti .. they feed us well here too! laughing The picture "Cottage in the cellar". drinks

                P.S. They knew how to do our advertising !!!

                These definitely knew how. good But lazy Golubkov, I think it’s better not to remember ... no
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 17: 22 New
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              I smile at the ranks; we stand in the ranks in 1995, all ordinary soldiers. In our group, the commander is in the squad, the squad leaders who are where. Right-flank of the first line is ruling Denis Zykov. The head of the course, seeing the confusion approaches and menacingly asks what kind of mess. Denis duplicates the team without a second thought. Boris Boris fell, Zykov, whose goat drummer are you. He fearfully and this team word for word. Then Borisych lowers him from the gentleman’s shoulder - “Zykov will be your third assistant commander of the second squad deputy deputy deputy priest of the 9th group 1“ B ”course.” A second pause. And Denis issues "there is a comrade major, allow me to take up the duties of the third assistant commander of the second squad deputy deputy deputy priest of the 9th group 1" B "course"! Then he couldn’t resist sculpting the hunchbacked “Is this cooler than the foreman or not”?
              Borisych is a former deputy politician who said to himself “after death I will still have five minutes to speak with my tongue”, grinningly commands “the course in honor of the introduction of Private Zykov into the new position, to the solemn march!”
              So they drove into our heads that the initiative should be reasonable !!! And every word is "golden"!
              Regards, Vlad!
              1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 17: 29 New
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                grinning commands "the course in honor of the introduction of Private Zykov to the new post, to the solemn march of GTS"!

                Once "drove" on the parade ground? or more? laughing
                strict but fair! such moments are remembered, and then remembered with a smile through the years ... drinks
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 19: 36 New
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                  Once! That was always enough !!!
                  1. Phil77 7 March 2020 05: 59 New
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                    Good morning Vlad! After death for another five minutes tryndet tongue? That's how juicy and convincing army statements !!!! laughing
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 March 2020 06: 52 New
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                      The Soviet army was a well-functioning mechanism that sculpted soldiers like pies!
                      Figuratively, this is a "meat grinder" from traditions, legends and fairy tales, which digested everything and everything (from my mother’s son or daughter of a general to a bully from Uralmash and a collective farm guy).
                      A month of KMB, and instead of a scattered herd, there appears a cohesive, rigidly motivated to survive mass!
                      We did not have hazing, fraternity or other gadgets. All this thanks to the course officers.
                      But nothing unites the course, like the funeral of a “bull-calf,” especially if they promised a “disco”!
                      Regards, Vlad!
                      1. Phil77 7 March 2020 06: 56 New
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                        One of my favorite army expressions: * Dig! Dig-from the fence, and before dinner! * soldier
                      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 March 2020 07: 34 New
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                        We used to!
                        "Dig from here to sunset"
                        “Two soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator, and one of the EVS (Yekaterinburg Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of RUSSIA) replaces two whole!”
                        I will smile.
                        We remove the snow in front of the entrance group to the tower. He’s sucked up, the snow must be folded in pyramids! Winter 96 was a hefty snow, the soul of the aesthetes of our group did not allow the Christmas trees to stick out through the pyramids of snow! Spring showed that snow is not eternal, and the composition of blue spruce in the form of pyramids is still that pornography !!!
                        Fortunately, the wise general, seeing that he thawed, did not look for the guilty, but made the Solomon decision “to cut the trees less than a meter, we will survive the rest. Winter in the Urals 9 months, summer 3 "! Tell the ninth group if something else is learned, I will remember the experience of the Taman Division; I will give out blue paint and weed will be painted on asphalt! Aesthetics, damn it, although in the winter the pyramids were beautiful !!!! ”
                        When we heard a tale about blue paint, by whom it was not a pity that they sent a delegation to the head of the course. Perhaps then I understood the essence of the army system. That's right, first we paint the weed with blue paint, then yellow, and only then Tutarchamonov will realize that you need to buy green paint with your own money!
                        Ten years later, the poor new head of the Institute, looking at the grown "Christmas trees", said rudely that they had been so squandered! The deputy in command, mountain Sergey Grigoryevich, with an eye on me, “one of the esthetes” issued - “an abnormal place, a risky land use zone”. "At 95, they were so twisted that the grass cast in blue all summer"!
                        Well, somewhere like that!
        2. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 18: 08 New
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          And then we won’t get out of the cellar, take the floor as hostages, tfu is already a quarter barrel of cognac! Until we get drunk to the stars, we don’t get out.
          Ps. from Mkado, the owner throw another ham in the cellar, with cognac he’s just that - it’s going well !!!

          From the mistress of the cellar drinks
          1. Catfish 6 March 2020 19: 34 New
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            Nikolay, you would try to grab my cat so I would not envy. Not to the cat, of course, but to your hand, and indeed to everything that he could reach before you come to. laughing .
          2. Phil77 7 March 2020 05: 54 New
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            Oh! * I'm dying, but not giving up! * good good good soldier
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 March 2020 06: 59 New
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              Sergei!
              Alas, I must admit that cats are smarter than cats!
              Why steal a piece of meat, if it is possible to swim into the kitchen of greatness, blink a couple of times in greeting, curl around the hostess's leg with a tail, rub your back against a turret and sit in surprise in front of the bowl “where is my portion” !?
              It’s easier for me to open the door and run to the kalgushka, while the first one is me or me!
              Regards, Good day!
              1. Phil77 7 March 2020 07: 10 New
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                Women! In a word, women! But my Filipushka has recently gotten such a habit. Night. Silence. Everyone is sleeping. But he doesn’t sleep! He wanted to eat, and what ??? And the marathon begins on peacefully sleeping, me and my wife , on property acquired by excessive labor. This is not even a marathon! It's some kind of obstacle course. But you should get up and feed, and -BINGO !!!!! There comes a blessed silence.
                1. Pane Kohanku 7 March 2020 13: 53 New
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                  It's not even a marathon! It's some kind of obstacle course.

                  Ours can simply change its location during the night, while invariably running along our legs. When a 7-8 kg gray elephant runs through you in the middle of the night - the sensations are strong! laughing
                  1. Phil77 7 March 2020 16: 18 New
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                    Yes, yes, Nikolai! You surprisingly accurately described this picture! The difference is in the details, my-striped! And not as fluffy as yours. good
  • Phil77 7 March 2020 06: 59 New
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    And about the Chinese pirates!?!? There will be no cycle? Well, Valery, we were upset! Here, directly and frankly, we were upset! what
  • Shahno 6 March 2020 15: 44 New
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    Quote: Krasnodar
    Kosher food - where did the Jews three thousand years ago come to the conclusions of modern nutritionists, gastroenterologists and highly specialized oncologists? )) Without laboratories, without research of the first, second, third phase in humans, etc.? laughing
    The mechanism of body protection and the mechanism of self-defense of cancer cells from immune cells are also “laws of nature?” )))

    This, I suppose, is some kind of evidence part.
    "The Jews had some people who understood the meaning of things." Now we call them scientists ...
  • Revival 6 March 2020 15: 51 New
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    the adoption in 1534 of the famous “Act of Suprematism”, in which Henry was proclaimed the supreme head of the English Church. Henry VIII married Anna Boleyn, Catherine was deprived of the status of queen, becoming only the Dowager Princess of Wales, and her daughter was declared illegitimate. This did not prevent Mary Tudor from ascending the English throne (in 1553). She was also the queen of Ireland, and since 1956, after her marriage to Philip II, she was also the queen of Spain.

    Maria Tudor lived for a long time, this is, without a doubt, a record!
  • bubalik 6 March 2020 17: 14 New
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    Torquemada, Spain - in the same England, more people died from secular courts than from the decision of the Inquisitors of Spain.
    1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 17: 16 New
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      Torquemada, Spain - in the same England, more people died from secular courts than from the decision of the Inquisitors of Spain.

      there under Bloody Mary was a penalty for vagrancy, EMNIP? or I'm wrong? Sergey - we were waiting for you! wink
      1. bubalik 6 March 2020 17: 22 New
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        Under King Henry VIII (1491-1547), over 15 “stubborn beggars,” the vast majority of whom were peasants, were hanged under the law “On the fight against vagrancy” over 70 years. ,,, the Spanish Inquisition stood in the way of the Witch Hunt. Every case was thoroughly investigated. In Germany, more people were burned for reasons.
        1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 17: 31 New
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          the vast majority of which were peasants

          Are these "fenced" peasants? I somehow very vaguely heard what was happening then.recourse
          1. bubalik 6 March 2020 18: 03 New
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            which are "fenced" peasants
            ,,, aha yes
            Under the daughter of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I, about 89 people were executed.
            1. Pane Kohanku 6 March 2020 18: 10 New
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              Under the daughter of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I, about 89 people were executed.

              Yeah... belay Compared to their cultural delights, our Ioann The Terrible is not so terribly! what
              1. Catfish 6 March 2020 19: 06 New
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                But where did he go, he could not imagine gas chambers with a crematorium from the "cultural traders" and a delusional nightmare.
            2. Phil77 6 March 2020 20: 02 New
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              That’s what you don’t take away from them, is the ability to work with public opinion! Hi Sergey! They still haven’t seen their crimes and still don’t see them, but these * terrible Russians * .....
          2. Phil77 6 March 2020 20: 21 New
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            A terrible thing! Communal lands were forcibly eliminated, well, of course, poverty and vagrancy ensued. And the vagabonds were given * a hemp tie *.
      2. Phil77 6 March 2020 19: 56 New
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        Nikolay!
        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        Sergey - we were waiting for you!

        Let me be near you! hi
  • vladcub 6 March 2020 19: 04 New
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    [quote = Pessimist22] Religion is opium for the people! And a very dangerous thing. [/ Quo
    In the original, this phrase sounds: "religion is an opium people," the words of Bebel. I read about it in a magazine.
    V.I., Lenin, to emphasize the reactionary essence of religion, gave a different interpretation of the translation
    1. Phil77 6 March 2020 20: 11 New
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      Vladislav, good evening! A phrase similar in meaning is also attributed to Jean-Jacques Rousseau! Roman * Julia, or the new Eloise *. * Piety is opium for the soul .... *
      1. vladcub 6 March 2020 21: 39 New
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        Figs knows him, is it possible that Bebel Russo repeated his thought? And we already know V.I.
  • vladcub 6 March 2020 20: 03 New
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    “they pulled out a heart that was used for magical rituals” - it reminds me: “The Case of Esther Shoimoshi”: then the Jews were also accused of the ritual murder of a Christian girl. But then 1882 stood in the yard and various obscurantism no longer passes: science interferes.
    Of course this is a coincidence, but the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was marked by 3 high-profile processes, where Jews were made scapegoats. The truth to Dreyfus was not "sewed" by ritual murder
    1. Catfish 6 March 2020 20: 20 New
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      The case was not sewn, but it was sewn on. laughing
      1. vladcub 6 March 2020 21: 35 New
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        The cat, to be honest, I have not watched Vika yet, but I remember approximately that Dreyfus (Dreyfus) was completely acquitted and died his death. I don’t remember the details at all. I'll look at Vika
        1. Catfish 6 March 2020 21: 43 New
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          Glory, I don’t get into Vika at all. And about "sewed, sewn" - just had to rhyme. Yes, to me, in general, it doesn’t matter "where is the river, and where is the estate." And in itself, the Dreyfus affair is worth a separate article, because the matter is muddy, like all others like him.
          1. vladcub 6 March 2020 21: 52 New
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            All espionage affairs are full of paths - naturally: they, like film, do not like sunlight.
            Regarding Vicki, I’m sinful: I often drop in. Although several times I saw her bloopers
            1. Pane Kohanku 7 March 2020 13: 51 New
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              Regarding Vicki, I’m sinful: I often drop in. Although several times I saw her bloopers

              And I'm even more "ku"!
              Regarding Dreyfus, the French film "Officer and Spy" about this case has now been released. I didn’t go to him, alas, but I think it's worth a look! hi
    2. Astra wild 6 March 2020 21: 17 New
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      That the "holy child", that these 3 things they have in common is one desire: to provoke Jewish pogroms and stuff pockets with Jewish property
  • Yaik Cossack 6 March 2020 20: 20 New
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    The assessments contained in the article reproduce a carbon copy of the "moaning" of modern "politically correct" Judophiles and Islamophiles. They are taken out of context and therefore distorted. It will be necessary to explain a lot.
    The first one. The Jewish community was the main pillar of the Islamic yoke in conquered Spain and had a privileged status in these emirates. Moreover, in Islamic Spain there was a violent Islamization of the conquered Christians, so much so that by the Reconquista they were practically gone. Here's the answer then flew ....
    The second one. After the fall of Granada, Islamic fleets constantly supported the remaining Islamic population. There was a continuous guerrilla war against the Spaniards, in addition, the threat of a massive landing of Turks from the sea hung all the time. This was the main reason for the deportation - to get rid of the potential and real fifth column.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2020 21: 06 New
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      In the face of the Jews? I doubt it, I think this is not a reason, but the idle excuse of the aloud!
      1. Yaik Cossack 6 March 2020 21: 38 New
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        Very vain doubt. The public has a very distorted view of Spanish history. And in the early Cordoba caliphate, and under the Almoravids and Almohad, more than half of the viziers were Jews. Jews were part of the ruling elite (including the military) and dominated trade. Naturally, after the Reconquista, the Spanish elites were not at all going to leave as they were. Especially the Spanish cities, which were the mainstay of the royal power, wanted to remove competitors. Well, religion is basically just an excuse.
        The Reconquista, a hard and bloody struggle for over 600 years, was of key importance to the attitude of the Spaniards towards Muslims and Jews. I'm not kidding.
        And I will give you a modern example - how famously millions of Germans were deported from territories that had withdrawn to Poland, the USSR and from the Sudetenland. They deported all, guilty and innocent. Several hundred thousand Poles generally cut out. And what - does someone remember now? A wonderful analogy, isn't it?
        1. Moskovit 7 March 2020 01: 08 New
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          Vae victis, as they say. Hundreds of years will pass and on topvar they will condemn the killings and the ruin of not hundreds of thousands, but honestly millions of Germans from Sudetenland, Silesia, Swabia and Transylvania ...
  • Astra wild 6 March 2020 21: 12 New
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    Quote: Pan Kohanku
    Fanatics, especially honest ones, have no place in power from the word at all.

    But how can you say about Paul I, Michael? In general, the most mysterious, controversial and slandered ruler of Russia what

    There were materials about him and I liked him: he was smart
  • vladcub 6 March 2020 21: 27 New
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    Quote: Krasnodar
    Of course I remember. The first samples could be easily killed laughing
    Nevertheless, the probability of creating such complex biological systems and mechanisms without a Higher Mind is mathematically equal to one billionth)).

    I agree there is much more that science cannot explain.
  • Boratsagdiev 11 March 2020 11: 58 New
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    "The" sea dogs "which will destroy the Invincible Armada and tear to pieces the colonial possessions of Spain." - oh? ...
    Spaniards rarely mention reciprocating courtesy ...
    on top of everything else, England sank into a deep financial hole with her ... and for a long time.
  • Uma palata April 14 2020 15: 26 New
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    Upon closer examination, the whole history of "enlightened Europe" is a series of monstrous crimes, the death of peoples. I suspect that over the course of half a century, the deep-seated European people have not changed much.