Something strange is happening with the information space. Understanding that the official press will not publish deliberately false materials from the mere reluctance to spoil the image of the publication and pay serious fines for violating the media law, many propagandists went online.
It is on this site that you can lay out any version of the event without bothering yourself with a search for evidence or a search for truth. Ultimately, everyone has the right to their own opinion. One of the topics that is being actively promoted today is that the so-called “Dulles Plan” is an invention of the Soviet KGB.
Where did the version about the existence of the “Dulles plan” come from?
Indeed, if you follow historical truth, then today there are several texts of this plan. However, all these texts are written in Russian. There is no English text. Moreover, there is no CIA stamped text. Nobody seems to be lying. Although, when it comes to the secret protocols of the Soviet-German non-aggression pact, the lack of text does not bother anyone.
Talk about the "plan" today I will not. Just because I do not think it is possible that Allen Dulles wrote such a plan on his own. Alas, the image of Dulles created by Julian Semenov as a smart and treacherous world-class scout, in my opinion, was invented for the “plot”. In fact, Allen Dulles is an official of the second echelon of power, who is managing precisely the job of an official.
I have repeatedly read the novel by Anatoly Ivanov, “The Eternal Call,” which many consider the first mention of the “plan”. True, Ivanov did not set out this plan through the lips of a foreigner. It was outlined by the White Guard Lakhnovsky:
“The war will end - everything will somehow settle down, settle down. And we will throw everything that we have, with what we have: all the gold, all the material power to fool and fool people! The human brain, the consciousness of people is capable of change. Having sowed chaos there, we discreetly replace their values with false ones and make them believe in these false values! How do you ask? How?! -
Lakhnovsky, as he spoke, began again, for the umpteenth time, to become excited, to run around the room.
- We will find our like-minded people: our allies and assistants in Russia itself! - shouting, cried out Lakhnovsky. "
I also know the version that Ivanov is not the first. I read The Demons by Fyodor Dostoevsky. I remember his rather serious reasoning about the man of the future. On the possible moral decay of a Russian person:
“But one or two generations of debauchery is now necessary; debauchery unheard of, vile, when a person turns into an ugly, cowardly, cruel, selfish scum. "
The fact is that the first about the “Dulles plan” was told by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg and Ladoga John (Snychev) in his article in the newspaper “Soviet Russia” on February 20, 1993:
“By sowing chaos in Russia,” said American General Allen Dulles, head of US political intelligence in Europe, who later became director of the CIA, in 1945, “we will quietly replace their values with fake ones and make them believe in these fake values.”
How? We will find our like-minded people, our assistants and allies in Russia itself. Episode by episode will be played out with a grandiose scale tragedy of the death of the most rebellious people on earth, the final, irreversible fading of their self-consciousness.
From literature and art, for example, we will gradually erase their social essence. Wean artists, we will discourage them from engaging in the image, the study of those processes that occur in the depths of the masses. Literature, theaters, cinema - everything will depict and glorify the most base human feelings.
We will do our best to support and raise the so-called creators, who will plant and hammer into the human mind the cult of sex, violence, sadism, betrayal - in a word, all immorality. ”
So was the plan really or is it a propaganda game?
For some reason, most writers on this subject by the “Dulles Plan” mean the doctrine of NSC 20/1, adopted by the US National Security Council on August 18, 1948. Indeed, there is such a document in the US National Archives. Only Allen Dulles has nothing to do with him.
Alas, the authors of the response to the request of the then US Secretary of Defense James Forrestal was the director of political planning of the State Department George Kennan. At least that is exactly what the work of Thomas Etzold and John Gaddis (Documents on American Politics and Strategy in 1945-1950) says.
Where did the interesting text come from that Metropolitan John quoted in his article? We can also find a fairly simple answer to this question. To do this, just look into the archives of Soviet intelligence. Someone doubt that at the end of the war the USSR was a serious enough opponent of the United States in terms of future confrontation? More precisely, from the point of view of future domination of the world?
In April 1944, a secret meeting of the Council on Foreign Relations took place in the United States, at which the post-war peace system was discussed. That is, after a demonstration of friendly relations with the USSR in Yalta, the Americans began to discuss plans to reduce the influence of the Soviet Union in post-war Europe.
It was at this Council that Allen Dulles made a report, which became the source material for the article of Metropolitan John. The exact text of Dulles’s speech has not yet been published. Yes, and information about the meeting itself was received from the wife of US President Eleanor Roosevelt, which is quite acceptable, given the more than a good attitude of Roosevelt towards the USSR or from the personal secretary of President Loklin Kari.
Why Harry Truman so sharply launched US foreign policy
For many, it remains a mystery why, after the death of President Roosevelt, the United States so sharply switched in relations with the Soviet Union from an alliance policy to confrontation. Indeed, in terms of logic, in the postwar period, the United States had enormous advantages over the USSR.
America could, without military confrontation, without huge expenditures on an arms race, buy up a huge number of countries. Moreover, Stalin already received everything that he considered necessary to receive. Economically, the US surpassed the USSR at times ...
The reason was ... Harry Truman, who became president after the death of Roosevelt. Truman, a man very far from foreign policy. Yes, the post of President of the United States was clearly superior to his abilities. It is enough to bring his answer to the question about who he dreamed of becoming in childhood, asked by journalists. “A taper in a brothel or a politician,” the US president answered. “The truth, in truth, is small.”
For unknown reasons, Truman’s consultants were the young White House lawyer Clark Cliffordi, then Secretary of State for Maritime Affairs, and later Secretary of Defense James Forrestal, whom I mentioned above. Both knew practically nothing about the Soviet Union and advised the new president “from scratch”.
And this is where the obvious connection between Allen Dulles' speech at the April 1944 meeting of the CMO appears. George Kennan did not “reinvent the wheel”, but simply presented his analytical article, published in the spring of 1947, in the New York Times, Sources of Soviet Behavior, as an analytical report.
True, it is worth noting that here it is worth referring to the American journalist Arthur Krok, who established authorship, since the author was not named in the original source.
So was there really a “Dulles plan” - I can’t give a definite answer to this question. Just because I did not hold in my hands more or less reliable evidence of its existence. All the materials that are publicly available today are just links to someone’s opinion.
However, there is the doctrine of NSC20 / 1 and an article by George Kennon in The New York Times. Therefore, I will be based precisely on these sources. I'll start with quotes from Kennon. The first of a newspaper article:
“Communist ideology justifies all the actions taken by the Kremlin. The purpose of the Soviets is a world power, and not a firm commitment to an international classless society, since most leaders of the Soviet Union experience a feeling of insecurity based on historical experience. In this regard, it follows that the object of deterrence should be Soviet expansionism. ”
But this is from the doctrine of NSC20 / 1:
“... We should not feel guilty while working on the destruction of concepts ... that are basic in Russia and are popular in the world. We are talking about the fact that Moscow’s domestic policy actually offers “a promising alternative to the national regimes under which other peoples live.” Consequently, it is necessary at all costs to create a negative image of Russian communism, both outside the USSR and inside. ”
I think this is enough to understand the direction of Kennon’s thought. To understand what his advisers in the foreign policy “poured into the ears” of Truman, an amateur in foreign policy.
There is an answer to another question, which is also not very clear to some readers. What scared the Americans so much that they abandoned plans for an attack on the USSR even with a nuclear weapon? After all, plans for an attack have already been developed and preparations have been quite active. Again quote:
“... referring to the experience of World War II, it should be recognized that the United States will not be able to conduct a military company with Russia on the patterns of Germany or Japan. The fact is that "national tasks during peace and during the war in Russia are significantly different."
If someone does not understand, I will try to "translate" into a more understandable language. Russians can swear among themselves in peacetime. They can criticize the government, scold leaders, but in wartime the psychology of the people is changing. Kennon talks about the famous Soviet slogan, which during the war was the main thing for the whole people. I won’t remember geeks) - “Everything for the front, everything for the Victory!”. Russians, regardless of nationality, are able to mobilize in difficult times.
Doctrine in general should be one of the main subjects for study by American politicians. According to the doctrine, we are not able to sign a compromise peace treaty. Literally in the text like this:
The Russians “will retreat to the most remote Siberian village and finally die, like Hitler, under enemy fire. All of the above indicates that we cannot, as a result of successful military operations in Russia, expect that we will succeed in creating a government that is completely subordinate to our will or that fully expresses our political ideals. ”
Does the doctrine of НСК20 / 1 come to life
I'll start with a few quotes from the text of the doctrine:
“We must encourage by all means at our disposal the destruction of the institutions of federalism in the Soviet Union.”
“... there are a number of significant nuances that should not be overlooked. While the Ukrainians were an important and essential element of the Russian Empire, they did not show any signs of a “nation" capable of successfully fulfilling their duties of independence ...
Ukraine is not a clearly defined ethnic or geographical concept. The Ukrainian population was formed mainly from refugees from Russian and Polish despotism and is difficult to distinguish in the shadow of Russian or Polish nationality.
There is no clear border between Russia and Ukraine. Cities on Ukrainian territory were inhabited mainly by Russians and Jews. The real basis of “Ukrainianism” is a sense of “distinction” of a specific peasant dialect and a slight difference in customs and folklore between regions of the country.
The observed political agitation of Ukrainian nationalists is based on romantically-minded intellectuals who have little idea of responsible government. ”
Draw your own conclusions. The collapse of the USSR and the departure of the Baltic countries caused a domino effect. And this applies not only to the former Union republics, but also to Russia itself. We just miraculously did not fall into this abyss. It seems to me that I’m not afraid to cause “the righteous anger of the people”, which we were just lucky with the leader. It was lucky. And this is not “glorified” for President Putin, this is a simple statement of fact.
And I want to finish the material with another quote. It will be especially interesting to our neighbors from the former fraternal country. I’m not talking about the people who were and still are us, I’m talking about the current government. so, a quote from the doctrine of NSC20 / 1 specifically for the president and government of Ukraine:
“... We cannot remain indifferent to the feelings of the Great Russians themselves. They were the strongest national element of the Russian Empire, and are now such in the Soviet Union. Any long-term US policy should be based on their recognition and their cooperation. “Ukrainian territory is as much part of their national heritage as the Midwest is part of ours.”